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Sample records for calcifying nanoparticles nanobacteria

  1. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  2. An Additional Potential Factor for Kidney Stone Formation during Space Flights: Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria): A Case Report

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    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Schmid, Joseph; Griffith, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced microgravity appears to be a risk factor for the development of urinary calculi due to skeletal calcium liberation and other undefined factors, resulting in stone disease in crewmembers during and after spaceflight. Calcifying nanoparticles, or nanobacteria, reproduce at a more rapid rate in simulated microgravity conditions and create external shells of calcium phosphate in the form of apatite. The questions arises whether calcifying nanoparticles are niduses for calculi and contribute to the development of clinical stone disease in humans, who possess environmental factors predisposing to the development of urinary calculi and potentially impaired immunological defenses during spaceflight. A case of a urinary calculus passed from an astronaut post-flight with morphological characteristics of calcifying nanoparticles and staining positive for a calcifying nanoparticle unique antigen, is presented.

  3. Critical evaluation of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles.

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    Jan Martel

    Full Text Available The culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria (NB and calcifying nanoparticles (CNP from human and animal tissues has relied primarily on the use of a culture supplement consisting of FBS that had been gamma-irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy (gamma-FBS. The use of gamma-FBS is based on the assumption that this sterilized fluid has been rid entirely of any residual NB/CNP, while it continues to promote the slow growth in culture of NB/CNP from human/animal tissues. We show here that gamma-irradiation (5-50 kGy produces extensive dose-dependent serum protein breakdown as demonstrated through UV and visible light spectrophotometry, fluorometry, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and gel electrophoresis. Yet, both gamma-FBS and gamma-irradiated human serum (gamma-HS produce NB/CNP in cell culture conditions that are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable from their normal serum counterparts. Contrary to earlier claims, gamma-FBS does not enhance the formation of NB/CNP from several human body fluids (saliva, urine, ascites, and synovial fluid tested. In the presence of additional precipitating ions, both gamma-irradiated serum (FBS and HS and gamma-irradiated proteins (albumin and fetuin-A retain the inherent dual NB inhibitory and seeding capabilities seen also with their untreated counterparts. By gel electrophoresis, the particles formed from both gamma-FBS and gamma-HS are seen to have assimilated into their scaffold the same smeared protein profiles found in the gamma-irradiated sera. However, their protein compositions as identified by proteomics are virtually identical to those seen with particles formed from untreated serum. Moreover, particles derived from human fluids and cultured in the presence of gamma-FBS contain proteins derived from both gamma-FBS and the human fluid under investigation-a confusing and unprecedented scenario indicating that these particles harbor proteins from both the host tissue and the FBS

  4. Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification

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    Zhang D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yanan Guo1, Dechun Zhang1, He Lu1, Shuang Luo2, Xuecheng Shen31Molecular Medicine and Tumor Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong District, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 3Urological Research Institute of PLA, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of calcifying nanoparticles to the pathogenesis of placental calcification.Methods: Calcified placental tissues and distal tissue samples were collected from 36 confirmed placental calcification cases. In addition, 20 normal placental tissue samples were obtained as a control group. All the tissue samples were cultured using special nanobacterial culture methods. The cultured calcifying nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their growth was monitored by optical density (OD at a wavelength of 650 nm. 16S rRNA gene expression of the cultured calcifying nanoparticles was also isolated and sequenced.Results: Novel calcifying nanoparticles wrapped with electron-dense shells between 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter were observed in the extracellular matrix of calcified placental tissues. They were detected in placental villi and hydroxyapatite crystals, and contained “nucleic acid-like materials”. After isolation and four weeks of culture, 28 of 36 calcified placental tissue samples showed white granular precipitates attached to the bottom of the culture tubes. OD650 measurements indicated that the precipitates from the calcified placental tissues were able to grow in culture, whereas no such precipitates from the control tissues were observed. The 16S rRNA genes were isolated from the cultured calcifying nanoparticles and calcified placental tissues, and their gene sequencing results implied that calcifying nanoparticles were novel nanobacteria (GenBank JF

  5. Nanoparticles (nanobacteria) responsible from calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Tuba; Dal, Mehmet Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) are particles smaller (80-500nm) than known bacteria and have bacteria-like features (membrane structures, in two division, colony formation). CNPs have shown in human and animal sera, human\\'s pathological calcifications (kidney stones, dental pulp stones, heart valve calcifications, arterial calcifications, psammoma bodies in ovarian cancer, etc.), the nature\\'s calcifications (travertines, etc.) and Mars meteors. CNPs are able to grow in Dulbecco's m...

  6. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  7. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

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    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

  8. Are calcifying microvesicles another analogous substructure of calcifying nanoparticles?

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    Atughonu TC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trueman C Atughonu, Sateesh B Arja, Farooq A ShiekhAvalon University School of Medicine, Willemstad, CuracaoWe correspond in response to the article entitled, "Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization" by Wagner et al.1 In this article, the authors have used a new term "calcifying microvesicles" for the first time in the literature. We think our commentary will highlight these calcifying microvesicles with the similar analogous structures already existing in nature. We hope our discussion will clear up many of those questions.View original paper by Wagner and colleagues.

  9. Nanobacteria in clouds can spread oral pathologic calcifications around the world

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes are one of the most controversial issues in contemporary biology. Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with oral pathologic calcifications such as calculus, pulp stone, and salivary gland stones. The Hypothesis: Experiments have shown that nanobacteria are excreted from the body in urine and saliva, lifted from the ground by winds into the cloud, and transit between the high humidity region of the clouds and the relatively dry inter-cloud regions. Remnants of a sticky protein coating that nanobacteria make it act as an extremely efficient cloud condensation nuclei. Following condensation of cloud, nanobacteria return to the earth via rain and snow. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Transmission of nanobacteria via clouds is not surprising when compared with cosmic transmission of nanobacteria. The apatite mineral layer around the organism serves as a primary defence shield against various seriously life-threatening conditions. A double defence with the apatite layer and an impermeable membrane combined with a very slow metabolism is a likely explanation for the resistance of nanobacteria.

  10. Resistance of nanobacteria isolated from urinary and kidney stones to broad-spectrum antibiotics.

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    Hadi Sardarabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscopic life forms called Nanobacteria or calcifying nanoparticles (CNP are unconventional agents. These novel organisms are very small (0.1 to 0.5 microns and possess unusual properties such as high resistance to heat and routine antimicrobial agents. Nanobacteria are 100 times smaller than bacteria and protected by a shell of apatite, so they could be as candidate for emerging and progress of in vivo pathological calcification. In this study, the inhibitory effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on growth of these new forms of life has been investigated.Powdered urinary and kidney stones were demineralized with HCl and neutralized with appropriate buffers and became filtered. Finally suspension was incubated in DMEM medium with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and broad-spectrum antibiotics (100U/ml for penicillin and 100μg/ml for streptomycin for 60 days.In the presence of broad-spectrum antibiotics, Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed a spherical shape of these nanobacteria. Also, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed a pick for calcium and phosphor. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results illustrated cover around the nanobacteria.The growth of calcifying nanoparticles after adding the broad-spectrum antibiotics may be due to their apatite hard shells supporting them against penetration of the antibiotics.

  11. An alternative interpretation of nanobacteria-induced biomineralization

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    Cisar, John O.; Xu, De-Qi; Thompson, John; Swaim, William; Hu, Lan; Kopecko, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    The reported isolation of nanobacteria from human kidney stones raises the intriguing possibility that these microorganisms are etiological agents of pathological extraskeletal calcification [Kajander, E. O. & Çiftçioglu, N. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 8274–8279]. Nanobacteria were previously isolated from FBS after prolonged incubation in DMEM. These bacteria initiated biomineralization of the culture medium and were identified in calcified particles and...

  12. Possible use of calcifying nanoparticles in immature root apex treatment

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    Mohammed S Alenazy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are reports in the literature, which describe different techniques and materials in the challenging management of thin dentin walls and immature root apex. It has been suggested that calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs could be used in the management of these conditions. The Hypothesis: Compositionally modified CNPs made into a paste could become efficacious in managing thin dentin walls and immature root apex. Calcium and phosphate ions when mixed with CNPs could form a synthetic nanopaste that clinicians could use to manage thin dentin walls and to get a biological seal for immature root apex. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: CNPs can replicate and could facilitate the aggregations of calcium hydroxyapatite to produce a self-surrounding shell. These characteristics of CNPs could be used through their biomineralization process as initial nidus of calcification for further calcification progression to achieve total biological apical seal. If the hypothesis could be supported by biomineralization behavior of the paste (CNPs, Ca2 + , and PO4− , a new therapeutic agent would have been added to the armamentarium of endodontists. There is need for more in vivo and in vitro investigations of modified nanopaste to manage these conditions.

  13. Mineralization by nanobacteria

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    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without

  14. CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. The apatite mineral around the nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh condition. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. The Hypothesis: The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite. Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption and consequently can cause unwanted damage to human host tissues.

  15. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

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    Sommer, Andrei P., E-mail: andrei.sommer@uni-ulm.de [University of Ulm, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials (Germany); Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki [Nagasaki University, Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Science (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 {mu}m in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)-a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles-the world's first nanoparticles.

  16. Calcified falx meningioma.

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    Mathuriya S

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A totally calcified mid third falcine meningioma in an elderly male patient is presented. An uneventful enmasse excision was performed. Advantages of positioning on ipsilateral side for paramedian extracerebral lesions are highlighted.

  17. Cosmic Transmission of Periodontal, Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease via Nanobacteria

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nanobacteria (NB) are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern micro-biology. NB has been reported to be present in animal and human blood, tissue culture cell lines, wastewater and etc. NB appear to cause or contribute to common diseases of the mankind e.g. periodontitis, formation of kidney stone, heart calcifications, coronary artery calcification, atherosclerotic plaque. Recent data on the far-ultraviolet extinction of starlight in ou...

  18. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

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    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  19. Cosmic Transmission of Periodontal, Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease via Nanobacteria

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    Jafar Kolahi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (NB are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern micro-biology. NB has been reported to be present in animal and human blood, tissue culture cell lines, wastewater and etc. NB appear to cause or contribute to common diseases of the mankind e.g. periodontitis, formation of kidney stone, heart calcifications, coronary artery calcification, atherosclerotic plaque. Recent data on the far-ultraviolet extinction of starlight in our galaxy and in external galaxies is interpreted in terms of the widespread occurrence of organic particles of optical refractive index 1.4 and radii less than or equal to 20 nm. Such particles are candidates for NB such as recently been found in abundance on the Earth. Unbelievably nanobacteria-like rods observed at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite and Martian rock.The hypothesis: It seems logic to hypothesize that aliens from inner space, nanobacteria, can bring us new disease such as periodontal, cardiovascular and kidney diseases via space travels or meteorites or interstellar dusts.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The main criticism with this idea is how NB can keep alive during transfer among seriously life threatening condition in interstellar space. NB are generally thought to be very difficult to deactivation, exceptionally resistant to heat, are not deactivated by physical or chemical treatments including autoclaving, UV treatment, and various biocides. Health care providers, health policy makers and space agencies e.g. NASA and European Space Agency should make a concentrated effort to prevent transmission of NB especially following space travels.

  20. Why marine phytoplankton calcify

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fanny M.; Bach, Lennart T.; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton—coccolithophores— are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know “why” coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  1. Odonto calcifying cyst

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    Nalini Aswath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%. The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5% was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  2. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

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    Nidecker, A.; Hartweg, H.

    1983-12-01

    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy.

  3. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy. (orig.)

  4. Putative nanobacteria represent physiological remnants and culture by-products of normal calcium homeostasis.

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    John D Young

    Full Text Available Putative living entities called nanobacteria (NB are unusual for their small sizes (50-500 nm, pleomorphic nature, and accumulation of hydroxyapatite (HAP, and have been implicated in numerous diseases involving extraskeletal calcification. By adding precipitating ions to cell culture medium containing serum, mineral nanoparticles are generated that are morphologically and chemically identical to the so-called NB. These nanoparticles are shown here to be formed of amorphous mineral complexes containing calcium as well as other ions like carbonate, which then rapidly acquire phosphate, forming HAP. The main constituent proteins of serum-derived NB are albumin, fetuin-A, and apolipoprotein A1, but their involvement appears circumstantial since so-called NB from different body fluids harbor other proteins. Accordingly, by passage through various culture media, the protein composition of these particles can be modulated. Immunoblotting experiments reveal that antibodies deemed specific for NB react in fact with either albumin, fetuin-A, or both, indicating that previous studies using these reagents may have detected these serum proteins from the same as well as different species, with human tissue nanoparticles presumably absorbing bovine serum antigens from the culture medium. Both fetal bovine serum and human serum, used earlier by other investigators as sources of NB, paradoxically inhibit the formation of these entities, and this inhibition is trypsin-sensitive, indicating a role for proteins in this inhibitory process. Fetuin-A, and to a lesser degree albumin, inhibit nanoparticle formation, an inhibition that is overcome with time, ending with formation of the so-called NB. Together, these data demonstrate that NB are most likely formed by calcium or apatite crystallization inhibitors that are somehow overwhelmed by excess calcium or calcium phosphate found in culture medium or in body fluids, thereby becoming seeds for calcification. The

  5. Intermittent enhancement in chronic nodular calcified neurocysticercosis

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    Martin Oselkin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common cause of new onset seizures and epilepsy in the developing and tropical world. There has been a marked increase in domestic cases of diseases traditionally associated with developing countries, and now NCC should be high on a radiologist's differential diagnosis list for a patient with seizures. Radiologic findings of NCC correlate with the parasite's life cycle within the host. The calcified granulomas signify the final stage (nodular calcified as nonenhancing punctate calcifications on imaging and are traditionally known to remain without enhancement. Here we describe a unique case of intermittent enhancement of a cortical calcified nodule secondary to NCC that was followed for over 10 years. Radiologists must challenge the traditionally accepted progression of imaging findings and accept that calcified nodules of chronic NCC may intermittently enhance.

  6. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

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    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  7. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  8. Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Ligia B.; De Schryver, An M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the poten...

  9. Fragmentation of calcified plaque after carotid artery stenting in heavily calcified circumferential stenosis

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    Tsutsumi, Masanori; Kodama, Tomonobu; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Masanari; Iko, Minoru; Nii, Kouhei; Hamaguchi, Shuko; Etou, Housei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Inoue, Ritsurou; Nakau, Hiroya [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kazekawa, Kiyoshi [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroradiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    We assessed the morphological change of calcified plaque after carotid artery stenting (CAS) in vessels with heavily calcified circumferential lesions and discuss the possible mechanisms of stent expansion in these lesions. We performed 18 CAS procedures in 16 patients with severe carotid artery stenosis accompanied by plaque calcification involving more than 75% of the vessel circumference. All patients underwent multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate lesion calcification before and within 3 months after intervention. The angiographic outcome immediately after CAS and follow-up angiographs obtained 6 months post-CAS were examined. The preoperative mean arc of the calcifications was 320.1 {+-} 24.5 (range 278-360 ). In all lesions, CAS procedures were successfully carried out; excellent dilation with residual stenosis {<=}30% was achieved in all lesions. Post-CAS MDCT demonstrated multiple fragmentations of the calcifications in 17 of 18 lesions (94.4%), but only cracks in the calcified plaque without fragmentation in one (5.6%). Angiographic study performed approximately 6 months post-CAS detected severe restenosis in one lesion (5.6%) without fragmentation of calcified plaque. Excellent stent expansion may be achieved and maintained in heavily calcified circumferential carotid lesions by disruption and fragmentation of the calcified plaques. (orig.)

  10. Fragmentation of calcified plaque after carotid artery stenting in heavily calcified circumferential stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the morphological change of calcified plaque after carotid artery stenting (CAS) in vessels with heavily calcified circumferential lesions and discuss the possible mechanisms of stent expansion in these lesions. We performed 18 CAS procedures in 16 patients with severe carotid artery stenosis accompanied by plaque calcification involving more than 75% of the vessel circumference. All patients underwent multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate lesion calcification before and within 3 months after intervention. The angiographic outcome immediately after CAS and follow-up angiographs obtained 6 months post-CAS were examined. The preoperative mean arc of the calcifications was 320.1 ± 24.5 (range 278-360 ). In all lesions, CAS procedures were successfully carried out; excellent dilation with residual stenosis ≤30% was achieved in all lesions. Post-CAS MDCT demonstrated multiple fragmentations of the calcifications in 17 of 18 lesions (94.4%), but only cracks in the calcified plaque without fragmentation in one (5.6%). Angiographic study performed approximately 6 months post-CAS detected severe restenosis in one lesion (5.6%) without fragmentation of calcified plaque. Excellent stent expansion may be achieved and maintained in heavily calcified circumferential carotid lesions by disruption and fragmentation of the calcified plaques. (orig.)

  11. Screening-detected calcified and non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ: Differences in the imaging and histopathological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare the imaging and histopathological features of screening-detected calcified and non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Materials and methods: The study involved 217 DCIS cases in 212 asymptomatic patients admitted between May 2007 and December 2010. All lesions were divided into calcified and non-calcified DCIS according to the presence of calcifications on mammography. Two radiologists reviewed the findings from mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in consensus according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The histopathological features of the lesions were obtained from medical records. Statistical comparisons were performed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses. Results: On mammography, most non-calcified DCIS presented as either a false-negative finding (49%) or mass lesion (30%), whereas most calcified DCIS (68.5%) presented as calcification alone (p < 0.001). At ultrasound, all of the non-calcified DCIS appeared as a mass, whereas 62% of the calcified DCIS appeared as a mass (p < 0.001). At histopathology, high nuclear grade (p = 0.017), necrosis (p < 0.001), positive progesterone receptor (p = 0.027), and presence of the HER-2/neu oncogene (p < 0.001) were more common in the calcified DCIS than in the non-calcified DCIS. There were no significant differences in the MRI features between the two groups. The ICC values of the non-calcified and calcified DCIS between predicted tumour size and pathologic size were 0.625 versus 0.705 for mammography, 0.801 versus 0.552 for ultrasound, and 0.760 versus 0.767 for MRI. Conclusions: Screening-detected calcified and non-calcified DCIS have different mammographic and sonographic features. Ultrasound could be helpful to predict the pathological size of the non-calcified DCIS.

  12. Two cases report of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Paeng, Jun Young; Lee, Jun; Choi, Moon Ki [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is a rare disorder of the jaws and shows various radiographic features. The purpose of this study is to describe the different radiographic appearances of 2 cases of COC. Case 1 was located in the posterior maxilla extending into maxillary sinus, showing unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined margin. Cortical bone expansion and thinning were prominent. Root resorption of adjacent teeth was apparent. Case 2 showed unilocular radiolucency with a calcified material. Calcification was supposed to be dystrophic dental hard structures, detected at the periphery of the lesion. Ghost cell and proliferation of ameloblastoma-like tissues were common features for these two lesions on histopathological findings. This reports presented common and atypical radiographic features of the COC.

  13. Two cases report of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is a rare disorder of the jaws and shows various radiographic features. The purpose of this study is to describe the different radiographic appearances of 2 cases of COC. Case 1 was located in the posterior maxilla extending into maxillary sinus, showing unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined margin. Cortical bone expansion and thinning were prominent. Root resorption of adjacent teeth was apparent. Case 2 showed unilocular radiolucency with a calcified material. Calcification was supposed to be dystrophic dental hard structures, detected at the periphery of the lesion. Ghost cell and proliferation of ameloblastoma-like tissues were common features for these two lesions on histopathological findings. This reports presented common and atypical radiographic features of the COC.

  14. Calcifying Bursitis ischioglutealis: A Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Schuh, Alexander; Narayan, Chirag Thonse; Schuh, Ralph; Hönle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The ischiogluteal bursa is an inconstant anatomical finding located between the ischial tuberosity and the gluteus maximus. Ischiogluteal bursitis is a rare disorder. Case Report: We report the case of a 43-year-old female patient with bilateral calcifying ischiogluteal bursitis. The patient had no relevant medical history of systemic illness or major trauma to the buttock. After aspiration of both ischiogluteal bursitis which delievered calcareous deposits and instillation of a...

  15. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  16. CT findings of calcified herniated lumbar disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyo Kun; Lee, Jun Hyung [Chang Dong Armed Forces Evacuation Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Computed tomography (CT) of 10 calcified herniated lumber discs among 46 operated cases were analysed at the aspects of incidence, location, shape, etc. The results are as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification is 22% (10/46). 2. Among 10 cases, 3 cases are at the level of L4-5 disc space and 7 cases are at the level of L5-S1 disc space. 3. Central herniation (8 cases) are more common than posterolateral herniation (2 cases). 4. Linear or band-like calcifications in the periphery of herniated disc (annulus fibrosus type) are 6 cases and dense patchy calcification in the central portion of herniated disc (nucleus pulposus type) are 4 cases. 5. Two cases (50%) of 4 cases with nucleus pulposus type calcification were found to be ruptured at operation, but none of 6 annulus fibrous calcification types showed rupture. 6. Because more wide operation field and invasive exploration were required in calcified cases than non-calcified cases, it is suggested to evaluate the presence, location, and type of calcification in herniated disc in detail.

  17. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff with cortical bone erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Roxanne; Kim, David H.; Millett, Peter J. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Weissman, Barbara N. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, Boston (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Calcifying tendinitis occurs most commonly in the rotator cuff tendons, particularly involving the supraspinatus tendon insertion, and is often asymptomatic. Cortical erosion secondary to calcifying tendinitis has been reported in multiple locations, including in the rotator cuff tendons. We present a pathologically proven case of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis involving the infraspinatus tendon with cortical erosion with correlative radiographic, CT, and MR findings. The importance of considering this diagnosis when evaluating lytic lesions of the humerus and the imaging differential diagnosis of calcifying tendinitis and cortical erosion are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff with cortical bone erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying tendinitis occurs most commonly in the rotator cuff tendons, particularly involving the supraspinatus tendon insertion, and is often asymptomatic. Cortical erosion secondary to calcifying tendinitis has been reported in multiple locations, including in the rotator cuff tendons. We present a pathologically proven case of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis involving the infraspinatus tendon with cortical erosion with correlative radiographic, CT, and MR findings. The importance of considering this diagnosis when evaluating lytic lesions of the humerus and the imaging differential diagnosis of calcifying tendinitis and cortical erosion are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of calcified coronary artery lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed; Costopoulos, Charis; Gorog, Diana A; Prasad, Abhiram; Srinivasan, Manivannan

    2016-06-01

    Heavily calcified coronary plaques represent a complex lesion subset and a challenge to the interventional cardiologist, as they are often resistant to simple plaque modification with conventional balloon angioplasty. Inadequate plaque modification can lead to stent underdeployment, which itself predisposes to in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. Over the years, a number of mechanical devices ranging from modified angioplasty balloons to atherectomy devices have become available in order to tackle such lesions. Here we review these devices concentrating on the evidence behind their use. PMID:26924773

  20. Bilateral subepidermal calcified nodules of the eyelid

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Salem Al; Al-Faky, Yasser H.; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C

    2010-01-01

    A subepidermal calcified nodule (SCN) is an uncommon benign lesion, which usually develops in early childhood and is typically solitary. A rare form of this lesion has been reported in the eyelid. We report here a case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral nodules of the right upper eyelid and a left lower eyelid simulating epidermal cyst. The histopathologic examination of the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this may be the first bilateral case of eyelid SCN reported...

  1. Intracranial calcified deposits in neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations of 11 consecutive patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) revealed non-tumoral intracranial calcified deposits in seven cases. Abnormal calcification of the choroid plexus was found in six cases. Calcification in the cerebellar hemispheres was observed in four cases. In two cases nodular calcifications on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres were detected. Our findings and the data in the literature show that non-tumoral calcifications of different locations can be regarded as part of the NF-2 syndrome. (orig.)

  2. A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Haddad, Ruwaida S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, Dennis R.; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some information is available regarding the cellular/molecular changes in immune system exposed to microgravity, little is known about the reasons of the increase in the kidney stone formation in astronauts during and/or after long duration missions at zero gravity (0 g). In our earlier studies, we have assessed a unique agent, nanobacteria (NB), in kidney stones and hypothesized that NB have an active role in calcium phosphate-carbonate deposition in kidney. In this research we studied effect of microgravity on multiplication and calcification of NB in vitro. METHODS: We examined NB cultures in High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs) designed at the NASA's Johnson Space Center, which are designed to stimulate some aspects of microgravity. Multiplication rate and calcium phosphate composition of those NB were compared with NB cultured on stationary and shaker flasks. Collected aliquots of the cultures from different incubation periods were analyzed using spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, and x-ray diffraction techniques. RESULTS: The results showed that NB multiplied 4.6x faster in HARVs compared to stationary cultures, and 3.2x faster than shaker flask conditions. X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis showed that the degree of apatite crystal formation and the properties of the apatite depend on the specific culture conditions used. CONCLUSION: We now report an increased multiplication rate of NB in microgravity-simulated conditions. Thus, NB infection may have a potential role in kidney stone formation in crew members during space flights. For further proof to this hypothesis, screening of the NB antigen and antibody level in flight crew before and after flight would be necessary.

  3. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients' diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  4. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, L. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Murillo, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Biurrun, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Garcia-Rostan, G. [Servicio Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Reta, A. [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Dominguez, F. [Servicio Cirugia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients` diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  5. A new cause of curvilinear renal calcification: calcified hydrocalycosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atakan, Irfan Hueseyin; Pekindil, Goekhan; Alagoel, Buelent; Inci, Osman

    2000-10-01

    Although many causes of curvilinear renal calcifications have been described, calcified hydrocalycosis mimicking hydatid cyst has not previously been reported. We report a case of hydrocalycosis which was appeared as a curvilinear calcified cystic lesion resulted from staghorn calculus associated with xanthogranolomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) on intravenous pyelography (IVU) and computed tomography (CT)

  6. A new cause of curvilinear renal calcification: calcified hydrocalycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many causes of curvilinear renal calcifications have been described, calcified hydrocalycosis mimicking hydatid cyst has not previously been reported. We report a case of hydrocalycosis which was appeared as a curvilinear calcified cystic lesion resulted from staghorn calculus associated with xanthogranolomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) on intravenous pyelography (IVU) and computed tomography (CT)

  7. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: A Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a unique and uncommon odontogenic cyst classified into four groups of cystic, odontoma producing, ameloblastomatous proliferating and neoplastic ones. Case Presentation A 34-year-old Iranian man complaining of a painless facial and palatal swelling of the left side of the maxilla persisted for approximately three years was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Hamadan University, Iran. Panoramic film revealed a well-defined multilocular mixed radiolucent and radioopaque lesion of the maxilla at the left side. An incisional biopsy was obtained. Based on the histopathologic findings, ameloblastomatous COC was diagnosed. Discussion We reported a rare case of COC. According to Praetorius et al. classification, this patient comes under the category of type 1C (ameloblastomatous proliferating. Many patients with ameloblastomatous COC should be reported to understand its biological behavior as possible.

  8. Calcified fibrous pseudotumor of spermatic cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratesticular tumors are infrequent and most are benigns. This a case presentation of a patient aged 24 with a history of good health coming to our consultation by presence of a hard and painless 4 cm tumor in right scrotum with a 6 months course. Scrotal ultrasound (US) showed a well circumscribed heterogeneous lesion separate of epididymis and the testis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was not possible by hardness of tumor. A inguinal surgery was performed and the total tumor exeresis using freezing biopsy negative of malignancy. Final histopathological report was: calcified fibrous pseudotumor of spermatic cord. Patient's course has been satisfactory. Significance of inguinal surgery was confirmed for the paratesticular tumor approach, even more when FNAB it is not conclusive for diagnosis.(author)

  9. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  10. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Laura; Pérez-León, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E; Marbà, Núria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K; Blicher, Martin E; Lagos, Nelson A; Olsen, Ylva S; Duarte, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification. PMID:26778520

  11. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

  12. An Intricate Clinicopathologic Presentation of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup K Ghosh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is considered to be an uncommon benign entity which was first recognized by Gorlin. Calcifying odontogenic cyst accounts for only 2% of all the odon- togenic tumors and is a relatively rare lesion which is charac - terized by histological diversity as its clinical and radiological features are not pathognomonic. Here, we report a case of COC in a 45 years old male patient with a long standing swelling.

  13. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ulkem [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara (Turkey); Baykul, Timucin [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Dentistry, Isparta (Turkey); Yildirim, Benay [Dept. of Oral Pathology, Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Derya; Bozdemir, Esin [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Dentistry, Isparta (Turkey); Karaduman, Ayse [Atlas Dent Dental Health Center, Aydin (Turkey)

    2013-12-15

    This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made.

  14. Multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a 31-year-old female patient with six impacted teeth. The crowns of the impacted teeth were surrounded with cyst-like lesions with a mixed internal structure and well-defined cortical borders. Microscopic examination of the specimen obtained from the follicle of the left mandibular third molar tooth revealed loose to moderately dense collagenous connective tissue with abundant calcified material and sparse epithelial islands. A diagnosis of multiple calcifying hyperplastic dental follicles was made.

  15. Symptomatic calcified splenic artery aneurysm: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the third most common aneurysm within the abdomen, after aneurysms of the aorta and iliac arteries, splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but not exceptionally. Owing to new imaging techniques, they have been discovered with increasing frequency. Case Outline. Authors present a 47-year-old woman, multipara, who presented with left upper abdominal pain in whom X-ray showed a calcified ring in the area of distal pancreas. Selective angiography confirmed a splenic artery aneurysm of its proximal part. During an open surgery the aneurysm was excised (aneurismectomy without immediate, early or late complications. The patient became symptom-free. Conclusion. In patients, particularly women, the multiparas who present with epigastric or left upper abdominal pain of unknown aetiology, splenic artery aneurysm has to be taken into account. Further diagnostic procedures such as plain X-ray and selective angiography in suspected cases should be performed. Surgery or other treatment modalities are to be seriously considered in all patients, particularly in those with increased risk of rupture.

  16. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst Associated with an Impacted Upper Cuspid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-year-old man was referred to the department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery of Chonnam university hospital for the chief complaint of asymptomatic swelling on the buccal vestibule of upper right canine area. Radiographs revealed that the upper right canine was impacted and there was a well-circumscribed pericoronal radiolucency related with the canine. Multiple radiopaque foci were scattered in the radiolucent lesion, and the roots of the lateral incisor and the first premolar related to the lesion showed external resorption. The radiographic features of this lesion were typical of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, but considering the sex and age of the patient, the tentative diagnosis was made as calcifying odontogenic cyst. Microscopically this lesion was diagnosed as calcifying odontogenic cyst. Because calcifying odontogenic cyst has no pathognomonic feature of radiographs, to consider radiographic features with clinical findings is necessary in order to establish more correct diagnosis.

  17. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst Associated with an Impacted Upper Cuspid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Young Seo; Yi, Jae Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    A 35-year-old man was referred to the department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery of Chonnam university hospital for the chief complaint of asymptomatic swelling on the buccal vestibule of upper right canine area. Radiographs revealed that the upper right canine was impacted and there was a well-circumscribed pericoronal radiolucency related with the canine. Multiple radiopaque foci were scattered in the radiolucent lesion, and the roots of the lateral incisor and the first premolar related to the lesion showed external resorption. The radiographic features of this lesion were typical of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, but considering the sex and age of the patient, the tentative diagnosis was made as calcifying odontogenic cyst. Microscopically this lesion was diagnosed as calcifying odontogenic cyst. Because calcifying odontogenic cyst has no pathognomonic feature of radiographs, to consider radiographic features with clinical findings is necessary in order to establish more correct diagnosis.

  18. Progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon without apparent tear. Three months after the first visit, MRI revealed a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear at the site of calcium deposition. Surgical and histologic findings demonstrated that calcium deposition was the cause of cuff rupture. To our knowledge, based on a review of the English literature, this is the first case report in which the progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear has been serially observed. (orig.)

  19. Progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, Masafumi; Higuchi, Fujio; Suzuki, Ritsu; Yamanaka, Kensuke [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical Center of Kurume University, 155-1 Kokubu-machi, Kurume City, Fukuoka 839-0862 (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon without apparent tear. Three months after the first visit, MRI revealed a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear at the site of calcium deposition. Surgical and histologic findings demonstrated that calcium deposition was the cause of cuff rupture. To our knowledge, based on a review of the English literature, this is the first case report in which the progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear has been serially observed. (orig.)

  20. The Calcifying Epithelial Odonogenic Tumor : Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which was first described by Pindborg in 1955 and accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The tumor occurs primarily in the molar-premolar region of the mandible, and 52% of cases are associated with an unerupted tooth. The clinical feature is most commonly a slow-growing painless swelling. The tumor may show considerable radiographic variation and usually characteristic histopathologic features. In this study, we report a case of the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor on the left mandibular body and ramus area in a 28-year-old male with a brief review of the concerned literatures.

  1. Plasma lactoferrin levels in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarella, C; Gaia, E; Piantino, P

    1983-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a nonenzymatic secretory protein of human pancreas specifically increased in the external pancreatic secretion of patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. The possibility of an elevated concentration of plasma lactoferrin level in these patients needed to be explored even if the low pancreatic concentration of the protein did not favor this hypothesis. As expected, no increase could be observed between the plasma lactoferrin level of 16 patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis (131 +/- 15 micrograms/l), compared to 17 controls (166 +/- 11 micrograms/l) and 15 patients with different organic diseases (187 +/- 18 micrograms/l). PMID:6628844

  2. A lung cancer case with numerous calcified metastatic nodules of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with numerous calcified metastatic nodules of the brain is reported. Autopsy revealed about 400 metastatic nodules in the central nervous system, most of which were calcified. (orig.)

  3. Calcifying supracoracoid bursitis as a cause of chronic shoulder pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Mens, J; van der Korst, J K

    1984-01-01

    A case of chronic shoulder pain is reported with marked limitation of both active and passive elevations and a normal range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. X-ray examination demonstrated cloudy calcification in the coracoclavicular region, presumably indicating calcifying supracoracoid bursitis.

  4. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported.

  5. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported

  6. [About a case of calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Delphine; Thivolet-Béjui, Françoise; Tronc, François; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2015-12-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare soft tissue benign tumor (OMS 2002). Some pleural localisations are described, which affect slightly older individuals than the other soft tissue forms. The calcifying fibrous tumor is included in the 2004 World Health Organization classification of pleural tumors. A pleural tumor located in the right inferior pulmonary lobe is diagnosed in a 59-year-old man. This pleural tumor is macroscopically well-circumscribed. Histologically, the rare spindle tumoral cells are located between bundles of a collagenous tissue, sometimes hyalinized, with psammomatous or dystrophic calcifications. The tumoral cells have a fibrohistiocytic origin. They stain positively for antibodies against vimentin, factor XIIIa, CD68, CD163, CD34. Antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, PS100, ALK1 and EBV are negative. Main differencial diagnoses are other benign pleural tumors (solitary fibrous tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastique tumor), some malignant tumors (desmoplastic malignant pleural mesothelioma) and pleural pseudotumors (calcified pleural plaques, chronic fibrous pleuritis, amylose, hyalinizing granuloma). Our case is the 15th pleural calcifying fibrous tumor being reported. PMID:26608111

  7. Migration and lymphatic spread of calcified paraffinomas after breast augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 62 year old Chinese woman presented 25 years after having both breasts augmented with paraffin injections. Development of paraffinomas and multiple episodes of paraffin-related mastitis eventually resulted in bilateral mastectomies. The unusual distribution of migrated calcified paraffinomas in the thoracic wall and its lymphatic system is documented on computed tomography. 12 refs., 2 figs

  8. Migration and lymphatic spread of calcified paraffinomas after breast augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, G.C.; Peh, W.C.G.; Ip, M. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)

    1996-11-01

    A 62 year old Chinese woman presented 25 years after having both breasts augmented with paraffin injections. Development of paraffinomas and multiple episodes of paraffin-related mastitis eventually resulted in bilateral mastectomies. The unusual distribution of migrated calcified paraffinomas in the thoracic wall and its lymphatic system is documented on computed tomography. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily t...

  10. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Ma...

  11. Calcified-tissue investigations using synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron x-ray microscopy (SXRM) in both emission and absorption modes has been used to examine elemental distributions in specimens of rat tibia, human deciduous teeth, and an orthopedic implant phantom. The work was performed with a spatial resolution of 8 μm for the emission work and 25 μm for the absorption work. The results illustrate the usefulness of SXRM for measurements of different types of calcified tissue. 3 figs

  12. Treatment of Necrotic Calcified Tooth Using Intentional Replantation Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Nima Moradi Majd; Armita Arvin; Alireza Darvish; Sareh Aflaki; Hamed Homayouni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extrac...

  13. Significance of density and demarcation of calcifications in calcifying tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcification of tendons can be either degenerative and progressive in nature or reactive and selfhealing. Radiologic examinations permit to distinguish between both kinds. The reactive calcification, known also as calcifying tendinitis, passes through two main phases, the formative and the resorptive phase. Since treatment is different for each phase, their roentgenologic distinction is important. Dense, well demarcated and homogenous calcifications indicate the presence of a formative phase whereas less dense, ill defined and fluffy deposits point toward an ongoing resorption. (orig.)

  14. Significance of density and demarcation of calcifications in calcifying tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhthoff, H.K.; Sarkar, K.; Hammond, I.

    1982-04-01

    Calcification of tendons can be either degenerative and progressive in nature or reactive and selfhealing. Radiologic examinations permit to distinguish between both kinds. The reactive calcification, known also as calcifying tendinitis, passes through two main phases, the formative and the resorptive phase. Since treatment is different for each phase, their roentgenologic distinction is important. Dense, well demarcated and homogenous calcifications indicate the presence of a formative phase whereas less dense, ill defined and fluffy deposits point toward an ongoing resorption.

  15. Cardiac calcified amorphous tumor: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin de Hemptinne; Didier de Cannière; Jean-Luc Vandenbossche; Philippe Unger

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is a rare non-neoplastic intracavitary cardiac mass. Several case reports have been published but large series are lacking. Objective: To determine clinical features, current management and outcomes of this rare disease. Design: A systematic review of all articles reporting cases of CAT in order to perform a pooled analysis of its clinical features, management and outcomes. Data sources: An electronic search of all English arti...

  16. Corticosteroid Withdrawal Precipitates Perilesional Edema around Calcified Taenia solium Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nash, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Calcified Taenia solium granulomas are the focus of repeated episodes of perilesional edema and seizures in 50% of persons with calcifications, history of seizures, and a positive serology for cysticercosis. The pathophysiology is unclear but recent studies suggest the edema is caused by inflammation. We report two new cases and four other published cases where cessation of corticosteroids appeared to result in recurrence or new appearance of perilesional edema around calcifications. This sug...

  17. Calcified cervical intervertebral disc in children: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleus pulposus calcification in children (CCIDC) is relatively rare but well known clinical syndrome, usually localized at the level of cervical spine. More than hundred and fifty cases have been reported in the literature with an increasing number of new reports in the last decade. The disease entity has been attributed to trauma, inflammation , or increased hydrostatic pressure with the disc, but the exact etiology still remains uncertain. The prognosis of disc calcification in children is good. As a rule pain resolves and there is a spontaneous resorption. Although the benign nature of the disease has been emphasized by many authors, herniation of the calcified nucleus pulposus through ruptured annulus fibrosus may occasionally occur. This rare but potentially serious complication with radiological signs of extradural space occupying lesion rises the question of eventual operative therapy. In several cases which have been reported in literature remission of symptoms occurred with conservative treatment. Radiological investigations are important for the diagnosis, evaluation of extent and follow-up of the disease. Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used. The first radiologic examination is standard radiography of the cervical spine. An addition of oblique views suggested before introduction of CT for better presentation of eventual protrusion (extrusion) of calcified discs material into the region of the intervertebral foramen (nerve root comprehension). Since frequently multilevel disc calcifications have been reported some authors suggest standard radiography of the whole spine. Radiography clearly demonstrates nucleus pulposus calcifications, which are round, oval flattened or fragmented. Radiographic appearances are to some extent reminiscent of discographic findings in normal or degenerated disc. Affected disc spaces may be slightly expanded indicating possibility of increased intradiscal pressure. Some of the

  18. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  19. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A K Schwartz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcifi cation. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium.Keywords: arterial calcification, endothelial injury, intimal hyperplasia

  20. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Song, Young-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Bong Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, which was formerly named calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a benign odontogenic tumor containing clusters of ghost cells within ameloblastic epithelium. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors have been associated with other odontogenic tumors, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the anterior mandible that occurred in a 4-year-old Korean girl. PMID:24785751

  1. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  2. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Merati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  3. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  4. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. METHODS AND FINDING: The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined

  5. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  6. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  7. Surgical Management of Calcified Hydatid Cysts of the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzardinoglou, E.; Kosmidis, Ch.; Katsohis, K.; Aletras, O.

    1999-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic liver echinococcosis were operated on in the 1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to 1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological studies. In 5 cases the operative method was cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases, omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of those with drainage, after a period of time, a second operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate was 2%. Our results could be considered satisfactory. In the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with a “planned” reoperation with a bloodless, due to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the calcification. PMID:10468117

  8. CO2 vascular anastomosis of atherosclerotic and calcified arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John V.; Leefmans, Eric; Stewart, Gwendolyn J.; Katz, Mira L.; Comerota, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    The technique for CO2 laser fusion vascular anastomosis in normal vessels has been well established. Normal arterial wall has a predictable thermal response to the incident laser energy, with rapid heating and cooling of collagen within the arterial wall. Since atherosclerosis involves subendothelial cellular proliferation, lipid and calcium deposition, it may modify the thermal responsiveness of the arterial wall. To this study, CO2 laser fusion anastomoses were attempted in rabbits with non-calcific atherosclerosis and humans with calcific atherosclerosis. All anastomoses were successfully completed without alteration in technique despite the presence of plaque at the site of laser fusion. Histology of rabbit vessels revealed the classic laser fusion cap within the adventitia and persistent atherosclerotic plaque at the flow surface. Duplex imaging of patients post-operatively demonstrated long term anastomotic patency in 2 of 3 fistulae. These results suggest that neither non-calcified or calcified atherosclerosis significantly alters the arterial wall thermal responsiveness to CO2 laser energy or inhibits creation of laser fusion anastomoses. Therefore, this technique may be applicable to the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease.

  9. Treatment of Necrotic Calcified Tooth Using Intentional Replantation Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Moradi Majd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible.

  10. Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Reddy, M S

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study examined the effect of calcite precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (Bp M-3) on parameters affecting the durability of concrete or mortar. An inexpensive industrial waste, corn steep liquor (CSL), from starch industry was used as nutrient source for the growth of bacteria and calcite production, and the results obtained with CSL were compared with those of the standard commercial medium. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in substantial decrease of water uptake, permeability, and chloride penetration compared with control specimens without bacteria. The results obtained with CSL medium were comparable to those obtained with standard medium, indicating the economization of the biocalcification process. The results suggest that calcifying bacteria play an important role in enhancing the durability of concrete structures. PMID:21104104

  11. Multiple Calcifying Odontogenic Cysts Involving the Maxillary Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is an uncommon odontogenic lesion, classified in two variants: the cystic variant and neoplastic (solid variant. Case Presentation This case report presents multiple COC, which involved the maxillary bone and sinus in a 30-year-old man. Several of these lesions were cystic, while the others were neoplastic in type, and the lesions were removed surgically. Discussion Based on a literature review available on this topic in English, our case study was found to be the first one with multiple COC, showing both the cystic and neoplastic histopathological variant. Considering the high rate of recurrence of neoplastic COC, the patients should benefit from a long follow-up after treatment.

  12. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19F(p,ag)16O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  13. New perspectives on rare connective tissue calcifying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashdan, Nabil A; Rutsch, Frank; Kempf, Hervé; Váradi, András; Lefthériotis, Georges; MacRae, Vicky E

    2016-06-01

    Connective tissue calcifying diseases (CTCs) are characterized by abnormal calcium deposition in connective tissues. CTCs are caused by multiple factors including chronic diseases (Type II diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease), the use of pharmaceuticals (e.g. warfarin, glucocorticoids) and inherited rare genetic diseases such as pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI) and Keutel syndrome (KTLS). This review explores our current knowledge of these rare inherited CTCs, and highlights the most promising avenues for pharmaceutical intervention. Advancing our understanding of rare inherited forms of CTC is not only essential for the development of therapeutic strategies for patients suffering from these diseases, but also fundamental to delineating the mechanisms underpinning acquired chronic forms of CTC. PMID:26930168

  14. Coral symbiotic algae calcify ex hospite in partnership with bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommlet, Jörg C; Sousa, Maria L; Alves, Artur; Vieira, Sandra I; Suggett, David J; Serôdio, João

    2015-05-12

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are commonly recognized as invertebrate endosymbionts that are of central importance for the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. However, the endosymbiotic phase within Symbiodinium life history is inherently tied to a more cryptic free-living (ex hospite) phase that remains largely unexplored. Here we show that free-living Symbiodinium spp. in culture commonly form calcifying bacterial-algal communities that produce aragonitic spherulites and encase the dinoflagellates as endolithic cells. This process is driven by Symbiodinium photosynthesis but occurs only in partnership with bacteria. Our findings not only place dinoflagellates on the map of microbial-algal organomineralization processes but also point toward an endolithic phase in the Symbiodinium life history, a phenomenon that may provide new perspectives on the biology and ecology of Symbiodinium spp. and the evolutionary history of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis. PMID:25918367

  15. Coral symbiotic algae calcify ex hospite in partnership with bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommlet, Jörg C.; Sousa, Maria L.; Alves, Artur; Vieira, Sandra I.; Suggett, David J.; Serôdio, João

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are commonly recognized as invertebrate endosymbionts that are of central importance for the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. However, the endosymbiotic phase within Symbiodinium life history is inherently tied to a more cryptic free-living (ex hospite) phase that remains largely unexplored. Here we show that free-living Symbiodinium spp. in culture commonly form calcifying bacterial–algal communities that produce aragonitic spherulites and encase the dinoflagellates as endolithic cells. This process is driven by Symbiodinium photosynthesis but occurs only in partnership with bacteria. Our findings not only place dinoflagellates on the map of microbial–algal organomineralization processes but also point toward an endolithic phase in the Symbiodinium life history, a phenomenon that may provide new perspectives on the biology and ecology of Symbiodinium spp. and the evolutionary history of the coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis. PMID:25918367

  16. Multicentric calcified trichilemmal cysts with alopecia universalis affecting siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneef N Sadath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst, also known as "pilar cyst," is a benign cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products with a wall resembling external root sheath of hair. It occurs mostly in females as a solitary firm nodule over scalp. Occurrence of multiple trichilemmal cysts in areas other than scalp is extremely rare. We are reporting a case of a 40-years-old female who presented with multiple calcified trichilemmal cysts in multicentric distribution associated with alopecia universalis. Similar complaints were present in elder sister of the patient, indicating a genetic background. Multicentric distribution of trichilemmal cysts, calcification, familial occurrence, and association with alopecia universalis seen in our case are all rare and intriguing features.

  17. Calcifying liver metastases. Computed tomography imaging and incidence of primary colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 24 patients with liver metastases of the calcifying type were detected during CT scan imaging for cancer of different primary origin (colorectal, ovarian, mammary, gastric, prostatic melanoma). These calcifying metastases represented 27% of the 89 liver metastases cases detected, and the incidence of a colorectal origin for these calcifying lesions (20% of cases) appears to be highly significant, their number being relatively larger than reported in previous studies. Identification of liver calcifications of possible diagnostic importance requires a two-stage CT scan investigation, before and after bolus. Paraclinical examinations should be directed selectively towards the digestive tract when the primary tumor is unknown

  18. Case report 504: Unusual bilateral calcified giant cysts (geodes) in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual case of calcified, giant geodes in a patient with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis affecting the knee joints is presented. The cause of the calcification remains unknown. Radiological and pathological findings have been described. (orig./GDG)

  19. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  20. How Should We Perform Rotational Atherectomy to an Angulated Calcified Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Yousuke; Matsumoto, Mitsunari; Wada, Hiroshi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Hideo

    2016-05-25

    Rotational atherectomy to an angulated calcified lesion is always challenging. The risk of catastrophic complications such as a burr becoming stuck or vessel perforation is greater when the calcified lesion is angulated. We describe the case of an 83-year-old female suffering from unstable angina. Diagnostic coronary angiography revealed an angulated calcified lesion in the proximal segment of the right coronary artery. We performed rotational atherectomy to the lesion, but intentionally did not advance the rotational atherectomy burr beyond the top of the angulation. We controlled the rotational atherectomy burr and stopped it just before the top of the angulation to avoid complications. Following rotational atherectomy, balloon dilatation with a non-compliant balloon was performed, and drug-eluting stents were successfully deployed. In this manuscript, we provide a review of the literature on this topic, and discuss how rotational atherectomy to an angulated calcified lesion should be performed. PMID:27170474

  1. Calcified congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of calcified unruptured congenital aneurysm of the left sinus of Valsalva associated with coarctation of the aorta is presented. Routine chest radiographs demonstrated unusual curvilinear calcifications at the cardiac base which were subsequently demonstrated within the aneurysm. (orig.)

  2. Reliability of digital panoramic radiographs in detecting calcified carotid artery atheromatous plaques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Khambete; Rahul Kumar; Mukund Risbud; Anil Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether digital panoramic radiography is a reliable method to detect calcified carotid artery atheromatous plaques (CCAAP) as compared with ultrasonography. Study Design: Digital panoramic radiographs were obtained from 50 patients who also underwent carotid ultrasound examination. The images were interpreted by trained maxillofacial radiologist for the presence or absence of calcified atheromatous plaques. The extent of carotid cal...

  3. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    OpenAIRE

    Atoun Ehud; Rath Ehud; Van Tongel Alexander; Narvani Ali; Sforza Giusseppe; Levy Ofer

    2012-01-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a “Hoover” (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resec...

  4. Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Calcifying Tendinitis of the Shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Holinka, Johannes; Rompe, Jan Dirk; Dorotka, Ronald; Vavken, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background:: The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was sought as a secondary confirmation of effectiveness. Hypothesis: Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a high, dose-responsive effectiveness in the management of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: Studies were identified from ...

  5. Impact of glucose intolerance on coronary calcified lesions evaluated using multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic syndrome has the unique concept that the common occurrence of individual disease components increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, some studies suggest that the burden of different CAD risk factors is not equal, and focusing on the whole set of risk factors might neglect the impact of individual factors that could be useful targets for prophylactic therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glucose intolerance on CAD using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Ninety-eight consecutive patients with at least one traditional CAD risk factor who visited a municipal hospital were enrolled in this study. The risk factors were impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose≥110 mg/dl or patients with diabetes), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 25 kg/m2 for men and >23 kg/m2 for women). CAD was determined by the presence of either stenoses, non-calcified plaques or calcified lesions. The following risk factors were significantly related in univariate logistic models: glucose intolerance and coronary calcified lesions (p=0.001), and hypertriglycemia and non-calcified plaque lesions (p=0.048). Multivariate models showed that glucose intolerance was significantly associated with calcified lesions, even after adjustment for gender, age, low HDL-C, hypertriglycemia, hypertension, and obesity (p=0.018). Our results suggest that glucose intolerance might be closely related to the presence of coronary calcified lesions among traditional CAD risk factors. (author)

  6. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  7. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jinsoo; Schmidt, Jacob; Chien Aichi; Montemagno, Carlo D [Department of Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, 7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1600 (United States)], E-mail: montemcd@ucmail.uc.edu

    2009-02-25

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present.

  8. Engineering an artificial amoeba propelled by nanoparticle-triggered actin polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have engineered an amoeba system combining nanofabricated inorganic materials with biological components, capable of propelling itself via actin polymerization. The nanofabricated materials have a mechanism similar to the locomotion of the Listeria monocytogenes, food poisoning bacteria. The propulsive force generation utilizes nanoparticles made from nickel and gold functionalized with the Listeria monocytogenes transmembrane protein, ActA. These Listeria-mimic nanoparticles were in concert with actin, actin binding proteins, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and encapsulated within a lipid vesicle. This system is an artificial cell, such as a vesicle, where artificial nanobacteria and actin polymerization machinery are used in driving force generators inside the cell. The assembled structure was observed to crawl on a glass surface analogously to an amoeba, with the speed of the movement dependent on the amount of actin monomers and ATP present.

  9. Diffuse vertebral body edema due to calcified intraspongious disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Tiradentes, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Castro, C.E.S.; Castro, D.S. [Ecomax-Diagnostico por Imagem, Blumenau, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient with a recent history of high back pain, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showing intervertebral disk herniation into the spongious bone of the vertebral body of T9 that might have caused diffuse, low signal intensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery T1-weighted (FLAIR-T1W) images, high signal intensity magnetic resonance (MR) on T2-weighted (T2W) images and T2-weighted fat-suppressed images (T2W-FSIs) and marked enhancement on the vertebral body of T9 with gadolinium on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images (T1W-FSIs) images. Those findings suggested diffuse edema and might be indistinguishable from tumoral or inflammatory diseases, but the plain films and the reformatted sagittal computed tomography scans of the thoracic spine were helpful to show a calcified part of the intervertebral disk migrating into the vertebral body of T9. The patient made full recovery from the symptoms after conservative treatment and at the follow-up MRI showed normalization of the bone marrow signal intensity of the vertebral body of T9. (orig.)

  10. Imaging features of calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the imaging characteristics of calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) and do literature review. Methods: Five patients of pathologically-proved CAPNON underwent preoperative MR examination,among which 4 underwent CT scan, 2 underwent DSA examination and 1 underwent SPECT. All imaging data were retrospectively analyzed with the emphasis on imaging characteristics.Results Five patients of CAPNON with the diameter of 1.5 to 5.0 cm were found in five patients (Male 4; Female 1; age 25 to 60 years old). Three lesions were located in the skull base, one was located in the cervical spine and one in the foramen magnum and upper cervical segment. All patients underwent MRI examination and 4 of them also took CT scanning. On plain CT, all lesions showed obvious calcification. On T1WI all masses showed hypointensity, and on T2WI 4 of the lesions showed iso- or hypointensity and 1 heterogeneous signal intensity. On contrast-enhanced MR images, peripheral enhancement was demonstrated in 3 lesions, homogeneous enhancement was found in case and one lesion showed no enhancement. The pathologic analysis indicated that inside the lesions were abundant calcification, fibroepithelial tissue and mucoid matrix and no edema was detected around the lesions. Conclusions: CAPNON displayed the predilection to male adults and the neuraxis was the predilection site. Calcification on CT images, hypointensity on MR images and peripheral enhancement will be helpful for the diagnosis of CAPNON, but the final confirmation still needs the pathologic results. (authors)

  11. Visualisation of morphological interaction of diamond and silver nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Mitura, Katarzyna; Mitura, Stanisław; Szeliga, Jacek; Niemiec, Tomasz; Rupiewicz, Marlena; Grodzik, Marta; Sokołowska, Aleksandra

    2011-09-01

    Currently, medicine intensively searches for methods to transport drugs to a target (sick) point within the body. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of silver or diamond nanoparticles with Salmonella Enteritidis (G-) or Listeria monocytogenes (G+), to reveal possibilities of constructing nanoparticle-bacteria vehicles. Diamond nanoparticles (nano-D) were produced by the detonation method. Hydrocolloids of silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were produced by electric non-explosive patented method. Hydrocolloids of nanoparticles (200 microl) were added to bacteria suspension (200 microl) in the following order: nano-D + Salmonella E.; nano-D + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Ag + Salmonella E; nano-Ag + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualisation of nanoparticles and bacteria interaction showed harmful effects of both nanoparticles on bacteria morphology. The most spectacular effect of nano-D were strong links between nano-D packages and the flagella of Salmonella E. Nano-Ag were closely attached to Listeria monocytogenes but not to Salmonella E. There was no evidence of entering nano-Ag inside Listeria monocytogenes but smaller particles were placed inside Salmonella E. The ability of nano-D to attach to the flagella and the ability of nano-Ag to penetrate inside bacteria cells can be utilized to design nano-bacteria vehicles, being carriers for active substances attached to nanoparticles. PMID:22097468

  12. Ocean acidification and calcifying reef organisms: A mesocosm investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Kuffner, I.B.; Andersson, A.J.; Cox, E.F.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2008-01-01

    A long-term (10 months) controlled experiment was conducted to test the impact of increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on common calcifying coral reef organisms. The experiment was conducted in replicate continuous flow coral reef mesocosms flushed with unfiltered sea water from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mesocosms were located in full sunlight and experienced diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in temperature and sea water chemistry characteristic of the adjacent reef flat. Treatment mesocosms were manipulated to simulate an increase in pCO2 to levels expected in this century [midday pCO2 levels exceeding control mesocosms by 365 ?? 130 ??atm (mean ?? sd)]. Acidification had a profound impact on the development and growth of crustose coralline algae (CCA) populations. During the experiment, CCA developed 25% cover in the control mesocosms and only 4% in the acidified mesocosms, representing an 86% relative reduction. Free-living associations of CCA known as rhodoliths living in the control mesocosms grew at a rate of 0.6 g buoyant weight year-1 while those in the acidified experimental treatment decreased in weight at a rate of 0.9 g buoyant weight year-1, representing a 250% difference. CCA play an important role in the growth and stabilization of carbonate reefs, so future changes of this magnitude could greatly impact coral reefs throughout the world. Coral calcification decreased between 15% and 20% under acidified conditions. Linear extension decreased by 14% under acidified conditions in one experiment. Larvae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were able to recruit under the acidified conditions. In addition, there was no significant difference in production of gametes by the coral Montipora capitata after 6 months of exposure to the treatments. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Does erroneous differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells contribute to the pathogenesis of calcifying tendinopathy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Yun-feng; LUI Pauline Po-yee; CHAN Lai-shan; CHAN Kai-ming; FU Sai-chuen; LI Gang

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying tendinopathy is a tendon disorder with calcium deposits in the mid-substance presented with chronic activity-related pain, tenderness, local edema and various degrees of incapacitation. Most of current treatments are neither effective nor evidence-based because its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood and treatment is usually symptomatic. Understanding the pathogenesis of calcifying tendlinopathy is essential for its effective evidence-based management. One of the key histopathological features of calcifying tendinopathy is the presence of chondrocyte phenotype which surrounds the calcific deposits, suggesting that the formation of calcific deposits was cellmediated.Although the origin of cells participating in the formation of chondrocyte phenotype and ossification is still unknown, many evidences have suggested that erroneous tendon cell differentiation is involved in the process. Recent studies have shown the presence of stem cells with self-renewal and multi-differentiation potential in human,horse, mouse and rat tendon tissues. We hypothesized that the erroneous differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) to chondrocytes or osteoblasts leads to chondrometaplasia and ossification and hence weaker tendon, failed healing and pain, in calcifying tendinopathy. We present a hypothetical model on the pathogenesis and evidences to support this hypothesis. Understanding the key role of TDSCs in the pathogenesis of calcifying tendinopathy and the mechanisms contributing to their erroneous differentiation would provide new opportunities for the management of calcifying tendinopathy. The re-direction of the differentiation of resident TDSCs to tenogenic or supplementation of MSCsprogrammed for tenogenic differentiation may be enticing targets for the management of calcifying tendinopathy in e future.

  14. Use of Circular Foldable Nitinol Blades for Resecting Calcified Aortic Heart Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Florian; Wendt, Daniel; Stühle, Sebastian; Kawa, Emilia; Wendt, Hermann; Müller, Wiebke; Thielmann, Matthias; Kipfmüller, Brigitte; Vogel, Bernd; Jakob, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    The use of percutaneous aortic valve implantation is limited, as the native calcified valve is left in situ. A new device has been developed for resecting calcified aortic valves, using collapsible nickel-titanium blades: laser-cut T-structures of Nitinol sheet-material (Ni51Ti49 at.%) have been grinded on a high-speed milling cutter to produce cutting edges which have been given the shape of half-circles afterwards. These have been connected to each other and to struts by using rivets which also serve as articulating axes for the cutting ring. The blades are folded around these axes and retreated into a tube to be inserted in the heart through the calcified valve leaflets. Once released, the cutting edges regain their ring-shape. By combining rotation of the ring with a translating movement against a second ring of slightly greater diameter on the instrument, a punching process is created which cuts the calcified valve leaflets and leaves a circular annulus, where a prosthesis can be fixed. In vitro cutting of artificially calcified valves ( n = 6) resulted in a resection time of t = 22 ± 6.29 s with a maximum turning moment of M = 2.4 ± 1.27 Nm, proving the function and the feasibility of the concept.

  15. Transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria (calcifying nanoparticles, nanobes are one of the most controversial issues in contemporary biology. Studies show accumulating evidence on association of nanobacteria with pathologic calcifications such as kidney stone, arterial plaque, calcification of coronary arteries, and cardiac valves calculus. The Hypothesis: Nanobacteria can tolerate harsh conditions extremely well. The apatite mineral layer around the organism and slow metabolism is likely to be the reason for the resistance of nanobacteria. They showed a wide resistance to the several disinfecting and sterilizating chemicals as well as autoclaving, ultraviolet light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments. Hence, it seems logic to postulate that hazardous diseases can be easily transmitted via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is not enough to claim an agent not living according to the standard view on living creatures, as irrelevant to biological safety of cell cultures, or to human and animal health. Although the nature of prions is still under debate and prions are classified as nonliving, they exist and cause diseases, and thus form a serious risk for animal and human health. The risk was recognized only after enormous economical losses. It appears that nanobacteria situation is rather similar, except the fact that nanobacteria appear to cause or contribute to common hazardous diseases of the mankind. Hence, world-widely well-known organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the World Health Organization should pay more attention to transmission of hazardous diseases via nanobacterial contamination of medical and dental equipment.

  16. Ameloglastic fibro-odontoma with a change of calcifying odontogenic cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen-year-old girl complaining of the swelling and pain on the left midface visited our dental hospital. On the radiographic examination, well-defined radiolucent lesion with hyperostotic border was found in the left maxilla accompanying with the external root resorption of the involved teeth and the displaced second molar. CT showed calcified bodies, thinning of hard palate, inferior orbital wall and lateral wall of nasal fossa, and thinning and perforation of the buccal plate of the maxilla. Enucleation and curettage of the lesion and nasoantrostomy was carried out and histopathologic examination mainly showed a solid tumor tissue composed of odontogenic epithelium and pulp tissues admixed with dentin and enamel formation. And some part of reduced follicular epithelium of tooth germ showed a change mimicking calcifying odontogenic cyst. Taken together, we concluded the lesion is an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma with as change of calcifying odontogenic cyst

  17. Ameloglastic fibro-odontoma with a change of calcifying odontogenic cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk Rok; Han, Jin Woo; Lee, Jin Ho; Choi, Hang Moon; Park, In Woo; Lee, Suk Keun [Kangnung National Univ., Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    Thirteen-year-old girl complaining of the swelling and pain on the left midface visited our dental hospital. On the radiographic examination, well-defined radiolucent lesion with hyperostotic border was found in the left maxilla accompanying with the external root resorption of the involved teeth and the displaced second molar. CT showed calcified bodies, thinning of hard palate, inferior orbital wall and lateral wall of nasal fossa, and thinning and perforation of the buccal plate of the maxilla. Enucleation and curettage of the lesion and nasoantrostomy was carried out and histopathologic examination mainly showed a solid tumor tissue composed of odontogenic epithelium and pulp tissues admixed with dentin and enamel formation. And some part of reduced follicular epithelium of tooth germ showed a change mimicking calcifying odontogenic cyst. Taken together, we concluded the lesion is an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma with as change of calcifying odontogenic cyst.

  18. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoun Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resection of the major deposits. The use of this technique resulted in good clinical outcome with improved post operative pain.

  19. Calcifying fibrous tumor of the small intestine associated with Castleman-like lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladolid, Genaro; Weisenberg, Elliot; Sundaresan, Ramamoorthy; Maker, Ajay V

    2014-06-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal tumor that most commonly presents in younger individuals. We report the case of a 25-year-old woman that presented with severe abdominal pain and a small bowel mass at the site of an ileocolic intussusception with associated mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Surgical resection was performed, and pathologic analysis revealed that the mass was a calcifying fibrous tumor associated with Castleman-like adenopathy. This case intends to support a possible association between these two entities. PMID:24452381

  20. Calcified reticulate rind sign: A characteristic feature of gossypiboma on computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ying Lu; Yun-Chung Cheung; Sheung-Fat Ko; Shu-Hang Ng

    2005-01-01

    We herein report a gossypiboma resulting from a retained surgical swab, which had been left in peritoneum for 20years after appendectomy. CT revealed a cystic mass with a calcified reticulate rind. Subsequent surgery and pathological examination showed a gossypiboma. A simple experiment, using a barium-soaked surgical swab demonstrating similar CT appearance, supported our postulation that calcium deposition on the reticulated fibers of a surgical swab could generate such a characteristic "calcified reticulate rind" sign. We believe that identification of this CT sign facilitates the diagnosis of gossypibomas.

  1. Effect of calcified seaweed application on grazing preference by dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Younie, David; Blanke, Bettina

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. An experiment was carried out to determine whether the application of calcified seaweed improved the preference of organic dairy cows for pasture. Two treatments were applied in May 2001; calcified seaweed applied at 625kg/ha (C+) or no application (C-). The number of cows grazing within individual plots was recorded in July and August 2001. A significantly higher number of cows were recorded in C+ plots than in C- plots. T...

  2. Effects of seawater pCO2 changes on the calcifying fluid of scleractinian corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the ocean carbonate chemistry and a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process is expected to harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. A severe decline in coral abundance is, for example, expected by the end of this century with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calicoblastic layer. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calicoblastic layer beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calicoblastic layer increases with increasing seawater pCO2 leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid of the coral polyp. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  3. Increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in calcified synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a partially calcified synovial sarcoma of the soft tissues of the thigh in a young girl. The roentgenographic, arteriographic and radio-nuclide scans were unusual. The finding and possible causes of increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in synovial sarcoma are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in calcified synovial sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, T.; Mogle, P.; Finsterbush, A.; Gordin, M.

    1983-02-01

    We present a case of a partially calcified synovial sarcoma of the soft tissues of the thigh in a young girl. The roentgenographic, arteriographic and radio-nuclide scans were unusual. The finding and possible causes of increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in synovial sarcoma are discussed.

  5. Ultrastructural characteristics of ostrich eggshell: outer shell membrane and the calcified layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.G. Richards

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been well researched and structural studies of other avian species, such as the ostrich, often base their interpretation of egg shell structure on that of the chicken. In the ostrich, lowered hatchability and hatching trauma may be due to shell ultrastructural abnormalities. In the present study the ultrastructure of the calcified portion, and the outer shell membrane (OSM, of domesticated ostrich eggshells was investigated using standard electron microscopic techniques. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies demonstrated intimate contact between cup-shaped structures present on the OSMand the mammillary layer of the calcified portion of the shell. The initial calcium carbonate growth of the calcified shell was of a dendritic nature with nucleation sites on the surface of the cup's contents. The dendritic growth gave way to a more randomly-orientated, smaller crystallite growth structure, which changed in formas it neared the vertical crystal layer (VCL. The VCL is described as being both amorphous and 'crumbly' depending on the plane of fracture. These observations suggest that firstly, initial calcification is contained within the cups and is then directed outwards to formthe shell and that secondly, the VCL may contain an evolutionary, calcified cuticular layer. These observations serve as a baseline for studies investigating the effect of shell structure and strength on hatchling trauma and the influence of maternal diet.

  6. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  7. Alendronate conjugated nanoparticles for calcification targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanying; Song, Juqing; Zhu, Guanglin; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the synthesis of a novel calcification-targeting nanoparticle (NP) is reported, which is realized through dopamine self-polymerization on the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particle surface and subsequent alendronate conjugation. Cell viability and proliferation tests confirmed that such particle has low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Experiments were designed to observe whether the synthesized NPs can pass through an obstructive hydrogel and directly bind themselves to hydroxyapatite (HA) NPs (mimicking calcified spots) and HA porous scaffolds (mimicking calcified tissues); and the result was positive, indicating ingenious targeting of NPs on calcifications. The calcification-targeting NPs are expected to be with promising applications on calcification-related disease diagnoses and therapies. PMID:26970822

  8. A pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with compound odontoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkosky Silvia S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigmented intraosseous odontogenic lesions are rare with only 47 reported cases in the English literature. Among them, pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is the most common lesion with 20 reported cases. Methods A case of pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma occurring at the mandibular canine-premolar region of a young Japanese boy is presented with radiographic, and histological findings. Special staining, electron microscopic study and immunohistochemical staining were also done to characterize the pigmentation. Results The pigments in the lesion were confirmed to be melanin by Masson-Fontana staining and by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of dendritic melanocytes within the lesion was also demonstrated by S-100 immunostaining. Conclusion The present case report of pigmented calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with odontoma features a comprehensive study on melanin and melanocytes, including histochemical, immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic findings.

  9. Bilateral Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumour of Mandible: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Pragun; Aditya, Amita; Mhapuskar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) is a relatively rare lesion of oral and maxillofacial region and forms only 2% of all odontogenic tumours. It was previously known as Calcifying odontogenic cyst and only recently has been classified as a tumour by WHO. The controversy regarding its origin can be owed to its diverse clinical and histopathological presentation and variation in reported malignant potential. It was first reported by Gorlin in 1962 and since then conundrum regarding its true nature has persisted. It is seen in association with other lesions like odontoma, ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma. Both intra-osseous and extra-osseous forms of CCOT have been reported. It commnoly occurs in anterior region with equal preponderance in maxilla and mandible. Here we present a rare case of bilateral CCOT in the posterior mandible of a 16-year-old male patient which was discovered incidentally during a radiographic examination. PMID:26673837

  10. Biomimetic Ca-P coating on pre-calcified Ti plates by electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electrodeposition method was presented for Ca-P coating on pre-calcified titanium (PTi) plates at room temperature. The biomimetic coating morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that the functional TiOx layer with groups of -Ca and -OH was formed on PTi surface after pre-calcified chemical treatment. The TiOx layer showed a lower water contact angle and lower surface energy than those of pure titanium surfaces, and the PTi surface natures are benefited by coupling biomimetic Ca-P layer with bioactivity in the electrodeposition process. Moreover, the crystallization of Ca-P precipitate and the bond strength of coating to PTi substrates were improved significantly by post-treatments. Our results suggest this new coating process and its subsequent application to biomedical implant devices.

  11. Portal cavernoma caused by a calcified hydatid cyst of the liver (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Radoje B; Grubor, Nikica M; Colic, Momcilo U; Colovic, Natasa R; Atkinson, Henry Dushan E

    2008-03-01

    A portal cavernoma is a network of porto-porto collateral dilated tortuous veins lying within the hepatoduodenal ligament, which develops as a sequel to portal vein obstruction. This can be the result of extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction from local extrinsic occlusion, or by a prothrombotic disorder, or both. A 56-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Examination and investigations revealed the presence of gallstones, a cavernous portal vein, several calcified hydatid cysts within the liver, grade III haemorrhoids, but no oesophageal varicosities. She had no previous abdominal surgery, and had normal full laboratory workup, including inflammatory markers, clotting analyses, and thrombophilia screen. At open surgery it became apparent that the portal cavernoma had been caused by local pressure from a calcified hydatid cyst of the caudate lobe of the liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of portal cavernoma caused by a hydatid cyst of the liver. PMID:18301307

  12. Integrally calcified solitary fibrous tumor in the retroperitoneum: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Takehiro; Fujino, Syotaro; Misu, Kenjiro; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Hitoshi; Omi, Makoto; Tateno, Masatoshi; Nihei, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare stromal neoplasm and usually occurs in the thoracic cavity. We here report a case of retroperitoneal SFT with prominent calcification. A 64-year-old man presented with an incidentally detected retroperitoneal mass in the right upper abdomen. Imaging tests indicated an integrally calcified mass. The lesion was observed for 2 years and laparoscopically resected according to the patient's wish. Microscopically, the mass was mostly occupied by calcification and proliferous spindle cells were scattered with positive CD34 expression. We diagnosed morphologically benign SFT and the patient remained disease-free 1 year after the excision. There has been no report of such integrally calcified SFT. Retroperitoneal SFT is difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis, and careful follow-up after the excision is recommended because morphological malignancy does not always correspond to clinical malignancy. PMID:26943690

  13. Aggressive Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor of the Maxillary Sinus with Extraosseous Oral Mucosal Involvement: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Rani; Mahaboob Kadar Masthan; Babu Aravindha; Sankari Leena

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors are benign odontogenic neoplasms whose occurrence in the maxillary sinus is rare. Maxillary tumors tend to be locally aggressive and may rapidly involve the surrounding vital structures. We report a case of a large calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxilla, involving the maxillary sinus in a 48-year-old woman. The tumor was largely intraosseous. In the canine and first premolar regions, the loss of bone could be palpated but the oral mucos...

  14. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA) by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS) was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiogra-phy in order to determine the presenc...

  15. Atypical evolution of a calcified lipid cyst presenting spontaneously as a suspicious cluster of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an infrequent mammographic case in which a gross-calcified lipid cyst evolved spontaneously to form a cluster of pleomorphic microcalcifications which were indistinguishable from those seen in breast cancer. The biopsy performed was consistent with fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the specimen showed a nodule with mixed echogenicity surrounded by a hypoechoic rim. To our knowledge, this behavior is extremely rare, with only one similar case reported in the literature. (orig.)

  16. CT SCAN DIAGNOSIS OF LYMPHOMA IN PRETREATMENT CALCIFIED LYMPHADENOPATHY WITH ITS CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGY CORRELATION

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Saurabh; Shah Vaibhav; Choudhary Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma commonly presents as Lymphadenopathy of multiple groups along with hepatosplenomegaly in most of the patients. Pretreatment calcification in the affected nodes is very rare whereas calcifications in nodes following radiation or chemotherapy have been documented in many cases. Imaging plays a pivotal role in prompting the clinician to suspect lymphoma and opt for biopsy. Especially in Indian setup where a large group of population with calcified Lymphadenopathy is many a times simply ...

  17. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: report of a recurrent destructive case with review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Foroughi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with well-known histopathological features and a challenging treatment plan. Although some investigators advocate conservative approach as the treatment of choice, others believe in radical surgical excision to avoid recurrence or malignant transformation. The main objective of this case report is presenting an unusual destructive recurrence of CEOT after 8 years in a 34-year-old woman, and discussing an effective treatment plan for this tumor.

  18. Prevalence of Calcified Carotid Artery on Panoramic Radiographs in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. Materials and methods This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the s...

  19. Giant Pindborg Tumor (Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor): An Unusual Case Report with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Ranjan Misra; Sthitaprajna Lenka; Sujit Ranjan Sahoo; Sobhan Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called ′′Pindborg tumor′′, as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of ...

  20. A Rare Cause of Calcified Subdural Empyema and Ventriculitis in a Pediatric Patient: Achromobacter Denitrificans

    OpenAIRE

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Boyaci, Mehmet Gazi; Asik, Gulsah; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Rakip, Usame

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial infections in the pediatric age group are still important causes of morbidity in developing countries. A 2-year-old male patient presented with acute onset of seizures and loss of consciousness to our emergency department with a past history of being followed for hypogammaglobulinemia. Unenhanced computerized tomography scan of the brain revealed a right frontoparietal peripherally calcified extraaxial collection, brain edema and a left sided shift. Contrast enhanced magnetic res...

  1. Deep Crater in Heavily Calcified Aortic Valve Leaflet: A “Smoking Gun” for Embolic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Sarah Chaoying; Canter, Lisa; Zeeshan, Ahmad; Elefteriades, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The association of severe calcific aortic stenosis with clinically significant stroke has not been well established. This case vividly describes the relationship with clinical and pathological (gross and microscopic) findings in a 62-year-old man with a severely calcified bicuspid aortic valve. Eleven months prior to aortic valve surgery, the patient had stigmata of cerebral embolic events in the absence of any other embolic source. During the aortic valve replacement surgery for aortic steno...

  2. Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Holcomb, M.; Venn, A. A.; Tambutté, E.; Tambutté, S.; Allemand, D.; J. Trotter; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification driven by rising levels of CO2 impairs calcification, threatening coral reef growth. Predicting how corals respond to CO2 requires a better understanding of how calcification is controlled. Here we show how spatial variations in the pH of the internal calcifying fluid (pHcf) in coral (Stylophora pistillata) colonies correlates with differential sensitivity of calcification to acidification. Coral apexes had the highest pHcf and experienced the smallest changes in pHcf in r...

  3. Ultrastructural characteristics of ostrich eggshell: outer shell membrane and the calcified layers

    OpenAIRE

    P.D.G. Richards; P.A. Richards; Lee, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been well researched and structural studies of other avian species, such as the ostrich, often base their interpretation of egg shell structure on that of the chicken. In the ostrich, lowered hatchability and hatching trauma may be due to shell ultrastructural abnormalities. In the present study the ultrastructure of the calcified portion, and the outer shell membrane (OSM), of domesticated ostrich eggshells was investigated using sta...

  4. Three cases with only a small parenchymatous calcified lesion demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have experienced three rare cases which revealed only a small parenchymatous calcified lesion, with no perifocal edema, no mass effect and no contrast enhancement on computed tomography (CT). Moreover, none of the three cases were demonstrated by serial angiography. Case 1. A 30-year-old man had had a 4.5-year history of automatism. The physical and neurological examinations revealed no evidence of abnormality. Electric encephalography showed a small, sharp wave and a single spike in the right temporal. A skull tomogram revealed a small calcification in the right temporal. CT showed two small calcific densities in the left inferior temporal gyrus. The calcified lesion was totally resected; histological examinations proved it to be partially thrombosed calcified AVM in which the wall was thin, while hemosiderin was found in the surrounding tissue. Case 2. A 18-year-old man who had had only one attack, a partial, secondary, generalized seizure 4 years before was admitted to our hospital. The physical examinations revealed no evidence of abnormality. A CT scan only demonstrated a small nodular calcification in the surface of the right temporal lobe. Craniotomy was performed, and a small astro-oligo mixed glioma was totally resected. He is currently symptom-free, and his examination results are normal. Case 3. A 58-year-old woman who had developed trunchal ataxia and dysarthria in the preceding 5 months was admitted to our hospital. The neurological examination revealed ataxic dysarthria, a lack of co-ordination on the left side, and trunchal ataxia. A skull plain X-ray and a tomogram revealed a small calcification in the posterior cranial fossa. An angiogram was almost normal. A CT scan revealed only a small calcification in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The histological examinations proved it to be partial thrombosed calcified AVM; a part of the wall was thin and thought to show a tendency to hemorrhage. (J.P.N.)

  5. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Gueguen Yannick; Cochennec-Laureau Nathalie; Pierrat Fabien; Zanella-Cléon Isabelle; Manchon Laurent; Marie Benjamin; Piquemal David; Joubert Caroline; Montagnani Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Re...

  6. Mammographically non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ: sonographic features with pathological correlation in 35 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To present the sonographic findings of mammographically non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with histopathologic correlation. Materials and methods: The mammographic and ultrasonographic presentations of 47 radiographically non-calcified DCIS lesions in 35 patients were retrospectively analysed. Histological characteristics (architectural appearance, nuclear grade, percent of involved lobules, and presence of necrosis) were reviewed. Results: Seventeen lesions were not mammographically visible (17/47, 36%). Ultrasonographically, these lesions showed an irregular shape (28/47, 60%), microlobulated margins (34/47, 72%) and abrupt interfaces (42/47, 90%). Only 11% (5/47) displayed posterior shadowing. The echotexture of these lesions was most frequently complex (29/47, 62%); therefore, they were divided into two types: type I (24 cases), which were predominantly solid with cystic components, and type II (five cases), which were predominantly cystic with a solid intra-cystic component. A trend to have greater than 50% DCIS cells in cancerous lobules was observed in masses displaying type I echotexture (difference = 36%, 95% confidence interval 10.6-62.5) and microlobulated margins (difference = 32%, 95% confidence interval 5.1-58.7). Conclusion: Ultrasonographically detected radiographically non-calcified DCIS commonly displays an irregular shape, microlobulated margins, and complex echotexture, giving a 'pseudomicrocystic' appearance. Microlobulated margins and 'pseudomicrocystic' echotexture seem to be associated with a cancerization of the lobules.

  7. Characterising the microbiome of Corallina officinalis, a dominant calcified intertidal red alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Juliet; Williamson, Christopher; Barker, Gary L; Walker, Rachel H; Briscoe, Andrew; Yallop, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome. Unclassified sequences made up 25% of sequences, suggesting insufficient sampling of the world's oceans/macroalgae. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was on the upper shore, followed by the lower shore then the middle shore, although the microbiome community composition did not vary between shore levels. The C. officinalis core microbiome was broadly similar in composition to those reported in the literature for crustose coralline algae (CCAs) and free-living rhodoliths. Differences in relative abundance of the phyla between the different types of calcified macroalgal species may relate to the intertidal versus subtidal habit of the taxa and functionality of the microbiome components. The results indicate that much work is needed to identify prokaryotic taxa, and to determine the nature of the relationship of the bacteria with the calcified host spatially, temporally and functionally. PMID:27222222

  8. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  9. Grossly calcified choroid plexus concealing foramen of Monro meningiomas as an unusual cause of obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Various intraventricular tumors can present with calcifications; however, the choroid plexus can also have physiological calcifications. This is the first case report of meningiomas located at the bilateral foramen of Monro (FOM), concealed by a grossly calcified choroid plexus, presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus. A 60-year-old woman with disturbed consciousness was admitted by ambulance. Head computed tomography revealed significantly high-density lesions that smoothly extended from the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. They occupied both sides of the FOM, resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnostic endoscopic biopsy was performed using a flexible neuroendoscopic system, and an egg shell-like grossly calcified choroid plexus was found to smoothly extend toward the FOM. Resection was not selected because the calcified lesions had tightly adhered to the veins and fornix; therefore, the patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The lesions were histologically identified as psammomatous meningiomas with low proliferation potential (the Ki-67 labeling index was lower than 1%). She was discharged 10 days after surgery without neurological deficits. As calcifications can have tumoral and nontumoral origins, we considered neuroendoscopic exploration to be essential in order to achieve an accurate diagnosis and select optimal management. PMID:26889294

  10. Mammographically non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ: sonographic features with pathological correlation in 35 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesurolle, B. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)], E-mail: bmesurolle@yahoo.fr; El-Khoury, M. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Khetani, K. [Department of Pathology, Cedar Breast Clinic, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Abdullah, N. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Joseph, L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Kao, E. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    Aim: To present the sonographic findings of mammographically non-calcified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with histopathologic correlation. Materials and methods: The mammographic and ultrasonographic presentations of 47 radiographically non-calcified DCIS lesions in 35 patients were retrospectively analysed. Histological characteristics (architectural appearance, nuclear grade, percent of involved lobules, and presence of necrosis) were reviewed. Results: Seventeen lesions were not mammographically visible (17/47, 36%). Ultrasonographically, these lesions showed an irregular shape (28/47, 60%), microlobulated margins (34/47, 72%) and abrupt interfaces (42/47, 90%). Only 11% (5/47) displayed posterior shadowing. The echotexture of these lesions was most frequently complex (29/47, 62%); therefore, they were divided into two types: type I (24 cases), which were predominantly solid with cystic components, and type II (five cases), which were predominantly cystic with a solid intra-cystic component. A trend to have greater than 50% DCIS cells in cancerous lobules was observed in masses displaying type I echotexture (difference = 36%, 95% confidence interval 10.6-62.5) and microlobulated margins (difference = 32%, 95% confidence interval 5.1-58.7). Conclusion: Ultrasonographically detected radiographically non-calcified DCIS commonly displays an irregular shape, microlobulated margins, and complex echotexture, giving a 'pseudomicrocystic' appearance. Microlobulated margins and 'pseudomicrocystic' echotexture seem to be associated with a cancerization of the lobules.

  11. Feature-based characterization of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In coronary calcium scoring, motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques are commonly characterized using descriptive terms, which incorporate an element of subjectivity in their interpretations. Quantitative indices may improve the objective characterization of these motion artifacts. In this paper, an automated method for generating 12 quantitative indices, i.e., features that characterize the motion artifacts affecting calcified plaques, is presented. This method consists of using the rapid phase-correlated region-of-interest (ROI) tracking algorithm for reconstructing ROI images of calcified plaques automatically from the projection data obtained during a cardiac scan, and applying methods for extracting features from these images. The 12 features include two dynamic, six morphological, and four intensity-based features. The two dynamic features are three-dimensional (3D) velocity and 3D acceleration. The six morphological features include edge-based volume, threshold-based volume, sphericity, irregularity, average margin gradient, and variance of margin gradient. The four intensity-based features are maximum intensity, mean intensity, minimum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. The 12 features were extracted from 54 reconstructed sets of simulated four-dimensional images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving six calcified plaques under nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations. In order to determine how well the 12 features correlated with a plaque motion index, which was derived from the trajectory of the plaque, partial correlation coefficients adjusted for heart rate, number of gated sectors, and mean feature values of the six plaques were calculated for all 12 features. Features exhibiting stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with the motion index were 3D velocity, maximum intensity, and standard deviation of intensity. Features demonstrating stronger correlations (|r| set-membership sign [0.60,1.00]) with other

  12. A universal carbonate ion effect on stable oxygen isotope ratios in unicellular planktonic calcifying organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ziveri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O of calcium carbonate of planktonic calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstructing both past seawater temperature and salinity. The calibration of paloeceanographic proxies relies in general on empirical relationships derived from experiments on extant species. Laboratory experiments have more often than not revealed that variables other than the target parameter influence the proxy signal, which makes proxy calibration a challenging task. Understanding these secondary or "vital" effects is crucial for increasing proxy accuracy and possibly for developing new biomarkers. We present data from laboratory experiments showing that oxygen isotope fractionation during calcification in the coccolithophore Calcidiscus leptoporus and the calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii is dependent on carbonate chemistry of seawater in addition to its dependence on temperature. A similar result has previously been reported for planktonic foraminifera, suggesting that the [CO32−] effect on δ18O is universal for unicellular calcifying planktonic organisms. The slopes of the δ18O/[CO32−] relationships range between −0.0243 (μmol kg−1−1 (calcareous dinoflagellate T. heimii and the previously published 0.0022 (μmol kg−1−1 (non-symbiotic planktonic foramifera Orbulina universa, while C. leptoporus has a slope of 0.0048 (μmol kg−1−1. We present a simple conceptual model, based on the contribution of δ18O-enriched HCO3 to the CO32− pool in the calcifying vesicle, which can explain the [CO32−] effect on δ18O for the different unicellular calcifiers. This approach provides a new insight into biological fractionation in

  13. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN

  14. Overview of Biomineralization and Nanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, N.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Biomineralization is a frequently used term in nanotechnology, astrobiology, geology, and medicine. In the process of biomineralization, a living organism provides a chemical environment that controls the nucleation and growth of unique mineral phases. Often these materials exhibit hierarchical structural order, leading to superior physical properties, not found either in their inorganic counterparts or in synthetic materials. Biomineralization is widespread in the biosphere and hundreds of different minerals are produced or assisted by a variety of organisms from bacteria to humans. Teeth, bones, kidney stones, and skeletons of algae, mussels, and magnetotactic bacteria are all examples of biomineralization. We do not fully understand the control mechanism of biomineralization either in primitive or in developed organisms. The presence of organic molecules, among other characteristics, can influence the coherence length for X-ray scattering in biogenic crystals. Control over biomineral properties can be accomplished at a myriad of levels, including the regulation of particle size, shape, crystal orientation, polymorphic structure, defect texture, and particle assembly. In the latter case, cellular processes enable control in both the spatial and temporal domain in such a way that hierarchical composite structures can be built which increase the toughness and durability of the material, which is invaluable for load-bearing materials such as bones, teeth, mollusk shells, etc. Durability of biominerals produces remarkably preserved bacterial and cyanobacterial microfossils from billions of years-old samples. The differentiation between microfossils and nonbiogenic artifacts has been a lively discussion subject in astrobiology especially in the last decade. Clearly, more detailed information on the mechanism of biomineralization, and the effect of organic matter on crystal formation/fossilization would help focus such discussions.

  15. Calcifying/ossifying synovial sarcoma: A clinicopathologic and molecular study of 5 cases

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    Nasir Ud Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Synovial sarcoma (SS is a soft tissue sarcoma with a generally aggressive behavior. Calcifying/ossifying SS is a rare variant associated with a favorable prognosis. Aim: The aim was to report clinicopathological features and molecular analysis of 5 cases of calcifying/ossifying SS. Materials and Methods: Record of 370 cases of SS reported in the section of Histopathology, of a tertiary care Hospital, between 2002 and 2011 were retrieved. Five cases exhibiting extensive calcification and ossification were identified. Immunohistochemistry was performed using Flex technique. Molecular analysis of these 5 cases was performed later at the collaborative Hospital abroad, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results and Conclusions: The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 44 years (mean age 27 years; female to male ratio 1.6:1. The duration of symptoms ranged from 5 months to 5 years. Histologically, 4 were monophasic, and 1 was biphasic. Three cases exhibited extensive calcification and two extensive ossification. Immunohistochemical stain (epithelial membrane antigen was positive in all 5 cases, CKAE1/AE3 (3/4, Bcl2 (4/4, S100 (4/4, CK7 (2/2, CD99 (1/3 and vimentin (2/2. Intact RNA was obtained from 3 cases, all of which were positive for the SYT/SSX fusion transcript. Follow-up was available in 4 cases and ranged from 19 months to 85 months (mean 50 months. Local recurrence was seen in 2 cases. In conclusions, we report clinicopathologic features of 5 cases of calcifying/ossifying SS. The duration of symptoms and mean age of patients is similar to the literature. A slight female predominance was seen in contrast to a male predominance described in the literature. The clinical course of our cases validates the favorable prognosis of this rare type of SS.

  16. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; e Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  17. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Scherner

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9. For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9. The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C. In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a

  18. Calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder joint. Predictive value of pretreatment sonography for the response to low-dose radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: Calcifying tendonitis is a degenerative inflammatory joint disorder. Pain relief can be successfully achieved with low-dose radiotherapy. It is actually unknown which types of calcifying tendonitis respond to radiotherapy and which do not. The authors tried to get predictive objectives for the response to radiotherapy on the basis of different morphological patterns of calcifications evaluated by X-ray and ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Between August 1999 and September 2002, a total of 102 patients with 115 painful shoulder joints underwent low-dose radiotherapy. At the beginning of radiotherapy, every shoulder joint was examined with a radiograph in two planes. In addition, sonography was performed before and during therapy. This examination was repeated 6 and 18 months after irradiation. Radiotherapy consisted of two series with a total dose of 6.0 Gy. 29 joints with calcifying tendonitis could be further divided using the sonographic and radiographic classification according to Farin and Gaertner, respectively. Results: Pain relief was achieved in 94/115 joints (82%) at a follow-up of 18 months (median). A different response to radiotherapy was found using the sonographic classification of Farin: calcifying tendonitis type III (n = 18) responded well in contrast to a significantly worse result in type I (n = 11). The radiologic classification did not provide a predictive value. Conclusion: Sonographic classification of calcifying tendonitis is predictive for the outcome after radiotherapy. Especially patients with Farin type III calcification will benefit from low-dose radiotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder joint. Predictive value of pretreatment sonography for the response to low-dose radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamietz, Boris; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Alibek, Sedat; Uder, Michael [Radiologic Inst., Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Sauer, Rolf; Ott, Oliver J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Keilholz, Ludwig [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Erlangen (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Bayreuth GmbH (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Background and Purpose: Calcifying tendonitis is a degenerative inflammatory joint disorder. Pain relief can be successfully achieved with low-dose radiotherapy. It is actually unknown which types of calcifying tendonitis respond to radiotherapy and which do not. The authors tried to get predictive objectives for the response to radiotherapy on the basis of different morphological patterns of calcifications evaluated by X-ray and ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Between August 1999 and September 2002, a total of 102 patients with 115 painful shoulder joints underwent low-dose radiotherapy. At the beginning of radiotherapy, every shoulder joint was examined with a radiograph in two planes. In addition, sonography was performed before and during therapy. This examination was repeated 6 and 18 months after irradiation. Radiotherapy consisted of two series with a total dose of 6.0 Gy. 29 joints with calcifying tendonitis could be further divided using the sonographic and radiographic classification according to Farin and Gaertner, respectively. Results: Pain relief was achieved in 94/115 joints (82%) at a follow-up of 18 months (median). A different response to radiotherapy was found using the sonographic classification of Farin: calcifying tendonitis type III (n = 18) responded well in contrast to a significantly worse result in type I (n = 11). The radiologic classification did not provide a predictive value. Conclusion: Sonographic classification of calcifying tendonitis is predictive for the outcome after radiotherapy. Especially patients with Farin type III calcification will benefit from low-dose radiotherapy. (orig.)

  20. Intermittent hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by a calcified persistent hypoglossal artery: an uncommon neurovascular compression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meila, Dan; Wetter, Axel; Brassel, Friedhelm; Nacimiento, Wilhelm

    2012-12-15

    Neurovascular compression is assumed to cause symptoms like trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vestibular paroxysmia. We present a patient with recurrent episodes of transient dysarthria due to isolated right hypoglossal nerve (HN) palsy. We describe the first case of a calcified persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA) as the putative cause of a hypoglossal neurovascular compression syndrome. Our patient received a daily low-dose medication of carbamazepine resulting in complete relief of symptoms. In conclusion, PHA is not only an anatomic variation but also a possible cause of a neurovascular compression syndrome leading to intermittent HN palsy. PMID:23020989

  1. Metastatic Osteosarcoma to the Breast Presenting as a Densely Calcified Mass on Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyeon; Woo, Ha Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma most commonly metastasizes to the lung or the skeleton, and metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast is very rare, with only a few cases reported. Due to its rarity, little has been reported about its imaging features. In this report, we represent a 58-year-old woman with metastatic osteosarcoma to the right breast from a tibial osteosarcoma. The imaging features of the metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast by using dedicated breast imaging modalities are described. Although rare, metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast should be considered when dense calcified masses with suspicious features are seen on breast imaging in patients with a history of osteosarcoma. PMID:27064762

  2. Densely calcified tuberculous constrictive pericarditis with concurrent active pulmonary tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laudari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though pulmonary tuberculosis is a common chronic infection in the developing countries like Nepal, the incidence of tubercular constrictive pericarditis is very low. Here we report a patient of active pulmonary tuberculosis with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli along with densely calcified constrictive pericarditis which has been reported as a very rare presentation in the literature.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12955 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 41-43

  3. Structure and Phase State of Bone Apatite of Calcified Aortic Fragments with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.V. Khyzhnya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the results of the study on the structure and phase composition of bone apatite and fragments of calcified aorta of the same experimental animal with model osteoporosis. Examination by the X-ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy reveals that pathological calcification of rabbit aorta with model osteoporosis in crystal-chemical terms is the imperfect calcium apatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. Temperature growth of ectopic apatite crystals during annealing at 900C is similar to bioapatite of bone.

  4. The fine structure of calcified Mandl's corpuscles in teleost fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbörner, A A; Meunier, F J; Castanet, J

    1981-01-01

    Calcified Mandl's corpuscles present in the internal layer (or fibrillary plate) of the teleost fish scale were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy for a better understanding of this special type of mineralization process. The corpuscles show a great variability in their structure, form and surface features depending on the arrangement of the collagen fibrils in the internal layer of the different fish species studied, on the localization of the corpuscles in the scale and on the technical treatment to which the scale is subjected. PMID:6172882

  5. Early thoracotomy in the treatment of non calcified solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracotomy and resection of non calcified solitary pulmonary nodule is analysed in 19 asymptomatic patients during 7 years . The therapeutical validity of early thoracotomy is evaluated. No postoperative deaths are reported. Its is concluded that pre-operative differential diagnostic procedure between benign and malign nodules may not always be decisive, and that an early thoracotomy is indicated in every case since the incidence of malign tumors is frequent. Some aspects discussing the diagnosis techniques as computerized tomography, bronchoscopy, X radiation and planigraphy are presented. (M.A.C.)

  6. Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Safer-Tabi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification. Case Presentation: The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass. Conclusions: Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on. PMID:26401144

  7. Valve-Like and Protruding Calcified Intimal Flap Complicating Common Iliac Arteries Kissing Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Georgiadis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular therapy for iliac artery chronic total occlusions is nowadays associated with low rates of procedure-related complications and improved clinical outcomes, and it is predominantly used as first-line therapy prior to aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Herein, we describe the case of a patient presenting with an ischemic left foot digit ulcer and suffering complex aortoiliac lesions, who received common iliac arteries kissing stents, illustrating at final antegrade and retrograde angiograms the early recognition of a blood flow obstructing valve-like calcified intimal flap protruding through the stent struts, which was obstructing antegrade but not retrograde unilateral iliac arterial axis blood flow. The problem was resolved by reconstructing the aortic bifurcation at a more proximal level. Completion angiogram verified normal patency of aorta and iliac vessels. Additionally, a severe left femoral bifurcation stenosis was also corrected by endarterectomy-arterioplasty with a bovine patch. Postintervention ankle brachial pressure indices were significantly improved. At the 6-month and 2-year follow-up, normal peripheral pulses were still reported without intermittent claudication suggesting the durability of the procedure. Through stent-protruding calcified intimal flap, is a very rare, but existing source of antegrade blood flow obstruction after common iliac arteries kissing stents.

  8. Immunocytochemistry of matrix proteins in calcified tissues: functional biochemistry on section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nanci

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The organic matrix of calcified tissues comprises collagenous and/or noncollagenous matrix proteins (NCPs. Identification and precise mapping of these matrix components is essential for determining their function, formulating coherent hypotheses on their mechanism(s of action, and developing novel therapeutic approaches based on biologics. Fibrillar collagen can be readily identified by its conspicuous structure, however, NCPs, in general, do not individually exhibit characteristic structural features that permit to identify them and morphologically determine their localization. To address this limitation, we have used immunocytochemistry, a form of “biochemistry on section”, to correlate composition with structure. For cytochemical characterizations, including immunolabeling, our laboratory has opted for colloidal gold labelings and pioneered their application to calcified tissues because they yield high spatial resolution and are quantitative. Over the years, this approach has been applied to identify and map various NCPs in bone and teeth and, in this review of our work, we will emphasize some selected studies that highlight it application to also achieve functional information.

  9. Valve-Like and Protruding Calcified Intimal Flap Complicating Common Iliac Arteries Kissing Stenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, George S.; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I.; Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Argyriou, Christos C.; Antoniou, George A.; Lazarides, Miltos K.

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular therapy for iliac artery chronic total occlusions is nowadays associated with low rates of procedure-related complications and improved clinical outcomes, and it is predominantly used as first-line therapy prior to aortobifemoral bypass grafting. Herein, we describe the case of a patient presenting with an ischemic left foot digit ulcer and suffering complex aortoiliac lesions, who received common iliac arteries kissing stents, illustrating at final antegrade and retrograde angiograms the early recognition of a blood flow obstructing valve-like calcified intimal flap protruding through the stent struts, which was obstructing antegrade but not retrograde unilateral iliac arterial axis blood flow. The problem was resolved by reconstructing the aortic bifurcation at a more proximal level. Completion angiogram verified normal patency of aorta and iliac vessels. Additionally, a severe left femoral bifurcation stenosis was also corrected by endarterectomy-arterioplasty with a bovine patch. Postintervention ankle brachial pressure indices were significantly improved. At the 6-month and 2-year follow-up, normal peripheral pulses were still reported without intermittent claudication suggesting the durability of the procedure. Through stent-protruding calcified intimal flap, is a very rare, but existing source of antegrade blood flow obstruction after common iliac arteries kissing stents. PMID:26783493

  10. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of calcified tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Kaiser, J.; Liška, M.; Cáceres, J. O.; Gonzáles Ureña, A.

    2001-06-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of important minerals and the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in calcified tissue, to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure, and other medical or biological factors. This theme was exemplified for quantitative detection and mapping of Al, Pb and Sr in representative samples, including teeth (first teeth of infants, second teeth of children and teeth of adults) and bones (tibia and femur). In addition to identifying and quantifying major and trace elements in the tissues, one- and two-dimensional profiles and maps were generated. Such maps (a) provide time/concentration relations, (b) allow to follow mineralisation of the hydroxyapatite matrix and the migration of the elements within it and (c) enable to identify disease states, such as caries in teeth. In order to obtain quantitative calibration, reference samples in the form of pressed pellets with calcified tissue-equivalent material (majority compound of pellets is CaCO 3) were used whose physical properties closely resembled hydroxyapatite. Compounds of Al, Sr and Pb were added to the pellets, containing atomic concentrations in the range 100-10 000 ppm relative to the Ca content of the matrix. Analytical results based on this calibration against artificial samples for the trace elements under investigation agree with literature values, and with our atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) cross-validation measurements.

  11. Preoperative computed tomography of the chest in lung cancer patients: the predictive value of calcified lymph nodes for the perioperative outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the predictive value of identifying calcified lymph nodes (LNs) for the perioperative outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Fifty-six consecutive patients who underwent VATS lobectomy for lung cancer were included. We evaluated the number and location of calcified LNs on computed tomography (CT). We investigated clinical parameters, including percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%), surgery duration, chest tube indwelling duration, and length of hospital stay. We performed linear regression analysis and multiple comparisons of perioperative outcomes. Mean number of calcified LNs per patient was 0.9 (range, 0-6), mostly located in the hilar-interlobar zone (43.8 %). For surgery duration (mean, 5.0 h), FEV1% and emphysema severity were independent predictors (P = 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). The number of calcified LNs was an independent predictor for chest tube indwelling duration (P = 0.030) and length of hospital stay (P = 0.046). Mean duration of chest tube indwelling and hospital stay was 8.8 days and 12.7 days in no calcified LN group; 9.2 and 13.2 in 1 calcified LN group; 12.8 and 19.7 in ≥2 calcified LNs group, respectively. The presence of calcified LNs on CT can help predict more complicated perioperative course following VATS lobectomy. (orig.)

  12. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Pinctada margaritifera calcifying mantle and shell: focus on biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueguen Yannick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shell of the pearl-producing bivalve Pinctada margaritifera is composed of an organic cell-free matrix that plays a key role in the dynamic process of biologically-controlled biomineralization. In order to increase genomic resources and identify shell matrix proteins implicated in biomineralization in P. margaritifera, high-throughput Expressed Sequence Tag (EST pyrosequencing was undertaken on the calcifying mantle, combined with a proteomic analysis of the shell. Results We report the functional analysis of 276 738 sequences, leading to the constitution of an unprecedented catalog of 82 P. margaritifera biomineralization-related mantle protein sequences. Components of the current "chitin-silk fibroin gel-acidic macromolecule" model of biomineralization processes were found, in particular a homolog of a biomineralization protein (Pif-177 recently discovered in P. fucata. Among these sequences, we could show the localization of two other biomineralization protein transcripts, pmarg-aspein and pmarg-pearlin, in two distinct areas of the outer mantle epithelium, suggesting their implication in calcite and aragonite formation. Finally, by combining the EST approach with a proteomic mass spectrometry analysis of proteins isolated from the P. margaritifera shell organic matrix, we demonstrated the presence of 30 sequences containing almost all of the shell proteins that have been previously described from shell matrix protein analyses of the Pinctada genus. The integration of these two methods allowed the global composition of biomineralizing tissue and calcified structures to be examined in tandem for the first time. Conclusions This EST study made on the calcifying tissue of P. margaritifera is the first description of pyrosequencing on a pearl-producing bivalve species. Our results provide direct evidence that our EST data set covers most of the diversity of the matrix protein of P. margaritifera shell, but also that the

  13. Rapid mass movement of chloroplasts during segment formation of the calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time....

  14. Distribution, Size, and Shape of Abdominal Aortic Calcified Deposits and their Relationship to Mortality in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, M.; de Bruijne, Marleen; Dam, Erik B.; Pettersen, Paola; Karsdal, Morten A.; Christiansen, Claus; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    .96) of a calcified plaque, and, unlike AC24 (HR = 1.66), they allowed mortality prediction also after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In a combined Cox regression model, the strongest complementary predictors were the number of calcifications (HR = 2.76) and the area percentage (HR = -3...

  15. Interferon-α and the calcifying microangiopathy in Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Melanie D; Bakels, Hannah S; Postma, Nienke L; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Bugiani, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Aicardi–Goutières syndrome is a leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and increased cerebrospinal fluid interferon-α. The relation between interferon-α and brain pathology is poorly understood. We report a patient with mutations in the disease-associated gene SAMHD1. Neuropathology showed an extensive microangiopathy with calcifications consistently associate with blood vessels. In an in vitro model of the microangiopathy, interferon-α enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell-derived calcifications. The noninfarcted white matter harbored apoptotic oligodendrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitors. These findings better define the white matter pathology and provide evidence that interferon-α plays a direct pathogenetic role in the calcifying angiopathy typical of this disease. PMID:26273690

  16. Two unique cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary posterior region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindasombatjaroen, Jira; Poomsawat, Sopee; Boonsiriseth, Kiatanant

    2014-10-01

    A calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with a predilection for the anterior part of the jaws. We report on 2 cases of CCOT in the posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus. In the first case, conventional radiography found a well-defined unilocular lesion. Internal calcification was identified on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Radiographically, the second case showed 2 large locules with a large complex odontoma and an embedded third molar. By revealing the internal calcification of the lesion, CBCT was helpful in the differential diagnosis of the first case. In both cases, CBCT illustrated the tumor extension and the relationship of the tumor to the maxillary sinus. Therefore, CBCT was an important tool for developing effective treatment plans for lesions in the posterior maxillary region. PMID:25201118

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Findings in Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor Associated with Odontome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Phulambrikar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT is a rare cystic odontogenic neoplasm frequently found in association with odontome. This report documents a case of CCOT associated with an odontome arising in the anterior maxilla in a 28-year-old man. Conventional radiographs showed internal calcification within the lesion but were unable to visualize its relation with the adjacent structures and its accurate extent. In this case cone beam computed tomography (CBCT could accurately reveal the extent and the internal structure of the lesion which aided the presumptive diagnosis of the lesion as CCOT. This advanced imaging technique proved to be extremely useful in the radiographic assessment and management of this neoplasm of the maxilla.

  18. CT SCAN DIAGNOSIS OF LYMPHOMA IN PRETREATMENT CALCIFIED LYMPHADENOPATHY WITH ITS CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGY CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Saurabh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma commonly presents as Lymphadenopathy of multiple groups along with hepatosplenomegaly in most of the patients. Pretreatment calcification in the affected nodes is very rare whereas calcifications in nodes following radiation or chemotherapy have been documented in many cases. Imaging plays a pivotal role in prompting the clinician to suspect lymphoma and opt for biopsy. Especially in Indian setup where a large group of population with calcified Lymphadenopathy is many a times simply labeled as tuberculosis. It is well observed that post treatment calcification in lymphoma is associated with favorable prognosis while the available limited literature states that pretreatment calcification indicates aggressive disease. In this case report we present a case of pretreatment calcification in lymphoma diagnosed by CT scan along with its clinical and histopathological profile

  19. Discovery of the mineral brucite (magnesium hydroxide) in the tropical calcifying alga Polystrata dura (Peyssonneliales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C; Russell, Bayden D; Dixon, Kyatt R; Liu, Minglu; Xu, Huifang

    2015-06-01

    Red algae of the family Peyssonneliaceae typically form thin crusts impregnated with aragonite. Here, we report the first discovery of brucite in a thick red algal crust (~1 cm) formed by the peyssonnelioid species Polystrata dura from Papua New Guinea. Cells of P. dura were found to be infilled by the magnesium-rich mineral brucite [Mg(OH)2 ]; minor amounts of magnesite and calcite were also detected. We propose that cell infill may be associated with the development of thick (> ~5 mm) calcified red algal crusts, integral components of tropical biotic reefs. If brucite infill within the P. dura crust enhances resistance to dissolution similarly to crustose coralline algae that infill with dolomite, then these crusts would be more resilient to future ocean acidification than crusts without infill. PMID:26986657

  20. CALCIFIED URACHAL REMNANT MIMICKING AS BLADDER WALL CALCIFICATION – CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer tomography of kidneys , ureters and bladder (CT KUB is the main investigation in suspected renal tract calculi. Ultrasound of kidneys , ureters and bladder (KUB region can come in hand during acute conditions especially in patients with ureteric calculus causing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. However , several patholog ies other than renal tract calculi can cause apparent urinary bladder calcification. We describe series of cases who presented with renal colic. CT KUB performed on admission revealed a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a urinary bladder wall calcificati on , confirmed by reviewing the multi - planar reformatted images. We also discuss the differential diagnoses that should be considered when presented with urinary bladder calcification. Our study shows urachus calcification is much more common in patients t han previously taught and more common in older patients of more than 50 years than younger patients. Males are commonly affected than females.

  1. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs...... Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to...... environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the...

  2. Primary localized amyloidosis presenting as diffuse amorphous calcified mass in both orbits: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Christian Pieroni Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary localized amyloidosis is rare in the orbit. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman that presented with bilateral proptosis and ophthalmoplegia. A computed tomography scan revealed an infiltrative amorphous and markedly calcified mass in both orbits while a magnetic resonance scan showed a heterogeneous hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. A biopsy was performed through an anterior orbitotomy. Microscopy revealed extracellular amorphous and eosinophilic hyaline material which stained pink with Congo red and displayed green birefringence on polarized microscopy, leading to a diagnosis of amyloidosis. The results of the systemic workup were completely normal. A two-year follow-up period without any treatment disclosed no worsening of the condition. While calcification of nonvascular orbital lesions has often been regarded as suggestive of malignant disease, our case is a reminder that it can also be a characteristic presenting sign of orbital amyloidosis.

  3. Increased temperature mitigates the effects of ocean acidification in calcified green algae ( Halimeda spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Justin E.; Fisch, Jay; Langdon, Chris; Paul, Valerie J.

    2016-03-01

    The singular and interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature on the physiology of calcified green algae ( Halimeda incrassata, H. opuntia, and H. simulans) were investigated in a fully factorial, 4-week mesocosm experiment. Individual aquaria replicated treatment combinations of two pH levels (7.6 and 8.0) and two temperatures (28 and 31 °C). Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured for all species both prior to and after treatment exposure. Pre-treatment measurements revealed that H. incrassata displayed higher biomass-normalized rates of photosynthesis and calcification (by 55 and 81 %, respectively) relative to H. simulans and H. opuntia. Furthermore, prior to treatment exposure, photosynthesis was positively correlated to calcification, suggesting that the latter process may be controlled by photosynthetic activity in this group. After treatment exposure, net photosynthesis was unaltered by pH, yet significantly increased with elevated temperature by 58, 38, and 37 % for H. incrassata, H. simulans, and H. opuntia, respectively. Both pH and temperature influenced calcification, but in opposing directions. On average, calcification declined by 41 % in response to pH reduction, but increased by 49 % in response to elevated temperature. Within each pH treatment, elevated temperature increased calcification by 23 % (at pH 8.0) and 74 % (at pH 7.6). Interactions between pH, temperature, and/or species were not observed. This work demonstrates that, in contrast to prior studies, increased temperature may serve to enhance the metabolic performance (photosynthesis and calcification) of some marine calcifiers, despite elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Thus, in certain cases, ocean warming may mitigate the negative effects of acidification.

  4. 钙化与非钙化乳腺导管原位癌的影像表现及病理特点%Imaging and Histopathological Characteristics of Calcified and Non-calcified Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of Mam-mary Glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朋; 郭宏兵; 李勇; 许克宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare histopathological characteristics of calcified and non-calcified ductal carcino-ma in situ ( DCIS) of mammary glands by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) . Methods The study involved 212 DCIS patients (217 sites) admitted during April 2009 and December 2013. The patients were divided into calcified and non-calcified DCIS groups according to the calcifications by mammography. The imagings were observed by two physicians using each method to carefully record tumorous shape, size, density/echo/signal features, borderline, boundary, calcified shape, surrounding tissue formation and so on. The histopathological features of the le-sions were obtained from medical records. Results Mammography showed 49. 3% of non-calcified DCIS patients with a false-negative finding, and 100% of calcified patients with DCIS, in which 68. 5% of calcified lesions were calcification alone. Ultrasound showed that all non-calcified DCIS were massive with 100% incidence rate, while the incidence rate of calcified DCIS was 61. 6%. The MRI showed that incidence rates of non-calcified and calcified DCIS were 65. 0% and 51. 7% respectively, but there were no significant differences in MRI features between the two groups (P>0. 05). His-topathology showed that high nuclear grade, necrosis, positive progesterone receptor and HER-2 were more common in the calcified DCIS patients compared with those in the non-calcified DCIS patients (P=0. 017, P0. 05). 病理组织学显示高级别、坏死、孕酮受体阳性、HER-2在钙化DCIS比非钙化DCIS更为常见(分别为P=0. 017、P<0. 001,P=0. 027,P<0. 001). 乳腺X线摄影、超声、MRI表现测量钙化与非钙化 DCIS直径大小与病理测定直径大小的 ICC值分别为:0. 625,0. 705;0. 801,0. 552;0. 760, 0. 767. 结论 钙化与非钙化DCIS在乳腺X线摄影、超声、MRI呈不同表现,乳腺X线摄影对钙化DCIS敏感性较高,超声对非钙化敏感性较高,MRI对检出钙化与非钙化DCIS均有较高敏感性.

  5. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  6. Evaluation of calcified carotid atheroma on panoramic radiographs and Doppler ultrasonography in an older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yusuf Atalay,1 Fatih Asutay,1 Kamil Serkan Agacayak,2 Mahmut Koparal,3 Fahri Adali,4 Belgin Gulsun2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of panoramic radiograph (PR as a screening tool for the detection of calcified carotid atheroma (CCA by comparing it with Doppler ultrasonography (DU examination. A second aim was to evaluate the relationship among CCA, systemic diseases, smoking, and body mass index in an older population.Materials and methods: A total of 1,650 PRs of patients aged over 45 years (736 males and 914 females were randomly selected. All the patients had been referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, during 2013–2014 for routine PR screening. Medical data were collected from the archival records of the dental school. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (study group, CCA findings were confirmed by DU (n=59; and Group B (control group, CCA findings were not confirmed by DU (n=34.Results: Of the 1,650 individuals, 93 (5.63% were detected to have CCA on PR. The population consisted of 43 males and 50 females with mean age of 59.84±10.92 years. No difference was determined in respect of CCA between the sexes (P=0.745. There was a significant difference between Group A and Group B in respect of hypertension (P=0.004. But there was no difference between Group A and Group B in respect of age (P=0.495, BMI (P=0.756, diabetes (P=0.168, and smoking (P=0.482 distribution.Conclusion: Although PR cannot be used as an initial diagnostic method when

  7. Image-guided core breast biopsy of ductal carcinoma in situ presenting as a non-calcified abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) typically presents as calcifications which are detected mammographically. Our aim was to evaluate the less common presentations of ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed by image-guided core biopsy and correlate with histopathologic diagnoses. Methods and Material: Imaging and histopathologic findings were retrospectively reviewed in 11 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed at core biopsy that presented as noncalcified radiographic abnormalities. Results: Mammography showed non-calcified, circumscribed nodules, ill-defined nodules and architectural distortion. In two patients, no mammographic abnormality was detected. Sonography showed circumscribed, round or oval, solid masses; irregular, heterogeneous masses; and a tubular structure. Histopathologic diagnoses included multiple architectural subtypes and ranged from low to high nuclear grade. Conclusion: Although image-guided core biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma is typically made when sampling calcifications, DCIS can be diagnosed following biopsy of non-calcified masses or distortion. There is no correlation between histopathologic subtype and radiologic appearance

  8. Report of Two Cases of Combined Odontogenic Tumors: Ameloblastoma with Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastic Fibroma with Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Ashley Nicole; Montague, Lindsay; Cohen, Donald; Islam, Nadim; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2015-09-01

    Combined odontogenic neoplasms have rarely been documented. Such tumors have also been described by other researchers as "hybrid" lesions. The histologic features are often identical to other individually well-established odontogenic neoplasms such as ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Their clinical presentation is variable, ranging from cysts to neoplasms showing varying degrees of aggressive behavior. Most combined tumors contain features of one of the odontogenic tumors in combination with either a calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) or a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor. We present two new cases of combined odontogenic tumors: an ameloblastoma with an odontogenic keratocyst and an AF with COC. Predicting clinical outcome is challenging when a combination tumor is encountered due to the paucity of such lesions. One must understand salient features of these entities and differentiate them from the more common conventional neoplasms to expand classification and provide prognostic criteria. PMID:25552434

  9. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  10. PROSPECTS FOR CYTOPROTECTORS USE IN THE ELDERLY PATIENTS THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF CALCIFIED AORTIC STENOSIS AND ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    N Yu Karpova; Rashid, M.A.; N A Shostak; I. V. Pogonchenkova; T V Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Issues of pathogenesis of the calcified aortic stenosis and ischemic heart disease in the elderly are considered. The relevance of early detection of angina, syncope, and dyspnea in view of their non-specific and subclinical course for early detection of heart disease is specified. Current scientific views on the myocardial bioenergy and its role in the genesis of chronic heart failure are presented. Particular attention is paid to the place of cytoprotectors, especially trimetazidine, in the...

  11. Evaluation of Positive Predictive Value for Digital Panoramic Radiography in Comparison to Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Calcified Carotid Atheroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani; Maryam Mirzaei; Saman Nayer; Sajad Besharati; Malihe Moeini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Detection of calcified carotid atheroma (CCA) has an important role in reducing the incidence of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of panoramic digital radiography in detecting atherosclerosis. Methods: It is descriptive-analytical diagnostic study. The people (22 to 62 years old) were referred to a radiology clinic to perform panoramic radiography for diagnosis of CCA. Individuals who were suspected were introduced to the radiology departmen...

  12. Don’t get caught out! A rare case of a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a bladder calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Jonathan Carl Luis; Gandhi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Computer tomography through the kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) is the mainstay investigation of suspected renal tract calculi. However, several pathologies other than renal tract calculi can cause apparent urinary bladder calcification. We describe the case of a 45 year old man who presented with left sided renal colic. Prone CT KUB performed on admission revealed a calcified urachal remnant mimicking a urinary bladder calculus in the dependent portion of the urinary bladder, confirmed...

  13. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods. A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects and without CCAA (3 subjects were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results. Fifteen patients (30 sides showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients. Two patients (13.33% showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026. Conclusion. Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis.

  14. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rah Rooh, Mohammad; Mahmoudi Hashemi, Elahe; Javadzade Blouri, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA) by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS) was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiogra-phy in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects) and without CCAA (3 subjects) were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results Fifteen patients (30 sides) showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients). Two patients (13.33%) showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026). Conclusion Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis. PMID:22991627

  15. Usefulness of MRI and CT in the diagnosis and treatment of non-palpable calcified breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system (Mammotome; MT) has facilitated the less invasive accurate diagnosis of non-palpable calcified lesions detected by mammography. To treat breast cancer diagnosed by MT biopsy, the lesion site/extent must be accurately evaluated. We investigated the usefulness of CT and MRI in preoperative examination. The subjects were 42 patients who underwent preoperative CT or MRI among the patients in whom calcified lesions were diagnosed, and MT biopsy suggested breast cancer. The following parameters were examined: the presence or absence of the visualization of the focus by CT/MRI; the presence or absence of the visualization of a metal clip inserted during MT biopsy; and the accuracy of the lesion extent: when the difference between the extent evaluated in images and the maximum diameter on the pathologically cut surface. Calcified lesions were visualized on CT in 26 of 28 patients (93%) and on MRI in 13 of 17 patients (76%), and the mammary position could be confirmed. A clip could be recognized in images in all the patients on MRI and CT. In the evaluation of the lesion extent, CT and MRI were considered to be accurate in 14 of the 28 patients (50%), in 11 of the 17 patients (65%) respectively. (author)

  16. The clinical and radiological consideration of calcifying odontogenic cyst of the jaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hae Rym; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    Nine cases presented with a calcifying odontogenic cyst to the Dental Hospital of the College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, from January 1987 to September June, 1996, Clinical or histopathological findings were observed according to each radiologic criteria. The results obtained are as follows:1. The male to female ratio was 2 : 1 with a mean age of 25 years. 2. The radiographic appearances of nine caes were well-defined radiolucent lesions in which eight cases were shown until ocular lesions and only one lesion was seen multilocular lesion. 3. Radiologically, three of nine cases were pure radiolucent lesion and others, six cases were radiolucent contained a variable amount of radiopaque material. 4. Histologically, two cases were classified simple cyst, five were cyst associated odontoma, two were neoplastic type. 5. Histological findings according to the radiological classification, two of three radiolucent lesions were simple cys ts; another was a cyst associated with odontoma. While, four of six radiologic mixed lesions turned out to be a cyst associated with odontoma, two was the neoplastic type.

  17. The clinical and radiological consideration of calcifying odontogenic cyst of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine cases presented with a calcifying odontogenic cyst to the Dental Hospital of the College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, from January 1987 to September June, 1996, Clinical or histopathological findings were observed according to each radiologic criteria. The results obtained are as follows:1. The male to female ratio was 2 : 1 with a mean age of 25 years. 2. The radiographic appearances of nine caes were well-defined radiolucent lesions in which eight cases were shown until ocular lesions and only one lesion was seen multilocular lesion. 3. Radiologically, three of nine cases were pure radiolucent lesion and others, six cases were radiolucent contained a variable amount of radiopaque material. 4. Histologically, two cases were classified simple cyst, five were cyst associated odontoma, two were neoplastic type. 5. Histological findings according to the radiological classification, two of three radiolucent lesions were simple cys ts; another was a cyst associated with odontoma. While, four of six radiologic mixed lesions turned out to be a cyst associated with odontoma, two was the neoplastic type.

  18. First report of MRI findings in a case of an autoamputated wandering calcified ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan PS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parag Suresh Mahajan, Nazeer Ahamad, Sheik Akbar Hussain Department of Radiology, Al-Khor Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: An autoamputated wandering calcified ovary (AWCO is an extremely rare cause of abdominal calcification in the pediatric population. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of AWCO in a child. To our knowledge, the MRI features of AWCO have not been previously described in the published literature. Our case report indicates that the MRI findings are characteristic in the diagnosis of an AWCO and can completely obviate the need for invasive procedures in this mostly benign disease. An AWCO should be considered in all cases of mobile calcific opacities on radiographs in female patients. We advise that MRI be conducted in all suspected cases of AWCO for accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, and regular follow-up should be performed with ultrasound. The findings in our case report have the potential to change the course of investigations and management in suspected cases. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, ovary, adnexa, autoamputation, wandering calcification

  19. Prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs of renal stone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Khandelwal, Suneet; Malhotra, Ritumvada; Desmukh, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas detected on panoramic radiographs of patients with renal stones and to assess the correlation of renal stones and carotid artery calcifications (CAC). Panoramic radiographs of 120 renal stone patients (76 males and 44 females) and 120 controls (68 males and 52 females) were examined for any calcifications in the carotid artery. The mean age of the patients with renal stones and controls was 40.6±7.8 years and 41.1±6.7 years, respectively. A total of 25 (20.8%) patients with renal stones and 16 (12.3%) patients from the control group showed CAC. The calcifications were however higher in the patients with renal stones, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the two groups. CAC was found in 15 males and ten females with renal stones and nine males and seven females of the control group, and this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of CAC in the patients with renal stones and the control group. However, there was a trend for higher prevalence of CAC in renal stone patients. PMID:26787568

  20. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque: A Strobe-Compliant Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification.Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study.No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  1. Alendronate increases skeletal mass of growing rats during unloading by inhibiting resorption of calcified cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Doty, S. B.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S. J.; Halloran, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    Loss of bone mass during periods of skeletal unloading remains an important clinical problem. To determine the extent to which resorption contributes to the relative loss of bone during skeletal unloading of the growing rat and to explore potential means of preventing such bone loss, 0.1 mg P/kg alendronate was administered to rats before unloading of the hindquarters. Skeletal unloading markedly reduced the normal increase in tibial mass and calcium content during the 9 day period of observation, primarily by decreasing bone formation, although bone resorption was also modestly stimulated. Alendronate not only prevented the relative loss of skeletal mass during unloading but led to a dramatic increase in calcified tissue in the proximal tibia compared with the vehicle-treated unloaded or normally loaded controls. Bone formation, however, assessed both by tetracycline labeling and by [3H]proline and 45Ca incorporation, was suppressed by alendronate treatment and further decreased by skeletal unloading. Total osteoclast number increased in alendronate-treated animals, but values were similar to those in controls when corrected for the increased bone area. However, the osteoclasts had poorly developed brush borders and appeared not to engage the bone surface when examined at the ultrastructural level. We conclude that alendronate prevents the relative loss of mineralized tissue in growing rats subjected to skeletal unloading, but it does so primarily by inhibiting the resorption of the primary and secondary spongiosa, leading to altered bone modeling in the metaphysis.

  2. Application of a nuclear microprobe to the study of calcified tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Graeme E.; Vickridge, Ian C.

    1988-03-01

    The mineral fraction of calcified tissue is largely calcium hydroxyapatite (bones and teeth) or calcium carbonate (shells and fish otoliths). Apatite has such a strong affinity for fluoride ions that the F/Ca ratio can vary markedly with position in a bone or tooth, depending on the amount of fluoride present at the time of calcification or partial recrystallization. New biological information can be obtained by introducing extra fluoride into the diet of an animal and using a microprobe later to scan sections of bones or teeth. In suitable burial sites extra fluoride is introduced after death, and the new distribution may have applications in forensic science and archaeology. Fish otoliths are also of interest since a new carbonate layer is formed each day and the distribution of trace elements may record some aspects of the fish's life history. Results from the following studies are presented: fluorine distributions in the teeth of sheep which ingested extra fluoride for known periods; distributions of calcium and fluorine in femurs of rats which drank water high in fluoride for periods from 2 to 15 weeks; calcium and fluorine distributions in artificially-prepared lesions in tooth enamel; diffusion profiles in archaeological human teeth and animal bones; patterns in the strontium/calcium ratio in sectioned otoliths of several species of fish.

  3. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  4. Prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs of renal stone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery atheromas detected on panoramic radiographs of patients with renal stones and to assess the correlation of renal stones and carotid artery calcifications (CAC. Panoramic radiographs of 120 renal stone patients (76 males and 44 females and 120 controls (68 males and 52 females were examined for any calcifications in the carotid artery. The mean age of the patients with renal stones and controls was 40.6 ± 7.8 years and 41.1 ± 6.7 years, respectively. A total of 25 (20.8% patients with renal stones and 16 (12.3% patients from the control group showed CAC. The calcifications were however higher in the patients with renal stones, but there was no statistically significant difference (P >0.05 between the two groups. CAC was found in 15 males and ten females with renal stones and nine males and seven females of the control group, and this difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05. In the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of CAC in the patients with renal stones and the control group. However, there was a trend for higher prevalence of CAC in renal stone patients.

  5. Calcifying coral abundance near low-pH springs: implications for future ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, E. D.; Potts, D.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez, L.; Paytan, A.

    2012-03-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 and its equilibration with surface ocean seawater is lowering both the pH and carbonate saturation state (Ω) of the oceans. Numerous calcifying organisms, including reef-building corals, may be severely impacted by declining aragonite and calcite saturation, but the fate of coral reef ecosystems in response to ocean acidification remains largely unexplored. Naturally low saturation (Ω ~ 0.5) low pH (6.70-7.30) groundwater has been discharging for millennia at localized submarine springs (called "ojos") at Puerto Morelos, México near the Mesoamerican Reef. This ecosystem provides insights into potential long term responses of coral ecosystems to low saturation conditions. In-situ chemical and biological data indicate that both coral species richness and coral colony size decline with increasing proximity to low-saturation, low-pH waters at the ojo centers. Only three scleractinian coral species ( Porites astreoides, Porites divaricata, and Siderastrea radians) occur in undersaturated waters at all ojos examined. Because these three species are rarely major contributors to Caribbean reef framework, these data may indicate that today's more complex frame-building species may be replaced by smaller, possibly patchy, colonies of only a few species along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. The growth of these scleractinian coral species at undersaturated conditions illustrates that the response to ocean acidification is likely to vary across species and environments; thus, our data emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms of calcification to more accurately predict future impacts of ocean acidification.

  6. TAVR Through Heavily Calcified Aorta Following Atheroma Retrieval With the "Elevator" Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senguttuvan, N Boopathy; Ellozy, Sharif; Tejani, Furqan; Kovacic, Jason; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K; Dangas, George D

    2015-10-01

    An 86-year-old Caucasian female with severe symptomatic, inoperable aortic stenosis was accepted for high-risk transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) approach due to severe calcification of the aorta. During initial passage of a 22 Fr sheath, there was dislodgment with proximal migration of a circumferential tunnel of calcium from the infrarenal aorta. A novel "elevator" technique was used to secure and retrieve the dislodged aorta en bloc back to its original infrarenal aortic position and allow in situ fixation with stenting. A new TAVR system was then successfully placed through the stent and a 23 mm Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) was implanted as planned. In case of calcification protruding into the lumen of the aorta and limiting the passage of the large valve delivery system sheath, the obstruction can be managed by stenting the calcification against the luminal wall under fluoroscopic and intravascular-ultrasound guidance, allowing successful passage of the valve delivery system. The elevator technique allows axial transportation of any calcified vascular fragments, should they become dislodged. PMID:26429853

  7. Pathology of the calcified zone of articular cartilage in post-traumatic osteoarthritis in rat knees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Schultz

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the pathology occurring at the calcified zone of articular cartilage (CZC in the joints afflicted with post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA.Rats underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL transection and medial meniscectomy to induce PTOA. Sham surgery was performed on another five rats to serve as controls. The rats were euthanized after four weeks of surgery and tibial plateaus were dissected for histology. The pathology of PTOA, CZC area and the tidemark roughness at six pre-defined locations on the tibial plateaus were quantified by histomorphometry.PTOA developed in the knees, generally more severe at the medial plateau than the lateral plateau, of rats in the experimental group. The CZC area was unchanged in the PTOA joints, but the topographic variations of CZC areas that presented in the control knees were reduced in the PTOA joints. The tidemark roughness decreased in areas of the medial plateau of PTOA joints and that was inversely correlated with the Mankin's score of PTOA pathology.Reduced tidemark roughness and unchanged CZC area differentiate PTOA from primary osteoarthritis, which is generally believed to have the opposite pathology at CZC, and may contribute to the distinct disease progression of the two entities of arthropathy.

  8. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  9. Backscattered electron imaging: The role in calcified tissue and implant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloebaum, R.D.; Bachus, K.N.; Boyce, T.M. (Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center (151F), Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The working distance and tilt studies helped to clarify the influences of specimen variability when the BSE mode is used in calcified tissue research. This work has shown that the BSEPs of cortical bone may be accurately maintained within 2 percent error over a 10 degree range of tilt, or 300 microns working distance variation. If future bone and implant investigators wish to conduct accurate, quantitative mineral microanalysis in bone, then standard grinding and polishing techniques should be adequate if calibration procedures are developed. The BSEP characteristics of the pure metals make them suitable to be used for calibrating the BSE signal. BSE analysis, with correlated biomechanical studies, will lead us to a better understanding of the relationships between structure, function, and mineral content in bone. On-line BSEP analysis techniques will expand our understanding of the mineralization events in bone which are associated with aging, weightlessness, pharmaceutical therapies, and the presence of biomaterials. The future of the BSE imaging technology and the contributions to be made in understanding the histometry, biomechanics and mineral content of bone as well as bone's response to implant materials has just begun to unfold. 74 references.

  10. "Unusual brain stone": heavily calcified primary neoplasm with some features suggestive of angiocentric glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; Marks, Charles; Keohane, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    This 40-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of progressive right-sided headache associated with visual blurring. He also had a history of epilepsy but had been seizure free with medication for the past 10 years. An initial CT scan of his brain performed 16 years previously had revealed a small area of calcification in the right parietal region. In the current presentation, he had a left-sided homonymous hemianopia but no other neurological deficits. A CT scan of his brain showed a much larger calcified, partly cystic lesion in the right parietal region. Because he was symptomatic, the lesion was excised and the cyst was drained. Histological examination of the excised tissue showed an unusual primary tumor that was difficult to classify but had some features of angiocentric glioma. The heavy calcification, mixed-density cell population, and regions with features of angiocentric glioma were most unusual. The patient remained asymptomatic 5 years after surgery, and follow-up scans did not show recurrence. PMID:26024003

  11. Eco-physiological adaptation shapes the response of calcifying algae to nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupraha, Luka; Gerecht, Andrea C.; Probert, Ian; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2015-11-01

    The steady increase in global ocean temperature will most likely lead to nutrient limitation in the photic zone. This will impact the physiology of marine algae, including the globally important calcifying coccolithophores. Understanding their adaptive patterns is essential for modelling carbon production in a low-nutrient ocean. We investigated the physiology of Helicosphaera carteri, a representative of the abundant but under-investigated flagellated functional group of coccolithophores. Two strains isolated from contrasting nutrient regimes (South Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea) were grown in phosphorus-replete and phosphorus-limited batch cultures. While growing exponentially in a phosphorus-replete medium, the Mediterranean strain exhibited on average 24% lower growth rate, 36% larger coccosphere volume and 21% lower particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) production than the Atlantic strain. Under phosphorus limitation, the same strain was capable of reaching a 2.6 times higher cell density than the Atlantic strain due to lower phosphorus requirements. These results suggest that local physiological adaptation can define the performance of this species under nutrient limitation.

  12. In vitro calcified matrix deposition by human osteoblasts onto a zinc-containing bioactive glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Saino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses synthesized by the sol-gel technique possess many of the qualities associated with an ideal scaffold material for a bone graft substitute. In view of the potential clinical applications, we performed a detailed in vitro study of the biological reactivity of synthesized 58S bioactive glass containing-zinc, in terms of osteoblast morphology, proliferation, and deposition of a mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM. Human Sarcoma Osteoblast (SAOS-2 cells were used to i assess cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and ii evaluate the deposition of a calcified extracellular matrix by ELISA assay and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. In comparison with pure silica and 58S, the 58S-Zn0.4 bioglass showed a significant increase in cellular proliferation and deposition of ECM components such as decorin, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, type-I and -III collagens. Calcium deposition was significantly higher than on pure silica and 58S samples. Also Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and its protein content was higher with respect to pure silica and 58S. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the up-regulation of type-I collagen, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin genes. All together these results demonstrate the cytocompatibility of 58S-Zn0.4 bioglass and its capability to promote osteoblast differentiation.

  13. The response of calcifying plankton to climate change in the Pliocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Davis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of anthropogenic pCO2 increases, future oceans are growing warmer and lower in pH and oxygen, conditions that are likely to impact planktic communities. Past intervals of elevated and changing pCO2 and temperatures can offer a glimpse into the response of marine calcifying plankton to changes in surface oceans under conditions similar to those projected for the future. Here we present new records of planktic foraminiferal and coccolith calcification (weight and size from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 (mid-North Atlantic and Ocean Drilling Program Site 999 (Caribbean Sea from the Pliocene, the last time that pCO2 was similar to today, and extending through a global cooling event into the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (3.3 to 2.6 million years ago. Test weights of both surface-dwelling Foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and thermocline-dwelling Foraminifera Globorotalia puncticulata vary with a potential link to regional temperature variation in the North Atlantic, whereas in the tropics Globigerinoides ruber test weight remains stable. In contrast, reticulofenestrid coccoliths show a narrowing size range and a decline in the largest lith diameters over this interval. Our results suggest no major changes in plankton calcite production during the high pCO2 Pliocene or during the transition into an icehouse world.

  14. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cottignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits.

  15. Establishment nephrolithiasis rat model induced by nanobacteria and analysis of stone formation%纳米细菌大鼠肾结石模型初步建立及成石因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫国; 王晓峰; 徐涛; 李建兴; 陈亮; 于澄钒; 黄晓波

    2010-01-01

    目的:初步建立纳米细菌(nanobacteria,NB)大鼠肾结石模型,探讨NB与肾结石形成的相关性和成石机制.方法:应用人肾结石患者血清培养NB.SD雄性大鼠30只随机分成NB诱石组(A组,鼠尾静脉注射NB)、NB+四环素组(B组,鼠尾静脉注射NB和胃饲四环素)、空白对照组(C组,鼠尾静脉注射生理盐水),每组各10只.8周后处死大鼠,镜下观察肾组织晶体分布并计数.检测各组大鼠24h尿N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶(Nacetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase,NAG)、乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)浓度.结果:A组和B组大鼠肾脏肾小管内产生含钙结晶,Von kossa染色阳性,主要分布于远曲小管和近曲小管,C组大鼠肾组织未见晶体,3组间差异有统计学意义(P=0.033).B组晶体少于A组,有减少趋势.24h尿NAG和LDH浓度在3组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:NB通过肾小管上皮细胞损伤机制诱导大鼠肾脏肾小管内产生含钙结晶,参与肾结石形成.四环素通过抗NB机制,可能有抑制结晶形成和肾结石形成作用.

  16. Effect of calcified plaques on estimation of arterial stenosis of lower extremity in diabetic foot patients using multislice computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the impacts of calcified plaques on estimation of arterial stenosis of lower extremity in diabetic foot patients using 16 -slice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients (representing 38 cases)underwent both MSCTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations. The arteries of lower extremity were divided into 15 anatomic segments, and the degree of artery stenosis in each segment was classified as normal, mildly, moderately. severely or occluded. The extent of calcification in each segment was also assessed on cross -sectional image of MDCTA and was classified as absent, mildly, moderately, or severely. Using DSA as the standard reference, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were calculated. Agreement between MSCTA and DSA was assessed by Cohen's kappa statistics. Results: In the noncalcified, mildly and moderately calcified segments of the artery above the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 97.1%, 98.7%, 98.2%, 95.8%, 97.0% and 98.7%, respectively. In the severely calcified segments of the artery above the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 96.3%, 93.8%, 94.7%, 90.1%, 89.7% and 97.8%, respectively. In the noncalcified, mildly and moderately calcified segments of the artery below the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 95.1%, 93.2%, 94.1%, 88.3%, 93.4% and 94.9%, respectively. In the severely calcified segments of the artery below the

  17. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor: Review of 157 Patients Reported in International Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-05-01

    Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects.A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients' characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up.A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature.CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  18. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [14C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 μM dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces

  19. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  20. Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Bates, Amanda E; Clark, Melody S; Day, Robert W; Lamare, Miles; Martin, Stephanie M; Southgate, Paul C; Tan, Koh Siang; Tyler, Paul A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments. PMID:24036933

  1. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  2. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2 enriched coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pH values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pH=7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pH values projected for the end of this century. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  3. Transluminal attenuation gradient in coronary computed tomography angiography for determining stenosis severity of calcified coronary artery: a primary study with dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Minwen; Wei, Mengqi; Wen, Didi; Zhao, Hongliang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jian [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Jiayi [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) for stenosis severity of calcified lesions assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). One hundred seven patients who underwent CCTA and coronary angiography (CAG) were enrolled. TAGs of 309 major epicardial coronary arteries were measured. The impact of plaque composition, Agatston scores, and lesion length ratio on TAG were analyzed. Diagnostic performance vs. CAG of TAG, CCTA, and combined TAG/CCTA were evaluated, and incremental value of TAG for reclassification of CCTA stenosis severity in calcified lesions was also analyzed. TAG decreased consistently with stenosis severity. TAG was significantly lower in coronary arteries with calcification scores >300 and lesion length ratios >2/3. TAG improved diagnostic accuracy of CCTA (c-statistic =0.982 vs. 0.942, P = 0.0001) in calcified lesions, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of TAG cutoff ≤ -11.33 were 72 %, 91 %, 88 %, and 78 %, respectively. The addition of TAG to CCTA resulted in significant reclassification (NRI =0.093, P = 0.022) in calcified vessels. Measurement of TAG may improve diagnostic performance and reclassification of CCTA in coronary stenosis caused by calcified lesions. (orig.)

  4. Calcifying fibrous tumor of the pleura: A rare case with an unusual presentation on CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFTs) are rare benign mesenchymal tumors consisting of hyalinized collagenous fibrotic tissue with a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and dystrophic calcifications. Radiographic features have seldom been described, and there are no reports describing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Here, we report a pleural CFT in a 47-year-old woman. The tumor mimicked an intrapulmonary lesion on initial computed tomography scans but migrated inferiorly and presented as an extra-pulmonary lesion on MRI. The tumor showed iso-signal intensity on T1-weighted images (WIs), low signal intensity on T2WIs, and slight rim enhancement on enhanced T1WIs.

  5. PROSPECTS FOR CYTOPROTECTORS USE IN THE ELDERLY PATIENTS THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF CALCIFIED AORTIC STENOSIS AND ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Karpova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Issues of pathogenesis of the calcified aortic stenosis and ischemic heart disease in the elderly are considered. The relevance of early detection of angina, syncope, and dyspnea in view of their non-specific and subclinical course for early detection of heart disease is specified. Current scientific views on the myocardial bioenergy and its role in the genesis of chronic heart failure are presented. Particular attention is paid to the place of cytoprotectors, especially trimetazidine, in the management of patients with cardiac N.Yu. Karpova1diseases.

  6. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Christina J.; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S.; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W.; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Townsend, Grant; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W.; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized1-5, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 (beginning ~10,000 years BP6,8), and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (~1850)9. Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) ...

  7. Computed tomography of the soft tissues of the shoulder. Pt. 3. Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Bandick, J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the soft tissue of the shoulder in cases of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff provides the following information: 1. Localisation of the calcium deposits within the rotator cuff. 2. Contours and density of the calcium deposits correlated with the clinical findings as described by Uhthoff et al. Ill-defined contours and non-homogeneous deposits are associated with more severe clinical features. 3. Computed tomography shows that apatite particles, which are not visible radiologically, may penetrate into the shoulder joint and produce synovitis with an effusion. This is of importance in local therapy.

  8. Calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease: value of multidetector CT in patients with acute chest syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staser, Jonathan A. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Alam, Tariq [Medical College of Ohio, Department of Radiology, Toledo, OH (United States); Applegate, Kimberly [Indiana University Medical Center, Sections of Pediatric Radiology and Health Services Research, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)

  9. Calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease: value of multidetector CT in patients with acute chest syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)

  10. Systematic model of metal and radionuclide bioaccumulation in crocodilian and molluscan calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulating organisms routinely concentrate a variety of contaminants from their aquatic medium. Discerning any underlying factors that explain patterns of accumulation in a systematic way improves both the theoretical basis of our understanding of bioacccumulation and our ability to correctly interpret environmental signals that are represented by a tissue concentration or set of contaminant concentrations. Operational predictors of variance between individuals in their contaminant tissue concentrations also enhance our ability to statistically demonstrate increases above background, allowing us to infer increased environmental exposure with more confidence. Our recent investigations have focussed on concentrations of Pb in the osteoderms (dermal bones on the dorsal surface) of crocodiles in a study designed to monitor their contemporary and historical contamination status. The associated environmental sampling program also provided the opportunity to more broadly investigate patterns of metal and radionuclide accumulation in this calcified vertebrate tissue. These studies on the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) showed that both biotic and geographical factors can affect osteodermal and flesh concentrations for a variety of elements. A current study determined the metal concentrations and their predictors for the osteoderms of Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) from a single geographically restricted area, where each sampled individual was well characterised with respect to site fidelity, reproductive status and age, extending up to 63 years. Crocodile size, age and osteoderm calcium concentration were highly significant (P<0.001) predictors of the osteoderm concentrations of a range of metals. Osteodermal metal concentrations were inversely related to both size and age, but positively related to osteoderm calcium concentration, that could explain up to 92% of variance between individuals. Relative to calcium concentration, the

  11. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  12. In Vivo Diagnosis of Plaque Erosion and Calcified Nodule in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haibo; Abtahian, Farhad; Aguirre, Aaron D; Lee, Stephen; Chia, Stanley; Lowe, Harry; Kato, Koji; Yonetsu, Taishi; Vergallo, Rocco; Hu, Sining; Tian, Jinwei; Lee, Hang; Park, Seung-Jung; Jang, Yang-Soo; Raffel, Owen C.; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Uemura, Shiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Kakuta, Tsunekazu; Choi, So-Yeon; Dauerman, Harold L.; Prasad, Abhiram; Toma, Catalin; McNulty, Iris; Zhang, Shaosong; Yu, Bo; Fuster, Valentine; Narula, Jagat; Virmani, Renu; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the morphological features of plaque erosion and calcified nodule in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background Plaque erosion and calcified nodule have not been systematically investigated in vivo. Methods One hundred and twenty-six patients with ACS who had undergone pre-intervention OCT imaging were included. The culprit lesions were classified as plaque rupture (PR), erosion (OCT-erosion), calcified nodule (OCT-CN), or others using a new set of diagnostic criteria for OCT. Results The incidences of PR, OCT-erosion, and OCT-CN were 43.7%, 31.0%, and 7.9%, respectively. Patients with OCT-erosion were the youngest compared with those with PR and OCT-CN (53.8±13.1 years vs. 60.6±11.5 years, 65.1±5.0 years, p=0.005). Compared with patients with PR, presentation with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) was more common in patients with OCT-erosion (61.5% vs. 29.1%, p=0.008) and OCT-CN (100% vs. 29.1%, p<0.001). OCT-erosion had a lower frequency of lipid plaque (43.6% vs. 100%, p<0.001), thicker fibrous cap (169.3±99.1 μm vs. 60.4±16.6 μm, p<0.001), and smaller lipid arc (202.8±73.6° vs. 275.8±60.4°, p<0.001) than PR. The diameter stenosis was least severe in OCT-erosion followed by OCT-CN and PR (55.4±14.7% vs. 66.1±13.5% vs. 68.8±12.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions OCT is a promising modality for identifying OCT-erosion and OCT-CN in vivo. OCT-erosion is a frequent finding in patients with ACS, especially in those with NSTE-ACS and younger patients. OCT-CN is the least common etiology for ACS and is more common in older patients. PMID:23810884

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of orbital atherectomy plus balloon angioplasty vs balloon angioplasty alone in subjects with calcified femoropopliteal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstock B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barry Weinstock,1 Raymond Dattilo,2 Tiffini Diage3 1Orlando Health Heart Institute, Mid-Florida Cardiology Specialists, Orlando, FL, USA; 2Department of Cardiology, St Francis Health Center, Topeka, KS, USA; 3North American Science Association (NAMSA, Sunnyvale, CA, USA Introduction: As cost considerations become increasingly critical when selecting optimal endovascular treatment strategies, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted comparing the Diamondback 360°® Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., St Paul, MN, USA and balloon angioplasty (BA vs BA alone for treatment of calcified femoropopliteal lesions. Patients and methods: The clinical outcomes from COMPLIANCE 360°, a prospective, multicenter, randomized study comparing OAS+BA vs BA alone for treatment of calcified femoropopliteal lesions, were correlated with cost data and previously published quality of life data. Site of service, hospital charges, and associated medical resource utilization were obtained from Uniform Billing statements for index treatments and associated revascularizations out to 1 year. Hospital costs were estimated using hospital-specific, procedure-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Length of stay and procedural data were collected from participating study sites. Results: Twenty-five subjects with 38 lesions and 25 subjects with 27 lesions were randomized to the OAS+BA and BA-alone groups, respectively. Mean hospital charges (US$51,755 vs US$39,922 and estimated hospital costs (US$15,100 vs US$11,016 were higher for OAS+BA compared with BA alone (not statistically significant. Stent utilization was statistically significantly higher with BA-alone treatment for all subjects (1.1 vs 0.1, P=0.001 and in the subset of subjects with one lesion (1.0 vs 0.1, P<0.00001. There was a significant difference in cost for single-lesion versus multiple-lesion treatment. Using costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for the single-lesion cohort, the 1-year

  14. Net Loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: mesocosm-scale experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Rodgers

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3 incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates, and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE ULTRASOUND USE IN FASTFINDING AND CREATING THE ACCES TO THE CALCIFIED CANNALS AND ABLATION OF THE PULPOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena AMZA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment with ultrasounds, two categories of devices are used, which work on theprinciple of the magnetostriction phenomenon or the principle of pieso-electrictricity. The mostimportant part of an endodontic ultrasound device is the ultra-acoustic system which must becalculated, projected and made in such way so th exercise a certain type of ultrasound (asked bythat application which together with the endodontic instrument acoustically activated to worktogether in resonance regime. In order to find the hidden canals calcified and for an easiermaking of the acces to the root canals is suggested an endodontic instrument with an activespecific part and with a central canal which allows the penetration of a cooling fluid in the workarea and in order to create the phenomenon of ultrasound cavity

  16. Evaluation of a Dedicated Balloon Catheter for Infrapopliteal Difficult Calcified Lesions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the technical performance and immediate procedural outcome of a new balloon catheter in the treatment of calcified lesions in infrapopliteal arterial disease. Sixty-one patients (81 vessels) with infrapopliteal arterial disease were evaluated. Seventy-four of the 81 treated vessels had total occlusions. The ReeKross 18 peripheral transluminal angioplasty catheter (ClearStream, Wexford, Ireland) is an 0.018-inch guidewire system with 4F sheath compatibility and a rigid shaft intended for enhanced pushability. Only technical procedural outcomes were recorded. In 37 of 61 patients (50 infrapopliteal severely stenosed or occluded vessels), an attempt with a standard balloon was made before the ReeKross 18 was used. In 24 patients, the ReeKross 18 was used as the primary catheter in 23 cases involving crural arteries and in 8 cases involving the foot. The ReeKross 18 crossed the lesion in 55 of 59 (93.2%) patients and 72 of 77 (94.5%) vessels, respectively. Postdilatation results for the 51 patients (64 target lesions) in whom ReeKross 18 balloon dilation was achieved showed <30% residual stenosis in all but 4 patients (5 lesions). Of the patients treated with the ReeKross 18 as the primary catheter, the technical success rate (no adjunctive treatment/stent) was obtained in 20 of 24 (83.3%) patients (27 of 31 [87.1%] target lesions). In the treatment of difficult calcified lesions, the choice of a high-pushability angioplasty catheter, such as the ReeKross 18, warrants consideration.

  17. Orbital atherectomy system in treating calcified coronary lesions: 3-Year follow-up in first human use study (ORBIT I trial)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Parloop, E-mail: parloop.bhatt@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Parth, E-mail: parth.parikh@cimshospital.org [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Patel, Apurva, E-mail: patela12@ccf.org [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chag, Milan, E-mail: milan.chag@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Chandarana, Anish, E-mail: anish.chandarana@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Roosha, E-mail: parikhr@ccf.org [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parikh, Keyur, E-mail: keyur.parikh@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India)

    2014-06-15

    Background/Purpose: The ORBIT I trial evaluated the safety and performance of an orbital atherectomy system (OAS) in treating de novo calcified coronary lesions. Severely calcified coronary arteries pose ongoing treatment challenges. Stent placement in calcified lesions can result in stent under expansion, malapposition and procedural complications. OAS treatment may be recommended to facilitate coronary stent implantation in these difficult lesions. Materials/Methods: Fifty patients with de novo calcified coronary lesions were enrolled in the ORBIT I trial. Patients were treated with the OAS followed by stent placement. Our institution treated 33/50 patients and continued follow-up for 3 years. Results: Average age was 54.4 years and 90.9% were males. Mean lesion length was 15.9 mm. The average number of OAS devices used per patient was 1.3. Procedural success was achieved in 97% of patients. Angiographic complications were observed in five patients (two minor dissections, one major dissection and two perforations). The cumulative major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate was 6.1% in-hospital, 9.1% at 30 days, 12.1% at 6 months, 15.2% at 2 years, and 18.2% at 3 years. The MACE rate included two in-hospital non Q-wave myocardial infarctions (MI), one additional non Q-wave MI at 30 days leading to target lesion revascularization (TLR), and three cardiac deaths. Conclusions: The ORBIT I trial suggests that OAS treatment may offer an effective method to modify calcified coronary lesion compliance to facilitate optimal stent placement in these difficult-to-treat patients with acceptable levels of safety up to 3 years post-index procedure.

  18. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  19. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  20. Spatial distribution of benthic macroorganisms on reef flats at Porto de Galinhas Beach (northeastern Brazil, with special focus on corals and calcified hydroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Imenis Barradas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their ecological and social-economic importance, coral reefs are under constant threat and thus require proper management practices. Data on the spatial structure of these ecosystems are essential for good quality conservation projects in such areas. This study aimed to quantitatively analyze the spatial distribution of benthic macroorganisms from the reef environment of Porto de Galinhas Beach, with special focus on its corals and calcified hydroids. Reef flats of the area were surveyed by scuba diving, using 10m line transects. A high cover of macroalgae was verified, averaging 53% of the observations. Zoanthids were the second most representative group (11%. A total of 173 colonies of corals and calcified hydroids were observed and 40% of these colonies were partially or totally bleached.

  1. Response of the calcifying coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi to low pH/high pCO2: from physiology to molecular level

    OpenAIRE

    Richier, Sophie; Fiorini, Sarah; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; von Dassow, Peter; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of ocean acidification as a significant threat to calcifying organisms in marine ecosystems creates a pressing need to understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which calcification is affected by environmental parameters. We report here, for the first time, changes in gene expression induced by variations in pH/pCO2 in the widespread and abundant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Batch cultures were subjected to increased partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; i.e. decre...

  2. 面颈部13例钙化上皮瘤临床分析%13 Cases Calcifying Epithelioma Clinical Analysis in Face and Neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 何等旗; 于涛; 张峰林

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨钙化上皮瘤的临床特点及辅助检查结果,以提高术前正确诊断率.方法:对兰州大学第一医院口腔颌面外科2008~2011年收治的13例钙化上皮瘤患者作一临床分析.结果:结合文献发现钙化上皮瘤为单一的局部皮下硬结,大小在5cm以下不等,成菱形或类圆形,可隆起于皮肤表面,表面皮肤色泽正常或有局部发红出现,有时肿瘤与皮肤紧密粘连.B超及CT可提供肿瘤内部结构特点.结论:根据如上临床特点结合B超及CT检查结果可明显提高钙化上皮瘤术前正确诊断率.%Objective; To investigate the clinical characteristics and auxiliary examination of calcifying epithelioma, to improve the preoperative diagnosis rate. Methods: Clinical analysis of 13 patients with calcifying epithelioma at Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 1st Hospital of Lanzhou University during 2008-2011, Results; Based on literatures we found the calcifying epithelioma is a tumor, which is single local subcutaneous induration, size in 5cm the following ranges, rhombus or round, may bulge at the skin surface, and surface skin color showed normal or local redness. Sometimes the tumor tightly adhered to the skin. B ultrasound and CT can provide the internal structure characteristics of tumor. Conclusion: According to the clinical characteristics combined with B ultrasound and CT examination results we can obviously improve the calcifying epithelioma preoperative correct diagnosis rate.

  3. Calcified plaque resorptive status as determined by high-resolution ultrasound is predictive of successful conservative management of calcific tendinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In patients with calcific tendinosis, the morphology of calcified plaques is associated with response to conservative management. We aimed to determine changes in pain and morphology of plaques in patients with calcific tendinosis and non-arc-shaped plaques identified by high-resolution ultrasonography who received only conservative treatment. Methods: A total of 33 patients with a mean age of 63.3 ± 10.3 years were included. Pain scores at the time of first and follow-up ultrasound were recorded, and the degree of plaque resolution was calculated. Results: At follow-up, 90.9% (30 of 33) of patients reported improvement in pain, and 84.8% (28 of 33) patient had more than 50% elimination of plaques. Most of increased vascularity observed in color Doppler ultrasonography during 1st visit disappeared at follow-up. Conclusions: In patients with calcific tendinosis, non-arc-shaped plaques determined by high-resolution ultrasonography are likely to resolve and conservative management is warranted.

  4. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Townsend, Grant; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ∼10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ∼1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles. PMID:23416520

  5. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  6. Theoretical explanation of the relationship between backscattered electron and x-ray linear attenuation coefficients in calcified tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F S; Elliott, J C

    1997-11-01

    X-ray absorption and backscattered electron (BSE) microscopies are two commonly used techniques for estimating mineral contents in calcified tissues. The resolution in BSE images is usually higher than in x-ray images, but due to the previous lack of good standards to quantify the grey levels in BSE images of bones and teeth, x-ray microtomography (XMT) images of the same specimens have been used for calibration. However, the physics of these two techniques is different: for a specimen with a given composition, the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to density, but there is no such relation with the BSE coefficient. To understand the reason that this calibration appears to be valid, the behaviour of simulated bone samples was investigated. In this, the bone samples were modelled as having three phases: hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), protein, and void (either empty or completely filled with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a resin which is usually used for embedding bones and teeth in microscopic studies). The x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (calculated using published data) and the BSE coefficients (calculated using Monte Carlo simulation) were compared for samples of various phase proportions. It was found that the BSE coefficient correlated only with the x-ray attenuation coefficient for samples with PMMA infiltration. This was attributed to the properties of PMMA (density and mean atomic number) being very similar to those of the protein; therefore, the sample behaves like a two-phase system which allows the establishment of a monotonic relation between density and BSE coefficient. With the newly developed standards (brominated and iodinated dimethacrylate esters) for BSE microscopy of bone, grey levels can be converted to absolute BSE coefficients by linear interpolation, from which equivalent densities can be determined. PMID:9418207

  7. Quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties for detection of non-calcified plaques in ECG-gated coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques (NCPs) in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties in each vessel branch and extracted flow information to differentiate the presence and absence of stenosis in a vessel segment. Under rest conditions, blood flow in a single vessel branch was assumed to follow Poiseuille's law. For a uniform pressure distribution, two quantitative flow features, the normalized arterial compliance per unit length (Cu) and the normalized volumetric flow (Q) along the vessel centerline, were calculated based on the parabolic Poiseuille solution. The flow features were evaluated for a two-class classification task to differentiate NCP candidates obtained by prescreening as true NCPs and false positives (FPs) in cCTA. For evaluation, a data set of 83 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from 83 patient files with IRB approval. A total of 118 NCPs were identified by experienced cardiothoracic radiologists. The correlation between the two flow features was 0.32. The discriminatory ability of the flow features evaluated as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 for Cu and 0.63 for Q in comparison with AUCs of 0.56-0.69 from our previous luminal features. With stepwise LDA feature selection, volumetric flow (Q) was selected in addition to three other luminal features. With FROC analysis, the test results indicated a reduction of the FP rates to 3.14, 1.98, and 1.32 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. The study indicated that quantitative blood flow analysis has the potential to provide useful features for the detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  8. Correction of lumen contrast-enhancement influence on non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque quantification on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Wisnumurti; Tuncay, Volkan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-02-01

    Lumen contrast-enhancement influences non-calcified atherosclerotic plaque Hounsfield-unit (HU) values in computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to construct and validate an algorithm to correct for this influence. Three coronary vessel phantoms with 1, 2, and 4 mm circular hollow lumina; with normal and plaque-infested walls were scanned simultaneously in oil using a dual-source CT scanner. Scanning was repeated as the lumina were alternately filled with water and four contrast solutions (100-400 HU, at 100 HU intervals). Images were reconstructed at 0.4 mm x-y pixel size. Pixel-by-pixel comparisons of contrast-enhanced and non-contrast-enhanced images confirmed exponential declining patterns in lumen contrast-enhancement influence on wall HU-values from the lumen border (y = Ae(-λx) + c). The median difference of the inside and outside 2-pixel radius part of the contrast-enhanced coronary phantom wall to the reference (non-contrast-enhanced images) was 45 and 2 HU, respectively. Based on the lumen contrast-enhancement influence patterns, a generalized correction algorithm was formulated. Application of the generalized correction algorithm to the inside 2-pixel radius part of the wall reduced the median difference to the reference to 4 HU. In conclusion, lumen contrast-enhancement influence on the vessel wall can be defined by an exponential approximation, allowing correction of the CT density of the vessel wall closest to the lumen. With this correction, a more accurate determination of vessel wall composition can be made. PMID:25326412

  9. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity. PMID:26684730

  10. Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope. (topical review)

  11. Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha Sundar, Joydip Kundu and Subhas C Kundu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  12. Calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumor (CNSET) of the liver: a newly recognized entity to be considered in the radiologist's differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Lauren R; Shehata, Bahig M; Yin, Julie; Schemankewitz, Erwin; Alazraki, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumor (CNSET), an extremely rare tumor found in the liver, was first described in 2001 by Ishak et al. The characteristic imaging features include large size, well-circumscribed, enhancing mass with calcification. To our knowledge, since 2001, there have been 29 reported. Typically arising from the right hepatic lobe, it is primarily found in children and shows clear predilection for females. Emphasizing imaging, we report a 14-year-old female with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who presented with CNSET. PMID:26589005

  13. Calcifying Aponeurotic Fibroma of the Dorsum of the Foot: Radiographic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in a Four-Year-Old Boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma (CAF) is a rare, benign fibroblastic tumor that typically occurs in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, in children and adolescents. Due to its infiltrative nature, this tumor can mimic malignancy on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has a predilection for local recurrence. There are very few reports in the literature that describe features of CAF on MRI, especially those arising in the foot. We present an unusual case of a CAF affecting the dorsum of the foot in a four-year-old boy

  14. Rotational atherectomy using small burr combined with drug-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of heavily calcified coronary lesions: analysis of clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of rotational atherectomy with small burr together with subsequent drug-eluting stent implantation in treating patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions. Methods: During the period from January 2009 to April 2013 a total of 12 patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions were admitted to authors' hospital. The diagnosis was confirmed by angiography in all patients. Rotational atherectomy with small bun combined with subsequent drug-eluting stent implantation were carried out. The clinical data, including angiography success rate, procedure success rate, complications and postoperative main adverse cardiovascular events such as death, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization, etc. were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of sixteen heavily calcified lesions of Type C in 12 patients were successfully treated with rotational atherectomy and drug-eluting stent placement. After rotational atherectomy the stenosis degree of the coronary artery decreased from preoperative (82.7±7.6)% to postoperative (35.2±10.3)%, the difference between the two was statistically significant (P<0.05), and a total of 22 drug-eluting stents were successfully implanted. The angiography success rate was 100%. The average burr-to-artery ratio used in the procedure was (0.50±0.02), the bun with the diameter ≤1.50 mm was employed in treating 93.7% of lesions (15/16). The success rate of the procedure was 91.7% (11/12). During the procedure stasis of blood flow was observed in one patient, and the patient developed perioperative myocardial infarction. No acute vascular occlusion, coronary perforation, dissection or death occurred, and no patient needed to receive emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. All the patients were followed up for (7.1±2.5) months, and no recurrence of angina pectoris or major cardiovascular event was observed. Conclusion: For the treatment of heavily calcified coronary

  15. Crescimento de pitaia vermelha com adubação orgânica e granulado bioclástico Growth of red pitaya with organic fertilizer and calcified seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar o crescimento de pitaia vermelha (Hylocereus undatus submetida à adubação orgânica e à aplicação de granulado bioclástico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com oito adubações: testemunha, esterco de curral, cama de frango, granulado bioclástico, esterco de curral + cama de frango, esterco de curral + granulado bioclástico, cama de frango + granulado bioclástico e esterco de curral + cama de frango + granulado bioclástico, aplicados a cada três meses, com três blocos, e a parcela experimental composta por quatro plantas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no comprimento e no número de cladódios principais. Houve diferença significativa no número de cladódios laterais retirados e de cladódios emitidos acima do suporte. A adubação com esterco de curral + cama de frango + granulado bioclástico favoreceu o crescimento de plantas de pitaia vermelha.The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth of red pitaya (Hylocereus undatus subjected to organic fertilization and calcified seaweed application. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with eight fertilization: control, cattle manure, chicken manure, calcified seaweed, cattle manure + chicken manure, cattle manure + calcified seaweed, chicken manure + calcified seaweed and cattle manure + chicken manure + calcified seaweed, applied every three months, with three replications and plot consisted of four plants. There were no significant differences in the length and in the number of central cladodes. There were significant differences in the number of side cladodes removed and in cladodes above the support. Fertilization with cattle manure + chicken manure + calcified seaweed favored the growth of red pitaya.

  16. Diagnostic Performance of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Non-Calcified Equivocal Breast Findings: Results from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the performance of MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer in non-calcified equivocal breast findings. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies in PubMed from 01/01/1986 until 06/15/2015. Eligible were studies applying dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI as an adjunct to conventional imaging (mammography, ultrasound) to clarify equivocal findings without microcalcifications. Reference standard for MRI findings had to be established by histopathological sampling or imaging follow-up of at least 12 months. Number of true or false positives and negatives and other characteristics were extracted, and possible bias was determined using the QUADAS-2 applet. Statistical analyses included data pooling and heterogeneity testing. Results Fourteen out of 514 studies comprising 2,316 lesions met our inclusion criteria. Pooled diagnostic parameters were: sensitivity (99%, 95%-CI: 93–100%), specificity (89%, 95%-CI: 85–92%), PPV (56%, 95%-CI: 42–70%) and NPV (100%, 95%-CI: 99–100%). These estimates displayed significant heterogeneity (P<0.001). Conclusions Breast MRI demonstrates an excellent diagnostic performance in case of non-calcified equivocal breast findings detected in conventional imaging. However, considering the substantial heterogeneity with regard to prevalence of malignancy, problem solving criteria need to be better defined. PMID:27482715

  17. Extracellular vesicles of calcifying turkey leg tendon characterized by immunocytochemistry and high voltage electron microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; McKee, M. D.; Nanci, A.; Song, M. J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Arena, J.; McEwen, B.

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure and possible function of extracellular vesicles in certain calcifying vertebrate tissues, normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, have been studied in two separate investigations, one concerning the electron microscopic immunolocalization of the 66 kDa phosphoprotein, osteopontin, and the other detailing the organization and distribution of mineral crystals associated with the vesicles as determined by high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction. Immunolabeling shows that osteopontin is related to extracellular vesicles of the tendon in the sense that its initial presence appears coincident with the development of mineral associated with the vesicle loci. By high voltage electron microscopy and 3-D imaging techniques, mineral crystals are found to consist of small irregularly shaped particles somewhat randomly oriented throughout individual vesicles sites. Their appearance is different from that found for the mineral observed within calcifying tendon collagen, and their 3-D disposition is not regularly ordered. Possible spatial and temporal relationships of vesicles, osteopontin, mineral, and collagen are being examined further by these approaches.

  18. 乳腺钙化在乳腺疾病诊断中的价值%Diagnostic value of the calcified foci in mammography for breast diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫任光; 苏佳娜; 郭晓婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺钥靶X线中钙化的影像特点在乳腺疾病中的临床意义.方法 对我院100例手术及病理证实有钙化的乳腺疾病进行分析.结果 100例乳腺钙化中,良性病变39例,乳腺癌61例.结论 乳腺钙化是乳腺疾病重要X线征象,特别是钙化形态在乳腺癌诊断中具有重要意义.%Objective To study the diagnostic value of the calcified foci in mammography for the benign and malignant breast disease.Methods In 100 female individuals,calcifications had been found in mammography and confirmed by surgery or biopsy.The characteristics of the morphology and distribution were analyzed retrospectively.Results 61 out of 100 cases with calcified foci were breast cancers,occupying 61.0%,while the left 39 cases were benign.Conclusion Calcifications in mammography are very valuable,especially the shape of the calcifications plays an important role in differential diagnosis for benign and malignant breast diseases.

  19. Long-term follow-up of non-calcified pulmonary nodules (<10 mm) identified during low-dose CT screening for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the long-term stability of small (<10 mm) non-calcified pulmonary nodules (NCNs) in high-risk subjects initially screened for lung cancer using low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCCT). A total of 449 subjects initially underwent screening with serial LDCCT over a 2-year period. Participants identified as having NCNs ≥10 mm were referred for formal lung cancer workup. NCNs <10 mm diameter were followed in accordance with the study protocol. Seven years after baseline screening, subjects with previously documented NCNs <10 mm, which were unchanged in size after the 2-year follow-up period, were re-imaged using LDCCT to assess for interval nodule growth. Eighty-three subjects with previously documented stable NCNs <10 mm underwent LDCCT at 7 years. NCNs were unchanged in 78 subjects and had decreased in size in 4 subjects. There was interval growth of an NCN (from 6 mm to 9 mm) in one subject re-imaged at 7 years, but this nodule has remained stable in size over a further 2-year follow-up period. Non-calcified pulmonary nodules <10 mm in size that are unchanged in size or smaller after 2 years of follow-up with LDCCT are most likely benign. (orig.)

  20. Enhanced characterization of calcified areas in intravascular ultrasound virtual histology images by quantification of the acoustic shadow: validation against computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Alexander; de Graaf, Michiel A; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bax, Jeroen J; Reiber, Johan H C; Scholte, Arthur J

    2016-04-01

    We enhance intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (VH) tissue characterization by fully automatic quantification of the acoustic shadow behind calcified plaque. VH is unable to characterize atherosclerosis located behind calcifications. In this study, the quantified acoustic shadows are considered calcified to approximate the real dense calcium (DC) plaque volume. In total, 57 patients with 108 coronary lesions were included. A novel post-processing step is applied on the VH images to quantify the acoustic shadow and enhance the VH results. The VH and enhanced VH results are compared to quantitative computed tomography angiography (QTA) plaque characterization as reference standard. The correlation of the plaque types between enhanced VH and QTA differs significantly from the correlation with unenhanced VH. For DC, the correlation improved from 0.733 to 0.818. Instead of an underestimation of DC in VH with a bias of 8.5 mm(3), there was a smaller overestimation of 1.1 mm(3) in the enhanced VH. Although tissue characterization within the acoustic shadow in VH is difficult, the novel algorithm improved the DC tissue characterization. This algorithm contributes to accurate assessment of calcium on VH and could be applied in clinical studies. PMID:26667446

  1. Root canal preparation of calcified root canals in the elderly patients%老年患者钙化根管的预备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申玲; 黄静华; 黄碧杰; 朱燕梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the condition of the root canal calcification of the elderly patients and sum up the therapy for elderly patients with calcified root canal in community hospital. Methods: 148 calcified root canals were selected form the age of 60-72 elderly patients. Under the EyeMag magnifying glass, low speed ball drill or ultrasonic instrument were used to remove the pulp chamber calcifications. Then C-Pilot files dipped into Glyde gel were used to unchoke root canals. While the condition of the root canal calcification and dredge effect were recorded during the operation. Finally root canal preparation, disinfection and filling were performed in sequence. Results:Calcified root canals of the elderly people were usually happened in maxillary first molar, anterior teeth, premolar and the success rate of molar dredge were 91.67%, 72.73%and 60.80%respectively, which showed that the dredge success rate of anterior teeth group was higher than molar group(χ2=4.02, P<0.05). 1/3 coronal segments of root canal and 1/3 middle segments of root canal were prone to calcify, whose dredge success rate was obviously higher than that of lower segment ( χ2=19.33, P<0.05). Conclusion:Regarding the treatment of the elderly patients’ calcified root canals, clinical dentists should be careful, patient and confident, using various treatment instruments and equipments flexibly and comprehensively, which could achieve favorable treatment results.%目的:观察老年人根管钙化情况,总结高校社区医院对老年患者钙化根管的治疗方法。方法:选择60-72岁老年患者的148个钙化根管,在EyeMag放大镜下,分别采用低速球钻或超声器械去除髓室内钙化物, C型先锋锉蘸取Glyde凝胶进行根管疏通,术中记录根管钙化情况和疏通效果,最后完成根管预备、消毒和充填。结果:老年人钙化根管多见于上颌第一磨牙,前牙、前磨牙、磨牙疏通成功率分别为:91.67%,72.73%

  2. Computerized method for evaluating diagnostic image quality of calcified plaque images in cardiac CT: Validation on a physical dynamic cardiac phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Martin; Rodgers, Zachary; Giger, Maryellen L.; Bardo, Dianna M. E.; Patel, Amit R. [Department of Radiology, Committee on Medical Physics, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In cardiac computed tomography (CT), important clinical indices, such as the coronary calcium score and the percentage of coronary artery stenosis, are often adversely affected by motion artifacts. As a result, the expert observer must decide whether or not to use these indices during image interpretation. Computerized methods potentially can be used to assist in these decisions. In a previous study, an artificial neural network (ANN) regression model provided assessability (image quality) indices of calcified plaque images from the software NCAT phantom that were highly agreeable with those provided by expert observers. The method predicted assessability indices based on computer-extracted features of the plaque. In the current study, the ANN-predicted assessability indices were used to identify calcified plaque images with diagnostic calcium scores (based on mass) from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom. The basic assumption was that better quality images were associated with more accurate calcium scores. Methods: A 64-channel CT scanner was used to obtain 500 calcified plaque images from a physical dynamic cardiac phantom at different heart rates, cardiac phases, and plaque locations. Two expert observers independently provided separate sets of assessability indices for each of these images. Separate sets of ANN-predicted assessability indices tailored to each observer were then generated within the framework of a bootstrap resampling scheme. For each resampling iteration, the absolute calcium score error between the calcium scores of the motion-contaminated plaque image and its corresponding stationary image served as the ground truth in terms of indicating images with diagnostic calcium scores. The performances of the ANN-predicted and observer-assigned indices in identifying images with diagnostic calcium scores were then evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: Assessability indices provided by the first observer and the corresponding ANN performed

  3. Tendinopatia calcárea: uma afecção local ou sistêmica? Calcifying tendinopathy: a local or a systemic condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ejnisman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação existente entre os casos de tendinopatia calcárea de ombro e doenças metabólicas sintomáticas como litíase renal, biliar e gota. MÉTODO: A tendinopatia calcárea de ombro foi diagnosticada em 63 pacientes no período compreendido entre maio de 2007 e setembro de 2011. Todos os pacientes foram tratados pelo mesmo médico ortopedista e entrevistados para coleta dos seguintes dados: idade ao diagnóstico, sexo, lado acometido, lado dominante, índice de massa corpórea (IMC, tabagismo e história pregressa de litíase renal, biliar ou gota. Para análise estatística, um grupo controle de 63 pacientes com características demográficas semelhantes foi utilizado. RESULTADOS: Dos 63 pacientes que apresentavam tendinopatia calcárea do ombro, 35 (56% eram do sexo masculino. O lado direito foi afetado em 38 (60% pacientes, a média de idade foi de 48,2 anos. Trinta e um (49% pacientes apresentaram história prévia de alguma das doenças metabólicas questionadas, sendo que 20 pacientes (32% relataram litíase renal, seis (9,5% litíase biliar, quatro (6,3% gota e um (2% apresentava diagnóstico concomitante de litíase renal e gota. No grupo controle, observamos que 11 (17% pacientes apresentaram história prévia de alguma das doenças metabólicas, sendo que seis pacientes (9,5% relataram litíase renal, quatro (6,3% litíase biliar e um (1,6%, gota. CONCLUSÕES: A elevada frequência de litíase renal em pacientes diagnosticados com tendinopatia calcárea do ombro no presente estudo sugere que existam mecanismos em comum na fisiopatologia desses distúrbios. O melhor entendimento destas doenças pode possibilitar a melhoria dos seus diagnósticos e tratamentos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between cases of calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder and symptomatic metabolic diseases such as kidney stones, gallstones and gout. METHODS: Calcifying tendinopathy of the shoulder was diagnosed in 63 patients

  4. Deep-sea coral 13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and?11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Gavin L Foster; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (?11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, ?11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ?pH. We report that skeletal ?11B and ?pH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (?13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89–8.09, with ?pH related to ?13C by ?pH?=?0.029?×??13C?+?0.929, r2?=?0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by det...

  5. Co-occurrence of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst, Aggressive Central Giant Cell Granuloma and Central Odontogenic Fibroma: Report of a Very Rare Entity and Its Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Vaezi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC, Central odontogenic fibroma (COF and aggressive central giant cell granuloma (CGCG are rare pathologic diseases affecting the jaws. While the Co-existence of two of them is reported in the literature, existence of all three conditions in one patient is an extremely rare entity. In the present report, initial biopsy revealed fibrosarcoma, therefore mandibular resection was performed for the subject. Sectional Histopathologic evaluation revealed the co-existence of three conditions through histopathologic evaluation. This report emphasizes the importance of precise microscopical evaluation of jaw lesions and thorough sectional examination of the lesions to reach the precise diagnosis. Treatment modalities and follow-up radiographs are also provided to help clinicians manage these entities.

  6. Iatrogenic aortic root and left main dissection during non-emergency coronary surgery: a solution applicable to heavily calcified coronary arteries†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Teresa M; Spence, Frank P; Kowalewski, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Dissection of the left main coronary artery during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a rare, potentially lethal complication, usually diagnosed at post-mortem. During the cross-clamp period of a 4-vessel coronary artery bypass graft procedure in a 74-year old hypertensive woman, retrograde dissection occurred in a diffusely diseased marginal artery when perfused with cardioplegic solution at a pressure of 140-150 mmHg through a vein graft. The dissection extended back to the left main artery, included the posterior proximal ascending aorta and then down the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) confirmed the left main dissection and showed anterior-septal-lateral akinesis in a previously normally functioning left ventricle (LV). The circumferentially calcified proximal LAD was grafted with a saphenous vein by carving an oval area of calcium creating an elliptical opening in the artery wall. Normal LV function returned and, in the area of the left main dissection, there was only thickening with no colour flow. Eight months postoperatively cardiac catheterization showed normal LV function, patent vein grafts to the right coronary artery and proximal LAD, left internal mammary artery to distal LAD and an occluded sequential marginal vein graft. Twelve years postoperatively, the patient is well with Class I angina, on medication. There is no previous documentation of a diagnosed and successfully treated left main dissection during CABG surgery. Since this case using the technique of creating an oval opening in a circumferentially calcified coronary artery (with an otherwise satisfactory lumen), the author has been using this technique to bypass otherwise non-bypassable arteries; this technique may be useful to help patients with severe calcific coronary artery disease. PMID:26541959

  7. Long-term safety and performance of the orbital atherectomy system for treating calcified coronary artery lesions: 5-Year follow-up in the ORBIT I trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Parloop; Parikh, Parth [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Patel, Apurva [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chag, Milan; Chandarana, Anish [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Roosha [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parikh, Keyur, E-mail: keyur.parikh@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India)

    2015-06-15

    Background/Purpose: The ORBIT I trial, a first-in-man study, was conducted to evaluate the safety and performance of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) in treating de novo calcified coronary lesions. Methods/Materials: Fifty patients were enrolled between May and July 2008 based on several criteria, and were treated with the OAS followed by stent placement. The safety and performance of the OAS were evaluated by procedural success, device success, and overall major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rates, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and need for target lesion revascularization (TLR). Our institution enrolled and treated 33 of the 50 patients and continued follow-up for 5 years. Results: Average age was 54 years and 91% were males. Mean lesion length was 15.9 mm. Device success was 100%, and average number of orbital atherectomy devices (OAD) used per patient was 1.3. Stents were placed directly after OAS in 31/32 patients (96.9%). All stents (average stent per lesion 1.1) were successfully deployed with 0.3% residual stenosis. The overall cumulative MACE rate was 6.1% in-hospital, 9.1% at 30 days, 12.1% at 6 months, 15.2% at 2 years, 18.2% at 3 years and 21.2% at 5 years (4 total cardiac deaths). None of the patients had Q-wave MIs. Angiographic complications were observed in 5 patients. No flow/slow flow due to distal embolization was observed. Conclusions: The ORBIT I trial suggests that OAS treatment continues to offer a safe and effective method to change compliance of calcified coronary lesions to facilitate optimal stent placement in these difficult-to-treat patients.

  8. EDTA在后牙钙化闭塞根管预备中的应用研究%EDTA Application Research in the Calcified Block Root Canal Preparation of the Back Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢山; 黄昭毅; 郭宏剑

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The calcified block root canals have greatly influenced the curative effect to the root canals.To observe the EDTA paste in the application of calcified block root canal preparation,evaluate its clinical efficacy.Method:One hundred and twenty-four patients in our department from March 2009 to March 2012 were selected,140 back molar teeth,165 calcified block root canals and then divide them randomly into the group A and the group B,62 cases in each group.There were 62 cases,68 back molar teeth and 83 calcified block root canals in the group A.The group A was treated with the EDTA paste into root canal occlusion for root canal preparation,or temporary seal root canal EDTA root canal preparation a week later.There were 62 cases,72 back molar teeth and 82 calcified block root canals in the group B.The group B was treated with chloramine into the calcified block root canals and then had a root canal preparation.The preparatory effect of the root canals according to the X-ray and clinical examination were evaluated. Result:Eighty-three calcified block root canal in the group A with 72 root canal expansion,prepared well,the success rate was 86.75%.82 calcified block root canal in the group B only 18 root canal in root canal expansion,the success rate was 21.95%,and the breakage rate increased,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01).Conclusion:The effect that EDTA paste has been used in the calcified block root canals is very good.It can raise remarkably the successful rate of root canal preparation.%目的:钙化闭塞根管严重影响根管治疗效果,通过观察EDTA糊剂在钙化闭塞根管预备中的应用,评价其临床疗效。方法:选取2009年3月-2012年3月本院牙体牙髓科就诊的124例患者,140颗后磨牙,165个钙化闭塞根管,所有的患者按照随机数字表法分为A组和B组各62例。A组62例68颗后磨牙83个钙化闭塞根管采用EDTA糊剂导入根管闭塞处进行根管预备,或根管

  9. Applications of medical nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-gang; WANG Shi-bin; WENG Lian-jin

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Nanoparticles, for their subcellular size, have been a important carrier in somefields. These fields include pharmacology, food, cosmetic, etc. Here, we focus onpresent applications of nanoparticles in drug carrier and gene carrier.

  10. 肩关节钙化性肌腱炎的关节镜治疗及急慢性期疗效比较%Treatment of calcifying tendonitis of shoulder with arthroscopy and comparison of efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建海; 张一翀; 张殿英; 付中国; 杨明; 党育; 姜保国

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估关节镜下清除钙化性肌腱炎肩袖钙化病灶的治疗效果,探讨急性期组与慢性期组手术治疗后的疗效差别。方法收集北京大学人民医院创伤骨科2009年9月至2014年6月收治的钙化性肌腱炎病例,符合标准者28例。按照发病至手术时间的不同分为急性期组和慢性期组,比较两组术后Constant评分提升幅度,SST问卷增长个数,前屈、外旋角度改善及VAS评分下降的情况。结果急性期组在术后Constant评分(t=3.242,P=0.003)、SST问卷完成个数(t=2.080,P=0.048)、前屈角度(t=2.08,P=0.048)及VAS评分(t=2.394,P=0.024)四方面改善程度优于慢性期组,而两组在外旋角度改善方面差异无统计学意义(t=0.764,P=0.452)。结论关节镜下钙化灶清除可以显著改善患者肩关节功能、缓解疼痛。急性期患者与慢性期患者临床疗效相当。%Background Calcifying tendonitis of rotator cuff is a common disease that causes pain .It frequently occurs in people at 30‐50s ,especially in women .The acute calcifying tendonitis is characterized by persistent severe pain of shoulder joint of unknow n reason .In case of severe symptoms ,emergency treatment is needed .Most patients with acute phase diseases have good efficacy for conservative treatment .However ,patients who do not respond to conservative treatment or with symptoms unrelieved that severely influence work and life ,surgery that removes the calcifying lesion under the arthroscopy is recognized as the effective treatment .Recently ,with the development of arthroscopy ,removal of calcium compounds under the arthroscopy has become a common surgery and leads to good efficacy .This study was performed to assess the efficacy of removal of calcified lesion under arthroscopy for calcifying tendonitis of rotator cuff in patients with acute and chronic phases of diseases ,and to determine the

  11. BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is reviewed in detail in this study. Comparison of different synthesis methods, namely physical, chemical and green methods giving emphasis to biological synthesis is documented here. This study also details limitations of the present techniques and envisages the future scope of nanoparticle biosynthesis. Important applications of nanoparticles are also discussed briefly in the present report.

  12. Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

  13. Tratamento artroscópico da tendinite calcária do manguito rotador Arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Amado Ferreira Neto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiográficos do tratamento cirúrgico por via artroscópica em pacientes com tendinite calcária do manguito rotador. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com análise de 20 pacientes que foram submetidos ao tratamento artroscópico da tendinite calcária do ombro, de março de 1999 a novembro de 2005. Seis pacientes foram excluídos devido à perda do seguimento. Com seguimento médio de 41,4 meses, oito pacientes (57% eram do sexo feminino e seis (43% do masculino; sendo o lado direito acometido em 10 (71% e o esquerdo em quatro (29%. Nove casos (64% apresentavam calcificação no tendão supraespinal, dois (14% no infraespinal e três (21% envolvendo os dois tendões. RESULTADOS: Em todos os casos, realizou-se a ressecção dos depósitos de cálcio através da perfuração com agulha (Jelco® nº 14 e curetagem (minicureta. Dois ombros (14% foram submetidos à descompressão subacromial; um, (7% à exérese distal da clavícula; e, em três, (21% houve a necessidade de se fazer sutura tendão-tendão. Nenhum paciente foi submetido à reinserção tendão-osso. Pela escala da UCLA, a média da pontuação foi de 33 pontos (26-35, indicando que a maioria teve resultados bons. Na avaliação final radiográfica, nenhum paciente apresentava sinais de calcificações. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento artroscópico da tendinite calcária do ombro permite a exérese da calcificação com segurança, obtendo-se resultados bons com relação à dor e à função do ombro.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic treatment of the rotator cuff in patients with Calcifying Tendinitis. METHOD: A retrospective study of twenty patients submitted to arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff Calcifying Tendinitis from March 1999 to November 2005. Six patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. The average follow-up period was 41.4 months. Eight patients (57% were female and

  14. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  15. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  16. Nanoparticle agglomerates in magnetoliposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoliposomes consist of vesicles composed of a phospholipid membrane encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles. These systems have several important applications, such as in MRI contrast agents, drug and gene carriers, and cancer treatment devices. For all of these applications, controlling the number of encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles is a key issue. In this work, we used a magneto-optical technique to obtain information about the efficiency of encapsulation, the number of nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome and also about the formation of the nanoparticle structures. The parameters studied included the effect of the duration of sonication, the presence of cholesterol in the liposome membrane, as well as time-related stability. For the liposomal vesicles prepared in this work, we found between 35 and 300 nanoparticles encapsulated per liposome, depending on the experimental conditions, consisting of small linear chains of nanoparticles, basically trimers and tetramers. The methodology developed might be useful for the investigation and improvement of the properties of several magnetic nanocarrier systems.

  17. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobili, Terrika A; Daniele, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  18. Effect of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Enrichments (DIC and DOC) on the Photosynthesis and Calcification Rates of Two Calcifying Green Algae from a Caribbean Reef Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diele, Karen; Teichberg, Mirta; Wild, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs worldwide are affected by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) concentrations due to ocean acidification (OA) and coastal eutrophication. These two stressors can occur simultaneously, particularly in near-shore reef environments with increasing anthropogenic pressure. However, experimental studies on how elevated DIC and DOC interact are scarce and fundamental to understanding potential synergistic effects and foreseeing future changes in coral reef function. Using an open mesocosm experiment, the present study investigated the impact of elevated DIC (pHNBS: 8.2 and 7.8; pCO2: 377 and 1076 μatm) and DOC (added as 833 μmol L-1 of glucose) on calcification and photosynthesis rates of two common calcifying green algae, Halimeda incrassata and Udotea flabellum, in a shallow reef environment. Our results revealed that under elevated DIC, algal photosynthesis decreased similarly for both species, but calcification was more affected in H. incrassata, which also showed carbonate dissolution rates. Elevated DOC reduced photosynthesis and calcification rates in H. incrassata, while in U. flabellum photosynthesis was unaffected and thalus calcification was severely impaired. The combined treatment showed an antagonistic effect of elevated DIC and DOC on the photosynthesis and calcification rates of H. incrassata, and an additive effect in U. flabellum. We conclude that the dominant sand dweller H. incrassata is more negatively affected by both DIC and DOC enrichments, but that their impact could be mitigated when they occur simultaneously. In contrast, U. flabellum can be less affected in coastal eutrophic waters by elevated DIC, but its contribution to reef carbonate sediment production could be further reduced. Accordingly, while the capacity of environmental eutrophication to exacerbate the impact of OA on algal-derived carbonate sand production seems to be species-specific, significant reductions can be expected under future

  19. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yongkun; Burkhard Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs...

  20. Optical properties of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At the NBI I am involved in projects relating to optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in particular with respect to plasmonic heating with direct applications to photothermal cancer therapy. For this purpose we have developed heating assays that can be used to measure the heating of any...... nanoscopic heat source like an irradiated nanoparticle...

  1. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  2. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynich, Raman A., E-mail: dynich@solo.by [Institute of Social Educational Technologies (Belarus)

    2015-06-15

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such “energy breathing” is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 and 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  3. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions.

  4. Transformation mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Umar Saeed; Amanullah; Manan Abdul; Khan Nasrullah; Mahmood Amir; Rahim Abdur

    2015-01-01

    A simple oxidation synthesis route was developed for producing magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology. Investigation of oxidation process of the produced magnetite nanoparticles (NP) was performed after synthesis under different temperatures. The phase transformation of synthetic magnetite nanoparticles into maghemite and, henceforth, to hematite nanoparticles at different temperatures under dry oxidation has been studied. The natural magnetite particles were directly tra...

  5. Constraints on the factors controlling 13C-18O bond abundances in biologically precipitated carbonates from measurements of marine calcifiers cultured at variable temperature, pH, and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchas, T. E.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Ries, J. B.; Freitas, P. S.; Hiebenthal, C.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Tripati, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine mollusks and corals are widely used as archives of past climate change; oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O value) of their carbonate minerals is perhaps the most commonly used proxy to reconstruct paleoclimate from these marine calcifiers. However, oxygen isotope paleothermometry of mollusks and corals is complicated by non-equilibrium "vital effects" and variations in seawater pH changes, both of which influence the net fractionation of oxygen isotopes between carbonate and water. Carbonate "clumped isotope" thermometry is an emerging approach that potentially addresses these ambiguities. Here we report measurements of abundance of 13C-18O bonds (described by the measured parameter Δ47) in a variety of marine calcifiers cultured under controlled conditions. Previous studies on biologically precipitated samples such as foraminifera, coccoliths, and corals have shown that Δ47 values are related to calcification temperature with a relationship that is generally similar to inorganic carbonate. However, the influence of effects other than temperature has not been extensively studied and little work has been done to explore the potential for small non-equilibrium effects in cultured specimens that were grown under controlled conditions. In this study, we report δ18O and Δ47 measurements of mollusk specimens that were cultured at several temperatures ranging from 5 to 25°C, as well as different pH and salinity values. We also report data for other marine calcifiers including the temperate coral species Oculina arbuscula and the coralline red algae Neogoniolithon sp., that were cultured at a single temperature but variable pH.

  6. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotić, M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  7. Nanoparticle-based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Khanna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles exhibit several unique properties that can be applied to develop chemical and biosensorspossessing desirable features like enhanced sensitivity and lower detection limits. Gold nanoparticles arecoated with sugars tailored to recognise different biological substances. When mixed with a weak solution ofthe sugar-coated nanoparticles, the target substance, e.g., ricin or E.coli, attaches to the sugar, thereby alteringits properties and changing the colour. Spores of bacterium labeled with carbon dots have been found to glowupon illumination when viewed with a confocal microscope. Enzyme/nanoparticle-based optical sensors forthe detection of organophosphate (OP compounds employ nanoparticle-modified fluorescence of an inhibitorof the enzyme to generate the signal for the OP compound detection. Nanoparticles shaped as nanoprisms,built of silver atoms, appear red on exposure to light. These nanoparticles are used as diagnostic labels thatglow when target DNA, e.g., those of anthrax or HIV, are present. Of great importance are tools like goldnanoparticle-enhanced surface-plasmon resonance sensor and silver nanoparticle surface-enhanced portableRaman integrated tunable sensor. Nanoparticle metal oxide chemiresistors using micro electro mechanical systemhotplate are very promising devices for toxic gas sensing. Chemiresistors comprising thin films of nanogoldparticles, encapsulated in monomolecular layers of functionalised alkanethiols, deposited on interdigitatedmicroelectrodes, show resistance changes through reversible absorption of vapours of harmful gases. Thispaper reviews the state-of-the-art sensors for chemical and biological terror agents, indicates their capabilitiesand applications, and presents the future scope of these devices.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.608-616, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1683

  8. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09 ± 0.31 mm, 2 ± 8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3 ± 8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1 ± 6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p ≤ 0.0001). Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT

  9. Early outcome of high energy Laser (Excimer) facilitated coronary angioplasty ON hARD and complex calcified and balloOn-resistant coronary lesions: LEONARDO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Vittorio; Sorropago, Giovanni; Laurenzano, Eugenio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Golino, Luca, E-mail: lucagolino.jazz@alice.it [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital, Gravedona, Como (Italy); Casafina, Alfredo; Schiano, Vittorio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Gabrielli, Gabriele [University Hospital Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Ettori, Federica; Chizzola, Giuliano [Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia (Italy); Bernardi, Guglielmo; Spedicato, Leonardo [University Hospital S. Maria Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Armigliato, Pietro [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy); Spampanato, Carmine [Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples (Italy); Furegato, Martina [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Aim: An innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) has been recently used for the treatment of complex coronary lesions, as calcified stenosis, chronic total occlusions and non-compliant plaques. Such complex lesions are difficult to adequately treat with balloon angioplasty and/or intracoronary stenting. The aim of this study was to examine the acute outcome of this approach on a cohort of patients with coronary lesions. Methods and Results: Eighty patients with 100 lesions were enrolled through four centers, and excimer laser coronary angioplasty was performed on 96 lesions (96%). Safety and effectiveness data were compared between patients treated with standard laser therapy and those treated with increased laser therapy. Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success in was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). There was no perforation, major side branch occlusion, spasm, no-reflow phenomenon, dissection nor acute vessel closure. Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant lesions without complications. Conclusions: This study suggests that laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty is a simple, safe and effective device for the management of complex coronary lesions. Furthermore, higher laser energy levels delivered by this catheter improved the device performance without increasing complications. - Highlights: • We planned this multicenter study to examine the acute outcome of an innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) for treatment of complex coronary lesions. • We enrolled 80 patients with 100 lesions and performed excimer laser coronary angioplasty in 96 lesions (96%). • Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). • Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant

  10. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  11. Shaped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; An, Changhua

    2011-03-01

    Advance in the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles made of gold and silver is reviewed in this article. This review starts with a new angle by analyzing the relationship between the geometrical symmetry of a nanoparticle shape and its internal crystalline structures. According to the relationship, the nanoparticles with well-defined shapes are classified into three categories: nanoparticles with single crystallinity, nanoparticles with angular twins, and nanoparticles with parallel twins. Discussion and analysis on the classical methods for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles in each category are also included and personal perspectives on the future research directions in the synthesis of shaped metal nanoparticles are briefly summarized. This review is expected to provide a guideline in designing the strategy for the synthesis of shaped nanoparticles and analyzing the corresponding growth mechanism.

  12. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  13. Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Scientific uncertainty plays a major role in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles. Moreover, there is uncertainty within fundamental data and information regarding the potential environmental and health risks of nanoparticles, hampering risk assessments based on standard...... approaches. To date, there have been a number of different approaches to assess uncertainty of environmental risks in general, and some have also been proposed in the case of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. In recent years, others have also proposed that broader assessments of uncertainty are also needed in...... order to handle the complex potential risks of nanoparticles, including more descriptive characterizations of uncertainty. Some of these approaches are presented and discussed herein, in which the potential strengths and limitations of these approaches are identified along with further challenges for...

  14. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Koch, Michel H J; Fahr, Alfred;

    2009-01-01

    Cholesteryl nonanoate (CN), myristate (CM), palmitate (CP) and oleate (CO) alone or in combination were evaluated as matrix lipids for the preparation of supercooled smectic nanoparticles with a high stability against recrystallization during storage. The phase behavior of the cholesterol esters......, laser diffraction combined with polarizing intensity differential scattering, DSC and SAXS. The morphology of selected formulations was studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. All smectic nanoparticles with a mixed cholesterol ester matrix were stable against recrystallization when stored...... at room temperature. Nanoparticles with a pure CN and mixed CM/CN matrix with a high fraction of CN (60% of the whole lipid matrix) could even be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 18 months without any recrystallization. As smectic nanoparticles are studied especially with regard to parenteral...

  15. METALIC NANOPARTICLES AND NANOSTRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Nohavica, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    A brief overview of the field of metallic nanoparticles and nanocrystalline materials preparation and their properties is presented. Dependence of the chemical potential on surface curvature is important for particles solubility in the melt, vapour pressure of liquids as a function of droplet radius, Ostwald ripening and sintering of the individual particles. Melting point and lattice constant depends on the radius of nanoparticles as well. The major processing for nanocrystalline materials ...

  16. Metallic Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    A Hernando; P. Crespo; M. A. García

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed some relevant aspects of the magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles with small size (below 4 nm), covering the size effects in nanoparticles of magnetic materials, as well as the appearance of magnetism at the nanoscale in materials that are nonferromagnetic in bulk. These results are distributed along the text that has been organized around three important items: fundamental magnetic properties, different fabrication procedures, and characterization techniqu...

  17. Plasmon resonances in nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mayergoyz, Isaak D

    2012-01-01

    This unique volume provides a broad introduction to plasmon resonances in nanoparticles and their novel applications. Here, plasmon resonances are treated as an eigenvalue problem for specific boundary integral equations and general physical properties of plasmon spectrum are studied in detail. The coupling of incident radiation to specific plasmon modes, the time dynamics of their excitation and dephasing are also analytically treated. Finally, the applications of plasmon resonances to SERS, light controllability (gating) of plasmon resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles, the use of plasmo

  18. Renal Clearance of Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hak Soo; Liu, Wenhao; Misra, Preeti; Tanaka, Eiichi; Zimmer, John P.; Ipe, Binil Itty; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2007-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using quantum dots (QDs) as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinar...

  19. Biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Michael T.; Mark Young; Trevor Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their potential use in high-density memory devices, spintronics, and applications in diagnostic medicine. The conditions for synthesis of these materials are often complicated by their high reaction temperatures, costly reagents, and post-processing requirements. Practical applications of magnetic nanoparticles will require the development of alternate synthetic strategies that can overcome these impediments. Biomimetic approaches...

  20. The impact of low pH, low aragonite saturation state on calcifying corals: an in-situ study of ocean acidification from the "ojos" of Puerto Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, E. D.; Paytan, A.; Potts, D. C.; Hernandez Terrones, L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide have resulted in rising aqueous CO2 concentrations that lower the pH of the oceans (Caldeira and Wickett 2003, 2005, Doney et al., 2009). It is estimated that over the next 100 years, the pH of the surface oceans will decrease by ~0.4 pH units (Orr et al., 2005), which is expected to hinder the calcifying capabilities of numerous marine organisms. Previous field work (Hall-Spencer et al., 2008) indicates that ocean acidification will negatively impact calcifying species; however, to date, very little is known about the long-term impacts of ocean acidification from the in-situ study of coral reef ecosystems. The Yucatán Peninsula of Quintana Roo, Mexico, represents an ecosystem where naturally low pH groundwater (7.14-8.07) has been discharging offshore at highly localized points (called ojos) for millennia. We present preliminary chemical and biological data on a selection of ojos from lagoon sites in Puerto Morelos, Mexico. Our findings indicate a decrease in species richness and size with proximity to the low pH waters. We address the potential long-term implications of low pH, low aragonite saturation state on coral reef ecosystems.

  1. Deep-sea coral δ13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Foster, Gavin L.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, δ11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ΔpH. We report that skeletal δ11B and ΔpH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89-8.09, with ΔpH related to δ13C by ΔpH = 0.029 × δ13C + 0.929, r2 = 0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by determining ΔpH from δ13C and subtracting it from the δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH. The uncertainty for reconstructions is ±0.12 pH units (2 standard deviations) if estimated from regression prediction intervals or between ±0.04 and ±0.06 pH units if estimated from confidence intervals. Our new approach quantifies and corrects for vital effects, offering improved accuracy relative to an existing δ11B versus seawater pH calibration with deep-sea scleractinian corals.

  2. Immunosensing using nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunosensing technology is taking advantage of the lastest developments in materials science and inparticular from the nanomaterials field. Because of their unprecedented optical tunability as well as electrical and electrochemical qualities, we are seeing significant developments in the design of novel immunoassays; various conventional optical and electrical platforms which allow for future applications in several fields are being used. Properties of nanoparticles such as light absorption and dispersion are bringing interesting immunosensing alternatives. Nanoparticles are improving the sensitivity of existing techniques used for protein detection in immunoassays based on Surface Plasmon Resonance, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Fluorescence spectroscopy etc. Electrochemical techniques are also taking advantage of electrical properties of nanoparticles. Redox properties of metal based nanoparticles, surface impedance change and conductance changes once nanoparticles are present as labelling tags or modifiers of transducer surfaces are also improving the technology. In most of the examples nanoparticle based biosensing systems are being offered as excellent screening and superior alternatives to existing conventional strategies/assays with interest for fields in clinical analysis, food quality, safety and security.

  3. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparti......We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  4. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  5. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in understanding the toxicity and rational design of gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications in recent years. In this study gold nanoparticles were synthesized using dextrose as a reducing agent. The gold nanoparticles displayed characteristic Surface Plasmon Resonance peak at around 550 nm having a mean particle size of 75±30 nm. In order to identify and analyze nanoparticles, UV–Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light sca...

  6. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  7. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  8. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute, maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  9. Nanoparticle manipulation by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, non-uniform electric field proved to be the most promising technique for nanoparticles manipulation with applications in fields such as medicine, biology, physics or nano technology. The paper presents a set of numerical results concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces on a nanoparticle suspension. The DEP force depends on the electric properties of the nanoparticles, as well as their shape, size and mass, and the properties of the surrounding medium. The numerical study was performed in the frame of a mathematical model describing the electric field distribution and the suspended nanoparticle movement in a dense and viscous fluid. The equations are solved, together with the appropriate boundary conditions using a code based on the finite element method. The dielectrophoretic force distribution, the particle trajectories and the nanoparticle concentration profile are computed. This type of analysis leads to the optimization of the control parameters and is crucial in the designing process of an experimental micro fluidic device with application in the separation of submicronic particles. (Author)

  10. Chemical Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest particularly because of the size dependence of physical and chemical properties and its enormous technological potential. Among different metal nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles have attracted great attention because copper is one of the most key metals in new technology. Chemical methods are used to synthesize copper nanoparticles and among them chemical reduction is the most frequently applied method for the preparation of stable, colloidal dispersions in organic solvents. In this paper, a brief overview of the current research worldwide in the chemical synthesis of copper nanoparticles is discussed.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C.

    2010-02-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  12. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  13. Biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Klem

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their potential use in high-density memory devices, spintronics, and applications in diagnostic medicine. The conditions for synthesis of these materials are often complicated by their high reaction temperatures, costly reagents, and post-processing requirements. Practical applications of magnetic nanoparticles will require the development of alternate synthetic strategies that can overcome these impediments. Biomimetic approaches to materials chemistry have provided a new avenue for the synthesis and assembly of magnetic nanomaterials that has great potential for overcoming these obstacles.

  14. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  15. NANOPARTICLES IN NUCLEAR IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vicky V Mody PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review article summarizes the current state radiolabeled nanoparticles for molecular imaging applications mainly targeting cancer. Due to their enormous flexibility, and versatility the radiolabeled nanoparticles have shown their potential in the diagnosis and therapy. As the matter of fact, these radiolabeled imaging agents enable the visualization of the cellular function and the follow-up of the molecular process in living organisms. Moreover, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has provided various innovative radionuclides and delivery systems, such as liposomes, magnetic agents, polymers, dendrimers, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes to cope up with the hurdles which have been posed by various disease states.

  16. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  17. Potencial risks of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Forbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicology is an emergent important subdiscipline of Nanosciences, which refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems giving emphasis to the elucidation of the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. Although potential beneficial effects of nanotechnologies are generally well described, the potential (eco toxicological effects and impacts of nanoparticles have so far received little attention. This is the reason why some routes of expousure, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as well as toxicological effects of nanoparticles are discussed in this review.

  18. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  19. 钙化阻塞根管预备中EDTA凝胶的应用效果对比研究%Comparative study on application effect of calcified root canal occlusion in the preparation of EDTA gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛巧丽; 努尔比亚木·麦麦提依明; 赵今

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对临床钙化阻塞根管预备中是否采用EDTA凝胶辅助C型先锋锉和手用ProTaper镍钛锉进行根管预备的临床效果比较,以其提高口腔根管治疗质量。方法制定严格筛选标准,选取根管细小钙化患牙50颗,钙化根管136个,随机分为两组,实验组采用EDTA凝胶辅助C型先锋锉和手用ProTaper镍钛锉预备根管70个;对照组不使用EDTA凝胶,只用C型先锋锉加手用ProTaper镍钛锉预备根管66个,根据X线片和临床指标等检查比较两组根管预备效果。结果实验组70个钙化根管有61个根管扩通,达到根管预备要求,成功率87.14%;对照组66个钙化根管有34个根管扩通,成功率51.52%,对比两者之间有显著差异。结论在临床钙化阻塞根管的机械预备中应用EDTA凝胶辅助,可极大提高钙化阻塞根管的疏通率,提高口腔根管治疗质量,有效保留患牙。%Objective To compare clinical effect of root canal preparation by ProTaper nickel titanium and EDTA gel preparation, to improve the quality of root canal therapy. Methods The strict screening criteria, selection of fine root canal calcification 50 teeth, calcified root canal 136, were randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group with EDTA gel assisted C pioneer file and hand ProTaper nickel titanium file in root canal preparation70;control group without the use of EDTA gel, only C pioneer file hand ProTaper nickel titanium file in root canal preparation 66, according to the X-ray and clinical examination were compared between the two groups of root canal preparation effect. Results 70 calcified root canals of 61 root canal expansion, to prepare for the root canal, the success rate was 87.14%;the control group 66 calcified root canals of 34 root canal expansion, the success rate was 51.52%, there was a significant difference between the two comparison. Conclusion The application of EDTA gel root canal blocking auxiliary

  20. Nanoparticles and supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of micro and nanoparticles of organic compounds is extremely difficult to achieve using the classical micronization techniques. In order to obtain this result several techniques based on the use of supercritical fluids have been proposed. In this work it has critically analyzed the major results obtained with a special emphasis on those belonging to pharmaceutical field

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913

  3. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Westesen, K; Drechsler, M;

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of preparing nanoparticles in the supercooled thermotropic liquid crystalline state from cholesterol esters with saturated acyl chains as well as the incorporation of model drugs into the dispersions was investigated using cholesteryl myristate (CM) as a model cholesterol ester....

  4. Stresses in hollow nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 20 (2010), s. 2799-2805. ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Spherical nanoparticles * Micromechanics * Interface Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2010

  5. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  6. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP

  7. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2013-04-15

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.

  8. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-11

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications. PMID:27015511

  9. Magnetoacoustic Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Rosenthal, Amir; Myklatun, Ahne; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles and electromagnetic fields can be determined through electrical signal induction in coils due to magnetization. However, the direct measurement of instant electromagnetic energy absorption by magnetic nanoparticles, as it relates to particle characterization or magnetic hyperthermia studies, has not been possible so far. We introduce the theory of magnetoacoustics, predicting the existence of second harmonic pressure waves from magnetic nanoparticles due to energy absorption from continuously modulated alternating magnetic fields. We then describe the first magnetoacoustic system reported, based on a fiber-interferometer pressure detector, necessary for avoiding electric interference. The magnetoacoustic system confirmed the existence of previously unobserved second harmonic magnetoacoustic responses from solids, magnetic nanoparticles, and nanoparticle-loaded cells, exposed to continuous wave magnetic fields at different frequencies. We discuss how magnetoacoustic signals can be employed as a nanoparticle or magnetic field sensor for biomedical and environmental applications.

  10. Progress toward clonable inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Thomas W.; Staicu, Lucian C.; Nemeth, Richard S.; Schwartz, Cindi L.; Crawford, David; Seligman, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, William J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.; Ackerson, Christopher J.

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular electron tomography shows the nanoparticles as intracellular, of narrow dispersity, symmetrically irregular and without any observable membrane or structured protein shell. Protein mass spectrometry of a fractionated soluble cytosolic material with selenite reducing capability identified nitrite reductase and glutathione reductase homologues as NADPH dependent candidate enzymes for the reduction of selenite to zerovalent Se nanoparticles. In vitro experiments with commercially sourced glutathione reductase revealed that the enzyme can reduce SeO32- (selenite) to Se nanoparticles in an NADPH-dependent process. The disappearance of the enzyme as determined by protein assay during nanoparticle formation suggests that glutathione reductase is associated with or possibly entombed in the nanoparticles whose formation it catalyzes. Chemically dissolving the nanoparticles releases the enzyme. The size of the nanoparticles varies with SeO32- concentration, varying in size form 5 nm diameter when formed at 1.0 μM [SeO32-] to 50 nm maximum diameter when formed at 100 μM [SeO32-]. In aggregate, we suggest that glutathione reductase possesses the key attributes of a clonable nanoparticle system: ion reduction, nanoparticle retention and size control of the nanoparticle at the enzyme site.Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular

  11. Nanoparticle delivery in infant lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Takenaka, Shinji; James P Butler; Henry, Frank S.; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with th...

  12. Coalescence Behavior of Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang YQ; Liang WS; Geng CY

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB)-stabilized gold nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated. After an annealing of the as-synthesized nanoparticles at 300 °C for 30 min, the coalescence behavior of gold nanoparticles has been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in detail. Two types of coalescence, one being an ordered combination of two or more particles in appropriate orientations through twinning, and the other being an ordered combina...

  13. Lymphatic Biodistribution of Polylactide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, Eric J.; Tang, Li; Tong, Rong; Cheng, Jianjun; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastases occur through both the cardiovascular and lymphatic circulations. However, the majority of nanoparticle biodistribution studies have been focused on the cardiovascular circulation. In this study, we report the formulation of Cy5-labeled polylactide (Cy5-PLA) nanoparticles with controlled size and surface features and the subsequent evaluation of their lymphatic biodistribution. Cy5-PLA nanoparticles were formulated through Cy5/(BDI)ZnN(TMS)2-mediated [(BDI) = 2-((2,6-diisopro...

  14. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Amedea B. Seabra; Nelson Durán

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green) processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; howeve...

  15. Safety of Nanoparticles in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Zhu, Motao; Yang, Yong; Shen, Jianliang; Gentile, Emanuela; Paolino, Donatella; Fresta, Massimo; Nie, Guangjun; Chen, Chunying; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. During the past two decades, a growing number of nanomedicines have received regulatory approval and many more show promise for future clinical translation. In this context, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticles in order to achieve biocompatibility and desired activity. However, it is unwarranted to make generalized statements regarding the safety of nanoparticles, since the field of nanomedicine comprises a multitude of different manufactured nanoparticles made from various materials. Indeed, several nanotherapeutics that are currently approved, such as Doxil and Abraxane, exhibit fewer side effects than their small molecule counterparts, while other nanoparticles (e.g. metallic and carbon-based particles) tend to display toxicity. However, the hazardous nature of certain nanomedicines could be exploited for the ablation of diseased tissue, if selective targeting can be achieved. This review discusses the mechanisms for molecular, cellular, organ, and immune system toxicity, which can be observed with a subset of nanoparticles. Strategies for improving the safety of nanoparticles by surface modification and pretreatment with immunomodulators are also discussed. Additionally, important considerations for nanoparticle safety assessment are reviewed. In regards to clinical application, stricter regulations for the approval of nanomedicines might not be required. Rather, safety evaluation assays should be adjusted to be more appropriate for engineered nanoparticles. PMID:26601723

  16. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  17. Surface chemistry of "unprotected" nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Imke; Warneke, Jonas; Neumann, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of colloidal nanoparticles in alkaline ethylene glycol is a powerful approach for the preparation of model catalysts and ligand-functionalized nanoparticles. For these systems the term "unprotected" nanoparticles has been established because no strongly binding stabilizers...... study. "Unprotected" Pt and Ru nanoparticles were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, which does not evidence the presence of any C-H containing species bound to the particle surface. Instead, the colloids were found to be covered by CO, as demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. However, analysis...

  18. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  19. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Župková, S.; Sopoušek, J.; Šídlo, M.; Buršík, Jiří

    Brno: Mendelova univerzita v Brně, 2012 - (Trnková, L.; Kizek, R.; Hubálek, J.; Adam, V.), s. 341-343 ISBN 978-80-7375-618-5. [Pracovní setkání fyzikálních chemiků a elektrochemiků /12./. Brno (CZ), 30.05.2012-31.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ag nanoparticle * DLS * Plasmon fluorescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. Polymer Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Polymer protected gold nanoparticles have successfully been synthesized by both "grafting-from" and "grafting-to" techniques. The synthesis methods of the gold particles were systematically studied. Two chemically different homopolymers were used to protect gold particles: thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, and polystyrene, PS. Both polymers were synthesized by using a controlled/living radical polymerization process, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)...

  2. Potencial risks of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Forbe; Mario García; Eric Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Nanotoxicology is an emergent important subdiscipline of Nanosciences, which refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems giving emphasis to the elucidation of the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. Although potential beneficial effects of nanotechnologies are generally well described, the potential (eco) toxicological effects and impacts of nanoparticles have so far rec...

  3. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  4. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  5. Composite comprising nanoparticles and method of making nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bozukova, Dimitriya; Jérôme, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the production of nanoparticles comprising a conjugated polymer. The method comprises (i) providing a reaction mixture with a monomer, a photosensitising agent and a solvent, and (ii) exposing the reaction mixture to photo-irradiation to form nanoparticles of a conjugated polymer wherein the photosensitising agent is immiscible with the solvent.

  6. Integration of Stem Cell to Chondrocyte-Derived Cartilage Matrix in Healthy and Osteoarthritic States in the Presence of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Rupak; Comella, Kristin; Butler, Ryan; Castellanos, Glenda; Brazille, Bryn; Claude, Andrew; Agarwal, Arvind; Liao, Jun; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of integrating tissue engineered cartilage derived from human bone marrow derived stem cells (HBMSCs) to healthy as well as osteoarthritic cartilage mimics using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles immersed within a hydrogel substrate. Healthy and diseased engineered cartilage from human chondrocytes (cultured in agar gels) were integrated with human bone marrow stem cell (HBMSC)-derived cartilaginous engineered matrix with and without HA, and evaluated after 28 days of growth. HBMSCs were seeded within photopolymerizable poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels. In addition, we also conducted a preliminary in vivo evaluation of cartilage repair in rabbit knee chondral defects treated with subchondral bone microfracture and cell-free PEGDA with and without HA. Under in vitro conditions, the interfacial shear strength between tissue engineered cartilage derived from HBMSCs and osteoarthritic chondrocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when HA nanoparticles were incorporated within the HBMSC culture system. Histological evidence confirmed a distinct spatial transition zone, rich in calcium phosphate deposits. Assessment of explanted rabbit knees by histology demonstrated that cellularity within the repair tissues that had filled the defects were of significantly higher number (p < 0.05) when HA was used. HA nanoparticles play an important role in treating chondral defects when osteoarthritis is a co-morbidity. We speculate that the calcified layer formation at the interface in the osteoarthritic environment in the presence of HA is likely to have attributed to higher interfacial strength found in vitro. From an in vivo standpoint, the presence of HA promoted cellularity in the tissues that subsequently filled the chondral defects. This higher presence of cells can be considered important in the context of accelerating long-term cartilage remodeling. We conclude that HA nanoparticles play an important role in engineered

  7. Integration of Stem Cell to Chondrocyte-Derived Cartilage Matrix in Healthy and Osteoarthritic States in the Presence of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Dua

    Full Text Available We investigated the effectiveness of integrating tissue engineered cartilage derived from human bone marrow derived stem cells (HBMSCs to healthy as well as osteoarthritic cartilage mimics using hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles immersed within a hydrogel substrate. Healthy and diseased engineered cartilage from human chondrocytes (cultured in agar gels were integrated with human bone marrow stem cell (HBMSC-derived cartilaginous engineered matrix with and without HA, and evaluated after 28 days of growth. HBMSCs were seeded within photopolymerizable poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA hydrogels. In addition, we also conducted a preliminary in vivo evaluation of cartilage repair in rabbit knee chondral defects treated with subchondral bone microfracture and cell-free PEGDA with and without HA. Under in vitro conditions, the interfacial shear strength between tissue engineered cartilage derived from HBMSCs and osteoarthritic chondrocytes was significantly higher (p < 0.05 when HA nanoparticles were incorporated within the HBMSC culture system. Histological evidence confirmed a distinct spatial transition zone, rich in calcium phosphate deposits. Assessment of explanted rabbit knees by histology demonstrated that cellularity within the repair tissues that had filled the defects were of significantly higher number (p < 0.05 when HA was used. HA nanoparticles play an important role in treating chondral defects when osteoarthritis is a co-morbidity. We speculate that the calcified layer formation at the interface in the osteoarthritic environment in the presence of HA is likely to have attributed to higher interfacial strength found in vitro. From an in vivo standpoint, the presence of HA promoted cellularity in the tissues that subsequently filled the chondral defects. This higher presence of cells can be considered important in the context of accelerating long-term cartilage remodeling. We conclude that HA nanoparticles play an important role in

  8. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  9. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... of the sublattice magnetization vectors, results in a contribution to the susceptibility, which increases with increasing temperature....

  10. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, Nidia G.; Redón, Rocío; Herrera-Gomez, Alberto; Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia; Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inside microgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Zafeiropoulos, N.; Stamm, M. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany); Pich, A. [Inst. fuer Makromolekulare Chemie und Textilchemie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate on the synthesis of temperature and pH-sensitive hybrid microgels containing ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles was carried out in the presence of poly(N-vinylcaprolactum-co-acetoacetoxyethylmethacrylate-co-N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacryl amide)(VCL/AAEM/PDMAPMAm) and it was observed that these microgels act as the container for deposition of ZnO nanoparticles, under the specific reaction conditions, leading to the formation of hybrid microgels. A close relationship between changes in properties of microgels and the loaded ZnO content was reported. Microscopic studies confirmed the inclusion of nanoparticles into microgels. It has been found that prepared microgels have tendency to form composite films on solid substrates after water evaporation, with homogenous distribution of ZnO nanoparticles in polymer matrix. (orig.)

  12. Photoelectrochemical studies of chalcogenide nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, S G

    2001-01-01

    the bleaching occurs only when electrons are injected into the conduction band of the nanoparticles and charge transfer to surface states does not affect the absorption. The significance of the results are discussed with reference to the various models of absorbance bleaching in semiconductor nanoparticles. The effect of particle size on the charge transfer processes is examined and the results discussed with respect the distance dependence of the electron tunnelling rate. It is then demonstrated that the particle deposition strategy employed for CdS nanoparticles may be extended to HgS. This thesis is primarily concerned with the (opto)electrochemical investigation of the dynamics of charge separation at tin oxide electrodes derivatised with sub-monolayers of CdS nanoparticles. First a novel method of preparing CdS nanoparticle-modified electrodes is described and it is demonstrated that the particles deposited onto the substrate are representative of those formed in the sol. Employing the technique of inten...

  13. Spin structures in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik

    In this thesis magnetic structures of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are studied as a function of particle size and aggregation. In nanoparticles the magnetic structure can be different from that of the corresponding bulk system due to the following reasons: a) a significant surface contribution...... a detailed knowledge of it can be important for applications of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles for example combined with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in nanocomposite devices. In this thesis the magnetic structure, in particular the orientation of the spins in the antiferromagnetic sublattices......, is investigated in systems of magnetic nanoparticles using a variety of experimental techniques. The spin structure in systems with spin canting, due to magnetic atoms in low symmetry surroundings, is studied in a theoretical model that is able to quantitatively explain observations of anomalous temperature...

  14. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications. PMID:26091943

  15. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  16. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC) nanoparticle

  17. Perylene Nanoparticles Prepared by Reprecipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Xue-Hai(纪学海); FU,Hong-Bing(付红兵); XIE,Rui-Min(谢锐敏); XIAO,De-Bao(肖德宝); YAO,Jian-Nian(姚建年)

    2002-01-01

    Perylene nanoparticles with different sizes were prepared by reprecipitation method. It is found that the nanoparticles show size-dependent optical property. Electron diffraction patterns indicate that all the nanoparticles of different sizes are in crystalline state. The rapid growth of the nanoparticles during the agingg process could be slowed down effectively by the addition of cationic or anionic surfactants.

  18. Mucus permeating thiomer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Dünnhaupt, S; Waldner, C; Hauptstein, S; Pereira de Sousa, I; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system based on thiolated poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles exhibiting mucolytic properties to enhance particle diffusion into deeper mucus regions before adhesion. Mediated by a carbodiimide, cysteine and the mucolytic enzyme papain were covalently attached to poly(acrylic acid) via amide bond formation. The conjugates were co-precipitated with calcium chloride in order to obtain papain modified (PAA-pap) and thiolated nanoparticles (PAA-cys) as well as particles containing both conjugates (PAA-cys-pap). The nanoparticulate systems were characterized regarding particle size distribution and zeta potential. Particle transport was investigated by diffusion studies across intestinal mucus using two different techniques. Furthermore, mucoadhesive properties of all particles were evaluated via rheological measurements. Results demonstrated that all nanoparticles were in a size range of 158-214 nm and showed negative zeta potentials. Due to the presence of papain, the PAA-cys-pap particles were capable of cleaving mucoglycoprotein substructures and consequently exhibited a 2.0-fold higher penetration into the mucus layer in comparison with PAA-cys particles. Within the rheological studies, an 1.9-fold increase in mucoadhesion could be achieved for the nanoparticulate system based on thiolated PAA compared to papain modified particles (PAA-pap). Therefore, the newly developed particulate system (PAA-cys-pap) is characterized by mucoadhesive as well as mucolytic properties. The combination of both effects - mucus-permeating and mucoadhesive properties - might be a promising strategy for the development of oral drug delivery systems to overcome the mucus barrier and providing a prolonged residence time close to the absorption membrane. PMID:25603199

  19. Interfacial Functionalization and Engineering of Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The intense research interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely fueled by the unique properties of nanoscale materials. In this dissertation, the research efforts are focused on surface functionalization and interfacial engineering of functional nanoparticles in the preparation of patchy nanoparticles (e.g., Janus nanoparticles and Neapolitan nanoparticles) such that the nanoparticle structures and properties may be manipulated to an unprecedented level of sophistication.Experiment...

  20. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Peña, Nidia G. [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Redón, Rocío, E-mail: rredon@unam.mx [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico); Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia [FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of Ru nanoparticles by a cheap, fast and solventless approach was achieved. • The zero-valent state as well as the by-product/impurity free of the mechanochemical obtained Ru nanoparticles was proven by XPS, TEM and XRD. • Compared to two other synthesis strategies, the above-mentioned synthesis was more suitable to obtain smaller particles with fewer impurities in shorter time. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  1. Nanoparticles in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Dimitrios; Rancan, Fiorenza; Sterry, Wolfram; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology have allowed the manufacturing of elaborated nanometer-sized particles for various biomedical applications. A broad spectrum of particles, extending from various lipid nanostructures such as liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles, to metal, nanocrystalline and polymer particles have already been tested as drug delivery systems in different animal models with remarkable results, promising an extensive commercialization in the coming years. Controlled drug release to skin and skin appendages, targeting of hair follicle-specific cell populations, transcutaneous vaccination and transdermal gene therapy are only a few of these new applications. Carrier systems of the new generation take advantage of improved skin penetration properties, depot effect with sustained drug release and of surface functionalization (e.g., the binding to specific ligands) allowing specific cellular and subcellular targeting. Drug delivery to skin by means of microparticles and nanocarriers could revolutionize the treatment of several skin disorders. However, the toxicological and environmental safety of micro- and nanoparticles has to be evaluated using specific toxicological studies prior to a wider implementation of the new technology. This review aims to give an overview of the most investigated applications of transcutaneously applied particle-based formulations in the fields of cosmetics and dermatology. PMID:21837474

  2. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  3. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  4. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  5. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  6. Coalescence Behavior of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YQ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB-stabilized gold nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated. After an annealing of the as-synthesized nanoparticles at 300 °C for 30 min, the coalescence behavior of gold nanoparticles has been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in detail. Two types of coalescence, one being an ordered combination of two or more particles in appropriate orientations through twinning, and the other being an ordered combination of two small particles with facets through a common lattice plane, have been observed.

  7. Watching nanoparticle kinetics in liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugang Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of reaction kinetics involved in nanoparticle growth and transformation in liquid environments is crucial for understanding the complex chemical and physical events associated with nanophase evolution. Accordingly, in situ techniques that can “see through” liquids to probe nanomaterial variation are in high demand, as they will help us understand reaction mechanisms and design better synthetic strategies for building nanoparticles with precisely tailored properties. In this review, in situ transmission x-ray microscopy and time-resolved high-energy x-ray scattering techniques are discussed, highlight their capabilities in studying the dynamic processes of nanoparticles.

  8. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  9. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  10. Electrical sintering of nanoparticle structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for sintering nanoparticles by applying voltage is presented. This electrical sintering method is demonstrated using silver nanoparticle structures ink-jet-printed onto temperature-sensitive photopaper. The conductivity of the printed nanoparticle layer increases by more than five orders of magnitude during the sintering process, with the final conductivity reaching 3.7 x 107 S m-1 at best. Due to a strong positive feedback induced by the voltage boundary condition, the process is very rapid-the major transition occurs within 2 μs. The best obtained conductivity is two orders of magnitude better than for the equivalent structures oven-sintered at the maximum tolerable temperature of the substrate. Additional key advantages of the method include the feasibility for patterning, systematic control of the final conductivity and in situ process monitoring. The method offers a generic tool for electrical functionalization of nanoparticle structures

  11. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  12. Magnetocaloric effect in ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, P.; Gass, J.; Rebar, D. J.; Srinath, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2006-12-01

    A comparative study of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is reported in two different types of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticle systems—cobalt ferrite and manganese zinc ferrite with mean size around 5 and 15 nm, respectively. While CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation, the Mn 0.68Zn 0.25Fe 2.07O 4 (MZFO) nanoparticles were prepared by reverse micelle technique using AOT as surfactant. Our results indicate that the change in entropy with the change in applied magnetic field (d S/d H) is reasonably large for this class of nanoparticles and has a wide distribution over a broad temperature range covering the region above and below the blocking temperature. The maximum entropy change is influenced by the particle size, overall distribution in anisotropy and magnetic moments.

  13. ADSORPTION OF PROTEIN ON NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption of protein on nanoparticles was studied by using dynamic light scattering to measure the hydrodynamic size of both pure protein and nanoparticles adsorbed with different amounts of protein. The thickness of the adsorbed protein layer increases as protein concentration, but decreases as the initial size of nanoparticles. After properly scaling the thickness with the initial diameter, we are able to fit all experimental data with a single master curve. Our experimental results suggest that the adsorbed proteins form a monolayeron the nanoparticle surface and the adsorbed protein molecules are attached to the particle surface at many points through a possible hydrogen-bonding. Our results also indicate that as protein concentration increases, the overall shape of the adsorbed protein molecule continuously changes from a flat layer on the particle surface to a stretched coil extended into water. During the change, the hydrodynamic volume of the adsorbed protein increases linearly with protein concentration.

  14. SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudavath Hanumanaik*, Sandeep Kumar Patel and K. Ramya Sree

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Due to their unique size dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could use for drug targeting. Hence solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their aims, production procedures, advantages, limitations and their possible remedies. Appropriate analytical techniques for the characterization of SLN like Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry are highlighted. Aspects of SLN route of administration and the in vivo fate of the carriers are also discussed.

  15. Nanoparticle synthesis for magnetic hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, L

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on an investigation into the synthesis, control, and stabilisation of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications using magnetic hyperthermia. A new understanding of the factors effecting nanoparticle growth in a coprecipitation methodology has been determined. This thesis challenges the highly cited Ostwald Ripening as the primary mechanism for nanoparticulate growth, and instead argues that in certain conditions, such as increasing reaction tempe...

  16. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  17. Single Lamella Nanoparticles of Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christa H. M.; Chiche, Arnaud; Krausch, Georg; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Ballauff, Matthias; Harnau, Ludger; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Tong, Qiong; Mecking, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete analysis of the structure of polyethylene (PE) nanoparticles synthesized and stabilized in water under very mild conditions (15 °C, 40 atm) by a nickel-catalyzed polymerization in aqueous solution. Combining cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) with X-ray scattering, we demonstrate that this new synthetic route leads to a stable dispersion of individual PE nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Most of the semicrystalline particles have a hexagon...

  18. Exposure to Nanoparticles and Hormesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Calabrese, Edward J.; Nascarella, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are particles with lengths that range from 1 to 100 nm. They are increasingly being manufactured and used for commercial purpose because of their novel and unique physicochemical properties. Although nanotechnology-based products are generally thought to be at a pre-competitive stage, an increasing number of products and materials are becoming commercially available. Human exposure to nanoparticles is therefore inevitable as they become more widely used and, as a result, nanotox...

  19. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  20. Doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundu; A Jana; P Barik

    2008-06-01

    We have synthesized nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) ion doped BaTiO3 nanoparticles through a chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The concentration of dopant varies from 0 to 2 mole% in the specimens. The results from X-ray diffractograms and transmission electron micrographs show that the particle diameters in the specimen lie in the range 24–40 nm. It is seen that the dielectric permittivity in doped specimens is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to undoped barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric permittivity shows maxima at 0.3 mole% doping of Fe ion and 0.6 mole% of Ni ion. The unusual dielectric behaviour of the specimens is explained in terms of the change in crystalline structure of the specimens.

  1. Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sáez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the nanomaterials that have been prepared to date by pulsed sonoelectrochemistry. The majority of nanomaterials produced by this method are pure metals such as silver, palladium, platinum, zinc, nickel and gold, but more recently the syntheses have been extended to include the preparation of nanosized metallic alloys and metal oxide semiconductors. A major advantage of this methodology is that the shape andsize of the nanoparticles can be adjusted by varying the operating parameters which include ultrasonic power, current density, deposition potential and the ultrasonic vs electrochemical pulse times. Together with these, it is also possible to adjust the pH, temperature and composition of the electrolyte in the sonoelectrochemistry cell.

  2. Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs, which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today’s society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given.

  3. Nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-particles (N.P.) are structures comprising from some hundred to some thousand atoms. Owing to their size (1 to 100 nanometers), the physical and chemical properties of these nano-objects differ from those of classical materials. They cover a wide development area, which includes medical research: they can be classified into two major groups, organic N.P. (liposomes, polymers N.P., carbon nano tubes, fullerenes) and inorganic N.P. (quantum dots, magnetic N.P., Raman probes). N.P. can be conceived to act as a drug delivery system (therapeutic), imaging probe (diagnostic) or both (theranostic). We report recent data from scientific literature and describe main N.P. within medical area, their state of development, and the limited knowledge of their toxicity in human being. (author)

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ying

    Nanotechnology is revolutionizing human's life. Synthesis and application of magnetic nanoparticles is a fast burgeoning field which has potential to bring significant advance in many fields, for example diagnosis and treatment in biomedical area. Novel nanoparticles to function efficiently and intelligently are in desire to improve the current technology. We used a magnetron-sputtering-based nanocluster deposition technique to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles in gas phase, and specifically engineered nanoparticles for different applications. Alternating magnetic field heating is emerging as a technique to assist cancer treatment or drug delivery. We proposed high-magnetic-moment Fe3Si particles with relatively large magnetic anisotropy energy should in principle provide superior performance. Such nanoparticles were experimentally synthesized and characterized. Their promising magnetic properties can contribute to heating performance under suitable alternating magnetic field conditions. When thermal energy is used for medical treatment, it is ideal to work in a designed temperature range. Biocompatible and "smart" magnetic nanoparticles with temperature self-regulation were designed from both materials science and biomedicine aspects. We chose Fe-Si material system to demonstrate the concept. Temperature dependent physical property was adjusted by tuning of exchange coupling between Fe atoms through incorporation of various amount of Si. The magnetic moment can still be kept in a promising range. The two elements are both biocompatible, which is favored by in-vivo medical applications. A combination of "smart" magnetic particles and thermo-sensitive polymer were demonstrated to potentially function as a platform for drug delivery. Highly sensitive diagnosis for point-of-care is in desire nowadays. We developed composition- and phase-controlled Fe-Co nanoparticles for bio-molecule detection. It has been demonstrated that Fe70Co30 nanoparticles and giant

  5. Key role of alkaline phosphatase for development of human-derived nanoparticles in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Larry W.; Shiekh, Farooq A; Pisimisis, George T.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Edeh, Samuel N.; Miller, Virginia M.; Lieske, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme critical for physiological and pathological biomineralization. Experiments were designed to determine if ALP participates in formation of calcifying nanometer-sized particles (NPs) in vitro. Filtered homogenates of human calcified carotid artery, aorta and kidney stones were inoculated into cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of inhibitors of ALP or pyrophosphate. Calcific NP biofilm developed within one week...

  6. Nanoparticles from the gasphase formation, structure, properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lorke, Axel; Schmechel, Roland; Schulz, Christof

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a broad overview of the complete production and value chain from nanoparticle formation to integration in products and devices, and offers deep insight into the fabrication, characterization and application of nanoparticles from the gasphase.

  7. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-03-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  8. Titanium nitride nanoparticles for therapeutic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2014-01-01

    Titanium nitride nanoparticles exhibit plasmonic resonances in the biological transparency window where high absorption efficiencies can be obtained with small dimensions. Both lithographic and colloidal samples are examined from the perspective of nanoparticle thermal therapy. © 2014 OSA....

  9. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Polyelectrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ping SUN; Zhe Ling ZHANG; Bai Lin ZHANG; Xian Dui DONG; Shao Jun DONG; Er Kang WANG

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized through the reduction of tetrachlorauric acid (HAuCl4) by NaBH4, with polyethyleneimine(PEI) as stabilizer. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy(AFM).

  10. Formation of nanoparticles in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) method we disclosed magnetite particles in plants growing on the Apsheron peninsula. In the characteristics of EPR spectra these particles proved close to synthesized magnetite nanoparticles. In the large interval of magnetic area the EPR signal characteristic to ferromagnetic nanoparticles (g=2.38, ΔH=320Qs) were observed. A strong radioactive contamination of many locations of this peninsula has led to a necessity of studying the influence of radiation on the content of magnetite particles accumulated in plants. The researches showed that the radiation influences the amplitude of EPR signal characterizing the magnetic nanoparticles. For the clarifying which biologic process plays role in the plant-based magnetic nanoparticles' synthesis the wheat (Triticum L.) and the pea (Pisum L.) were used as a model. These seeds were irradiated with different dozes of γ radiation. The pea seeds were irradiated at the 30, 60, 100 Gy and the wheat seeds were irradiated at 100, 200, 300 Gy dozes. Control and irradiated seeds were sprouted during 10 days and then dried at the room temperature. The amount of paramagnetic centres characterizing the magnetic nanoparticles was studied using EPR method. It was found that the amplitude of EPR signal in the wheat shoots' magnetic nanoparticles irradiated at 100 Gy level is higher than in control sample. At the higher level of radiation (300 Gy) the dynamics of paramagnetic centres were weakened. In the investigations with pea seeds the similar results were found. In our opinion definite levels of radiation give incentive or weaken to photosynthesis process in seed shoots, and this changes dynamics of paramagnetic centres characterizing the ferromagnetic nanoparticles and created as the result of the biomineralization process. (author)

  11. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Mason L; Lyon, Andrew J; Mormile, Melanie R; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-15

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 10(5) endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  12. Endotoxin hitchhiking on polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Mason L.; Lyon, Andrew J.; Mormile, Melanie R.; Barua, Sutapa

    2016-07-01

    The control of microbial infections is critical for the preparation of biological media including water to prevent lethal septic shock. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. More than half a million patients suffer from sepsis every year. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are responsible for septic infection by the most common organisms i.e., Escherichia coli and Pseuodomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial cell membrane releases negatively charged endotoxins upon death and enzymatic destruction, which stimulate antigenic response in humans to gram-negative infections. Several methods including distillation, ethylene oxide treatment, filtration and irradiation have been employed to remove endotoxins from contaminated samples, however, the reduction efficiency remains low, and presents a challenge. Polymer nanoparticles can be used to overcome the current inability to effectively sequester endotoxins from water. This process is termed endotoxin hitchhiking. The binding of endotoxin on polymer nanoparticles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions offers efficient removal from water. However, the effect of polymer nanoparticles and its surface areas has not been investigated for removal of endotoxins. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer was tested for its ability to effectively bind and remove endotoxins from water. By employing a simple one-step phase separation technique, we were able to synthesize PCL nanoparticles of 398.3 ± 95.13 nm size and a polydispersity index of 0.2. PCL nanoparticles showed ∼78.8% endotoxin removal efficiency, the equivalent of 3.9 × 105 endotoxin units (EU) per ml. This is 8.34-fold more effective than that reported for commercially available membranes. Transmission electron microscopic images confirmed binding of multiple endotoxins to the nanoparticle surface. The concept of using nanoparticles may be applicable not only to eliminate gram-negative bacteria, but also for any gram

  13. Radiation Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of nano materials is one of the many applications of ionising radiation. It has the advantages of cold process, fast, homogeneous and clean processing without using chemicals, heat and no release of any volatile organic compounds. Hence, radiation processing can be categorised as a green process. The applications of ionising radiation for materials processing are well established and commercialized by way of crosslinking, grafting, curing and degradation. However, the materials use, condition of processing and the end products varies and radiation processing is continue to be developed for various applications in industry, agriculture, health care and environment. The new and emerging development of nano materials has also being incorporated in radiation processing whereby we can see the convergence of radiation and nano technology, to take advantages of the inherent properties of nano size particles. Nowadays many works are being carried out on radiation processing of nano materials. The incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymeric materials will render specific properties that find several advantages compare to conventional composites such as increase heat resistant, improve abrasion and scratch resistant and enhance mechanical properties. In recent years, polymer/clay nano composites has attracted the interest of industry because of its major improvements in physical and mechanical properties, heat stability, reduce flammability and provide enhanced barrier properties at low clay contents. In many applications, crosslinking of polymer matrix is necessary that can further improved the mechanical and physical properties of the composites. Similar research has been extended to electron beam crosslinking of electromagnetic nano composites which comprise of high volume fraction of inorganic fillers in elastomeric matrix. The effect of radiation on inorganic fillers is believed to has influence on the overall radiation crosslinking of the

  14. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  15. Production of nanoparticles utilizing water stabilized plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bertolissi, Gabriele; Brožek, Vlastimil; Chráska, Tomáš; Mušálek, Radek; Neufuss, Karel; Mastný, L.; Sofer, Z.

    Ostrava: Tanger, 2012, s. 33-38. ISBN 978-80-87294-32-1. [NANOCON 2012. International Conference /4./. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2012-25.10.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ag, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Pt – nanoparticles * nanoparticles morphology * plasma spraying * water stabilized plasma * photon spectroscopy * metallic nanoparticles * oxide nanoparticles Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry http://www.nanocon.cz/files/proceedings/04/reports/606.pdf

  16. Engineered Nanoparticles Generation, Characterization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Messing, Maria

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that novel nanometer-sized structures incorporating nanoparticles will have a considerable impact on our lives during the coming decades. Engineered nanoparticles are already found in a number of commercially available products. However, many applications of these nanoparticles have only reached the stage of promising ideas or research demonstrations. The number of nanoparticle-based products on the market is therefore expected to increase considerably during the coming decade...

  17. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy.

  18. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  19. Conductive photopolymers : Insitu synthesis of metal nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    A prologue to the field of noble metal nanoparticles is presented with a brief commentary on the basic synthesis techniques to manufacture these metal nanoparticles and to exploit the full use of their unique properties. In recent years scientific interest in embedding the metal nanoparticles in a host polymer has been increased significantly. A great advancement in the field of conductive polymers by embedding metal nanoparticles in them has been witnessed because they are likely to be an al...

  20. Binary blend nanoparticles with defined morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazy, Omayma

    2008-01-01

    In this study polymer blends of polystyrene and poly(propylene carbonate) were prepared using the miniemulsion process as model systems for the nanoparticles consisting of semiconducting polymers for optical applications. The blends were prepared by mixing nanoparticles of pure polymers or by fabricating blend nanoparticles including both the two polymers in each particle. The development of controlled hemispherical phase separated morphology (Janus morphology) within the blend nanoparticles ...

  1. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Marine Sponge

    OpenAIRE

    Mahta Rezazaeh Hamed; Mohammad Hadi Givianrad; Ali Mashinchian Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine sponge extract Haliclona was carried out. Marine sponges' extracts are responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate solution. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using fresh and dry marine sponge. Experimental factors including, time duration, pH, temperature were optimized. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The sizes of synthesis silver nanoparticles were 27-46 nm and confirmed by scanning electron micro...

  2. Single nanoparticle detectors for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yurt, Abdulkadir; Daaboul, George G.; Connor, John H.; Goldberg, Bennett B.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle research has become increasingly important in the context of bioscience and biotechnology. Practical use of nanoparticles in biology has significantly advanced our understanding about biological processes in the nanoscale as well as led to many novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Besides, synthetic and natural nanoparticles are of concern for their potential adverse effect on human health. Development of novel detection and characterization tools for nanoparticles will...

  3. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Powers, Dana A.; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  4. Naturally occurring nanoparticles from English ivy: an alternative to metal-based nanoparticles for UV protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhili; Zhang Mingjun; Lenaghan Scott C; Xia Lijin; Li Quanshui

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last decade safety concerns have arisen about the use of metal-based nanoparticles in the cosmetics field. Metal-based nanoparticles have been linked to both environmental and animal toxicity in a variety of studies. Perhaps the greatest concern involves the large amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles that are used in commercial sunscreens. As an alternative to using these potentially hazardous metal-based nanoparticles, we have isolated organic nanoparticles from English...

  5. Tannin biosynthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Becerra, R.; Rius, J. L.; Zorrilla, C.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized with gallic acid and tannic acid are characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Its size, form, and structure are compared with nanoparticles obtained previously using alfalfa biomass in order to find a simpler, consistent, and environmentally friendly method in the production of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Nanoparticle-mediated treatment for inflammatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides nanoparticles for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The nanoparticles preferably comprise chitosan and a siRNA targeting a mRNA encoding a pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as e.g. tnf-alfa. A preferred route of administration of the nanoparticles is by injection...

  7. Novel Properties of Photochromic Spirooxazine Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-Yuan; FAN Mei-Gong; ZHANG Chang-Rui; SHENG Xiao-Hai; YAO Jian-Nian

    2007-01-01

    The nanoparticles of a spirooxazine (SPO) and its photomerocyanine (PMC) were prepared through the reprecipitation method. Two distinct features were observed. One is that the decaying lifetime for PMC nanoparticles was 600 times of that for the dispersed molecules, and the other is that the fluorescence intensity of SPO nanoparticles was enhanced by 240 times of that of the dispersed monomer.

  8. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation....

  9. Supersonic flow imaging via nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Due to influence of compressibility,shock wave,instabilities,and turbulence on supersonic flows, current flow visualization and imaging techniques encounter some problems in high spatiotemporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)measurements.Therefore,nanoparticle based planar laser scattering method(NPLS)is developed here.The nanoparticles are used as tracer,and pulse planar laser is used as light source in NPLS;by recording images of particles in flow field with CCD, high spatiotemporal resolution supersonic flow imaging is realized.The flow-following ability of nanoparticles in supersonic flows is studied according to multiphase flow theory and calibrating experiment of oblique shock wave.The laser scattering characteristics of nanoparticles are analyzed with light scattering theory.The results of theoretical and experimental studies show that the dynamic behavior and light scattering characteristics of nanoparticles highly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution and SNR of NPLS,with which the flow field involving shock wave,expansion,Mach disk,boundary layer,sliding-line,and mixing layer can be imaged clearly at high spatiotemporal resolution.

  10. Supersonic flow imaging via nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YuXin; YI ShiHe; TIAN LiFeng; CHENG ZhongYu

    2009-01-01

    Due to influence of compressibility,shock wave,instabilities,and turbulence on supersonic flows,current flow visualization and imaging techniques encounter some problems in high spatiotemporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)measurements.Therefore,nanoparticle based planar laser scattering method(NPLS)is developed here.The nanoparticles are used as tracer,and pulse planar laser is used as light source in NPLS;by recording images of particles in flow field with CCD,high spatiotemporal resolution supersonic flow imaging is realized.The flow-following ability of nanoparticles in supersonic flows is studied according to multiphase flow theory and calibrating experiment of oblique shock wave.The laser scattering characteristics of nanoparticles are analyzed with light scattering theory.The results of theoretical and experimental studies show that the dynamic behavior and light scattering characteristics of nanoparticles highly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution and SNR of NPLS,with which the flow field involving shock wave,expansion,Mach disk,boundary layer,sliding-line,and mixing layer can be imaged clearly at high spatiotemporal resolution.

  11. APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Telegeeva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advances in nanotechnology, particularly, application in biomedicine are described in the review. The characteristic of the new drug delivery systems is given including lipid, protein and polymer nanoparticles which provide stable delivery of drugs to the target of distribution in the body and prevent their rapid degradation. The advantages of nanometer scale vectors were analyzed. Due to their small size, structure and large surface area, nanoscale materials acquire necessary physico-chemical properties. These properties allow the nanoparticles, containing specific agents, to overcome the limitations existing for the forms of large sizes. This significantly facilitates the intracellular transport to specific cellular targets. Controlled deli very to the place of action and reduction of exposure time on non-target tissues increases efficacy and reduces toxicity and other side effects, which improves the patient's overall health. Use of different ways to deliver nanoparticles allows to deliver low-molecular drugs, proteins, peptides or nucleic acids to specific tissues. Various ways of nanodrugs delivery to a cell and the possibility of modifying their surface by target ligands are discussed in the review. Types of drug delivery systems: microsponges, viruses, imunoconjugates, liposomes, metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, dendrimers, natural and synthetic polymeric nanoparticles, etc are discussed. A large variety of nanovectors, as well as their modification, and loading of various drugs (the methods of inclusion and adsorption are examined, control of their release into the cell, opens prospects for their wide application for visualization of biological processes, diagnosis and therapy of wide range of diseases.

  12. Nonadditivity of nanoparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Carlos A Silvera; Larson, Ronald G; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    Understanding interactions between inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is central to comprehension of self-organization processes and a wide spectrum of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. However, quantitative description of the interparticle forces is complicated by many obstacles that are not present, or not as severe, for microsize particles (μPs). Here we analyze the sources of these difficulties and chart a course for future research. Such difficulties can be traced to the increased importance of discreteness and fluctuations around NPs (relative to μPs) and to multiscale collective effects. Although these problems can be partially overcome by modifying classical theories for colloidal interactions, such an approach fails to manage the nonadditivity of electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrophobic, and other interactions at the nanoscale. Several heuristic rules identified here can be helpful for discriminating between additive and nonadditive nanoscale systems. Further work on NP interactions would benefit from embracing NPs as strongly correlated reconfigurable systems with diverse physical elements and multiscale coupling processes, which will require new experimental and theoretical tools. Meanwhile, the similarity between the size of medium constituents and NPs makes atomic simulations of their interactions increasingly practical. Evolving experimental tools can stimulate improvement of existing force fields. New scientific opportunities for a better understanding of the electronic origin of classical interactions are converging at the scale of NPs. PMID:26450215

  13. Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Wen

    A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced into DNA detection device in which C-50au are immobilized on ˜90nm width SiO2 band (between two gold electrodes). The passivation step ensures every TP-30au are attached

  14. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

  15. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au3+ through chemical and free radical (esolv-) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for esolv- reaction with Au3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 109 M-1s-1. (author)

  16. Inductive heating of conductive nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Nordebo, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We consider the heating of biological tissue by injecting gold nanoparticles and subjecting the system to an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency spectrum. There are results that indicate that small conducting particles can substantially increase the heating locally and thus provide a method to treat cancer. However, recently there are also other publications that question whether metal nanoparticles can be heated in radiofrequency at all. This paper presents a simplified analysis and some interesting observations regarding the classical electromagnetic background to this effect. Here, it is assumed that the related dipole effects are based solely on conducting nanospheres that are embedded in a surrounding medium. From this point of view it is concluded that the effect of using a capactive coupling i.e., a strong electric field to induce electric dipoles can be disregarded unless the volume fraction of the gold nanoparticles is unrealistically high or if there are some other external electric dipole ...

  17. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used. (paper)

  18. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles in medical nanorobotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical nanorobotics is a field of robotics that exploits the physics at the nanoscale to implement new functionalities in untethered robotic agents aimed for ultimate operations in constrained physiological environments of the human body. The implementation of such new functionalities is achieved by embedding specific nano-components in such robotic agents. Because magnetism has been and still widely used in medical nanorobotics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in particular have shown to be well suited for this purpose. To date, although such magnetic nanoparticles play a critical role in medical nanorobotics, no literature has addressed specifically the use of MNP in medical nanorobotic agents. As such, this paper presents a short introductory tutorial and review of the use of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of medical nanorobotics with some of the related main functionalities that can be embedded in nanorobotic agents

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles in medical nanorobotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.martel@polymtl.ca [Polytechnique Montréal, NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Medical nanorobotics is a field of robotics that exploits the physics at the nanoscale to implement new functionalities in untethered robotic agents aimed for ultimate operations in constrained physiological environments of the human body. The implementation of such new functionalities is achieved by embedding specific nano-components in such robotic agents. Because magnetism has been and still widely used in medical nanorobotics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in particular have shown to be well suited for this purpose. To date, although such magnetic nanoparticles play a critical role in medical nanorobotics, no literature has addressed specifically the use of MNP in medical nanorobotic agents. As such, this paper presents a short introductory tutorial and review of the use of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of medical nanorobotics with some of the related main functionalities that can be embedded in nanorobotic agents.

  1. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männl, U.; van den Berg, C.; Magunje, B.; Härting, M.; Britton, D. T.; Jones, S.; van Staden, M. J.; Scriba, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used.

  2. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods. PMID:25615873

  3. The adjuvanticity of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Staroverov, Sergey A.; Pristensky, Dmitry V.; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2006-06-01

    A new variant of a technique for in vivo production of antibodies to various antigens with colloidal-gold nanoparticles as carrier is discussed. With this technique we obtained highly specific and relatively high-titre antibodies to different antigens. The antibodies were tested by an immunodot assay with gold nanoparticle markers. Our results provide the first demonstration that immunization of animals with colloidal gold complexed with either haptens or complete antigens gives rise to highly specific antibodies even without the use of complete Freund's adjuvant. These findings may attest to the adjuvanticity of gold nanoparticles itself. We provide also experimental results and discussion aimed at elucidation of possible mechanisms of the discovered colloidal-gold-adjuvanticity effect.

  4. Novel Terbium Chelate Doped Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Qiaoyu; Meng Jianxin; Wang Haiming; Liu Yingliang; Man Shiqing

    2006-01-01

    Novel terbium chelate doped silica fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared and characterized.The preparation was carried out in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion containing monomer precursor (pAB-DTPAA-APTEOS), Triton X-100, n-hexanol, and cyclohexane by controlling copolymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyl-triethyloxysilane.The nanoparticles are spherical and uniform in size, about 30 nm in diameter, strongly fluorescent, and highly stable.The amino groups directly introduced to the surface of the nanoparticles using APTEOS during preparation made the surface modification and bioconjugation of the nanoparticles easier.The nanoparticles are expected as an efficient time-resolved luminescence biological label.

  5. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  6. Synthetic pathways to make nanoparticles fluorescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Viktoriya; Epple, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    In biosciences, it is often necessary to follow the pathway of nanoparticles within cells or tissues. The nanoparticles can be used as labeled sensors which may, e.g., address functionalities within a cell, carry other specific agents like drugs or be magnetic for tumor thermotherapy. In the context of nanotoxicology, the fate of a given nanoparticle is of interest. As many methods in cell biology are based on fluorescence detection, there is a strong demand to make nanoparticles fluorescent. Different ways to introduce fluorescence are reviewed and exemplified with typical kinds of nanoparticles, i.e. polymers, silica and calcium phosphate.

  7. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; Alonso, José María; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; González-Calbet, José María; Hernando, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications. PMID:24201075

  8. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  9. Mobility of interacting inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic-Kocurek Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mobility of the 110 nm-Fe2O3 particles in a viscous sucrose solution depends on the concentration of the nanoparticles. When the average particle–particle nearest neighbor distance is less than 250 nm, the particle interaction slows down their mobility. When is more than 170 nm, the small mobility of nanoparticles does not depend on their concentration. The critical distance is approximately equal to 2Rh = 260 nm, where Rh is the hydrodynamic radius, determined by the dynamic light scattering (DLS method.

  10. Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreytsberg, G N; Gracheva, I E [Limited Liability Company ' Scientific and Production Association (NPO)' Likom' , 150049, Yaroslavl, Magistralnaya str., 32 (Russian Federation); Kibrik, B S [Yaroslavl State Medical Academy Russia, 150000, Yaroslavl, Revolutsionnaya str., 5 (Russian Federation); Golikov, I V, E-mail: likomm@yaroslavl.ru [Yaroslavl State Technical University Russia, 150023, Yaroslavl, Moskovskiy avenue, 88 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  11. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  12. Ultrastable and Biofunctionalizable Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Moyano, Daniel F; Parnsubsakul, Attasith; Papadopoulos, Alexander; Wang, Li-Sheng; Landis, Ryan F; Das, Riddha; Rotello, Vincent M

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles provide an excellent platform for biological and material applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, decreased colloidal stability and formation of irreversible aggregates while freeze-drying nanomaterials limit their use in real world applications. Here, we report a new generation of surface ligands based on a combination of short oligo (ethylene glycol) chains and zwitterions capable of providing nonfouling characteristics while maintaining colloidal stability and functionalization capabilities. Additionally, conjugation of these gold nanoparticles with avidin can help the development of a universal toolkit for further functionalization of nanomaterials. PMID:27191946

  13. Application of Gold Nanoparticles to Paint Colorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hideo

    Metal nanoparticles possess unique properties that they do not exhibit in their bulk states. One of these properties is the color due to surface plasmon resonance. Gold nanoparticles appear red. This color has been utilized in glass for a long long time. In recent years, highly concentrated pastes of gold and silver nanoparticles have been successfully produced by using a special type of protective polymer and a mild reductant. The paste of gold nanoparticles can be used for paint and other materials as red colorants. In this article,application examples of gold nanoparticles as colorant are introduced. Recently, methods for producing bimetal nanoparticles such as gold/silver and gold/copper have been developed. These nanoparticles allow colors from yellow to green to be created. These methods and colors they produce are also described in this article.

  14. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E; Huber, Thaddaus R; Ni, Thomas W; Hartje, Luke F; Appel, Karina L; Yost, Jarad W; Ackerson, Christopher J; Snow, Christopher D

    2016-07-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)∼17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)∼1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. PMID:27264210

  15. Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured materials, especially metallic nanoparticles, has accrued utmost interest over the past decade owing to their unique properties that make them applicable in different fields of science and technology. The limitation to the use of these nanoparticles is the paucity of an effective method of synthesis that will produce homogeneous size and shape nanoparticles as well as particles with limited or no toxicity to the human health and the environment. The biological method of nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly method than the conventional chemical method of synthesis and thus gains an upper hand. The biomineralization of nanoparticles in protein cages is one of such biological approaches used in the generation of nanoparticles. This method of synthesis apart from being a safer method in the production of nanoparticles is also able to control particle morphology.

  16. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N.N., E-mail: nnn_1900@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Imamova, S.E.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Toshkova, R.A.; Gardeva, E.G.; Yossifova, L.S.; Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Obara, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  17. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  18. Clinicopathological features of cutaneous angioleiomyoma and its calcified subtype%体表血管平滑肌瘤及其钙化亚型的临床病理学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛荣军; 房惠琼; 杨克非; 李启明

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To study the clinicopathological features of cutaneous angioleiomyoma ( CAL ) including its calcified subtype , cutaneous calcified angioleiomyoma ( CCAL ). Methods 61 cases of CALs including 4 CCALs were investigated with analyses of the clinical manifestations, imaging features and histopathological characteristics. Results Of 61 cases of CALs. 24 were male and 37 were female, age ranged 10 - 87 years with average 43. 08 years. 85. 25c-/o of them usually occurred hetween the twentieth and sixth decades. and the mean age of CCALs was considerably older than that of all CALs. 75. 41% of all CALs involved the lower extremity. Clinically , CALs presented as a slow-growing, solitary , firm and well-defined neoplasm located in dermis or subcutaneous tissue. occasionally emerged as a polypoid mass. One of the typical clinical features of CALs presented in more than half of the patients was pain.The imaging findings were. not characteristic. and the tumors showed solitary nodules in the deep dermis or subcutaneous tissue and occasionally associated with varying degrees of calcification. Grossly, CALs usually presented as solitary, firm, round or oval, well-de-fined nodules with fibrous pseudocapsule covered by normal skin, and their average size was about 0. 5 - 3. 5 cm. Microscopically,CALs consisted in well - defined lesions of vascular spaces with varied size and thick muscle walls , containing concentrically arranged smooth muscle cells within the muscular walls and interspersed with collagen fibers hetween vessels. According to the dominant microscopic pattern, these tumors were divided into three histologic: subtypes: solid. cavernous and venous. Additional microscopic changesfound in some CALs. included foci of sclerosis . small groups of mature adipocytes , myxoid changes, calcification, lymphocytic infiltra-tion, organized thrombi in the lumen of the vessels and areas of hemorrhage. The presence of calcification in the CCALs was rare andusually

  19. 强化氧化对石煤钙化焙烧提钒的影响%Effect of oxidation on vanadium extraction from stone coal with calcified roasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌林; 周向阳; 王辉; 张太康; 李劫; 欧星; 江小舵

    2011-01-01

    The calcified roasting condition for vanadium extraction from stone coal was studied. Under the condition of 950℃, roasting 3 h, CaCO3 addition 6% (mass fraction), the subsequent vanadium leaching efficiency of about 63% can be obtained. On the base of the same condition, effect of air sparging and MnO2 addition on vanadium extraction was investigated. The reason why oxidation can improve vanadium leaching was investigated through phase and valence state of vanadium analysis. Results show that vanadium leaching efficiency of 69% can be obtained with air sparging speed of 0.48 L/h and 68% with MnO2 addition of 3%. It is found that oxidation is effective to destroy the ore structure and increase the percentage of V5+ in calcine, and more calcium vanadate compounds is generated, which easily responds to acid leaching.%研究石煤钙化焙烧参数对提钒效果的影响,确定合理的焙烧参数:当焙烧温度为950℃,焙烧时间3h,碳酸钙添加量为质量分数6%时,石煤焙烧料中钒的浸出率为63%.在此基础上研究增强氧化对提钒效果的影响,比较通空气和添加MnO2这2种情况下提钒的效果.用化学物相分析和钒价态分析等技术探讨加强氧化提高钒浸出率的原因.空气通入速度为0.48 L/h时,钒的浸出率为69%;MnO2添加量(质量分数)为3%时,钒浸出率为68%.研究结果表明,加强氧化后矿石的结构被破坏,V5+含量提高,生成更多易溶于酸的钒酸钙类物质.

  20. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  1. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra Balbir; Sabharwal Raghu; Singh Mandeep; Singh Amarjeet

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Primary calcified hydatid cyst of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Devendra K; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Sawant, Hemant V

    2010-07-01

    Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, and in non-endemic areas like India, the occurrence is as low as 0.2% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. Calcification of the cyst wall indicates an even rarer subvariety, i.e., alveolar echinococcosis (AE). AE has hitherto been unreported in the Indian subcontinent. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male, a shepherd by occupation, who presented to us with intractable seizures and headache. He had no gross lesion in the liver. Craniotomy with total excision of the lesion was performed, followed by antiparasitic treatment. The radiological presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment modalities are discussed in relation to our case. PMID:21808518

  3. Primary calcified hydatid cyst of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, and in non-endemic areas like India, the occurrence is as low as 0.2% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. Calcification of the cyst wall indicates an even rarer subvariety, i.e., alveolar echinococcosis (AE. AE has hitherto been unreported in the Indian subcontinent. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male, a shepherd by occupation, who presented to us with intractable seizures and headache. He had no gross lesion in the liver. Craniotomy with total excision of the lesion was performed, followed by antiparasitic treatment. The radiological presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment modalities are discussed in relation to our case.

  4. Primary calcified hydatid cyst of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Devendra K.; Srikant Balasubramaniam; Hemant V Sawant

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, and in non-endemic areas like India, the occurrence is as low as 0.2% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. Calcification of the cyst wall indicates an even rarer subvariety, i.e., alveolar echinococcosis (AE). AE has hitherto been unreported in the Indian subcontinent. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male, a shepherd by occupation, who presented to us with intractable seizures and headache. He had no gross lesion in the liver. Craniotomy w...

  5. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with calcified pleural plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Balbir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a rare disease. Herein we report a case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis who was suspected to have the disease on chest X-ray and was confirmed on high resolution CT and transbronchial lung biopsy. These investigations showed characteristic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Biomedical applications of supermagnetic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Babič, Michal; Kubinová, Šárka; Schmiedtová, M.; Poledne, R.; Herynek, V.; Sundstrom, T.; Altanerova, V.; Borisova, T.

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2015. s. 18. [Research Postdoctoral Colloquium. 14.05.2015, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomedical applications * supermagnetic nanoparticles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Generation of Mn oxides nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Moravec, Pavel

    Prague : Czech Aerosol Society, 2013. B143. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2013). 01.09.2013-06.09.2013, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : inhalation * manganese oxides nanoparticles * chemical composition * synthesis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M)

  8. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate nanocap

  9. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag and gold (Au nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl. Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs. The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito.

  10. Magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian;

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) particles with sizes of about 16 nm have been studied by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, and neutron diffraction. The nanoparticles are weakly ferromagnetic at temperatures at least down to 5 K with a spontaneous...

  11. Method of tracing engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present application discloses a population of non-aggregated polymer-coated nanoparticles having a mean particle size (diameter) in the range of 1-100 nm, said population comprising (i) a first subpopulation of (re)active particles coated with a first polymer, and (ii) a second subpopulation...

  12. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Ortiz Marlen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal, despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Arati G; Dannongoda, Chamath; Kourentzi, Katerina; Jamison, Andrew C; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Kar, Archana; Cacao, Eliedonna; Strych, Ulrich; Rusakova, Irene; Martirosyan, Karen S; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall; Willson, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing. PMID:25854425

  14. Enzymatic Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati G. Kolhatkar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing.

  15. Generation of Mn oxides nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Moravec, Pavel

    Prague : Czech Aerosol Society, 2013. B143. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2013). 01.09.2013-06.09.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : manganese oxides nanoparticles * inhalation * synthesis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UCHP-M) http://eac2013.cz/index.php

  16. Structure of Amorphous Titania Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, B.; Banfield, J. F.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrafine (2 - 3 nm) titania (TiO2) nanoparticles show only diffuse scattering by both conventional powder x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. We used synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to probe the atomic correlations in this amorphous material. The atomic pair-distribution function (PDF) derived from Fourier transform of the WAXS data was used for reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations of the atomic structure of the small nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate input structures for the RMC. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) simulations were used to screen candidate structures obtained from the RMC. The structure model that best describes both the WAXS and XAS data consists of particles with a highly distorted shell and a small strained anatase-like crystalline core. The average coordination number of Ti is 5.3 and the Ti-O bond length peaks at 1.940 Å. Relative to bulk titania, the reduction of the coordination number is primarily due to the truncation of the Ti-O octahedra at the titania nanoparticle surface, and the shortening of the Ti-O bond length is due to bond contraction in the distorted shell. Core-shell structures in ultrafine nanoparticles may be common in many materials (e.g. ZnS).

  17. Microwave synthesis of zirconia nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembram, K P S S; Rao, G Mohan

    2008-08-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were prepared by microwave synthesis from zirconium acetate hydroxide. The samples were characterized by various techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy (RS). By XRD the average crystallite size is obtained around 10 nm and which is comparable to observation by SEM and TEM. PMID:19049194

  18. DNA-scaffolded nanoparticle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Bjoern; Olin, Haakan [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    DNA self-assembly is a powerful route to the production of very small, complex structures. When used in combination with nanoparticles it is likely to become a key technology in the production of nanoelectronics in the future. Previously, demonstrated nanoparticle assemblies have mainly been periodic and highly symmetric arrays, unsuited as building blocks for any complex circuits. With the invention of DNA-scaffolded origami reported earlier this year (Rothemund P W K 2006 Nature 440 (7082) 297-302), a new route to complex nanostructures using DNA has been opened. Here, we give a short review of the field and present the current status of our experiments were DNA origami is used in conjunction with nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized with thiolated single stranded DNA. Strands that are complementary to the gold particle strands can be positioned on the self-assembled DNA-structure in arbitrary patterns. This property should allow an accurate positioning of the particles by letting them hybridize on the lattice. We report on our recent experiments on this system and discuss open problems and future applications.

  19. Generation of Mn oxides nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Dočekal, Bohumil; Moravec, Pavel

    Praha, 2013. s. 106. ISBN N. [QNano Integrating Conference /2./. 27.02.2013-01.03.2013, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : nanoparticles * manganese oxides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  1. Tumor ablation using theranostic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herynek, V.; Jendelová, Pavla; Turnovcová, Karolína; Pollert, Emil; Veverka, Miroslav; Veverka, Pavel; Jirák, D.; Syková, Eva; Hájek, M.

    Los Angeles : World Molecular Imaging Society, 2013. s. 1. [Annual World Molecular Imaging Congress /6./. 18.09.2013-21.09.2013, Savannah, Georgia] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/521 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : perovskite nanoparticles * magnetic resonance imaging * thermoablation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. Naturally occurring nanoparticles from English ivy: an alternative to metal-based nanoparticles for UV protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhili

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade safety concerns have arisen about the use of metal-based nanoparticles in the cosmetics field. Metal-based nanoparticles have been linked to both environmental and animal toxicity in a variety of studies. Perhaps the greatest concern involves the large amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles that are used in commercial sunscreens. As an alternative to using these potentially hazardous metal-based nanoparticles, we have isolated organic nanoparticles from English ivy (Hedera helix. In this study, ivy nanoparticles were evaluated for their potential use in sunscreens based on four criteria: 1 ability to absorb and scatter ultraviolet light, 2 toxicity to mammalian cells, 3 biodegradability, and 4 potential for diffusion through skin. Results Purified ivy nanoparticles were first tested for their UV protective effects using a standard spectrophotometric assay. Next the cell toxicity of the ivy nanoparticles was compared to TiO2 nanoparticles using HeLa cells. The biodegradability of these nanoparticles was also determined through several digestion techniques. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to determine the potential for ivy nanoparticles to penetrate through human skin. The results indicated that the ivy nanoparticles were more efficient in blocking UV light, less toxic to mammalian cells, easily biodegradable, and had a limited potential to penetrate through human skin. When compared to TiO2 nanoparticles, the ivy nanoparticles showed decreased cell toxicity, and were easily degradable, indicating that they provided a safer alternative to these nanoparticles. Conclusions With the data collected from this study, we have demonstrated the great potential of ivy nanoparticles as a sunscreen protective agent, and their increased safety over commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Engineering biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles for biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros, Maria; Pelaz, Beatriz; López-Larrubia, Pilar; García-Martin, Maria L.; Grazú, Valeria; de La Fuente, Jesus M.

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the surrounding water protons due to nanoparticle aggregation demonstrates the bioactivity of these nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. To finish with, nanoparticle toxicity is evaluated by means of MTT assay. The obtained results clearly indicate that these nanoparticles are excellent candidates for their further application in nanomedicine or nanobiotechnology.Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the

  4. Nanoparticle shape, thermodynamics and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, L. D.; Peng, L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles can be beautiful, as in stained glass windows, or they can be ugly as in wear and corrosion debris from implants. We estimate that there will be about 70 000 papers in 2015 with nanoparticles as a keyword, but only one in thirteen uses the nanoparticle shape as an additional keyword and research focus, and only one in two hundred has thermodynamics. Methods for synthesizing nanoparticles have exploded over the last decade, but our understanding of how and why they take their forms has not progressed as fast. This topical review attempts to take a critical snapshot of the current understanding, focusing more on methods to predict than a purely synthetic or descriptive approach. We look at models and themes which are largely independent of the exact synthetic method whether it is deposition, gas-phase condensation, solution based or hydrothermal synthesis. Elements are old dating back to the beginning of the 20th century—some of the pioneering models developed then are still relevant today. Others are newer, a merging of older concepts such as kinetic-Wulff constructions with methods to understand minimum energy shapes for particles with twins. Overall we find that while there are still many unknowns, the broad framework of understanding and predicting the structure of nanoparticles via diverse Wulff constructions, either thermodynamic, local minima or kinetic has been exceedingly successful. However, the field is still developing and there remain many unknowns and new avenues for research, a few of these being suggested towards the end of the review.

  5. Nanoparticle shape, thermodynamics and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles can be beautiful, as in stained glass windows, or they can be ugly as in wear and corrosion debris from implants. We estimate that there will be about 70 000 papers in 2015 with nanoparticles as a keyword, but only one in thirteen uses the nanoparticle shape as an additional keyword and research focus, and only one in two hundred has thermodynamics. Methods for synthesizing nanoparticles have exploded over the last decade, but our understanding of how and why they take their forms has not progressed as fast. This topical review attempts to take a critical snapshot of the current understanding, focusing more on methods to predict than a purely synthetic or descriptive approach. We look at models and themes which are largely independent of the exact synthetic method whether it is deposition, gas-phase condensation, solution based or hydrothermal synthesis. Elements are old dating back to the beginning of the 20th century—some of the pioneering models developed then are still relevant today. Others are newer, a merging of older concepts such as kinetic-Wulff constructions with methods to understand minimum energy shapes for particles with twins. Overall we find that while there are still many unknowns, the broad framework of understanding and predicting the structure of nanoparticles via diverse Wulff constructions, either thermodynamic, local minima or kinetic has been exceedingly successful. However, the field is still developing and there remain many unknowns and new avenues for research, a few of these being suggested towards the end of the review. (topical review)

  6. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  7. ADSORPTION OF NANO-PARTICLES ON BUBBLE SURFACE IN NANO-PARTICLE SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buxuan Wang; Chunhui Li; Xiaofeng Peng

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of nano-particles on bubble surface is discussed for saturated boiling on thin wire of nano-particle suspensions. Owing to the decrease of surface tension for suspensions, the nano-particles tend to adsorb on the bubble surface to decrease the Gibbs free energy for stability, and meanwhile the velocity of nano-particles would be smaller than that of bubble growth. The long-range van der Waals force existing between "water particles" and nano-particles is considered the attractive force between the nano-particles and the bubble surface. Thus, the nano-particles would attach on the bubble surface if the particle-surface distance is smaller than its critical value. The distribution of nano-particles on the bubble surface and in the adjacent region is also investigated.

  8. POROUS STRUCTURE OF CARBON NANOPARTICLES PREPARED BY CHLORINATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF SILICON CARBID

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, V. V.; PETROV N.A.; TOMKOVICH M.V.; GUSAROV V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Specific features of the structure of nanoporous carbon, prepared by chlorinating silicon carbide nanoparticles followed by treatment thereof by hydrogenation have been studied. A considerable number of microscopic pores in carbon nanoparticles have been shown.

  9. Methods for producing nanoparticles using palladium salt and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Wai; Liang, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.

  10. Interfacial functionalization and engineering of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    The intense research interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology is largely fueled by the unique properties of nanoscale materials. In this dissertation, the research efforts are focused on surface functionalization and interfacial engineering of functional nanoparticles in the preparation of patchy nanoparticles (e.g., Janus nanoparticles and Neapolitan nanoparticles) such that the nanoparticle structures and properties may be manipulated to an unprecedented level of sophistication. Experimentally, Janus nanoparticles were prepared by an interfacial engineering method where one hemisphere of the originally hydrophobic nanoparticles was replaced with hydrophilic ligands at the air|liquid or solid|liquid interface. The amphiphilic surface characters of the Janus nanoparticles were verified by contact angle measurements, as compared to those of the bulk-exchange counterparts where the two types of ligands were distributed rather homogeneously on the nanoparticle surface. In a further study, a mercapto derivative of diacetylene was used as the hydrophilic ligands to prepare Janus nanoparticles by using hydrophobic hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles as the starting materials. Exposure to UV irradiation led to effective covalent cross-linking between the diacetylene moieties of neighboring ligands and hence marked enhancement of the structural integrity of the Janus nanoparticles, which was attributable to the impeded surface diffusion of the thiol ligands on the nanoparticle surface, as manifested in fluorescence measurements of aged nanoparticles. More complicated bimetallic AgAu Janus nanoparticles were prepared by interfacial galvanic exchange reactions of a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of 1-hexanethiolate-passivated silver nanoparticles on a glass slide with gold(I)-mercaptopropanediol complex in a water/ethanol solution. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited an asymmetrical distribution not only of the organic capping ligands on the nanoparticle surface but

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, GUANGYU; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiaoliang; Chen, Yuyue

    2014-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed...

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by rapid green synthesis using different tannin sources as reducing agent viz. chestnut (CN), mangrove (MG) and quebracho (QB). The aqueous silver ions when exposed to CN, MG and QB tannins were reduced which resulted in formation of silver nanoparticles. The resultant silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of nanoparticles synthesis was also derived using FT-IR analysis. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were within 30 to 75 nm in size, while XRD results showed that nanoparticles formed were crystalline with face centered cubic geometry.

  13. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  14. Studies on the biodistribution of dextrin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.; Santos, A. C.; Prata, M. I. M.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Martins, J. A.; Gama, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    The characterization of biodistribution is a central requirement in the development of biomedical applications based on the use of nanoparticles, in particular for controlled drug delivery. The blood circulation time, organ biodistribution and rate of excretion must be well characterized in the process of product development. In this work, the biodistribution of recently developed self-assembled dextrin nanoparticles is addressed. Functionalization of the dextrin nanoparticles with a DOTA-monoamide-type metal chelator, via click chemistry, is described. The metal chelator functionalized nanoparticles were labelled with a γ-emitting 153Sm3 + radioisotope and the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles were obtained. The effect of PEG surface coating on the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles was also studied.

  15. Antitumor Activities of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Vinardell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have received much attention recently due to their use in cancer therapy. Studies have shown that different metal oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. In some cases, such anticancer activity has been demonstrated to hold for the nanoparticle alone or in combination with different therapies, such as photocatalytic therapy or some anticancer drugs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have this activity alone or when loaded with an anticancer drug, such as doxorubicin. Other nanoparticles that show cytotoxic effects on cancer cells include cobalt oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide. The antitumor mechanism could work through the generation of reactive oxygen species or apoptosis and necrosis, among other possibilities. Here, we review the most significant antitumor results obtained with different metal oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Ferrite Nanoparticles in Pharmacological Modulation of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Aparna; Radha, S.; Khan, Y.; Tilak, Priya

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored in the targeted drug delivery of pharmacological agents : angiogenesis being one such novel application which involves formation of new blood vessels or branching of existing ones. The present study involves the use of ferrite nanoparticles for precise therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. The ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts by a suitable base, were found to be 10-20 nm from X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. The magnetization measurements showed superparamagnetic behavior of the uncoated nanoparticles. These ferrite nanoparticles were found to be bio-compatible with lymphocytes and neural cell lines from the biochemical assays. The chick chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) from the shell of fertile white Leghorn eggs was chosen as a model to study angiogenic activity. An enhancement in the angiogenic activity in the CAM due to addition of uncoated ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

  17. Studies on the biodistribution of dextrin nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, C; Gama, F M [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Minho University, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ferreira, M F M; Martins, J A [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Santos, A C; Prata, M I M [IBILI, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Geraldes, C F G C, E-mail: fmgama@deb.uminho.pt [Departamento de Ciencias da Vida, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia e Centro de Neurociencias e Biologia Celular, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-07-23

    The characterization of biodistribution is a central requirement in the development of biomedical applications based on the use of nanoparticles, in particular for controlled drug delivery. The blood circulation time, organ biodistribution and rate of excretion must be well characterized in the process of product development. In this work, the biodistribution of recently developed self-assembled dextrin nanoparticles is addressed. Functionalization of the dextrin nanoparticles with a DOTA-monoamide-type metal chelator, via click chemistry, is described. The metal chelator functionalized nanoparticles were labelled with a {gamma}-emitting {sup 153}Sm{sup 3+} radioisotope and the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles were obtained. The effect of PEG surface coating on the blood clearance rate and organ biodistribution of the nanoparticles was also studied.

  18. Potential dual imaging nanoparticle: Gd2O3 nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Md. Wasi; Xu, Wenlong; Kim, Sung June; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Park, Ji Ae; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) is a unique and powerful element in chemistry and biomedicine which can be applied simultaneously to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and neutron capture therapy for cancers. This multifunctionality can be maximized using gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles (GNPs) because of the large amount of Gd per GNP, making both diagnosis and therapy (i.e., theragnosis) for cancers possible using only GNPs. In this study, the T1 MRI and CT dual imaging...

  19. The challenges of testing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in algal bioassays: titanium dioxide and gold nanoparticles as case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Engelbrekt, Christian; Zhang, Jingdong;

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic toxicology of engineered nanoparticles is challenged by methodological difficulties stemming partly from highly dynamic and poorly understood behavior of nanoparticles in biological test systems. In this paper scientific and technical challenges of testing not readily soluble nanoparticle...

  20. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Occupational exposure limits

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska; Sławomir Czerczak

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titaniu...

  1. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  2. Species Differences Take Shape at Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Scavenius, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    Cells recognize the biomolecular corona around a nanoparticle, but the biological identity of the complex may be considerably different among various species. This study explores the importance of protein corona composition for nanoparticle recognition by coelomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia fet...... of species-specific formation of biomolecular coronas, and this suggests that the use of representative species may need careful consideration in assessing the risks associated with nanoparticles....

  3. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani; Nandigam Srujana; Guntur Preethi; Tandale Swati

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of co...

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticles From Fabrication to Clinical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thanh, Nguyen TK

    2012-01-01

    Offering the latest information in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) research, Magnetic Nanoparticles: From Fabrication to Clinical Applications provides a comprehensive review, from synthesis, characterization, and biofunctionalization to clinical applications of MNPs, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. This book, written by some of the most qualified experts in the field, not only fills a hole in the literature, but also bridges the gaps between all the different areas in this field. Translational research on tailored magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications spans a variet

  5. Thermoinduced magnetization in nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2004-01-01

    We show that there is a thermoinduced contribution to the magnetic moment of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials. It arises from thermal excitations of the uniform spin-precession mode, and it has the unusual property that its magnitude increases with increasing temperature. This has...... the consequence that antiferromagnetism is nonexistent in nanoparticles at finite temperatures and it explains magnetic anomalies, which recently have been reported in a number of studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials....

  6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    R.Hepzi Pramila Devamani; Sabeena, M.

    2014-01-01

    Copper carbonate nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from copper sulphate and sodium carbonate. The formed nanoparticle is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultra-violet spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confirmed the preferential growth of copper carbonate nanoparticles that width is 90.55nm. The SEM image shows the synthesized copper carbonate show well crystallized particles with ...

  7. Understanding Nanoparticle and Nanostructure Generation by Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Itina, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    During last decade, laser-based synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructures has attracted particular attention [1]. Nanoparticles demonstrate unique plasmonic and/or photoluminescent properties, as well as a capacity of field amplification. These effects are essential in many promising applications, such as imaging, sensors, photodynamic therapy, etc. Many of medical applications require the absence of any toxicity and/or of the incompatibility with biological tissues. Nanoparticle and nano...

  8. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of n...

  9. Photochemical synthesis of colloidal gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monodisperse gold nanoparticles protected by small organic molecules or by macromolecules with different sizes and shapes are widely used as a precursor material in various applications of gold nanotechnology. However, their preparation is still a formidable task. In this paper the use of photochemically assisted syntheses of monodisperse gold nanoparticles is summarized and some preparations by the authors' group are introduced. These include spherical and rod-like particles, bimetallic composite nanoparticles, and syntheses using complex intramolecular photoreduction to generate the reducing agent

  10. Nanoparticles and cars : analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Takemura Masaya; Mueller Daniel; Quarcoo David; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the presen...

  11. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Reznickova, Alena; Novotna, Zdenka; Kolska, Zdenka; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures of grafting with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), activated by plasma treatment, are studied. In the first procedure, the PET foil was grafted with biphenyl-4,4′-dithiol and subsequently with silver nanoparticles. In the second one, the PET foil was grafted with silver nanoparticles previously coated with the same dithiol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrokinetic analysis were used for characterization of the polymer surface ...

  12. Magnetization Reversal in Elongated Fe Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongqing; Xiong, Peng; von Molnar, Stephan; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Magnetization reversal of individual, isolated high-aspect-ratio Fe nanoparticles with diameters comparable to the magnetic exchange length is studied by high-sensitivity submicron Hall magnetometry. For a Fe nanoparticle with diameter of 5 nm, the magnetization reversal is found to be an incoherent process with localized nucleation assisted by thermal activation, even though the particle has a single-domain static state. For a larger elongated Fe nanoparticle with a diameter greater than 10 ...

  13. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-01

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation.Although tissue staining

  14. Microwave assisted template synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K J Sreeram; M Nidhin; B U Nair

    2008-12-01

    Easier, less time consuming, green processes, which yield silver nanoparticles of uniform size, shape and morphology are of interest. Various methods for synthesis, such as conventional temperature assisted process, controlled reaction at elevated temperatures, and microwave assisted process have been evaluated for the kind of silver nanoparticles synthesized. Starch has been employed as a template and reducing agent. Electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance have been employed to characterize the silver nanoparticles synthesized. Compared to conventional methods, microwave assisted synthesis was faster and provided particles with an average particle size of 12 nm. Further, the starch functions as template, preventing the aggregation of silver nanoparticles.

  15. Colloidally deposited nanoparticle wires for biophysical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sophie C.; Liu, Wen-Tao; Diao, Jia-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Among the techniques developed to prepare nanoparticle wires for multiple applications, the colloidal deposition method at interface has been regarded as cost-efficient and eco-friendly, and hence has attracted an increasing amount of research attention. In this report, the recent developments in preparing nanoparticle wires and integrated nanoparticle wire arrays using this technique have been reviewed. Furthermore, we have also discussed the application of these nanoparticle structures in detecting chemical and biological molecules. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities through Xi’an Jiaotong University and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB856304).

  16. Introduction to metal-nanoparticle plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Based on a popular article in Laser and Photonics Reviews, this book provides an explanation and overview of the techniques used to model, make, and measure metal nanoparticles, detailing results obtained and what they mean. It covers the properties of coupled metal nanoparticles, the nonlinear optical response of metal nanoparticles, and the phenomena that arise when light-emitting materials are coupled to metal nanoparticles. It also provides an overview of key potential applications and offers explanations of computational and experimental techniques giving readers a solid grounding

  17. Imaging with Second-Harmonic Generation Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    Second-harmonic generation nanoparticles show promise as imaging probes due to their coherent and stable signal with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. In this thesis, we developed and demonstrated barium titanate nanoparticles as second-harmonic radiation imaging probes. We studied the absolute second-harmonic generation efficiency of the nanoparticles on single-particle level. The polarization dependent second-harmonic signal of single nanoparticles was studied in detail. From the measured polar response, we were able to find the orientation of the nanoparticle. We developed a biochemical interface for using the second-harmonic nanoprobes as biomarkers, including in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo live animal imaging. The nanoparticles were surface functionalized with primary amine groups for stable colloidal dispersion. We achieved specific labeling of the second-harmonic nanoprobes via immunostaining where the antibodies were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. We observed no toxicity of the functionalized nanoparticles to biological cells. The coherent second-harmonic signal radiated from the nanoparticles offers opportunities for new imaging techniques. Using interferometric detection, namely harmonic holography, both amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic field can be captured. Through digital beam propagation, three-dimensional field distribution, reflecting three-dimensional distribution of the nanoparticles, can be reconstructed. We achieved a scan-free three-dimensional imaging of nanoparticles in biological cells with sub-micron spatial resolution by using the harmonic holographic microscope. We further exploited the coherent second-harmonic signal for imaging through scattering media by performing optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal. We demonstrated an all-digital optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal originated from a nanoparticle by combining harmonic holography and

  18. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  19. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  20. Thermal stability of PLD grown silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2016-05-01

    Present work discusses the stability of silver nanoparticles at different annealing temperatures. Air muffle furnace annealing is performed to study the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited silver nanoparticles. Silver reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form silver oxide at annealing temperatures below 473K and thermal decomposition of silver oxide takes place at temperatures above 473K. Oxide formation results in core shrinkage of silver, which in turn affects the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. With increase in annealing temperature, the surface plasmon effect of nanoparticles starts to fade. SEM, XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy have been performed to analysis various structural and optical properties.