WorldWideScience

Sample records for calcifuges

  1. Fenomén prameništních slatinišť a malakologické konsekvence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horsák

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to (a summarize the results of malacological investigations of the West Carpathian treeless spring fens and (b show how unique sites these fens are. The mollusc communities were studied from several ecological points of view such as: response to the poor-rich mineral gradient, calcicole-calcifuge behaviour, geographical distribution, and historical development. The published or prepared articles concerning above-mentioned topics are cited in the text.

  2. Root iron uptake efficiency of Ulmus laevis and U. minor and their distribution in soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturas, Martin; Fernández, Victoria; Nadal, Paloma; Guzmán, Paula; Lucena, Juan J; Gil, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The calcifuge and calcicole character of wild plants has been related to nutrient availability shortages, including iron (Fe)-deficiency. Surprisingly, just a few studies examined the relation between root Fe uptake and plant distribution in different soil types. We assessed the root Fe acquisition efficiency of two Ulmus species with calcareous (Ulmus minor) and siliceous (U. laevis) soil distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula. Seedlings of both elm species were grown hydroponically with different Fe concentrations during 6 weeks. Plant physiological responses to Fe-limiting conditions were evaluated as were the ferric reductase activity and proton (H(+)) extrusion capacity of the roots. Iron deprived elm seedlings of both species were stunted and suffered severe Fe-chlorosis symptoms. After Fe re-supply leaf chlorophyll concentrations rose according to species-dependent patterns. While U. minor leaves and seedlings re-greened evenly, U. laevis did so along the nerves of new growing leaves. U. minor had a higher root ferric reductase activity and H(+)-extrusion capability than U. laevis and maintained a better nutrient balance when grown under Fe-limiting conditions. The two elm species were found to have different Fe acquisition efficiencies which may be related to their natural distribution in calcareous and siliceous soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

  3. Root iron uptake efficiency of Ulmus laevis and U. minor and their distribution in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eVenturas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcifuge and calcicole character of wild plants has been related to nutrient availability shortages, including iron (Fe-deficiency. Surprisingly, just a few studies examined the relation between root Fe uptake and plant distribution in different soil types. We assessed the root Fe acquisition efficiency of two Ulmus species with calcareous (U. minor and siliceous (U. laevis soil distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula. Seedlings of both elm species were grown hydroponically with different Fe concentrations during six weeks. Plant physiological responses to Fe-limiting conditions were evaluated as were the ferric reductase activity and proton (H+ extrusion capacity of the roots. Iron deprived elm seedlings of both species were stunted and suffered severe Fe-chlorosis symptoms. After Fe re-supply leaf chlorophyll concentrations rose according to species-dependent patterns. While U. minor leaves and seedlings re-greened evenly, U. laevis did so along the nerves of new growing leaves. Ulmus minor had a higher root ferric reductase activity and H+-extrusion capability than U. laevis and maintained a better nutrient balance when grown under Fe-limiting conditions. The two elm species were found to have different iron acquisition efficiencies which may be related to their natural distribution in calcareous and siliceous soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

  4. Effects on the flora after application of wood-ash and mixed coal-wood-ash; Effekter paa floran efter tillfoersel av ved- och blandaska. Ramprogram askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllin, M.; Kruuse, A.

    1996-11-01

    To estimate the impact on the herbaceous and moss layers in Swedish forests fertilized with wood-ash, the vegetation in 52 plots at six different sites was analysed in the summers of 1993 and 1994 using a quantitative line assessment method. Five of the sites are located in the south-west of Sweden and one in the far north. Powdered wood-ash had been applied in doses of 2, 2.8, 3, and 7 tonnes per hectare, granulated wood-ash in doses of 1, 3, and 6 tonnes per hectare, and mixed hard coal-wood-ash in a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare. The age of the plots ranged from two to nine years. The results indicate that the number of species in ashed plots is higher than in control plots at three of the sites, but not at the remaining three. A few species were significantly more frequent in ashed plots, and fewer were less frequent. Two moss species generally found on rich forest soils were more frequent in ashed plots, while the opposite was true for a moss species known to be calcifuge. The connection between ash and the other affected mosses and vascular plants is nuclear, but may be potentially strong in the long term, thus altering the composition of the plant community. All forest-floor lichens counted as a group seemed disfavoured by wood-ash. Conclusions are: Species richness increases in ashed plots. A few species are favoured and fewer are disfavoured. Nothing in this investigation suggests that wood-ash application in forest plots would result in any negative effects. Further studies should be conducted in a much more long-term perspective, as some potentially important changes may be impossible to detect just a few years after the ash has been applied. However, the impact on the vegetation ought to be the strongest immediately following the ash application. 9 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs Figs with text in English

  5. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vohník

    Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet

  6. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain