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Sample records for calcification share genetic

  1. Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanassoulis, George; Campbell, Catherine Y; Owens, David S;

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease.......Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease....

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  3. Genetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tropical calcific pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapna Mahurkar; D Nageshwar Reddy; G Venkat Rao; Giriraj Ratan Chandak

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is known to be a heterogeneous disease with varied etiologies. Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a severe form of chronic pancreatitis unique to developing countries. With growing evidence of genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of TCP, this review is aimed at compiling the available information in this field. We also propose a two hit model to explain the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of TCP.

  4. Inflammatory, metabolic, and genetic mechanisms of vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2014-04-01

    This review centers on updating the active research area of vascular calcification. This pathology underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, through adverse mechanical effects on vascular compliance, vasomotion, and, most likely, plaque stability. Biomineralization is a complex, regulated process occurring widely throughout nature. Decades ago, its presence in the vasculature was considered a mere curiosity and an unregulated, dystrophic process that does not involve biological mechanisms. Although it remains controversial whether the process has any adaptive value or past evolutionary advantage, substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological mechanisms driving the process. Different types of calcific vasculopathy, such as inflammatory versus metabolic, have parallel mechanisms in skeletal bone calcification, such as intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Recent work has identified important regulatory roles for inflammation, oxidized lipids, elastin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprogenitor cells, matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, transglutaminase, osteoclastic regulatory factors, phosphate regulatory hormones and receptors, apoptosis, prelamin A, autophagy, and microvesicles or microparticles similar to the matrix vesicles of skeletal bone. Recent work has uncovered fascinating interactions between matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, vitamin K, warfarin, and transport proteins. And, lastly, recent breakthroughs in inherited forms of calcific vasculopathy have identified the genes responsible as well as an unexpected overlap of phenotypes. Until recently, vascular calcification was considered a purely degenerative, unregulated process. Since then, investigative groups around the world have identified a wide range of causative mechanisms and regulatory pathways, and some of the recent developments are highlighted in this review.

  5. Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with Basal Ganglia Calcification of Unknown Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Baker, Matthew C.; Finch, NiCole A.; Nicholson, Alexandra; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Ross, Owen A.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Three causal genes for Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) have been identified. Most recently, mutations in PDGFRB, encoding a member of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family type β, and PDGFB, encoding PDGF-B, the specific ligand of PDGFRβ, were found implicating the PDGF-B/PDGFRβ pathway in abnormal brain calcification. In this study we aimed to identify and study mutations in PDGFRB and PDGFB in a series of 26 patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank with moderate to severe basal ganglia calcification (BCG) of unknown etiology. No mutations in PDGFB were found. However, we identified one mutation in PDGFRB, p.R695C located in the tyrosine kinase domain, in one BGC patient. We further studied the function of p.R695C mutant PDGFRβ and two previously reported mutants, p.L658P and p.R987W PDGFRβ in cell culture. We show that, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, the p.L658P mutation completely suppresses PDGFRβ autophosphorylation whereas the p.R695C mutation results in partial loss of autophosphorylation. For the p.R987W mutation, our data suggest a different mechanism involving reduced protein levels. These genetic and functional studies provide the first insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PDGFRB mutations and provide further support for a pathogenic role of PDGFRB mutations in BGC. PMID:24796542

  6. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  7. Shared Genetic Factors Underlie Migraine and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhao; Zhao, Huiying; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R

    2016-08-01

    Migraine frequently co-occurs with depression. Using a large sample of Australian twin pairs, we aimed to characterize the extent to which shared genetic factors underlie these two disorders. Migraine was classified using three diagnostic measures, including self-reported migraine, the ID migraine™ screening tool, or migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) based on International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MiDD) were classified using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. Univariate and bivariate twin models, with and without sex-limitation, were constructed to estimate the univariate and bivariate variance components and genetic correlation for migraine and depression. The univariate heritability of broad migraine (self-reported, ID migraine, or IHS MO/MA) and broad depression (MiDD or MDD) was estimated at 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53-60%) and 42% (95% CI: 37-46%), respectively. A significant additive genetic correlation (r G = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29-0.43) and bivariate heritability (h 2 = 5.5%, 95% CI: 3.6-7.8%) was observed between broad migraine and depression using the bivariate Cholesky model. Notably, both the bivariate h 2 (13.3%, 95% CI: 7.0-24.5%) and r G (0.51, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69) estimates significantly increased when analyzing the more narrow clinically accepted diagnoses of IHS MO/MA and MDD. Our results indicate that for both broad and narrow definitions, the observed comorbidity between migraine and depression can be explained almost entirely by shared underlying genetically determined disease mechanisms. PMID:27302564

  8. [Ectopic calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    Calcium deposition can be observed in many tissues in addition to bones and teeth which physiologically calcify. This unphysiological calcification can damage several organs. It has been shown that vascular calcification which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events develops through similar mechanisms to physiological calcification. Further studies to clarify detailed mechanisms of calcification are necessary to develop measures that inhibit unphysiological ectopic calcification without affecting physiological calcification in bones and teeth.

  9. Mammogram - calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcalcifications or macrocalcifications; Breast cancer - calcifications; Mammography - calcifications ... to cancer. You will rarely need more testing. Microcalcifications are tiny calcium specks seen on a mammogram. ...

  10. The vascular phenotype in pseudoxanthoma elasticum and related disorders: Contribution of a genetic disease to the understanding of vascular calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eLeftheriotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a complex and dynamic process occurring in various physiological conditions such as aging and exercise or in acquired metabolic disorders like diabetes or chronic renal insufficiency. Arterial calcifications are also observed in several genetic diseases revealing the important role of unbalanced or defective anti- or pro-calcifying factors. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is an inherited disease (OMIM 264800 characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation and calcification in various soft conjunctive tissues including the skin, eyes and arterial media. The PXE disease results from mutations in the ABCC6 gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter primarily expressed in the liver, kidneys suggesting that it is a prototypic metabolic soft-tissue calcifying disease of genetic origin. The clinical expression of the PXE arterial disease is characterized by an increased risk for coronary (myocardial infarction, cerebral (aneurysm and stroke and lower limb peripheral artery disease. However, the structural and functional changes in the arterial wall induced by PXE are still unexplained. The use of a recombinant mouse model inactivated for the Abcc6 gene is an important tool for the understanding of the PXE pathophysiology although the vascular impact in this model remains limited to date. Overlapping of the PXE phenotype with other inherited calcifying diseases could bring important informations to our comprehension of the PXE disease.

  11. Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotsapas, Chris; Voight, Benjamin F.; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lage, Kasper; Neale, Benjamin M.; Wallace, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Behrens, Timothy; Cho, Judy; De Jager, Philip L.; Elder, James T.; Graham, Robert R.; Gregersen, Peter; Klareskog, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Worthington, Jane; Todd, John A.; Hafler, David A.; Rich, Stephen S.; Daly, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated) diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological

  12. Genetic loci that regulate ectopic calcification in response to knee trauma in LG/J by SM/J advanced intercross mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Schmidt, Eric J; Hashimoto, Shingo; Cheverud, James M; Sandell, Linda J

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on genetic susceptibility to ectopic calcification in the LG/J and SM/J advanced intercross mice. Using 347 mice in 98 full-sibships, destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) was performed to induce joint injury. We found that joint destabilization instigated ectopic calcifications as detected and quantified by micro-CT. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map ectopic calcification phenotypes to discrete genomic locations. To validate the functional significance of the selected QTL candidate genes, we compared mRNA expression between parental LG/J and SM/J inbred strains. Overall, we detected 20 QTLs affecting synovial and meniscus calcification phenotypes with 11 QTLs linked to synovial calcification. Functional and bioinformatic analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified functional classifications relevant to angiogenesis (Myo1e, Kif26b, Nprl3, Stab2, Fam105b), bone metabolism/calcification (Tle3, Tgfb2, Lipc, Nfe2l1, Ank, Fam105b), arthritis (Stab2, Tbx21, Map4k4, Hoxb9, Larp6, Col1a2, Adam10, Timp3, Nfe2l1, Trpm3), and ankylosing-spondylitis (Ank, Pon1, Il1r2, Tbkbp1) indicating that ectopic calcification involves multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the expression of 11 out of 78 candidate genes was significantly different between LG/J and SM/J. Correlation analysis showed that Aff3, Fam81a, Syn3, and Ank were correlated with synovial calcification. Taken together, our findings of multiple genetic loci suggest the involvement of multiple genes contributing to ectopic calcification.

  13. Hepatocellular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claus; Frifelt, J J

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy of a twenty year old girl dying from complications of renal and cardiac failure demonstrated severe hepatocellular calcification, a rare finding. The pathogenesis is thought to be a combination of dystrophic calcification caused by severe centrilobular necrosis and metastatic calcification...

  14. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N;

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address t...

  15. Mine, yours, ours? Sharing data on human genetic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Milia

    Full Text Available The achievement of a robust, effective and responsible form of data sharing is currently regarded as a priority for biological and bio-medical research. Empirical evaluations of data sharing may be regarded as an indispensable first step in the identification of critical aspects and the development of strategies aimed at increasing availability of research data for the scientific community as a whole. Research concerning human genetic variation represents a potential forerunner in the establishment of widespread sharing of primary datasets. However, no specific analysis has been conducted to date in order to ascertain whether the sharing of primary datasets is common-practice in this research field. To this aim, we analyzed a total of 543 mitochondrial and Y chromosomal datasets reported in 508 papers indexed in the Pubmed database from 2008 to 2011. A substantial portion of datasets (21.9% was found to have been withheld, while neither strong editorial policies nor high impact factor proved to be effective in increasing the sharing rate beyond the current figure of 80.5%. Disaggregating datasets for research fields, we could observe a substantially lower sharing in medical than evolutionary and forensic genetics, more evident for whole mtDNA sequences (15.0% vs 99.6%. The low rate of positive responses to e-mail requests sent to corresponding authors of withheld datasets (28.6% suggests that sharing should be regarded as a prerequisite for final paper acceptance, while making authors deposit their results in open online databases which provide data quality control seems to provide the best-practice standard. Finally, we estimated that 29.8% to 32.9% of total resources are used to generate withheld datasets, implying that an important portion of research funding does not produce shared knowledge. By making the scientific community and the public aware of this important aspect, we may help popularize a more effective culture of data sharing.

  16. Pervasive sharing of genetic effects in autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cotsapas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological and clinical evidence, this suggests that some genetic risk factors may be shared across diseases-as is the case with alleles in the Major Histocompatibility Locus. In this work we evaluate the extent of this sharing for 107 immune disease-risk SNPs in seven diseases: celiac disease, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes. We have developed a novel statistic for Cross Phenotype Meta-Analysis (CPMA which detects association of a SNP to multiple, but not necessarily all, phenotypes. With it, we find evidence that 47/107 (44% immune-mediated disease risk SNPs are associated to multiple-but not all-immune-mediated diseases (SNP-wise P(CPMA<0.01. We also show that distinct groups of interacting proteins are encoded near SNPs which predispose to the same subsets of diseases; we propose these as the mechanistic basis of shared disease risk. We are thus able to leverage genetic data across diseases to construct biological hypotheses about the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis.

  17. Shared genetic data and the rights of involved people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaroli, Valentina; Cucca, Francesco; Santosuosso, Amedeo

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine the two main attitudes toward genetics: Exceptionalism and Undervaluation. They firstly pose the basis of the matter from the scientific point of view and then verify how these two attitudes really work in the different fields where human genetics finds relevant applications, dealing with the questions arising from the unique characteristics of genetic data that is shared among the whole bio-group. Then some judicial cases related to the conflicts arising when genetic data are stored in repositories, whatever the aims and reasons, are presented and discussed. The matter is then considered from the criminal law perspective, in the light of the new possible implications of DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Finally, some general considerations on opposing Exceptionalism/Undervaluation viewpoints and the real reason for making up new rules are presented. PMID:18201042

  18. Shared genetic contribution to ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib‐Samii, Poneh; Harold, Denise; Dichgans, Martin; Williams, Julie; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.; Fornage, Myriam; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Pankaj; Bis, Joshua C; Psaty, Bruce M; Seshadri, Sudha; Nalls, Mike A; Devan, William J; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Malik, Rainer; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J; Ikram, M Arfan; Clarke, Robert; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M; Levi, Christopher; Bevan, Steve; Kilarski, Laura L; Walters, Matthew; Thijs, Vincent; Slowik, Agnieszka; Lindgren, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I W; Lambert, Jean‐Charles; Ibrahim‐Verbaas, Carla A; Harold, Denise; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Bellenguez, Céline; Jun, Gyungah; DeStefano, Anita L; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier‐Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton‐Wells, Tricia A; Jones, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao‐Feng; Gerrish, Amy; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie‐Thçrèse; Choi, Seung‐Hoan; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Ramirez, Alfredo; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Morón, Francisco J; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiçvet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger‐Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Green, Robert; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; St George‐Hyslop, Peter; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petroula; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez‐Garcia, Florentino; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Deniz Naranjo, Maria Candida; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Matthews, Fiona; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Del Zompo, Maria; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Bullido, Maria; Panza, Francesco; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Gilbert, John R; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton‐Nelson, Kara L; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F A G; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John S K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Wang, Li‐San; Dartigues, Jean‐François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Holmans, Peter A; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak‐Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Moskvina, Valentina; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence suggests epidemiological and pathological links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated the evidence that shared genetic factors underpin the two diseases. Methods Using genome‐wide association study (GWAS) data from METASTROKE + (15,916 IS cases and 68,826 controls) and the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP; 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls), we evaluated known associations with AD and IS. On the subset of data for which we could obtain compatible genotype‐level data (4,610 IS cases, 1,281 AD cases, and 14,320 controls), we estimated the genome‐wide genetic correlation (rG) between AD and IS, and the three subtypes (cardioembolic, small vessel, and large vessel), using genome‐wide single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We then performed a meta‐analysis and pathway analysis in the combined AD and small vessel stroke data sets to identify the SNPs and molecular pathways through which disease risk may be conferred. Results We found evidence of a shared genetic contribution between AD and small vessel stroke (rG [standard error] = 0.37 [0.17]; p = 0.011). Conversely, there was no evidence to support shared genetic factors in AD and IS overall or with the other stroke subtypes. Of the known GWAS associations with IS or AD, none reached significance for association with the other trait (or stroke subtypes). A meta‐analysis of AD IGAP and METASTROKE + small vessel stroke GWAS data highlighted a region (ATP5H/KCTD2/ICT1) associated with both diseases (p = 1.8 × 10−8). A pathway analysis identified four associated pathways involving cholesterol transport and immune response. Interpretation Our findings indicate shared genetic susceptibility to AD and small vessel stroke and highlight potential causal pathways and loci. Ann Neurol 2016;79:739–747 PMID:26913989

  19. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto Kei; Nishioka Makiko; Miyashita Yumi; Hiki Yoshito; Sasaki Takashi; Nishimura Rimei; Nemoto Masami; Sakuma Toru; Ohashi Toya; Fukuda Kunihiko; Eto Yoshikatsu; Tajima Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery c...

  20. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: from biodiversity to human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Lasén-Díaz, Carolina

    2006-12-01

    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to enable research subjects to claim a share of the benefits to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Our conclusion on this question is: 'No, the CBD should not be expanded to include human genetic resources.' There are essential differences between human and non-human genetic resources, and, in the context of research on humans, an essentially fair exchange model is already available between the health care industry and research subjects. Those who contribute to research should receive benefits in the form of accessible new health care products and services, suitable for local health needs and linked to economic prosperity (e.g. jobs). When this exchange model does not apply, as is often the case in developing countries, individually negotiated benefit sharing agreements between researchers and research subjects should not be used as 'window dressing'. Instead, national governments should focus their finances on the best economic investment they could make; the investment in population health and health research as outlined by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health; whilst international barriers to such spending need to be removed. PMID:17038005

  1. A Case Study of a Multiobjective Elitist Recombinative Genetic Algorithm with Coevolutionary Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Thierens, D.; Arciszewski, H.F.R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a multiobjective genetic algorithm that incorporates various genetic algorithm techniques that have been proven to be efficient and robust in their problem domain. More specifically, we integrate rank based selection, adaptive niching through coevolutionary sharing, elitist recombination,

  2. A case study of a multiobjective recombinative genetic algorithm with coevolutionary sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Thierens, D.; Arciszewski, H.F.R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a multiobjective genetic algorithm that incorporates various genetic algorithm techniques that have been proven to be efficient and robust in their problem domain. More specifically, we integrate rank based selection, adaptive niching through coevolutionary sharing, elitist recombination,

  3. Practical Barriers and Ethical Challenges in Genetic Data Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Simpson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The underlying ethos of dbGaP is that access to these data by secondary data analysts facilitates advancement of science. NIH has required that genome-wide association study data be deposited in the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP since 2003. In 2013, a proposed updated policy extended this requirement to next-generation sequencing data. However, recent literature and anecdotal reports suggest lingering logistical and ethical concerns about subject identifiability, informed consent, publication embargo enforcement, and difficulty in accessing dbGaP data. We surveyed the International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES membership about their experiences. One hundred and seventy five (175 individuals completed the survey, a response rate of 27%. Of respondents who received data from dbGaP (43%, only 32% perceived the application process as easy but most (75% received data within five months. Remaining challenges include difficulty in identifying an institutional signing official and an overlong application process. Only 24% of respondents had contributed data to dbGaP. Of these, 31% reported local IRB restrictions on data release; an additional 15% had to reconsent study participants before depositing data. The majority of respondents (56% disagreed that the publication embargo period was sufficient. In response, we recommend longer embargo periods and use of varied data-sharing models rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

  4. Shared Genetic Predisposition in Peripartum and Dilated Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, James S; Li, Jian; Mazaika, Erica; Yasso, Christopher M; DeSouza, Tiffany; Cappola, Thomas P; Tsai, Emily J; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Kamiya, Chizuko A; Mazzarotto, Francesco; Cook, Stuart A; Halder, Indrani; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pisarcik, Jessica; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Alharethi, Rami; Damp, Julie; Hsich, Eileen; Elkayam, Uri; Sheppard, Richard; Kealey, Angela; Alexis, Jeffrey; Ramani, Gautam; Safirstein, Jordan; Boehmer, John; Pauly, Daniel F; Wittstein, Ilan S; Thohan, Vinay; Zucker, Mark J; Liu, Peter; Gorcsan, John; McNamara, Dennis M; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-01-21

    Background Peripartum cardiomyopathy shares some clinical features with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder caused by mutations in more than 40 genes, including TTN, which encodes the sarcomere protein titin. Methods In 172 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, we sequenced 43 genes with variants that have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. We compared the prevalence of different variant types (nonsense, frameshift, and splicing) in these women with the prevalence of such variants in persons with dilated cardiomyopathy and with population controls. Results We identified 26 distinct, rare truncating variants in eight genes among women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of truncating variants (26 in 172 [15%]) was significantly higher than that in a reference population of 60,706 persons (4.7%, P=1.3×10(-7)) but was similar to that in a cohort of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (55 of 332 patients [17%], P=0.81). Two thirds of identified truncating variants were in TTN, as seen in 10% of the patients and in 1.4% of the reference population (P=2.7×10(-10)); almost all TTN variants were located in the titin A-band. Seven of the TTN truncating variants were previously reported in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In a clinically well-characterized cohort of 83 women with peripartum cardiomyopathy, the presence of TTN truncating variants was significantly correlated with a lower ejection fraction at 1-year follow-up (P=0.005). Conclusions The distribution of truncating variants in a large series of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy was remarkably similar to that found in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. TTN truncating variants were the most prevalent genetic predisposition in each disorder.

  5. Imaging Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Translating Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Grant; Meadows, Judith; Morrison, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic lesions was long thought to be an age - related, passive process, but increasingly data has revealed that atherosclerotic calcification is a more active process, involving complex signaling pathways and bone-like genetic programs. Initially, imaging of atherosclerotic calcification was limited to gross assessment of calcium burden, which is associated with total atherosclerotic burden and risk of cardiovascular mortality and of all cause mortality. More recently, sophisticated molecular imaging studies of the various processes involved in calcification have begun to elucidate information about plaque calcium composition and consequent vulnerability to rupture, leading to hard cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. As such, there has been renewed interest in imaging calcification to advance risk assessment accuracy in an evolving era of precision medicine. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the biologic process of atherosclerotic calcification as well as some of the molecular imaging tools used to assess it. PMID:27339750

  6. Vicissitudes of Benefit Sharing of Crop Genetic Resources: Downstream and Upstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de B.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will first give a historic overview of the concept of benefit sharing and its appearance in official agreements, particularly with respect to crop genetic resources. It will become clear that, at present, benefit sharing is primarily considered as an instrument of compensation or

  7. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  8. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  9. Mechanisms of vascular calcification and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, Juliana; Alqarni, Saleh; Murshed, Monzur

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of bone and tooth extracellular matrix (ECM) is a physiologic process, while soft tissue mineralization, also known as ectopic mineralization (calcification), is a pathologic condition. Vascular calcification is common in aging and also in a number of genetic and metabolic disorders. The calcific deposits in arteries complicate the prognosis and increase the morbidity in diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To completely understand the pathophysiology of these lifethreatening diseases, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. Unveiling these mechanisms will eventually identify new therapeutic targets and also improve the management of the associated complications. In the current review, we discussed the common determinants of ECM mineralization, the mechanism of vascular calcification associated with several human diseases and outlined the most common therapeutic approaches to prevent its progression.

  10. Genome-wide association study of coronary and aortic calcification in lung cancer screening CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bob D.; van Setten, Jessica; de Jong, Pim A.; Mali, Willem P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis. However, little is known about the role of genetics and exact pathways leading to arterial calcification and its relation to bone density changes indicating osteoporosis. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of arterial calcification burden, followed by a look-up of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and bone mineral density (BMD) to test for a shared genetic basis between the traits. The study included a subcohort of the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial comprised of 2,561 participants. Participants underwent baseline CT screening in one of two hospitals participating in the trial. Low-dose chest CT images were acquired without contrast enhancement and without ECG-synchronization. In these images coronary and aortic calcifications were identified automatically. Subsequently, the detected calcifications were quantified using coronary artery calcium Agatston and volume scores. Genotype data was available for these participants. A genome-wide association study was conducted on 10,220,814 SNPs using a linear regression model. To reduce multiple testing burden, known CAD/MI and BMD SNPs were specifically tested (45 SNPs from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium and 60 SNPS from the GEFOS consortium). No novel significant SNPs were found. Significant enrichment for CAD/MI SNPs was observed in testing Agatston and coronary artery calcium volume scores. Moreover, a significant enrichment of BMD SNPs was shown in aortic calcium volume scores. This may indicate genetic relation of BMD SNPs and arterial calcification burden.

  11. Shared genetic variance between obesity and white matter integrity in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Sprooten, Emma; Winkler, Anderson M.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T.; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Curran, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that may also lead to reduced white matter integrity, potentially due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic correlation analyses were conducted in a large cohort of Mexican American families in San Antonio (N = 761, 58% females, ages 18–81 years; 41.3 ± 14.5) from the Genetics of Brain Structure and Function Study. Shared genetic variance was calculated between measures of adiposity [(body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in)] and whole-brain and regional measurements of cerebral white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy). Whole-brain average and regional fractional anisotropy values for 10 major white matter tracts were calculated from high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI; 1.7 × 1.7 × 3 mm; 55 directions). Additive genetic factors explained intersubject variance in BMI (heritability, h2 = 0.58), WC (h2 = 0.57), and FA (h2 = 0.49). FA shared significant portions of genetic variance with BMI in the genu (ρG = −0.25), body (ρG = −0.30), and splenium (ρG = −0.26) of the corpus callosum, internal capsule (ρG = −0.29), and thalamic radiation (ρG = −0.31) (all p's = 0.043). The strongest evidence of shared variance was between BMI/WC and FA in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (ρG = −0.39, p = 0.020; ρG = −0.39, p = 0.030), which highlights region-specific variation in neural correlates of obesity. This may suggest that increase in obesity and reduced white matter integrity share common genetic risk factors. PMID:25763009

  12. Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol (NP is an international legal framework for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. It opened for signature on February1, 2011, and was proposed to be in force 90 days after the date when the fiftieth country or regional organization had ratified it. By October 2013, the protocol had been signed by 92 countries and ratified by 26 countries. The protocol is now expected to be in force before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 2014. The Nagoya Protocol will change the current situation of unordered access to and free development of genetic resources. It will provide a premise and guarantee for the principle of national sovereignty of genetic resources and implementation of equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization. Analyses show that although genetic resources indigenous to China have been widely utilized by other developed countries, with patents taken out on some products, utilization in China has been poor owing to a weak capacity for independent innovation and underdeveloped biotechnology. China currently lacks a policy and regulatory system for access and benefit sharing (ABS to its genetic resources. It is, therefore, a pressing matter for China to improve the implementation of the NP by strengthening national and local policies and regulations on ABS. There is also a need to increase investment to support basic research capacity and develop biological technology to fully utilize genetic resources in China

  13. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  14. Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, J.; Coutinho de Almeida, R.; Wijmenga, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gutierrez-Achury J, Coutinho de Almeida R, Wijmenga C (University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; University of Brasilia School of Health Sciences, Brasilia, DF, Brazil). Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases (Symposiu

  15. Shared and Distinct Genetic Variants in Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smyth, Deborah J.; Plagnol, Vincent; Walker, Neil M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Downes, Kate; Yang, Jennie H. M.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Stevens, Helen; McManus, Ross; Wijmenga, Cisca; Heap, Graham A.; Dubois, Patrick C.; Clayton, David G.; Hunt, Karen A.; van Heel, David A.; Todd, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Two inflammatory disorders, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease, cosegregate in populations, suggesting a common genetic origin. Since both diseases are associated with the HLA class II genes on chromosome 6p21, we tested whether non-HLA loci are shared. Methods: We evaluated the associat

  16. Genomic sharing surrounding alleles identical by descent : Effects of genetic drift and population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Van der Meulen, M A

    1997-01-01

    The number of identical deleterious mutations present in a population may become very large, depending on the combined effect of genetic drift, population growth and limited negative selection. The distribution of the length of the shared area between two random chromosomes carrying the mutations ha

  17. Cognitive performance and BMI in childhood: Shared genetic influences between reaction time but not response inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work is to understand whether shared genetic influences can explain the associationbetween obesity and cognitive performance, including slower and more variable reaction times(RTs) and worse response inhibition. RT on a four-choice RT task and the go/no-go task, and commission errors...

  18. Haplotype sharing analysis with SNPs in candidate genes : The genetic analysis workshop 12 example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C; Beckmann, L; Majoram, P; Meerman, GT; Chang-Claude, J

    2003-01-01

    Haplotype sharing analysis was used to investigate the association of affection status with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes within candidate gene 1 in one sample each from the isolated and the general population of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data. Gene 1 has direct

  19. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). We examined the cross-sectional association between MGP SNPs [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A),and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)...

  20. The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM is an important issue in the negotiations of access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. The consultation in regard with need for and modalities of GMBSM were initiated after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. This paper reviews the development and the main content of the GMBSM and analyzes positions both from provider and user countries. African groups were not able to lead negotiations of these issues due to constraints in capacity, although it is in support of the GMBSM. Some provider countries such as Brazil did not provide their support because of the concern that the GMBSM is likely to be an obstacle to these countries’ sovereign rights. Representative for user countries delayed the process by raising many technical questions. These negotiations indicate that the GMBSM may become a focus of the Conference of Parties serving as the Meetings of Nagoya Protocol, or even have the potential to be a new supplementary protocol. Regardless of this result, the process will be difficult. Participation proposals for the GMBSM negotiations at diplomatic, legal and technical aspects are also provided as follows: (1 strengthening position coordination among major partners, in particular African group; (2 conducting legal research and evaluate the consistency between the GMBSM and other international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Antarctic Treaty; (3 carrying out a series of domestic studies to provide support for participation of the GMBSM debate and negotiations.

  1. Shared Genetic Etiology between Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease Identified by Bioinformatics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Cui, Zhen; Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two major health issues, and increasing evidence in recent years supports the close connection between these two diseases. The present study aimed to explore the shared genetic etiology underlying T2D and AD based on the available genome wide association studies (GWAS) data collected through August 2014. We performed bioinformatics analyses based on GWAS data of T2D and AD on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels, respectively. Six SNPs (rs111789331, rs12721046, rs12721051, rs4420638, rs56131196, and rs66626994) were identified for the first time to be shared genetic factors between T2D and AD. Further functional enrichment analysis found lipid metabolism related pathways to be common between these two disorders. The findings may have important implications for future mechanistic and interventional studies for T2D and AD. PMID:26639962

  2. Calcifications in keloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, H.; Meissner, G.

    1985-06-01

    Ossification as a dystrophic alteration of scar tissue is not an unusual radiologic finding in patients who have had a laparotomy. Calcification or ossification in other than abdominal scars following injury, however, represent an extremely rare entity. A case of calcifications in posttraumatic keloid forming in the submandibular soft tissue is presented and the pathogenesis is discussed.

  3. The genetic correlation between height and IQ: shared genes or assortative mating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Keller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits ("pleiotropy" and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits ("gametic phase disequilibrium". In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905 to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height-IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation.

  4. The Genetic Correlation between Height and IQ: Shared Genes or Assortative Mating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C.; Garver-Apgar, Christine E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits (“pleiotropy”) and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits (“gametic phase disequilibrium”). In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905) to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height–IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation. PMID:23593038

  5. No evidence for shared genetic basis of common variants in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, An; van Setten, Jessica; Diekstra, Frank; Ripke, Stephan; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Sawcer, Stephen J.; van Es, Michael; Andersen, Peter M.; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E.; Brown, Robert H.; Shatunov, Aleksey; Leigh, Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Chiò, Adriano; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Ophoff, Roel A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Van Damme, Philip; Compston, Alastair; Robberecht, Wim; Dubois, Bénédicte; van den Berg, Leonard H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Veldink, Jan H.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common variants that influence the susceptibility to complex diseases. From these studies, it has emerged that there is substantial overlap in susceptibility loci between diseases. In line with those findings, we hypothesized that shared genetic pathways may exist between multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While both diseases may have inflammatory and neurodegenerative features, epidemiological studies have indicated an increased co-occurrence within individuals and families. To this purpose, we combined genome-wide data from 4088 MS patients, 3762 ALS patients and 12 030 healthy control individuals in whom 5 440 446 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were successfully genotyped or imputed. We tested these SNPs for the excess association shared between MS and ALS and also explored whether polygenic models of SNPs below genome-wide significance could explain some of the observed trait variance between diseases. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of SNPs as well as polygenic analyses fails to provide evidence in favor of an overlap in genetic susceptibility between MS and ALS. Hence, our findings do not support a shared genetic background of common risk variants in MS and ALS. PMID:24234648

  6. FIBROBLAST INVOLVEMENT IN SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUE CALCIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne eRonchetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft connective tissue calcification is not a passive process, but the consequence of metabolic changes of local mesenchymal cells that, depending on both genetic and environmental factors, alter the balance between pro- and anti-calcifying pathways. While the role of smooth muscle cells and pericytes in ectopic calcifications has been widely investigated, the involvement of fibroblasts is still elusive. Fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of PXE patients and of patients exhibiting PXE-like clinical and histopathological findings offer an attractive model to investigate the mechanisms leading to the precipitation of mineral deposits within elastic fibres and to explore the influence of the genetic background and of the extracellular environment on fibroblast-associated calcifications, thus improving the knowledge on the role of mesenchymal cells on pathologic mineralization.

  7. Intelligence: shared genetic basis between Mendelian disorders and a polygenic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franić, Sanja; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Dolan, Conor V; Kattenberg, Mathijs V; Pool, René; Xiao, Xiangjun; Scheet, Paul A; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; van der Sluis, Sophie; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hansell, Narelle K; Martin, Nicholas G; Hudziak, James J; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; de Geus, Eco J C; Bartels, Meike; Ropers, H Hilger; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-10-01

    Multiple inquiries into the genetic etiology of human traits indicated an overlap between genes underlying monogenic disorders (eg, skeletal growth defects) and those affecting continuous variability of related quantitative traits (eg, height). Extending the idea of a shared genetic basis between a Mendelian disorder and a classic polygenic trait, we performed an association study to examine the effect of 43 genes implicated in autosomal recessive cognitive disorders on intelligence in an unselected Dutch population (N=1316). Using both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)- and gene-based association testing, we detected an association between intelligence and the genes of interest, with genes ELP2, TMEM135, PRMT10, and RGS7 showing the strongest associations. This is a demonstration of the relevance of genes implicated in monogenic disorders of intelligence to normal-range intelligence, and a corroboration of the utility of employing knowledge on monogenic disorders in identifying the genetic variability underlying complex traits.

  8. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. PMID:26389573

  9. Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Aikawa, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroshi; Pham, Tan; Nykjaer, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Rogers, Maximillian; Michel, Thomas; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hagita, Sumihiko; Kramann, Rafael; Rader, Daniel J; Libby, Peter; Singh, Sasha A; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of major cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles participate in the formation of microcalcifications that are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque rupture; however, the mechanisms that regulate formation of calcifying extracellular vesicles remain obscure. Here, we have demonstrated that sortilin is a key regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) calcification via its recruitment to extracellular vesicles. Sortilin localized to calcifying vessels in human and mouse atheromata and participated in formation of microcalcifications in SMC culture. Sortilin regulated the loading of the calcification protein tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) into extracellular vesicles, thereby conferring its calcification potential. Furthermore, SMC calcification required Rab11-dependent trafficking and FAM20C/casein kinase 2-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of sortilin. In a murine model, Sort1-deficiency reduced arterial calcification but did not affect bone mineralization. Additionally, transfer of sortilin-deficient BM cells to irradiated atherosclerotic mice did not affect vascular calcification, indicating a primary role of SMC-derived sortilin. Together, the results of this study identify sortilin phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for ectopic calcification/microcalcification and may clarify the mechanism that underlies the genetic association between the SORT1 gene locus and coronary artery calcification. PMID:26950419

  10. Growth Pattern of Atherosclerotic Calcifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lene Lillemark; Ganz, Melanie; Dam, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    of the calcifications are matched longitudinally using thin plate spline registration and area overlap calculations. The growth of the calcifications is measured by the distribution of the geometry statistics of the calcifications. The method was evaluated on 135 subjects with a total number of 611 calcifications. Our...... results show, for instance longitudinal growth of calcifications with a mean of 2.53 mm ($\\pm$ 1.95) in the blood flow direction and correlations with pathologically related biomarkers....

  11. National Measures on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing – The Case of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Smagadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

  12. MRI of intracranial calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jin Wha; Chang, Kee Hyun; Park, Jung Mi; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    Recently computed tomography(CT) has been rapidly replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of majority of intracranial diseases. But MRI still has some limitation, one of which is its inferiority in detecting calcification. MRI of intracranial calcification has been known to be variable in signal intensity. We retrospectively analyzed the MRI of 26 patients with intracranial calcified lesions in order to evaluate the MR intensity of calcification and to assess the capability of MRI in detecting calcification in various intracranial lesions. All the MRI were obtained using routine T1-and T2-weighted spin eco pulse sequences on 2.0T superconducting system. The 26 patients consisted of 13 brain tumors (4 oligodendrogliomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 astrocytomas, 1 gem cell tumor, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 ependympma, and pathologically unconfirmed 2 cases), 11 infectious diseases (1 paragonimiasis, 1 sparganosis, 2 cysticercosis, 3 tuberculosis, and 4 unknown cases), and 2 undetermined pathologies. Eighty-two percent (9/11) of infections disease, and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group showed signal diminution or signal void on both T1-and T2-weighted image (T1W1, T2W1). Twenty-four percent (3/13) of brain tumors showed signal diminution on both T1W1 and T2W1. In 46% (6/13) and 61% (8/13) of brain tumors the signal intensities were isointense on T1W1 and T1W1, respectively. Unexpectedly, 3 oligodendrogliomas showed high signal intensity on T1W1, two of which showed com plexed signal intensity mixed with high, iso, and low signal intensities on T2W1. In remained cases (18% (2/11) of infectious diseases and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group) the signal intensities were mixed. With simultaneous review of CT and MRI in each case, the calcification (at least one in cases showing multiple ones) was identifiable on MRI in 62% (8/13) of rumors, 82% (9/11) of infectious diseases, and 100% (2/2) in undetermined group. In 36% (4/11) of infectious diseases, fewer number of

  13. Shared and Distinct Genetic Influences Among Different Measures of Pulmonary Function

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Grant, Michael D.; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined shared and distinct genetic influences among standard measures of pulmonary functions: ratio of forced expiratory volume at 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and percent predicted values for forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1%p), forced expiratory flow (FEFmax%p), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV%p) in 978–1,048 middle-aged (mean age = 55 years) male–male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. A common latent factor (h2 = 0.30) accounted for the correlation...

  14. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  15. Causes of comorbidity: pleiotropy or causality? Shared genetic and environmental influences on migraine and neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2012-04-01

    Comorbidity - the clustered occurrence of two traits or disorders - may be studied in genetically informative designs such as the classical twin study, to test whether genetic and/or environmental factors underlying the two disorders are correlated. When a genetic correlation is found, this can be explained by several mechanisms, including pleiotropy (the same genes influencing multiple traits), and causality (one trait causing the other). With a cotwin control design, it can be investigated which scenario is most plausible. In this design, monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the first trait (i.e., one twin is affected, the other is not) are compared in terms of their risk for the second trait: under a causal model, only the twins affected for the first trait will be at increased risk for the second trait. Under genetic pleiotropy, this risk will be increased in both twins because they share the same risk genes. We first discuss the cotwin control design and then illustrate its application with data on migraine and neuroticism that were collected in 5,200 Dutch twins, including 1,648 complete twin pairs (981 monozygotic and 667 dizygotic pairs). There was a significant association between migraine and neuroticism, which could be attributed to genetic and environmental correlations (rG = .27 and rE = .19). In monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for neuroticism, the risk of migraine was significantly higher in the twins with a high neuroticism score. This pattern of results is consistent with a causal relationship, suggesting that neuroticism increases the risk of migraine.

  16. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children. PMID:4032343

  17. Nanoparticles (nanobacteria) responsible from calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Tuba; Dal, Mehmet Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) are particles smaller (80-500nm) than known bacteria and have bacteria-like features (membrane structures, in two division, colony formation). CNPs have shown in human and animal sera, human\\'s pathological calcifications (kidney stones, dental pulp stones, heart valve calcifications, arterial calcifications, psammoma bodies in ovarian cancer, etc.), the nature\\'s calcifications (travertines, etc.) and Mars meteors. CNPs are able to grow in Dulbecco's m...

  18. Genetic signatures shared in embryonic liver development and liver cancer define prognostically relevant subgroups in HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Diana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple activations of individual genes during embryonic liver and HCC development have repeatedly prompted speculations about conserved embryonic signatures driving cancer development. Recently, the emerging discussion on cancer stem cells and the appreciation that generally tumors may develop from progenitor cells of diverse stages of cellular differentiation has shed increasing light on the overlapping genetic signatures between embryonic liver development and HCC. However there is still a lack of systematic studies investigating this area. We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of differentially regulated genetic signaling pathways in embryonic and liver cancer development and investigated their biological relevance. Genetic signaling pathways were investigated on several publically available genome wide microarray experiments on liver development and HCC. Differentially expressed genes were investigated for pathway enrichment or underrepresentation compared to KEGG annotated pathways by Fisher exact evaluation. The comparative analysis of enrichment and under representation of differentially regulated genes in liver development and HCC demonstrated a significant overlap between multiple pathways. Most strikingly we demonstrated a significant overlap not only in pathways expected to be relevant to both conditions such as cell cycle or apoptosis but also metabolic pathways associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, we demonstrated the clinical significance of these findings as unsupervised clustering of HCC patients on the basis of these metabolic pathways displayed significant differences in survival. These results indicate that liver development and liver cancer share similar alterations in multiple genetic signaling pathways. Several pathways with markedly similar patterns of enrichment or underrepresentation of various regulated genes between liver development and HCC are of prognostic relevance in

  19. Molecular evolution of calcification genes in morphologically similar but phylogenetically unrelated scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirshing, Herman H; Baker, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Molecular phylogenies of scleractinian corals often fail to agree with traditional phylogenies derived from morphological characters. These discrepancies are generally attributed to non-homologous or morphologically plastic characters used in taxonomic descriptions. Consequently, morphological convergence of coral skeletons among phylogenetically unrelated groups is considered to be the major evolutionary process confounding molecular and morphological hypotheses. A strategy that may help identify cases of convergence and/or diversification in coral morphology is to compare phylogenies of existing "neutral" genetic markers used to estimate genealogic phylogenetic history with phylogenies generated from non-neutral genes involved in calcification (biomineralization). We tested the hypothesis that differences among calcification gene phylogenies with respect to the "neutral" trees may represent convergent or divergent functional strategies among calcification gene proteins that may correlate to aspects of coral skeletal morphology. Partial sequences of two nuclear genes previously determined to be involved in the calcification process in corals, "Cnidaria-III" membrane-bound/secreted α-carbonic anhydrase (CIII-MBSα-CA) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 2/4, were PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced from 31 scleractinian coral species in 26 genera and 9 families. For comparison, "neutral" gene phylogenies were generated from sequences from two protein-coding "non-calcification" genes, one nuclear (β-tubulin) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome b), from the same individuals. Cloned CIII-MBSα-CA sequences were found to be non-neutral, and phylogenetic analyses revealed CIII-MBSα-CAs to exhibit a complex evolutionary history with clones distributed between at least 2 putative gene copies. However, for several coral taxa only one gene copy was recovered. With CIII-MBSα-CA, several recovered clades grouped taxa that differed from the "non-calcification" loci. In some

  20. Molecular evolution of calcification genes in morphologically similar but phylogenetically unrelated scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirshing, Herman H; Baker, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Molecular phylogenies of scleractinian corals often fail to agree with traditional phylogenies derived from morphological characters. These discrepancies are generally attributed to non-homologous or morphologically plastic characters used in taxonomic descriptions. Consequently, morphological convergence of coral skeletons among phylogenetically unrelated groups is considered to be the major evolutionary process confounding molecular and morphological hypotheses. A strategy that may help identify cases of convergence and/or diversification in coral morphology is to compare phylogenies of existing "neutral" genetic markers used to estimate genealogic phylogenetic history with phylogenies generated from non-neutral genes involved in calcification (biomineralization). We tested the hypothesis that differences among calcification gene phylogenies with respect to the "neutral" trees may represent convergent or divergent functional strategies among calcification gene proteins that may correlate to aspects of coral skeletal morphology. Partial sequences of two nuclear genes previously determined to be involved in the calcification process in corals, "Cnidaria-III" membrane-bound/secreted α-carbonic anhydrase (CIII-MBSα-CA) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 2/4, were PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced from 31 scleractinian coral species in 26 genera and 9 families. For comparison, "neutral" gene phylogenies were generated from sequences from two protein-coding "non-calcification" genes, one nuclear (β-tubulin) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome b), from the same individuals. Cloned CIII-MBSα-CA sequences were found to be non-neutral, and phylogenetic analyses revealed CIII-MBSα-CAs to exhibit a complex evolutionary history with clones distributed between at least 2 putative gene copies. However, for several coral taxa only one gene copy was recovered. With CIII-MBSα-CA, several recovered clades grouped taxa that differed from the "non-calcification" loci. In some

  1. Developmental changes in genetic and shared environmental contributions to smoking initiation and subsequent smoking quantity in adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking have focused on adolescents or examined developmental changes in additive genetic, shared environment and unique environmental influences on liability to initiate cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. The aim of this study is to add to the literature on liability to initiate and use cigarettes during adolescence using a nationally representative sample. Method Data for this study came from adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages 14-33) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We ran a series of developmental causal-contingent-common pathway models to examine whether additive genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on liability to the initiation of cigarette use are shared with those on smoking quantity, and whether their contributions change across development. Results We found evidence for a developmental shift in genetic and shared environmental contributions to cigarette use. Early in adolescence genetic and environmental influences work independently on liability to cigarette smoking initiation and quantity of cigarettes smoked, but liability to these behaviors becomes correlated as individuals age into young adulthood. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the causal processes underlying the liability to smoke cigarettes. With age, there is greater overlap in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the initiation of cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. PMID:26227182

  2. Identification of a shared genetic susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease and periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne S Schaefer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate a mutual epidemiological relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and periodontitis. Both diseases are associated with similar risk factors and are characterized by a chronic inflammatory process. In a candidate-gene association study, we identify an association of a genetic susceptibility locus shared by both diseases. We confirm the known association of two neighboring linkage disequilibrium regions on human chromosome 9p21.3 with CHD and show the additional strong association of these loci with the risk of aggressive periodontitis. For the lead SNP of the main associated linkage disequilibrium region, rs1333048, the odds ratio of the autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance is 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.94; P = 6.9 x 10(-4 for generalized aggressive periodontitis, and 1.72 (1.06-2.76; P = 2.6 x 10(-2 for localized aggressive periodontitis. The two associated linkage disequilibrium regions map to the sequence of the large antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL, which partly overlaps regulatory and coding sequences of CDKN2A/CDKN2B. A closely located diabetes-associated variant was independent of the CHD and periodontitis risk haplotypes. Our study demonstrates that CHD and periodontitis are genetically related by at least one susceptibility locus, which is possibly involved in ANRIL activity and independent of diabetes associated risk variants within this region. Elucidation of the interplay of ANRIL transcript variants and their involvement in increased susceptibility to the interactive diseases CHD and periodontitis promises new insight into the underlying shared pathogenic mechanisms of these complex common diseases.

  3. Periodontal Disease Is an Independent Predictor of Intracardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg S. Pressman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Results. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77% had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2. In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P=0.001 was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P=0.024. There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. Conclusions. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

  4. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  5. Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Share a Core Proteomic Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahit Penesyan

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the main colonizers of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. We have isolated and sequenced several P. aeruginosa isolates from the sputum of CF patients and compared them with each other and with the model strain PAO1. Phenotypic analysis of CF isolates showed significant variability in colonization and virulence-related traits suggesting different strategies for adaptation to the CF lung. Genomic analysis indicated these strains shared a large set of core genes with the standard laboratory strain PAO1, and identified the genetic basis for some of the observed phenotypic differences. Proteomics revealed that in a conventional laboratory medium PAO1 expressed 827 proteins that were absent in the CF isolates while the CF isolates shared a distinctive signature set of 703 proteins not detected in PAO1. PAO1 expressed many transporters for the uptake of organic nutrients and relatively few biosynthetic pathways. Conversely, the CF isolates expressed a narrower range of transporters and a broader set of metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides and polyamines. The proteomic data suggests that in a common laboratory medium PAO1 may transport a diverse set of "ready-made" nutrients from the rich medium, whereas the CF isolates may only utilize a limited number of nutrients from the medium relying mainly on their own metabolism for synthesis of essential nutrients. These variations indicate significant differences between the metabolism and physiology of P. aeruginosa CF isolates and PAO1 that cannot be detected at the genome level alone. The widening gap between the increasing genomic data and the lack of phenotypic data means that researchers are increasingly reliant on extrapolating from genomic comparisons using experimentally characterized model organisms such as PAO1. While comparative genomics can provide valuable information, our data

  6. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  7. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  8. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among spe

  9. Idiopathic arterial calcification in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Maya [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Red Cross Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas; Solomon, Rustum; Sinclair, Paul; McCulloch, Mignon [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-08-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy is usually fatal with death in early life and diagnosis at post mortem. This report describes a unique, late presentation with hypertension and cardiac failure in a child aged 33 months, found to have widespread arterial calcification at radiological imaging. The calcium-phosphate axis was normal and there was no other demonstrable cause for calcification. Additionally, the histological features of arterial calcification at renal biopsy paralleled the findings in infants with this disorder. The late presentation in this case is unusual and has not been previously reported. Ultrasound and CT are sensitive for calcification, and the disease should be suspected in children presenting with cardiac or respiratory manifestations and features of arterial calcification, where no metabolic cause is established. (orig.)

  10. Arterial calcification: Conscripted by collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D.

    2016-03-01

    In atherosclerotic plaques, patterns of calcification -- which have profound implications for plaque stability and vulnerability to rupture -- are determined by the collagen's content and patterning throughout the plaque.

  11. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study in Dachshund: Identification of a Major Locus Affecting Intervertebral Disc Calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Proschowsky, Helle Friis;

    2011-01-01

    Intervertebral disc calcification and herniation commonly affects Dachshund where the predisposition is caused by an early onset degenerative process resulting in disc calcification. A continuous spectrum of disc degeneration is seen within and among clog breeds, suggesting a multifactorial...... with intervertebral disc calcification in Dachshund through a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Based on thorough radiographic examinations, 48 cases with >= 6 disc calcifications or surgically treated for disc herniation and 46 controls with 0-1 disc calcifications were identified. GWA using the Illumina Canine......HD BeadChip identified a locus on chromosome 12 from 36.8 to 38.6 Mb with 36 markers reaching genome-wide significance (P-genome = 0.00001-0.026). This study suggests that a major locus on chromosome 12 harbors genetic variations affecting the development of intervertebral disc calcification in Dachshund....

  13. Vascular calcification: Inducers and inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghyun, E-mail: dhlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Types of vascular calcification processes. {center_dot} Inducers of vascular calcification. {center_dot} Inhibitors of vascular calcifications. {center_dot} Clinical utility for vascular calcification therapy. {center_dot} Implications for the development of new tissue engineering strategies. - Abstract: Unlike the traditional beliefs, there are mounting evidences suggesting that ectopic mineral depositions, including vascular calcification are mostly active processes, many times resembling that of the bone mineralization. Numbers of agents are involved in the differentiation of certain subpopulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into the osteoblast-like entity, and the activation and initiation of extracellular matrix ossification process. On the other hand, there are factors as well, that prevent such differentiation and ectopic calcium phosphate formation. In normal physiological environments, activities of such procalcific and anticalcific regulatory factors are in harmony, prohibiting abnormal calcification from occurring. However, in certain pathophysiological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes, such balances are altered, resulting in abnormal ectopic mineral deposition. Understanding the factors that regulate the formation and inhibition of ectopic mineral formation would be beneficial in the development of tissue engineering strategies for prevention and/or treatment of such soft-tissue calcification. Current review focuses on the factors that seem to be clinically relevant and/or could be useful in developing future tissue regeneration strategies. Clinical utilities and implications of such factors are also discussed.

  14. 78 FR 13286 - Sharing Certain Business Information Regarding the Introduction of Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests under 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests'' (referred to below...

  15. Marine Genetic Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Access and Benefit Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drankier, P.; Oude Elferink, A.G.; Visser, L.; Takács, T.

    2012-01-01

    This report examines whether it is possible for the research and use of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) to follow an approach based on the system that is being used with plant genetic resources in areas within national jurisdiction, as developed by the Food and

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study for Coronary Artery Calcification With Follow-Up in Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Kavousi, Maryam; Smith, Albert V.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Sun, Yan V.; Province, Michael A.; Aspelund, Thor; Dehghan, Abbas; Hoffmann, Udo; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline S.; de Andrade, Mariza; Kraja, Aldi T.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Elias-Smale, Suzette E.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Launer, Lenore J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Kathiresan, Sekar; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Herrington, David M.; Howard, Timothy D.; Liu, Yongmei; Post, Wendy S.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Haiqing; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Altshuler, David; Elosua, Roberto; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Bis, Joshua C.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Muenzel, Thomas; White, Charles C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nalls, Michael; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Johnson, Andrew D.; Newman, Anne B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Cunningham, Julie; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Peyser, Patricia A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background-Coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by computed tomography is a noninvasive measure of coronary atherosclerosis, which underlies most cases of myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to identify common genetic variants associated with CAC and further investigate their associations

  17. The Genetic Intersection of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Shared Medical Comorbidities - Relations that Translate from Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jasmine T; Gordon, Alexis J; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are considered neurodevelopmental, and the associated genes often are expressed in tissues outside of the brain. This suggests a biological relatedness with medical co-occurrences that could have broad clinical implications for diagnosis and patient management over a lifetime. A qualitative integration of public data from genetic consortia of psychiatric disorders and medical comorbidities explores the question of whether genetically associated psychiatric illnesses present with co-occurring disturbances can be used to define specific mental-physical health relations. Novel patterns of gene-disorder relations appear with approximately one-third of conservatively defined, consortia-generated candidate risk genes with multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Moreover, nearly as many genes overlap with non-psychiatric phenotypes, including cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, and metabolic disturbances. While the landscape of genetic risk will change as study populations are expanded and biological confirmations accrue, the current relationships suggest that a mostly siloed perspective of gene relatedness to one categorical psychiatric diagnosis is not clinically useful. The future holds the promise that once candidates are fully validated, genome screening and mutation identification will bring more precision for predicting the risk for complex health conditions. Our view is that as genetic data are refined, continuing to decipher a shared pattern of genetic risk for brain and peripheral organ pathophysiology is not simply an academic exercise. Rather, determining relatedness will impact predictions of multifaceted health risks, patient treatment, and management. PMID:27597832

  18. The Genetic Intersection of Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Shared Medical Comorbidities – Relations that Translate from Bench to Bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jasmine T.; Gordon, Alexis J.; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are considered neurodevelopmental, and the associated genes often are expressed in tissues outside of the brain. This suggests a biological relatedness with medical co-occurrences that could have broad clinical implications for diagnosis and patient management over a lifetime. A qualitative integration of public data from genetic consortia of psychiatric disorders and medical comorbidities explores the question of whether genetically associated psychiatric illnesses present with co-occurring disturbances can be used to define specific mental–physical health relations. Novel patterns of gene-disorder relations appear with approximately one-third of conservatively defined, consortia-generated candidate risk genes with multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Moreover, nearly as many genes overlap with non-psychiatric phenotypes, including cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, and metabolic disturbances. While the landscape of genetic risk will change as study populations are expanded and biological confirmations accrue, the current relationships suggest that a mostly siloed perspective of gene relatedness to one categorical psychiatric diagnosis is not clinically useful. The future holds the promise that once candidates are fully validated, genome screening and mutation identification will bring more precision for predicting the risk for complex health conditions. Our view is that as genetic data are refined, continuing to decipher a shared pattern of genetic risk for brain and peripheral organ pathophysiology is not simply an academic exercise. Rather, determining relatedness will impact predictions of multifaceted health risks, patient treatment, and management. PMID:27597832

  19. Calcifications simulating peroneus longus tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two patients with sprains of the ankle joint calcification adjacent to the posterior tibial margin was evident in the lateral projection of a standard radiographic examination. Calcifying peroneus longus tendinitis was suggested. Further tangential views and computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed, however, that the calcifications in both patients were located in the tibial insertion of the posterior and inferior tibio-fibular ligament. In such cases, a correct diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for a non-existent tendinitis. (orig.)

  20. Shared genetic influences on ADHD symptoms and very low-frequency EEG activity: a twin study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tye, C.; Rijsdijk, F.; Greven, C.U.; Kuntsi, J.; Asherson, P.; McLoughlin, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibi

  1. Genetic associations and shared environmental effects on the skin microbiome of Korean twins

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Sunghee; Park, Jin Mo; Sung, Joohon; Ko, GwangPyo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The skin is the outermost layer of the human body and one of the key sites for host-microbe interactions. Both environmental and host genetic factors influence microbial communities in distinct anatomical niches, but little is known about their interplay in shaping the skin microbiome. Here, we investigate the heritable components of the skin microbiome and their association with host genetic factors. Results: Based on our analysis of the microbiota from 45 individuals including m...

  2. Evaluation of shared genetic susceptibility loci between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia based on genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K; Rosengren, Anders; Thygesen, Johan H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have documented higher than expected comorbidity (or, in some cases, inverse comorbidity) between schizophrenia and several autoimmune disorders. It remains unknown whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic susceptibility loci. AIMS: The present study...... aimed to investigate whether verified genome wide significant variants of autoimmune disorders confer risk of schizophrenia, which could suggest a common genetic basis. METHODS: Seven hundred and fourteen genome wide significant risk variants of 25 autoimmune disorders were extracted from the NHGRI GWAS...... catalogue and examined for association to schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia GWAS samples (36,989 cases and 113,075 controls). RESULTS: Two independent loci at 4q24 and 6p21.32-33 originally identified from GWAS of autoimmune diseases were found genome wide associated...

  3. Calcification prevention tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  4. Common psychiatric disorders share the same genetic origin: a multivariate sibling study of the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, E; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that different mental-health problems appear to be partly influenced by the same set of genes, which can be summarized by a general genetic factor. To date, such studies have relied on surveys of community-based samples, which could introduce potential biases. The goal of this study was to examine whether a general genetic factor would still emerge when based on a different ascertainment method with different biases from previous studies. We targeted all adults in Sweden (n=3 475 112) using national registers and identified those who had received one or more psychiatric diagnoses after seeking or being forced into mental health care. In order to examine the genetic versus environmental etiology of the general factor, we examined whether participants' full- or half-siblings had also received diagnoses. We focused on eight major psychiatric disorders based on the International Classification of Diseases, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol use disorder and drug abuse. In addition, we included convictions of violent crimes. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a general genetic factor influenced all disorders and convictions of violent crimes, accounting for between 10% (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and 36% (drug abuse) of the variance of the conditions. Thus, a general genetic factor of psychopathology emerges when based on both surveys as well as national registers, indicating that a set of pleiotropic genes influence a variety of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26303662

  5. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7 and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7. Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively. This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  6. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Barber, Renee M; Schatzberg, Scott J; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Porter, Brian F; Vernau, Karen M; Keesler, Rebekah I; Matiasek, Kaspar; Flegel, Thomas; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa; Mariani, Christopher L; Johnson, Gayle C; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  7. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  8. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu; E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei; O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted; K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O.̈. Ljunggren; R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho; P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huibert A. P.); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (J. Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. W

  9. Shared aetiology of risky sexual behaviour and adolescent misconduct: Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, C.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be in

  10. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  11. Adolescent, Parent, and Observer Perceptions of Parenting: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Shared and Distinct Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Howe, George; Hetherington, E. Mavis

    2001-01-01

    Examined low interrater agreement by decomposing common and unique variance among parent, adolescent, and observer reports of parental warmth and negativity into genetic and environmental factors. Model-fitting analyses findings generally supported predictions for warmth and negativity at Family and Individual levels. At the Social level, genetic…

  12. Calcific aortic valve damage as a risk factor for cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a common disease of the elderly. It is a progressive disease ranging from mild valve thickening to severe calcification with aortic valve stenosis. Risk factors for AVC are similar to those for atherosclerosis: age, gender, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and renal failure. AVC shares many similarities to atherosclerosis, including inflammatory cells and calcium deposits, and correlates with coronary plaque burden. Presence of AVC is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The objective for this review is to discuss the clinical features, natural history and prognostic significance of aortic valve calcifications, including mechanical and hemodynamic factors of flow distribution

  13. Calcification Transformation of Diasporic Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuyue; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lv, Guozhi; Zhang, Zimu; Yin, Zhengnan; Zhang, Tingan

    2016-06-01

    The disposal of red mud, which is a solid waste that is generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Alkali in red mud seeping under the soil may pollute land and water. The Northeastern University, China, has proposed a calcification-carbonation method to deal with low-grade bauxite or red mud. Its main purpose is to change the equilibrium phase of red mud to 2CaO·SiO2 and CaCO3 hydrometallurgically, so that recomposed alkali-free red mud can be widely used. We conducted calcification transformation experiments using diasporic bauxite sampled from Wenshan, and investigated the effects of parameters such as diasporic bauxite grain size, temperature and treatment time on the calcification transformation digestion rate, which is also termed the calcification transformation rate (CTR). The main phase in the calcification transformation slag (CTS) is hydrogarnet with different grain sizes. The CTR increases with decrease in diasporic bauxite grain size, or increase in temperature or reaction time. The CTR reaches a maximum of 87% after 120 min reaction at 240°C. The Na2O/Al2O3 ratio decreases with increase in temperature and reaches 1.5. The sodium content in the CTS decreases with increasing reaction time and is lower than that in the red mud treated using the Bayer process (4-12%).

  14. Vascular diseases: aortitis, aortic aneurysms, and vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, Elena; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Romero, Maria E; Virmani, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta broadly include noninfectious and infectious aortitis, periaortitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. Aortitis is uncommon but is increasingly recognized as an important cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Abdominal (AAA) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) have different pathologies and etiologies. AAAs are the most common type of aortic aneurysm, and the vast majority of these are atherosclerotic. The causes of TAA vary depending on the site of involvement, but medial degeneration is a common pathologic substrate, regardless of etiology, and genetic influences play a prominent role in TAA expression. Standardized classification schemes for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the aorta have only recently been added to the pathology literature. A brief overview of the new histopathologic classifications for aortic inflammatory and degenerative diseases has recently been published by the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology as a consensus document on the surgical pathology of the aorta. Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biologic process, and the mechanisms leading to vascular calcification are under investigation. Calcification may occur in the intima (atherosclerotic) or in the media secondary to metabolic disease. Rarely, vascular calcification may be associated with genetic disorders. PMID:27526100

  15. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne

    Full Text Available Head motion (HM is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN. This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5 and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4, and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and

  16. Families with familial combined hyperlipidemia and families enriched for coronary artery disease share genetic determinants for the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allayee, H.; Aouizerat, B.E.; Lusis, A.J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cantor, R.M.; Lanning, C.D.; Rotter, J.I. [Cedars-Sinai Research Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dallinga-Thie, G.M. [University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Medicine; Krauss, R.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bruin, T.W.A. de [University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Medicine]|[University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Medicine and Endocrinology

    1998-08-01

    Small, dense LDL particles consistently have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia, premature coronary artery disease (CAD), and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). Previously, the authors have observed linkage of LDL particle size with four separate candidate-gene loci in a study of families enriched for CAD. These loci contain the genes for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), on chromosome 6q; for apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV, on chromosome 11q; for cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl-transferase (LCAT), on chromosome 16q; and for the LDL receptor (LDLR), on chromosome 19p. The authors have now tested whether these loci also contribute to LDL particle size in families ascertained for FCH. The members of 18 families (481 individuals) were typed for genetic markers at the four loci, and linkage to LDL particle size was assessed by nonparametric sib-pair linkage analysis. The presence of small, dense LDL (pattern B) was much more frequent in the FCH probands than in the spouse controls. Evidence for linkage was observed at the MnSOD (P = .02), CETP/LCAT (P = .03), and apolipoprotein AI0CIII0AIV loci (P = .005) but not at the LDLR locus. The authors conclude that there is a genetically based association between FCH and small, dense LDL and that the genetic determinants for LDL particle size are shared, at least in part, among FCH families and the more general population at risk for CAD.

  17. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  18. Genetics of Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease: Update from the Alzgene Database and Analysis of Shared Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Olgiati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD has taken impressive steps forwards in the last few years. To date, more than six-hundred genes have been linked to the disorder. However, only a minority of them are supported by a sufficient level of evidence. This review focused on such genes and analyzed shared biological pathways. Genetic markers were selected from a web-based collection (Alzgene. For each SNP in the database, it was possible to perform a meta-analysis. The quality of studies was assessed using criteria such as size of research samples, heterogeneity across studies, and protection from publication bias. This produced a list of 15 top-rated genes: APOE, CLU, PICALM, EXOC3L2, BIN1, CR1, SORL1, TNK1, IL8, LDLR, CST3, CHRNB2, SORCS1, TNF, and CCR2. A systematic analysis of gene ontology terms associated with each marker showed that most genes were implicated in cholesterol metabolism, intracellular transport of beta-amyloid precursor, and autophagy of damaged organelles. Moreover, the impact of these genes on complement cascade and cytokine production highlights the role of inflammatory response in AD pathogenesis. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are prominent issues in AD genetics, but they are not specifically featured in the Alzgene database.

  19. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Rott

  20. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Ro

  1. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  2. Shared effects of genetic and intrauterine and perinatal environment on the development of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Vuguin

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors, including the in utero environment, contribute to Metabolic Syndrome. Exposure to high fat diet exposure in utero and lactation increases incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in offspring. Using GLUT4 heterozygous (G4+/- mice, genetically predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and wild-type littermates we demonstrate genotype specific differences to high fat in utero and lactation. High fat in utero and lactation increased adiposity and impaired insulin and glucose tolerance in both genotypes. High fat wild type offspring had increased serum glucose and PAI-1 levels and decreased adiponectin at 6 wks of age compared to control wild type. High fat G4+/- offspring had increased systolic blood pressure at 13 wks of age compared to all other groups. Potential fetal origins of adult Metabolic Syndrome were investigated. Regardless of genotype, high fat in utero decreased fetal weight and crown rump length at embryonic day 18.5 compared to control. Hepatic expression of genes involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation were increased with high fat in utero. Fetal serum glucose levels were decreased in high fat G4+/- compared to high fat wild type fetuses. High fat G4+/-, but not high fat wild type fetuses, had increased levels of serum cytokines (IFN-γ, MCP-1, RANTES and M-CSF compared to control. This data demonstrates that high fat during pregnancy and lactation increases Metabolic Syndrome male offspring and that heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 augments susceptibility to increased systolic blood pressure. Fetal adaptations to high fat in utero that may predispose to Metabolic Syndrome in adulthood include changes in fetal hepatic gene expression and alterations in circulating cytokines. These results suggest that the interaction between in utero-perinatal environment and genotype plays a critical role in the developmental origin of health and disease.

  3. Arterial calcification: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Henein, Michael Y

    2013-07-31

    There is a significant relationship between the presence, extent and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in both CV and renal patients and CAC scoring can provide improved predictive ability over risk factor scoring alone. There is also a close relationship between CAC presence and atherosclerotic plaque burden, with angiography studies showing very high sensitivity but poor specificity of CAC score for predicting obstructive disease. Nevertheless, there are objections to CAC screening because of uncertainties and lack of studies showing improved outcome. Furthermore, histopathology studies indicate that heavily calcified plaque is unlikely to result in a CV event, while the vulnerable plaque tends to be uncalcified or 'mixed', suggesting that calcification may be protective. This scenario highlights a number of paradoxes, which may indicate that the association between CAC and CV events is spurious, following from the adoption of CAC as a surrogate for high plaque burden, which itself is a surrogate for the presence of vulnerable plaque. Since studies indicate that arterial calcification is a complex, organised and regulated process similar to bone formation, there is no particular reason why it should be a reliable indicator of either the plaque burden or the risk of a future CV event. We suggest that it is time to divorce arterial calcification from atherosclerosis and to view it as a distinct pathology in its own right, albeit one which frequently coexists with atherosclerosis and is related to it for reasons which are not yet fully understood.

  4. Shared Genetic Factors Involved in Celiac Disease, Type 2 Diabetes and Anorexia Nervosa Suggest Common Molecular Pathways for Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Joanna; Montén, Caroline; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Agardh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic regions involved in immune-regulatory mechanisms to be associated with celiac disease. Previous GWAS also revealed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa associated with celiac disease, suggesting involvement of common metabolic pathways for development of these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to extend these previous analyses to study the gene expression in the gut from children with active celiac disease. Material and Methods Thirty six target genes involved in type 2 diabetes and four genes associated with anorexia nervosa were investigated for gene expression in small intestinal biopsies from 144 children with celiac disease at median (range) age of 7.4 years (1.6–17.8) and from 154 disease controls at a median (range) age 11.4.years (1.4–18.3). Results A total of eleven of genes were differently expressed in celiac patients compared with disease controls of which CD36, CD38, FOXP1, SELL, PPARA, PPARG, AGT previously associated with type 2 diabetes and AKAP6, NTNG1 with anorexia nervosa remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion Shared genetic factors involved in celiac disease, type 2 diabetes and anorexia nervosa suggest common underlying molecular pathways for these diseases. PMID:27483138

  5. Genetic sequence data reveals widespread sharing of Leucocytozoon lineages in corvids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Dave; Wheeler, Sarah S; Townsend, Andrea K; Boyce, Walter M; Ernest, Holly B; Cicero, Carla; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-09-01

    Leucocytozoon, a widespread hemosporidian blood parasite that infects a broad group of avian families, has been studied in corvids (family: Corvidae) for over a century. Current taxonomic classification indicates that Leucocytozoon sakharoffi infects crows and related Corvus spp., while Leucocytozoon berestneffi infects magpies (Pica spp.) and blue jays (Cyanocitta sp.). This intrafamily host specificity was based on the experimental transmissibility of the parasites, as well as slight differences in their morphology and life cycle development. Genetic sequence data from Leucocytozoon spp. infecting corvids is scarce, and until the present study, sequence data has not been analyzed to confirm the current taxonomic distinctions. Here, we predict the phylogenetic relationships of Leucocytozoon cytochrome b lineages recovered from infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), yellow-billed magpies (Pica nuttalli), and Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) to explore the host specificity pattern of L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a single large clade containing nearly every lineage recovered from the three host species, while showing no evidence of the expected distinction between L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi. In addition, five of the detected lineages were recovered from both crows and magpies. This absence of the previously described host specificity in corvid Leucocytozoon spp. suggests that L. sakharoffi and L. berestneffi be reexamined from a taxonomic perspective.

  6. Shared Genetic Background for Regulation of Mood and Sleep: Association of GRIA3 with Sleep Duration in Healthy Finnish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utge, Siddheshwar; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Soronen, Pia; Ollila, Hanna M.; Loukola, Anu; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleeping 7 to 8 hours per night appears to be optimal, since both shorter and longer sleep times are related to increased morbidity and mortality. Depressive disorder is almost invariably accompanied by disturbed sleep, leading to decreased sleep duration, and disturbed sleep may be a precipitating factor in the initiation of depressive illness. Here, we examined whether, in healthy individuals, sleep duration is associated with genes that we earlier found to be associated with depressive disorder. Design: Population-based molecular genetic study. Setting: Regression analysis of 23 risk variants for depressive disorder from 12 genes to sleep duration in healthy individuals. Participants: Three thousand, one hundred, forty-seven individuals (25–75 y) from population-based Health 2000 and FINRISK 2007 samples. Measurements and Results: We found a significant association of rs687577 from GRIA3 on the X-chromosome with sleep duration in women (permutation-based corrected empirical P = 0.00001, β = 0.27; Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0052; f = 0.11). The frequency of C/C genotype previously found to increase risk for depression in women was highest among those who slept for 8 hours or less in all age groups younger than 70 years. Its frequency decreased with the lengthening of sleep duration, and those who slept for 9 to 10 hours showed a higher frequency of C/A or A/A genotypes, when compared with the midrange sleepers (7-8 hours) (permutation-based corrected empirical P = 0.0003, OR = 1.81). Conclusions: The GRIA3 polymorphism that was previously found to be associated with depressive disorder in women showed an association with sleep duration in healthy women. Mood disorders and short sleep may share a common genetic background and biologic mechanisms that involve glutamatergic neurotransmission. Citation: Utge S; Kronholm E; Partonen T; Soronen P; Ollila HM; Loukola A; Perola M; Salomaa V; Porkka-Heiskanen T; Paunio T. Shared genetic background for

  7. A new mouse model for mania shares genetic correlates with human bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Saul

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BPD is a debilitating heritable psychiatric disorder. Contemporary rodent models for the manic pole of BPD have primarily utilized either single locus transgenics or treatment with psychostimulants. Our lab recently characterized a mouse strain termed Madison (MSN that naturally displays a manic phenotype, exhibiting elevated locomotor activity, increased sexual behavior, and higher forced swimming relative to control strains. Lithium chloride and olanzapine treatments attenuate this phenotype. In this study, we replicated our locomotor activity experiment, showing that MSN mice display generationally-stable mania relative to their outbred ancestral strain, hsd:ICR (ICR. We then performed a gene expression microarray experiment to compare hippocampus of MSN and ICR mice. We found dysregulation of multiple transcripts whose human orthologs are associated with BPD and other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and ADHD, including: Epor, Smarca4, Cmklr1, Cat, Tac1, Npsr1, Fhit, and P2rx7. RT-qPCR confirmed dysregulation for all of seven transcripts tested. Using a novel genome enrichment algorithm, we found enrichment in genome regions homologous to human loci implicated in BPD in replicated linkage studies including homologs of human cytobands 1p36, 3p14, 3q29, 6p21-22, 12q24, 16q24, and 17q25. Using a functional network analysis, we found dysregulation of a gene system related to chromatin packaging, a result convergent with recent human findings on BPD. Our findings suggest that MSN mice represent a polygenic model for the manic pole of BPD showing much of the genetic systems complexity of the corresponding human disorder. Further, the high degree of convergence between our findings and the human literature on BPD brings up novel questions about evolution by analogy in mammalian genomes.

  8. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  9. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.

  10. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi; Pratibha; Santosh Kumar; Neeeta; Kamal

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We repo...

  11. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified

  12. Evaluation and Management of Breast Calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Zandi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating mammograms, one looks for masses, areas of asymmetry or architectural distortion and microcalcifications."nCalcification found on screening and diagnostic mammography may be typically benign, of intermediate type, or have a high probability of malignancy."nThe calcifications that most radiologists have prob-lems dealing with are those of "intermediate con-cern.""nOccasionally spot compression-magnification views are necessary to evaluate and analyze the calcification characteristics."nThe morphology and distribution of calcifications are often clues to the differential diagnosis and appropriate management. Calcifications deserve closer scrutiny than those in a regional or diffuse distribution."nIn this article, we discuss the imaging evaluation and management of lesions found on screening and diagnostic mammography, with the focus on commonly encumbered questions and problems. We will also present our interesting cases with breast calcification.

  13. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  14. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  15. 'Is this knowledge mine and nobody else's? I don't feel that.' Patient views about consent, confidentiality and information-sharing in genetic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2016-03-01

    In genetic medicine, a patient's diagnosis can mean their family members are also at risk, raising a question about how consent and confidentiality should function in clinical genetics. This question is particularly pressing when it is unclear whether a patient has shared information. Conventionally, healthcare professionals view confidentiality at an individual level and 'disclosure without consent' as the exception, not the rule. The relational joint account model, by contrast, conceptualises genetic information as confidential at the familial level and encourages professionals to take disclosure as the default position. In this study, we interviewed 33 patients about consent and confidentiality and analysed data thematically. Our first theme showed that although participants thought of certain aspects of genetic conditions--for example, the way they affect day-to-day health--as somewhat personal, they perceived genetic information--for example, the mutation in isolation--as familial. Most thought these elements were separable and thought family members had a right to know the latter, identifying a broad range of harms that would justify disclosure. Our second theme illustrated that participants nonetheless had some concerns about what, if any, implications there would be of professionals treating such information as familial and they emphasised the importance of being informed about the way their information would be shared. Based on these results, we recommend that professionals take disclosure as the default position, but make clear that they will treat genetic information as familial during initial consultations and address any concerns therein.

  16. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We report a case of heavily calcified left ovary which mimicked as vesicle calculus on X- ray leading to confusion in diagnosis.

  17. Vascular Adventitia Calcification and Its Underlying Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Previous research on vascular calcification has mainly focused on the vascular intima and media. However, we show here that vascular calcification may also occur in the adventitia. The purpose of this work is to help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying vascular calcification. The calcified lesions were examined by Von Kossa staining in ApoE-/- mice which were fed high fat diets (HFD for 48 weeks and human subjects aged 60 years and older that had died of coronary heart disease, heart failure or acute renal failure. Explant cultured fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMCswere obtained from rat adventitia and media, respectively. After calcification induction, cells were collected for Alizarin Red S staining. Calcified lesions were observed in the aorta adventitia and coronary artery adventitia of ApoE-/-mice, as well as in the aorta adventitia of human subjects examined. Explant culture of fibroblasts, the primary cell type comprising the adventitia, was successfully induced for calcification after incubation with TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml + mineralization media for 4 days, and the phenotype conversion vascular adventitia fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was identified. Culture of SMCs, which comprise only a small percentage of all cells in the adventitia, in calcifying medium for 14 days resulted in significant calcification.Vascular calcification can occur in the adventitia. Adventitia calcification may arise from the fibroblasts which were transformed into myofibroblasts or smooth muscle cells.

  18. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  19. Pineal calcification on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Zeon, S. K.; Park, S. K. [Keimyung University Medical College and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 {+-} 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L.

  20. Atypical Radiological Manifestation of Pulmonary Metastatic Calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Hae; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Chul Hwan; Ham, Soo Youn; Oh, Yu Whan [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a condition of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, and this is secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism without any prior soft tissue damage. The predisposing factors for this condition include chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia and increased tissue alkalinity. The most common radiologic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities in the upper lung zone. These opacities reflect the deposition of calcium salts in the pulmonary interstitium. We present here a case of metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient who recovered from pneumonia with sepsis and whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) images demonstrated localized parenchymal airspace calcification that was limited to the bilateral lower lobes. These lower lobes had been involved with pneumonic consolidation without calcification, as seen on the previous CT scan. In summary, we report here on an atypical presentation of metastatic pulmonary calcification that showed dense airspace consolidation localized to the bilateral lower lobes in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and pneumonia.

  1. Intracranial calcification on paediatric computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, B.; Cavanagh, N.

    1986-07-01

    An analysis of the computed tomograms of 18000 children examined consecutively form the basis of an assessment of the diagnostic significance of intracranial calcification. The low incidence of physiological calcification in the pineal and choroid of about 2% up to the age of 8 years, but increasing 5-fold by the age of 15 years, is confirmed. Pathological calcification occurred in 1.6%, the commonest causes being neoplasms (43%), neuroectodermal syndromes (20%) and infections (12%). Diffuse basal ganglia calcification (15%) bore little relation to the diverse clinical symptomatology, and routine biochemical studies showed a disorder of metabolism to be present in only 6 cases. Calcification has not been previously noted in acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, Pertussis or Cocksackie encephalitis, infantile neuraxonal dystrophy, Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome or in the basal ganglia in neurofibromatosis.

  2. Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints, and soft tissue tumors. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 26. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and ...

  3. Fetal calcifications are associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far.One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection.Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001. The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%, trisomy 18 (22%, and monosomy X (18%. A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004. Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001.The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer

  4. Calcifications in the breast in Filaria loa infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, R. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    A 40-year-old patient underwent mammography for evaluation of a mass. Atypical calcifications were observed in the opposite breast. Two types of calcification were observed: One type was spiral-shaped and the other type rod-shaped. These calcifications were caused by Filaria loa. Parasitic calcifications in the breast are uncommon. (orig.).

  5. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  6. Radiographic spectrum of rectocolonic calcification from schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataar, S; Bassiony, H; Hamed, M S; Ghoneim, I; Satyanath, S; Hebbar, H G; Elgindy, N N; Hanna, R M

    1984-05-01

    Rectocolonic calcification was detected radiographically in 17 sites in 14 patients undergoing excretory urography for the assessment of urinary schistosomiasis. The right colon was involved in 11 sites, the rectum in four, and the left colon in two. The pattern of calcification varied according to the degree of bowel distension. A laminar pattern was common to all sites and occurred when the rectum or colon was distended with air, feces, or barium. A laminar or irregular amorphous density was found in the empty colon, whereas the calcified, empty rectum had a corrugated pattern. Rectocolonic calcification is probably the most common radiographic manifestation of schistosomal infestation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:6609576

  7. Imaging findings in acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Caio Giometti; Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Imaging Dept.

    2011-09-15

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis is a benign and rare condition that presents calcification of the superior oblique fibers of longus colli muscle with local inflammatory reaction. Such condition is one of the less common presentations of calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Clinical signs are usually acute neck pain and odynophagia, and it may be misdiagnosed as retropharyngeal abscess, spondylodiscitis or traumatic injury. The imaging findings in calcific prevertebral tendinitis are pathognomonic. The knowledge of such findings is extremely important to avoid unnecessary interventions in a patient presenting a condition with a good response to conservative treatment. (author)

  8. Breast skin calcifications: Mammographic recognition and confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors found microcalcifications in the skin of the breast to occur in 8% of patients undergoing mammography, a prevalence much higher than what has been previously reported. Usually in incidental finding, breast skin calcifications are readily recognized when they are multiple, bilateral, coarse, or polygonal with a central radiolucency; when they are located in a peripheral portion of the breast on at least one view, or when they are serendipitously imaged within the skin. One hundred patients with breast skin calcifications were studied. In 15 patients in whom clustered dermal calcifications simulated parenchymal microcalcifications, template-guided tangential views permitted precise skin localization. Three of those patients had been referred for needle localization before biopsy and four after failed biopsy for clustered microcalcifications. Dermal calcifications can pose a vexing problem in the management of microcalcifications of the breast. A high index of suspicion is warrented in order to forestall unnecessary or unsuccessful biopsies

  9. Coral calcification in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2010-01-01

    Animals and plants that live in the ocean form skeletons and other hard parts by combining calcium ions and carbonate ions to create calcium carbonate. This process is called calcification. In tropical and subtropical oceans, the calcification of corals and other organisms creates reefs that protect islands, produce beautiful white-sand beaches, and create habitat for thousands of species that live on coral reefs.

  10. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persi...

  11. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzini, Michael J. [Department of Cardiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Schulze, P. Christian [Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: christian.schulze@bmc.org

    2006-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with prominent calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Izawa; Takeshi Sawada; Ryuichi Abiko; Daisuke Kumon; Mami Hirakawa; Mika Kobayashi; Nobuyuki Obinata

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach with prominent calcification at presentation.A 61-year-old woman visited our hospital because of epigastric discomfort.A spherical calcified lesion with a diameter of about 30 mm was incidentally shown in the left upper quadrant on an abdominal X-ray.Computed tomography demonstrated that the tumor was growing from the upper gastric body,with calcification in the peripheral ring area.A laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed,and the resected specimen revealed a well-circumscribed tumor with exophytic growth from the gastric muscularis propria.Microscopic examination revealed spindleshaped tumor cells with calcification and hemorrhage.Additionally,positive immunoreactivity of the tumor to KIT and CD34 and a low mitotic index resulted in the diagnosis of very low risk GIST.There are a few case reports of heavily calcified GIST,although solitary or punctate calcification of primary GIST has been reported in several case series.Dystrophic calcification of necrotic or degenerative tissue is the supposed cause of primary calcified GISTs.In contrast,appearance of calcification after administration of imatinib mesylate,which may be one indicator of disease response,is possibly caused by a different mechanism.

  13. Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

    1988-06-01

    Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

  14. A major genetic locus controlling natural Plasmodium falciparum infection is shared by East and West African Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Koella Jacob C; Sharakhov Igor; Xia Ai; Lambrechts Louis; Markianos Kyriacos; Riehle Michelle M; Vernick Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic linkage mapping identified a region of chromosome 2L in the Anopheles gambiae genome that exerts major control over natural infection by Plasmodium falciparum. This 2L Plasmodium-resistance interval was mapped in mosquitoes from a natural population in Mali, West Africa, and controls the numbers of P. falciparum oocysts that develop on the vector midgut. An important question is whether genetic variation with respect to Plasmodium-resistance exists across Africa, a...

  15. Shared and unique genetic and environmental influences on binge eating and night eating: a Swedish twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Tammy L; Thornton, Laura M; Lindroos, Ann Karin; Stunkard, Albert J; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L; Rasmussen, Finn; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    We applied twin methodology to female and male twin pairs to further understand the nature of the relation between two behaviors associated with eating disorders-binge eating (BE) and night eating (NE) in an effort to determine the extent of overlap of genetic and environmental factors influencing liability to these behaviors. We calculated heritability estimates for males and females for each behavior and applied bivariate twin modeling to the female data to estimate the genetic and environmental correlation between these two traits. Data on BE and NE were derived from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) of the Swedish Twin Registry (STR; N=11,604). Prevalence estimates revealed sex differences with females more likely to endorse BE and males more likely to endorse NE. In males, we were only able to estimate univariate heritabilities due to small sample sizes: The heritability for BE was 0.74 [95% CI=(0.36, 0.93)] and for NE was 0.44 [95% CI=(0.24, 0.61)]. The best fitting bivariate model for females included additive genetic and unique environmental factors as well as the genetic correlation between BE and NE. Heritability estimates were 0.70 [95% CI=(0.26, 0.77)] for BE and 0.35 [95% CI=(0.17, 0.52)] for NE. The genetic correlation, 0.66 [95% CI=(0.48, 0.96)] suggests considerable overlap in the genetic factors influencing liability to BE and NE. In females, there is considerable overlap in the genetic factors that contribute to these traits, but the incomplete overlap allows for the influence of independent genetic and environmental factors as well. BE and NE in females are therefore best conceptualized as related but not identical traits. PMID:20188292

  16. Identification of shared genetic susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity: a meta-analysis of genome-wide studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chaoneng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Type 2 diabetes (2DM, obesity, and coronary artery disease (CAD are frequently coexisted being as key components of metabolic syndrome. Whether there is shared genetic background underlying these diseases remained unclear. We performed a meta-analysis of 35 genome screens for 2DM, 36 for obesity or body mass index (BMI-defined obesity, and 21 for CAD using genome search meta-analysis (GSMA, which combines linkage results to identify regions with only weak evidence and provide genetic interactions among different diseases. For each study, 120 genomic bins of approximately 30 cM were defined and ranked according to the best linkage evidence within each bin. For each disease, bin 6.2 achieved genomic significanct evidence, and bin 9.3, 10.5, 16.3 reached suggestive level for 2DM. Bin 11.2 and 16.3, and bin 10.5 and 9.3, reached suggestive evidence for obesity and CAD respectively. In pooled all three diseases, bin 9.3 and 6.5 reached genomic significant and suggestive evidence respectively, being relatively much weaker for 2DM/CAD or 2DM/obesity or CAD/obesity. Further, genomewide significant evidence was observed of bin 16.3 and 4.5 for 2DM/obesity, which is decreased when CAD was added. These findings indicated that bin 9.3 and 6.5 are most likely to be shared by 2DM, obesity and CAD. And bin 16.3 and 4.5 are potentially common regions to 2DM and obesity only. The observed shared susceptibility regions imply a partly overlapping genetic aspects of disease development. Fine scanning of these regions will definitely identify more susceptibility genes and causal variants.

  17. Shared Genetic Basis for Type 1 Diabetes, Islet Autoantibodies, and Autoantibodies Associated With Other Immune-Mediated Diseases in Families With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, Caroline Anna; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    ) in autoimmune gastritis, transglutaminase (TGA) in celiac disease, and 21-hydroxylase (21-OHA) in autoimmune hypoadrenalism. In addition to the MHC region, we identify SNPs in five susceptibility loci (IFIH1, PTPN22, SH2B3, BACH2, and CTLA4) as significantly associated with more than one autoantibody at a false......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a polygenic autoimmune disease that is often present with autoantibodies directed against pancreatic islet proteins. Many genetic susceptibility loci are shared with other autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases that also cosegregate in families with T1D. The aim...... Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). These were tested for association with three islet autoantibodies—against autoantibodies to GAD (GADA), IA-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A)—and autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOA) in autoimmune thyroid disease, gastric parietal cells (PCA...

  18. Acute renal infarction secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Dinesh; Abbara, Suhny; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2011-06-01

    We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with right groin pain who subsequently was found to have a renal infarct secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification on CT and angiography. We briefly review the literature and discuss the importance of this entity in clinical practice.

  19. Aortic root, not valve, calcification correlates with coronary artery calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henein, Michael; Hällgren, Peter; Holmgren, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The underlying pathology in aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery stenosis (CAS) is similar including atherosclerosis and calcification. We hypothesize that coronary artery calcification (CAC) is likely to correlate with aortic root calcification (ARC) rather than with aortic valve...... calcification (AVC), due to tissue similarity between the two types of vessel rather than with the valve leaflet tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 212 consecutive patients (age 72.5 ± 7.9 years, 91 females) with AS requiring aortic valve replacement (AVR) in two Heart Centers, who underwent multidetector...... even after adjusting for age (p = 0.01). AVC score was associated with BAV after adjusting for age (p = 0.03) but ARC was not. Of the total cohort, 82 patients (39%) had significant coronary stenosis (>50%), but these were not different in the pattern of calcification from those without CAS. CAC...

  20. Identifying shared genetic structure patterns among Pacific Northwest forest taxa: insights from use of visualization tools and computer simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus; and western white pine: Pinus monticola. Visualizations suggested that, despite occupying the same geographical region and habitats, species responded differently to prevailing historical processes. S. o. caurina and P. monticola demonstrated directional patterns of spatial genetic structure where genetic distances and diversity were greater in southern versus northern locales. A. longicaudus and R. variegatus displayed opposite patterns where genetic distances were greater in northern versus southern regions. Statistical analyses of directional patterns subsequently confirmed observations from visualizations. Based upon regional climatological history, we hypothesized that observed latitudinal patterns may have been produced by range expansions. Subsequent computer simulations confirmed that directional patterns can be produced by expansion events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss phylogeographic hypotheses regarding historical processes that may have produced observed patterns. Inferential methods used here may become increasingly powerful as detailed simulations of organisms and historical scenarios become plausible. We further suggest that inter-specific comparisons of historical patterns take place prior to drawing conclusions regarding effects of current anthropogenic change within landscapes.

  1. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ∼25 000 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); S.U. Lee (Seung); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); E.M. Byrne (Enda); T. Esko (Tõnu); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G. Hemani; J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Kloiber (Stefan); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); S. Lucae (Susanne); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Milani (Lili); M.M. Noethen; J.B. Potash (James B); M. Rietschel (Marcella); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); S. Ripke (Stephan); J. Shi (Jianxin); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Z. Zhu; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); N.R. Wray (Naomi); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); C.M. Lewis (Cathryn); S.P. Hamilton (Steven P); M.M. Weissman; G. Breen (Gerome); S. Cichon (Sven); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); F. Holsboer; P.A. Madden; P. McGuffin (Peter); J. Barrett (Jeffrey); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); D. Lin; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); S. Steinberg; H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P.K.E. Magnusson (Patrik K. E.); R.H. Perlis (Roy H); M. Preisig; J.W. Smoller; J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); R. Uher; Z. Kutalik; K.E. Tansey; A. Teumer (Alexander); A. Viktorin (Alexander); M. Barnes (Michael); T. Bettecken (Thomas); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth); R. Breuer; V.M. Castro; S.E. Churchill; W.H. Coryell (William H); N. Craddock; I.W. Craig (Ian); D. Czamara (Darina); F. Degenhardt; A.E. Farmer (Anne E); M. Fava; J. Frank; V.S. Gainer; P. Gallagher (Patience); S.D. Gordon (Scott D.); S. Goryachev; M. Gross; M. Guipponi; A.K. Henders (Anjali); S. Herms (Stefan); I.B. Hickie (Ian); S. Hoefels (Susanne); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); D.V. Iosifescu; M. Ising (Marcus); I. Jones; L. Jones (Louisa); J.-Y. Tzeng (Jung-Ying); J.A. Knowles (James A); I.S. Kohane; M.A. Kohli (Martin); A. Korszun (Ania); M. Landén (Mikael); W.B. Lawson (William B); G. Lewis; D.J. Macintyre (Donald J); W. Maier (Wolfgang); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); P.J. McGrath; A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); W.H.I. Mclean (Irwin); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); L. Middleton (Lefkos); G.M. Montgomery; S.N. Murphy; M. Nauck (Matthias); W.A. Nolen (Willem); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); H. Oskarsson (Hogni); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); W.A. Scheftner (William A); A. Schulz (Ansgar); T.G. Schulze; S.I. Shyn (Stanley I); E. Sigurdsson (Engilbert); S. Slager (Susan); J.H. Smit (Johannes); M. Kallela (Mikko); M. Steffens (Michael); T.E. Thorgeirsson (Thorgeir); P. Muglia (Pierandrea); J. Treutlein (Jens); M. Uhr; E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin); G. van Grootheest (Gerard); H. Völzke (Henry); J.B. Weilburg; G. Willemsen; F.G. Zitman (Frans); B. Neale; M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sullivan (Patrick); A. Agrawal (Arpana); E. Albrecht (Eva); B. Z Alizadeh (Behrooz); J. Allik; N. Amin (Najaf); J. Attia (John); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J. Barnard (John); F. Bastardot (Francois); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); P.J. Benke (Paul); D.A. Bennett (David); K. Berger (Klaus); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); L.J. Bierut (Laura); J.A. Boatman (Jeffrey); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); U. Bültmann (Ute); H. Campbell (Harry); D. Cesarini (David); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); L. Cherkas (Lynn); M.K. Chung (Mina); D. Conley (Dalton); F. Cucca (Francesco); G.D. Smith; G. Davies (Gail); M. de Andrade (Mariza); P.L. de Jager (Philip); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); G.V. Dedoussis (George V.); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); J. Derringer; M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); N. Eklund (Niina); M.F. Elderson (Martin); K. Hagen (Knut); D.S. Evans (Daniel); D.M. Evans (David M.); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); K. Fischer (Krista); L. Franke (Lude); M. Garcia (Melissa); C. Gieger (Christian); H.K. Gjessing (Hkon K.); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); H. Grönberg (Henrik); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Hägg (Sara); P. Hall (Per); J.R. Harris (Jennifer); J.M. Harris (Juliette); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); N. Hastie (Nick); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); W.H.A. Hofman (Adriaan); A. Hofman (Albert); R. Holle (Rolf); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); C. Holzapfel (Christina); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); T. Illig (Thomas); E. Ingelsson (Erik); B. Jacobsson (Bo); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Juqessur (Astanand); M. Kaakinen (Marika); M. Kähönen (Mika); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); J. Kaprio (Jaakkko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); J. Karjalainen (Juha); R.M. Kirkpatrick (Robert); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kowgier (Matthew); K. Kristiansson; R.F. Krueger; Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); J. Lahti (Jari); D. Laibson (David); A. Latvala (Antti); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); T. Lethimäki (Terho); J. Li (Jingmei); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); P. Lichtner (Peter); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P. Lin (Peng); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Y. Liu (Yongmei); K. Lohman (Kurt); M. Loitfelder (Marisa); P.A. Madden (Pamela); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); T. Mäkinen (Tuukka); P.M. Vidal (Pedro Marques); N.W. Martin (Nicolas); G. Masala (Giovanna); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); O. Meirelles; M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); A. Mielck (Andreas); L. Milani (Lili); M. Miller (Mike); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S. Mukherjee (Sutapa); R. Myhre (Ronny); M.-L. Nuotio (Marja-Liisa); D.R. Nyholt (Dale R.); C. J Oldmeadow (Christopher); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C. Palmer (Cameron); A. Palotie (Aarno); M. Perola (Markus); K. Petrovic (Katja); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); O. Polasek (Ozren); D. Posthuma (Danielle); M. Preisig (Martin); L. Quaye (Lydia); K. Räikkönen (Katri); O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); A. Realo; E. Reinmaa (Eva); J.P. Rice (John); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T.S. Rizzi (Thais); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Rustichini (Aldo); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.-P. Sarin; D. Schlessinger (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R.J. Scott (Rodney); K. Shakhbazov (Konstantin); A.V. Smith; J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); H. Snieder (Harold); B. St Pourcain (Beate); J.M. Starr (John); J.H. Sul (Jae Hoon); I. Surakka (Ida); R. Svento (Rauli); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Terracciano; A. Teumer (Alexander); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N. Timpson (Nicholas); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); D.R. van Wagoner (David); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); J. Viikari (Jorma); P.M. Visscher (Peter); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.K. Vollenweider (Peter K.); H. Völzke (Henry); J.M. Vonk (Judith); G. Waeber (Gérard); D.R. Weir (David R.); J. Wellmann (Jürgen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J.F. Wilson (James F); A. Wright (Alan); J. Yang (Joanna); L. Yu (Lei); W. Zhao (Wei)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAn association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major

  2. Identifying Shared Genetic Structure Patterns among Pacific Northwest Forest Taxa: Insights from Use of Visualization Tools and Computer Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying causal relationships in phylogeographic and landscape genetic investigations is notoriously difficult, but can be facilitated by use of multispecies comparisons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data visualizations to identify common spatial patterns within single lineages of four taxa inhabiting Pacific Northwest forests (northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina; red tree vole: Arborimus longicaudus; southern torrent salamander: Rhyacotriton variegatus;...

  3. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheiber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7 supplementation (100 µg/g diet on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05 and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05 calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01. MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression (10-fold; p < 0.05. CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures.

  4. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, W J; Lee, S H; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, E M; Esko, T; de Geus, E J C; Hemani, G; Hottenga, J J; Kloiber, S; Levinson, D F; Lucae, S; Martin, N G; Medland, S E; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, M M; Potash, J B; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, C A; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, D I; Wray, N R; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-06-01

    An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status. PMID:25917368

  5. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  6. Growth and calcification of marine bryozoans in a changing ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abigail M

    2014-06-01

    Bryozoans are colonial benthic marine invertebrate calcifiers, important and especially abundant and diverse in southern hemisphere shelf environments. Large heavily calcified colonies can be up to 50 years old, but most longer-lived bryozoans are limited to 10-20 y. Many smaller species are annual. Radial extension in flat encrusting bryozoans is generally on the order of 1-5 mm/y. Erect calcified species generally grow vertically 2-15 mm/y, though articulated species such as Cellaria may reach rates of 40 mm/y. Corresponding calcification rates are generally 10(1)-10(2) mg/y, but there can be an order of magnitude variation in rate among years in high-latitude bryozoans. Multi-branched bryozoans produce up to 24 g of CaCO3/y. The carbonate produced by bryozoans varies from calcite to aragonite and mixtures of both. Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of bryozoans is complex and appears to be strongly genetically controlled. Global climate change, leading to increasing water temperatures, will generally increase marine bryozoan metabolic rates, and may increase Mg in calcite. On the other hand, decreasing pH (ocean acidification) causes corrosion, changes in mineralogy, and decreased survival. This review of bryozoan growth and calcification allows a general perspective, but also reveals gaps in our knowledge which need to be addressed.

  7. Choroid plexus calcification: clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological correlations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ileana; Udriştoiu, I; Marinescu, D

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is recognized as a psychiatric disorder that causes the most pronounced disturbances of cognition and social integration. In the etiopathogenesis of the disease, genetic, neurobiological and vascular factors are involved. Functional integrity of the brain can be correlated with the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the dysfunction of this barrier is an indicator that suggests neurodevelopmental abnormalities, injuries of various etiologies and dysfunctions within the small vessels of the brain that disrupt the calcium homeostasis. Neuroimaging shows that in patients with poor evolution, cognitive dysfunction and therapeutic resistance, the presence of choroid plexus calcification associated with hippocampal, frontal, temporoparietal and cerebellar atrophies. Antipsychotics with high capacity to block D2 dopamine receptors (haloperidol model) can aggravate apoptotic mechanisms of the brain areas involved in cognition and disrupts the functional integrity of the BBB due to decreased of choroid plexus blood flow because of the narrowing of cerebral small vessels. Choroid plexus calcification may be a predictive indicator of poor evolution or of a neurodegenerative type. PMID:23771083

  8. Validation of genome-wide intervertebral disc calcification associations in Dachshund and further investigation of the chromosome 12 susceptibility locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sloth eMogensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the intervertebral disc is a common cause of neurological dysfunction in the dog, particularly in the Dachshund. Using the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip, we have previously identified a major locus on canine chromosome 12 nucleotide positions 36,750,205-38,524,449 that strongly associates with intervertebral disc calcification in Danish wire-haired Dachshunds. In this study, targeted resequencing identified two synonymous variants in MB21D1 and one in the 5’-untranslated region of KCNQ5 that associates with intervertebral disc calcification in an independent sample of wire-haired Dachshunds. Haploview identified seven linkage disequilibrium blocks across the disease associated region. The effect of haplotype windows on disc calcification shows that all haplotype windows are significantly associated with disc calcification. However, our predictions imply that the causal variant(s are most likely to be found between nucleotide 36,750,205-37,494,845 as this region explains the highest proportion of variance in the dataset. Finally, we develop a risk prediction model for wire-haired Dachshunds.We validated the association of the chromosome 12 locus with disc calcification in an independent sample of wire-haired Dachshunds and identify potential risk variants. Additionally, we estimated haplotype effects and set up a model for prediction of disc calcifications in wire-haired dachshunds based on genotype data. This genetic prediction model may prove useful in selection of breeding animals in future breeding programs

  9. A Pathologists Purview of Breast Calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sankaye

    2014-06-01

    Although calcifications in breasts are reported with breast cancers; they can also be seen in benign conditions. They cannot be directly seen by the naked eye. Although sonomammography can demonstrate them many times; often the microcalcifications can go un-noticed. X-ray mammography is the best diagnostic tool to show them reliably; on which they appear as white specks or dots. This article puts forth a Pathologist`s purview of breast calcifications. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 413-421

  10. Dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dru, Christopher; Bender, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  11. Coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Stompór, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Arterial calcification is a well-recognized complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by significantly more pronounced, disseminated and fast-progressing calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. New computed tomography-based imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive assessment and monitoring of calcification in different vascular sites. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the course of CKD and is ...

  12. Vitamin K intake and calcifications in breast arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Angela H. E. M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beijerinck, David; Deurenberg, Jan J. M.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin K is an important co-factor in the production of proteins that inhibit vascular calcification. A low dietary Vitamin K intake has been associated with aortic and coronary calcifications and an elevated cardiovascular risk. Calcifications in the arteries of the breasts have also b

  13. Association of mitral annulus calcification, aortic valve calcification with carotid intima media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scuteri Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral annular calcification (MAC and aortic annular calcification (AVC may represent a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis in the elederly. Alterations in vascular structure, as indexed by the intima media thickness (IMT, are also recognized as independent predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Aim To examine the relationship between the degree of calcification at mitral and/or aortic valve annulus and large artery structure (thickness. Methods We evaluated 102 consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and carotid artery echoDoppler for various indications; variables measured were: systemic blood pressure (BP, pulse pressure (PP=SBP-DBP, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose, total, HDL, LDL chlolesterol, triglycerides, cIMT. The patients were divided according to a grading of valvular/annular lesions independent scores based on acoustic densitometry: 1 = annular/valvular sclerosis/calcification absence; 2 = annular/valvular sclerosis; 3 = annular calcification; 4 = annular-valvular calcification; 5 = valvular calcification with no recognition of the leaflets. Results Patient score was the highest observed for either valvular/annulus. Mean cIMT increased linearly with increasing valvular calcification score, ranging from 3.9 ± 0.48 mm in controls to 12.9 ± 1.8 mm in those subjects scored 5 (p 0.0001. Conclusion MAC and AVC score can identify subgroups of patients with different cIMT values which indicate different incidence and prevalence of systemic artery diseases. This data may confirm MAC-AVC as a useful important diagnostic parameter of systemic atherosclerotic disease.

  14. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Lucas Meuwese

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP and Klotho.In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH, total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP, desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP, descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II, and soluble Klotho (sKlotho were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively.fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness.The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail.

  15. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  16. Sclerosing peritonitis with gross calcification: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheung Sook; Kim, Young Jae; Min, Seon Jeong; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is an uncommon complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and can lead to small bowel dysfunction involving abdominal pain, progressive loss of ultrafiltration, and small intestinal obstruction. Peritoneal thickening, in which calcification can develop, often starts as al small plaque which gradually becomes larger. We report a case of CAPD-related calcifying peritonitis.

  17. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D. PMID:26318020

  18. Direct Promotion of Collagen Calcification by Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase promotes hydrolysis of phosphate containing substrates, causes a rise in inorganic phosphate and, therefore, enhances calcification of biological tissues. In this work, the calcification of collagen in a model serum was used as a model of collagenous tissue biomaterials to study the possible calcification promotion mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. In the enzyme concentration range of 0.10.5mg/mL, the enzyme shows a direct calcification promoting effect which is independent of the hydrolysis of its phosphate containing substrates but proportional to the enzyme concentration. Potassium pyrophosphate somewhat inhibits the calcification promotion.

  19. Acute Calcific Bursitis After Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Barbotage of Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Sung; Lee, Seung Hak; Cho, Yung; Chung, Sun Gun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous barbotage is an effective treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, providing rapid and substantial pain relief. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with aggravated pain early after ultrasound-guided barbotage of a large calcific deposit in the supraspinatus tendon. Subsequent examination revealed a thick calcification spreading along the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa space, suggesting acute calcific bursitis complicated by barbotage. Additional barbotage alleviated her pain completely. Therefore, a high index of suspicion for acute calcific bursitis is required in patients with unresolved or aggravated pain after barbotage. Repeated barbotage could be effective for this condition. PMID:26902864

  20. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Neal X., E-mail: xuechen@iupui.edu [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Moe, Sharon M. [Divison of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  1. Radiological observation of determination of sex by costal cartilage calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference of patterns of costal cartilage calcification in male and female had been first described by Fischer in 1955. Thereafter several reports were published, but specific clinical significance was not found. During the period from January, 1978 to December, 1978, we, in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University, studied 2164 cases that showed the entire 12 pairs of ribs. Among these we detected 1494 cases of costal cartilage calcification and frequent sites of calcification. Patterns of costal cartilage calcification were classified into six groups- type l: central, type II: marginal, type III: junctional type, type IV: railroad, type V: diffuse, type VI: mixed. Results are as follows; 1. In a total of 2164 cases, calcification of costal cartilage was present in 1494 cases(69.0%). Of 1181 males 780 cases(66.0%) showed calcification, and of 983 females 714 cases (72.6%) showed calcification. 2. In 439 cases of males, except for 341 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows: marginal type in 265 cases (60.4%), junctional type in 134 cases (30.5%), mixed type in 21 cases (0.5%), central type in 17 cases(3.8%), and railroad type in 2 cases (0.5%). Diffuse type was not present. 3. In 492 cases of females, except of 222 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows; central type in 336 cases (68.3%), junctional type in 94 cases(19.1%), mixed type in 24 cases (4.9%), railroad type in 19 cases (3.9%), and diffuse type in 14 cases (2.8%). 4. When central calcification was observed, predictive value to female was 94.7%. When marginal calcification was observed, predictive value to male was 987.4%. 5. Males frequently showed calcification in upper costal cartilages, and females in lower costal cartilages.

  2. Radiological observation of determination of sex by costal cartilage calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin Hwa; Won, Jong Jin; Rhee, Song Joo; Moon, Moo Chang; Oh, Jong Hyun; Choi, Ki Chul [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Jeonjju (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The difference of patterns of costal cartilage calcification in male and female had been first described by Fischer in 1955. Thereafter several reports were published, but specific clinical significance was not found. During the period from January, 1978 to December, 1978, we, in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University, studied 2164 cases that showed the entire 12 pairs of ribs. Among these we detected 1494 cases of costal cartilage calcification and frequent sites of calcification. Patterns of costal cartilage calcification were classified into six groups- type l: central, type II: marginal, type III: junctional type, type IV: railroad, type V: diffuse, type VI: mixed. Results are as follows; 1. In a total of 2164 cases, calcification of costal cartilage was present in 1494 cases(69.0%). Of 1181 males 780 cases(66.0%) showed calcification, and of 983 females 714 cases (72.6%) showed calcification. 2. In 439 cases of males, except for 341 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows: marginal type in 265 cases (60.4%), junctional type in 134 cases (30.5%), mixed type in 21 cases (0.5%), central type in 17 cases(3.8%), and railroad type in 2 cases (0.5%). Diffuse type was not present. 3. In 492 cases of females, except of 222 cases that showed calcification within the first costal cartilage, patterns of costal cartilage calcification were as follows; central type in 336 cases (68.3%), junctional type in 94 cases(19.1%), mixed type in 24 cases (4.9%), railroad type in 19 cases (3.9%), and diffuse type in 14 cases (2.8%). 4. When central calcification was observed, predictive value to female was 94.7%. When marginal calcification was observed, predictive value to male was 987.4%. 5. Males frequently showed calcification in upper costal cartilages, and females in lower costal cartilages.

  3. Calcification by reef-building sclerobionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Mallela

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that deteriorating water quality associated with increased sediment stress has reduced calcification rates on coral reefs. However, there is limited information regarding the growth and development of reef building organisms, aside from the corals themselves. This study investigated encruster calcification on five fore-reefs in Tobago subjected to a range of sedimentation rates (1.2 to 15.9 mg cm(-2 d(-1. Experimental substrates were used to assess rates of calcification in sclerobionts (e.g. crustose coralline algae, bryozoans and barnacles across key reef microhabitats: cryptic (low-light, exposed (open-horizontal and vertical topographic settings. Sedimentation negatively impacted calcification by photosynthesising crustose coralline algae in exposed microhabitats and encrusting foram cover (% in exposed and cryptic substrates. Heterotrophs were not affected by sedimentation. Fore-reef, turbid water encruster assemblages calcified at a mean rate of 757 (SD ±317 g m(-2 y(-1. Different microhabitats were characterised by distinct calcareous encruster assemblages with different rates of calcification. Taxa with rapid lateral growth dominated areal cover but were not responsible for the majority of CaCO3 production. Cryptobiont assemblages were composed of a suite of calcifying taxa which included sciaphilic cheilostome bryozoans and suspension feeding barnacles. These calcified at mean rates of 20.1 (SD ±27 and 4.0 (SD ±3.6 g m(-2 y(-1 respectively. Encruster cover (% on exposed and vertical substrates was dominated by crustose coralline algae which calcified at rates of 105.3 (SD ±67.7 g m(-2 y(-1 and 56.3 (SD ±8.3 g m(-2 y(-1 respectively. Globally, encrusting organisms contribute significant amounts of carbonate to the reef framework. These results provide experimental evidence that calcification rates, and the importance of different encrusting organisms, vary significantly according to topography and sediment

  4. Dystrophic Calcification of the Prostate after Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  5. Intervertebral disc calcification in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahemad Athar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Disc calcification in children is a rare condition of which only approximately 200 cases have been reported worldwide and one from India and we report one such case. A five year-old boy presented with neck pain, torticollis and limitations of cervical motions following a fall while playing 3 months back. He had low grade fever cervical lymphadenopthy, paraspinal muscle spasm. His blood counts and ESR was raised. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph node revealed reactive lymphadenitis. His cervical radiograph slowed calcification of C 6-7. MRI scan showed hypointense signals in C6-C7 and D5-D6 disc on both T1 and T2 W images. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. He improved on analgesics, bed rest and cervical traction.

  6. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Daniel; Veulemans, Verena; Horn, Patrick; Chatrou, Martijn L; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Kelm, Malte; Schurgers, Leon J; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP) is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation (100 µg/g diet) on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (10-fold; p < 0.05). CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures. PMID:26295257

  7. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the u...

  8. Shard-like calcifications in retroperitoneal teratomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, W.L.; Vesely, J.J.; Radkowski, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Retroperitoneal teratomas can have characteristic roentgenographic findings. Three children with that neoplasm had roentgenographic assessments of the tumor which revealed similar ''shard-like'' calcifications. The effect of the tumor on the kidneys produced hypertension in all the patients which abated post-operatively. Extensive imaging evaluations in similar patients seems unnecessary since the findings are virtually pathognomonic. Only a single urinary tract study and plain film investigation of the abdomen are advised prior to expeditious surgery. (orig.).

  9. Enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Takashi; Nakahata, Masashi; Moritani, Suzuko; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A 77-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and bone marrow aspiration were performed. Subsequently, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) associated with mediastinal amyloidosis was diagnosed. We hereby report a case in which EBUS-TBNA led to a successful diagnosis of amyloidosis. PMID:26862422

  10. Shard-like calcifications in retroperitoneal teratomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retroperitoneal teratomas can have characteristic roentgenographic findings. Three children with that neoplasm had roentgenographic assessments of the tumor which revealed similar ''shard-like'' calcifications. The effect of the tumor on the kidneys produced hypertension in all the patients which abated post-operatively. Extensive imaging evaluations in similar patients seems unnecessary since the findings are virtually pathognomonic. Only a single urinary tract study and plain film investigation of the abdomen are advised prior to expeditious surgery. (orig.)

  11. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification: Histopathologic features of an autopsied patient with an SLC20A2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Miura, Takeshi; Aoki, Kenju; Saito, Shoji; Hondo, Hiroaki; Konno, Takuya; Uchiyama, Akio; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), or Fahr's disease, is a neurological disorder characterized by widespread calcification in the brain. Recently, several causative genes have been identified, but the histopathologic features of the brain lesions and expression of the gene products remain unclear. Here, we report the clinical and autopsy features of a 62-year-old Japanese man with familial IBGC, in whom an SLC20A2 mutation was identified. The patient developed mild cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. A brain CT scan demonstrated abnormal calcification in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalami and cerebellum. An MRI study at this point revealed glioblastoma, and the patient died 6 months later. At autopsy, symmetric calcification in the basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar white matter and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex was evident. The calcification was observed in the tunica media of small arteries, arterioles and capillaries, but not in veins. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody against type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT-2), the SLC20A2 product, demonstrated that astrocytic processes were labeled in several regions in control brains, whereas in the patient, reactivity in astrocytes was apparently weak. Immunoblotting demonstrated a marked decrease of PiT-2 in the patient. There are few autopsy reports of IBGC patients with confirmation of the genetic background. The autopsy features seem informative for better understanding the histogenesis of IBGC lesions. PMID:26635128

  12. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  13. Eggshell calcification of the heart in constrictive pericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh; Vijayvergiya; Ramalingam; Vadivelu; Sachin; Mahajan; Sandeep; S; Rana; Manphool; Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis(CP) is an inflammatory disease of pericardium. Pericardial calcification in X-ray provides a clue for the diagnosis of CP. An extensive "eggshell" type of calcification is rarely seen in CP. We hereby report a case of CP with eggshell calcification of pericardium, encircling whole of the heart. A need for multimodality imaging and hemodynamic assessment followed by surgical pericardiectomy is discussed.

  14. An unusual case of neonatal peritoneal calcifications associated with hydrometrocolpos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.X.; Methratta, S. [College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - New Jersey Medical School, Newark (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-10-01

    Neonatal peritoneal calcifications usually suggest a diagnosis of meconium peritonitis, but in this case, a premature baby girl, peritoneal calcifications were caused by hydrometrocolpos secondary to imperforate hymen, a rare association. The patient presented with respiratory distress and ascites and demonstrated abdominal calcifications on plain film. Other radiographic work-up revealed hydrometrocolpos without evidence of gastrointestinal tract obstruction. The patient was diagnosed and treated for imperforate hymen; she was recovered fully. (orig.)

  15. Atraumatic quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Simon G F; Sharma, Akash D; Arvind, Chinnakonda

    2012-11-27

    Calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon condition. We present the first case of a quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis. In this case, the patient presented with symptoms mimicking a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. This case illustrates that although calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps is a rare condition it is not benign and should be considered when investigating acute symptoms associated with the extensor mechanism of the knee.

  16. Association of gastrocnemius tendon calcification with chondrocalcinosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldes, K. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Lenchik, L. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Jaovisidha, S. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Clopton, P. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), San Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of California San Diego Medical Center (UCSD), San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. Chondrocalcinosis of the knee is a common radiological finding in the elderly. However, visualization of chondrocalcinosis may be difficult in patients with advanced cartilage loss.The purpose of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of gastrocnemius tendon calcification that might serve as a radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with painful knees. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 37 knee radiographs in 30 consecutive patients (29 men, 8 women; mean age 67 years, age range 37-90 years) with painful knees who had radiographic evidence of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and gastrocnemius tendon calcification was determined. For a control group, we evaluated knee radiographs in 65 consecutive patients with knee pain (54 men, 11 women; mean age 59 years, age range 40-93 years) who had no radiological signs of chondrocalcinosis. The frequency of gastrocnemius tendon calcification in the control group was determined. Results. Gastrocnemius tendon calcification was 41% sensitive, 100% specific, and 78% accurate in predicting chondrocalcinosis. The gastrocnemius tendon was calcified on 15 of 37 (41%) radiographs in the experimental group and on 0 of 67 radiographs in the control group. In the chondrocalcinosis group, 23 (62%) had posterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 14 (38%) had anterior hyaline cartilage calcification, 31 (84%) had medial meniscus calcification, and 36 (97%) had lateral meniscus calcification. Conclusions. Our results show that gastrocnemius tendon calcification is an accurate radiographic marker of chondrocalcinosis in patients with knee pain. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chung Che [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process.

  18. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analys...

  19. Magnesium intake is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). BACKGROUND: Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying c...

  20. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  1. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  2. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  3. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardys, Isabella; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Although several studies have recently suggested that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent predictor of coronary events, only one study has examined the association between Lp-PLA2 and coronary calcification, using young adults. We investigated the associat

  4. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. PMID:19002453

  5. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  6. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  7. Intracranial Carotid Calcification on Cranial Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Deepak; Zishan, Umme Sara; Chappell, Francesca; Gregoriades, Maria-Lena; Sudlow, Cathie; Sellar, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification is associated with cerebrovascular risk factors and stroke, but few quantification methods are available. We tested the reliability of visual scoring, semiautomated Agatston score, and calcium volume measurement in patients with recent stroke. Methods— We used scans from a prospective hospital stroke registry and included patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke or transient ischemic stroke whose noncontrast cranial computed tomographic scans were available electronically. Two raters measured semiautomatic quantitative Agatston score, and calcium volume, and performed qualitative visual scoring using the original 4-point Woodcock score and a modified Woodcock score, where each image on which the internal carotid arteries appeared was scored and the slice scores summed. Results— Intra- and interobserver coefficient of variations were 8.8% and 16.5% for Agatston, 8.8% and 15.5% for calcium volume, and 5.7% and 5.4% for the modified Woodcock visual score, respectively. The modified Woodcock visual score correlated strongly with both Agatston and calcium volume quantitative measures (both R2=0.84; P<0.0001); calcium volume increased by 0.47-mm/point increase in modified Woodcock visual score. Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification increased with age by all measures (eg, visual score, Spearman ρ=0.4; P=0.005). Conclusions— Visual scores correlate highly with quantitative intracranial internal carotid artery calcification measures, with excellent observer agreements. Visual intracranial internal carotid artery scores could be a rapid and practical method for epidemiological studies. PMID:26251250

  8. Pulmonary metastatic calcification: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozi, Lilian Christine Franchiotti [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The present report describes the case of a 48-year-old female patient suffering from chronic renal failure on dialysis for 13 years. She presented with hemoptysis, fever, productive cough and dyspnoea. Chest radiography showed predominance of ill-defined opacities in the middle and lower lung fields, bilaterally. Chest computed tomography showed ground glass opacities associated with poorly defined centrilobular nodules with ground-glass attenuation. The patient was submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage that was negative for mycobacteria and fungi. On the basis of such findings, open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed metastatic pulmonary calcification. (author)

  9. GWAS of follicular lymphoma reveals allelic heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and suggests shared genetic susceptibility with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedby, Karin E; Foo, Jia Nee; Skibola, Christine F; Darabi, Hatef; Conde, Lucia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kumar, Vikrant; Chang, Ellen T; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cerhan, James R; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Rehnberg, Emil; Irwan, Ishak D; Ryder, Lars P; Brown, Peter N; Bracci, Paige M; Agana, Luz; Riby, Jacques; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Wang, Sophia S; Slager, Susan L; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Habermann, Thomas M; Armstrong, Bruce; Kricker, Anne; Milliken, Sam; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Boyle, Peter; Lan, Qing; Zahm, Shelia H; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Smith, Martyn T; Chanock, Stephen J; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Melbye, Mads; Liu, Edison T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL-associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (OR(combined)  = 0.64, P(combined)  = 2 × 10(-21)) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r(2)<0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012:OR(adjusted)  = 0.70, P(adjusted)  =  4 × 10(-12); rs10484561:OR(adjusted)  = 1.64, P(adjusted)  = 5 × 10(-15)). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL-associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR(combined)  = 1.36, P(combined)  =  1.4 × 10(-7)). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.

  10. GWAS of follicular lymphoma reveals allelic heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and suggests shared genetic susceptibility with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin E Smedby

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL-associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (OR(combined  = 0.64, P(combined  = 2 × 10(-21 located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r(2<0.1 in controls. After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012:OR(adjusted  = 0.70, P(adjusted  =  4 × 10(-12; rs10484561:OR(adjusted  = 1.64, P(adjusted  = 5 × 10(-15. Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL-associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR(combined  = 1.36, P(combined  =  1.4 × 10(-7. Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.

  11. Acute calcific tendinitis of the finger--a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, S N

    2004-07-01

    Acute calcific tendinitis of the hand is rare and often misdiagnosed as infection, fracture or periarthritis. It frequently occurs in peri-menopausal women and is caused by deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals. We describe acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion in an elderly man taking oral anticoagulants. The differential diagnoses and recommended treatment are discussed.

  12. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P benefits on clinical prevention works. PMID:25476479

  13. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification: expanding current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification is a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries. New evidence on the mechanisms of mineralization identified calcification-competent extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from smooth muscle cells, valvular interstitial cells and macrophages as the mediators of calcification in diseased heart valves and atherosclerotic plaques. However, the regulation of EV release and the mechanisms of interaction between EVs and the extracellular matrix leading to the formation of destabilizing microcalcifications remain unclear. This review focuses on current limits in our understanding of EVs in cardiovascular disease and opens up new perspectives on calcific EV biogenesis, release and functions within and beyond vascular calcification. We propose that, unlike bone-derived matrix vesicles, a large population of EVs implicated in cardiovascular calcification are of exosomal origin. Moreover, the milieu-dependent loading of EVs with microRNA and calcification inhibitors fetuin-A and matrix Gla protein suggests a novel role for EVs in intercellular communication, adding a new mechanism to the pathogenesis of vascular mineralization. Similarly, the cell type-dependent enrichment of annexins 2, 5 or 6 in calcifying EVs posits one of several emerging factors implicated in the regulation of EV release and calcifying potential. This review aims to emphasize the role of EVs as essential mediators of calcification, a major determinant of cardiovascular mortality. Based on recent findings, we pinpoint potential targets for novel therapies to slow down the progression and promote the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26824781

  14. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Child, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  15. Multiple intracranial calcifications caused by parasites and their differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, D.

    1980-08-01

    In connection with a case of cysticercosis the CT differential diagnosis of multiple intracranial calcifications is discussed. In addition to CT, conventional X-ray diagnosis, angiography and clinical data are needed in order to clarify the origin of intracranial calcifications.

  16. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  17. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA; CREMONESE RAFAEL; PIZARRO CRISTINA

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  18. Calcific bursitis mimicking a parosteal osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 43-year-old woman with no history of trauma or major medical illness, presented with a ten day history of right hip and thigh pain. The pain was described as constant, dull, and aching. It was nonradiating and was not relieved by analgesics. Physical examination revealed diffuse tenderness over the right hip and right lateral thigh region; no mass was palpable. The CBC, serum electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase determinations were all normal. Radiographs of the right hip demonstrated amorphous soft tissue calcification adjacent to the lateral aspect of the right femur as well as periosteal reaction and apparent destruction in the adjacent bone. Because of these suspicious X-rays findings, the initial working diagnosis was parosteal osteogenic sarcoma. A bone scan was performed two hours after the intravenous administration of 15 millicuries of Tc-99m-MDP. It showed focal uptake overlying the upper femur, approximately where the X-ray had shown periosteal reaction and apparent bony destruction. In addition, the bone images also demonstrated a linear band of activity extending through the soft tissues from the greater trochanter to the lower lateral thigh. Because of the unexpected and quite extensive soft tissue uptake seen on the scan, the possibility that a benign process was involved was then considered seriously for the first time. An open biopsy was then performed. It revealed acute calcific trochanteric bursitis; there was no evidence of bone involvement. The patient was treated conservatively and symptoms gradually resolved. (orig.)

  19. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  20. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  1. Is foreign body calcification a late reaction after augmentation mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Wanibuchi, Y.; Nishi, T.

    1983-01-01

    We describe 47 patients aged 20 to 63 years in whom a mammoplasty had been performed (43 by an injection method, four by surgery). Calcification round the foreign body occurred in 71.5% of the paraffin group (ten out of 14 cases) and in 17% of the silicone group (eight out of 33 cases). The interval between implantation and calcification is fairly constant in the paraffin group of 11 patients whose implant was older than 15 years, ten showed calcification. In the silicone group, only one out of ten cases showed calcification. In the silicone group, the material itself is thought to be responsible since (with the exception of one case done in 1956) all cases treated between 1966 and 1971 showed calcification irrespective of the interval.

  2. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  3. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  4. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  5. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  6. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibition ameliorates vascular calcification via Klotho upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Cai, Yan; Zheng, Ming-Fei; Sun, Wei-Liang; Zhang, Song-Yang; Kong, Wei; Gu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, but the pathogenesis remains partially unknown and effective therapeutic targets should be urgently explored. Here we pursued the therapeutic role of rapamycin in CRF-related VC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal was activated in the aortic wall of CRF rats. As expected, oral rapamycin administration significantly reduced VC by inhibiting mTOR in rats with CRF. Further in vitro results showed that activation of mTOR by both pharmacological agent and genetic method promoted, while inhibition of mTOR reduced, inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and chondrogenic/osteogenic gene expression, which were independent of autophagy and apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of Klotho, an antiaging gene that suppresses VC, was reduced in calcified vasculature, whereas rapamycin reversed membrane and secreted Klotho decline through mTOR inhibition. When mTOR signaling was enhanced by either mTOR overexpression or deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1, Klotho mRNA was further decreased in phosphate-treated VSMCs, suggesting a vital association between mTOR signaling and Klotho expression. More importantly, rapamycin failed to reduce VC in the absence of Klotho by using either siRNA knockdown of Klotho or Klotho knockout mice. Thus, Klotho has a critical role in mediating the observed decrease in calcification by rapamycin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26061549

  7. Genome variations associated with viral susceptibility and calcification in Emiliania huxleyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica U Kegel

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi, a key player in the global carbon cycle is one of the best studied coccolithophores with respect to biogeochemical cycles, climatology, and host-virus interactions. Strains of E. huxleyi show phenotypic plasticity regarding growth behaviour, light-response, calcification, acidification, and virus susceptibility. This phenomenon is likely a consequence of genomic differences, or transcriptomic responses, to environmental conditions or threats such as viral infections. We used an E. huxleyi genome microarray based on the sequenced strain CCMP1516 (reference strain to perform comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH of 16 E. huxleyi strains of different geographic origin. We investigated the genomic diversity and plasticity and focused on the identification of genes related to virus susceptibility and coccolith production (calcification. Among the tested 31940 gene models a core genome of 14628 genes was identified by hybridization among 16 E. huxleyi strains. 224 probes were characterized as specific for the reference strain CCMP1516. Compared to the sequenced E. huxleyi strain CCMP1516 variation in gene content of up to 30 percent among strains was observed. Comparison of core and non-core transcripts sets in terms of annotated functions reveals a broad, almost equal functional coverage over all KOG-categories of both transcript sets within the whole annotated genome. Within the variable (non-core genome we identified genes associated with virus susceptibility and calcification. Genes associated with virus susceptibility include a Bax inhibitor-1 protein, three LRR receptor-like protein kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our list of transcripts associated with coccolith production will stimulate further research, e.g. by genetic manipulation. In particular, the V-type proton ATPase 16 kDa proteolipid subunit is proposed to be a plausible target gene for further calcification studies.

  8. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural impact

  9. Sharing Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sahasranand, K R

    2010-01-01

    Almost all known secret sharing schemes work on numbers. Such methods will have difficulty in sharing graphs since the number of graphs increases exponentially with the number of nodes. We propose a secret sharing scheme for graphs where we use graph intersection for reconstructing the secret which is hidden as a sub graph in the shares. Our method does not rely on heavy computational operations such as modular arithmetic or polynomial interpolation but makes use of very basic operations like assignment and checking for equality, and graph intersection can also be performed visually. In certain cases, the secret could be reconstructed using just pencil and paper by authorised parties but cannot be broken by an adversary even with unbounded computational power. The method achieves perfect secrecy for (2, n) scheme and requires far fewer operations compared to Shamir's algorithm. The proposed method could be used to share objects such as matrices, sets, plain text and even a heterogeneous collection of these. S...

  10. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  11. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  12. In-vitro calcification study of polyurethane heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloori Zadeh, Parnian; Corbett, Scott C; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2014-02-01

    Tri-leaflet polyurethane heart valves have been considered as a potential candidate in heart valve replacement surgeries. In this study, polyurethane (Angioflex(®)) heart valve prostheses were fabricated using a solvent-casting method to evaluate their calcification resistance. These valves were subjected to accelerated life testing (continuous opening and closing of the leaflets) in a synthetic calcification solution. Results showed that Angioflex(®) could be considered as a potential material for fabricating prosthetic heart valves with possibly a higher calcification resistance compared to tissue valves. In addition, calcification resistance of bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves was also evaluated. Bisphosphonates are considered to enhance the calcification resistance of polymers once covalently bonded to the bulk of the material. However, our in-vitro results showed that bisphosphonate-modified Angioflex(®) valves did not improve the calcification resistance of Angioflex(®) compared to its untreated counterparts. The results also showed that cyclic loading of the valves' leaflets resulted in formation of numerous cracks on the calcified surface, which were not present when calcification study did not involve mechanical loading. Further study of these cracks did not result in enough evidence to conclude whether these cracks have penetrated to the polymeric surface.

  13. Adaptation of Coccolith Calcification to Sea Water Carbonate Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Langer, G.; Probert, I.; Young, J.

    2008-12-01

    Coccolithophores are major calcifiers and through calcification cause feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 cycling. The formation of CaCO3 in seawater, in fact, causes a shift of the carbonate system towards CO2, which in turn affects atmosphere / ocean CO2 exchange. A change in marine calcification provides a concomitant feedback in organic carbon export and would lead to a change in the drawdown of atmospheric CO2. Coccolithophore culture experiments and field observations showed controversial results regarding the response of calcification to high CO2. The three strains of Emiliania huxleyi (the most abundant living coccolithophore species) tested so far show both increased and decreased calcification at high CO2 levels (lower pH). Living E. huxleyi is known to have a large variability in both size and carbonate content. The hypothesis that we want to test in this work is the importance of adaptation of calcification to the seawater carbonate chemistry where coccolithophores calcify. We selected 4 strains of E. huxleyi maintained at the Roscoff culture collection, collected from different oceanographic settings with different carbon speciation. The selected strains are collected from environments with very different water carbonate chemistry and they have different carbonate mass. They have been experimentally grown at different CO2 levels to test the strain calcification response to sea water carbonate chemistry. . With these experiments we test the importance of the calcification strain adaptation to carbonate chemistry. Size and possibly different responses to carbonate chemistry variations will also be discussed.

  14. Maximal conservative therapy of calcific uremic ateriolopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Charlotte; Janssen van Doorn, Karin; Vermander, Evert; Vlayen, Sonja; Verpooten, Gert A; Couttenye, Marie-Madeleine

    2012-07-01

    We present the case of a 61-year- old female patient in long-term hemodialysis who developed calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) upon administration of the oral calcimimetic agent cinacalcet for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. In May 2009, the baseline serum values were parathormone (PTH) 310 pg/ml, calcium 9.1 mg/dl and phosphorous 6.9 mg/dl. Necrotic wounds in the suprapubic fat tissue were successfully treated first, by correcting the calcium phosphorous product; second, through treatment with sodium thiosulfate and third, through intensive wound care with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and vacuum-assisted closure therapy, with no need for parathyroidectomy. Multiple factors have been described to play a role in the development of CUA. Based on the findings of this case, the treatment of CUA should be aimed at correcting different causes simultaneously.

  15. Calcification of multipotent prostate tumor endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Andrew C; Khan, Zia A; Shih, Shou-Ching; Kang, Soo-Young; Zwaans, Bernadette M M; Bischoff, Joyce; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Solid tumors require new blood vessels for growth and metastasis, yet the biology of tumor-specific endothelial cells is poorly understood. We have isolated tumor endothelial cells from mice that spontaneously develop prostate tumors. Clonal populations of tumor endothelial cells expressed hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell markers and differentiated to form cartilage- and bone-like tissues. Chondrogenic differentiation was accompanied by an upregulation of cartilage-specific col2a1 and sox9, whereas osteocalcin and the metastasis marker osteopontin were upregulated during osteogenic differentiation. In human and mouse prostate tumors, ectopic vascular calcification was predominately luminal and colocalized with the endothelial marker CD31. Thus, prostate tumor endothelial cells are atypically multipotent and can undergo a mesenchymal-like transition.

  16. Pathological calcifications studied with micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Stuart R.; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Brooks, Ellen R.; Langman, Craig B.; Pachman, Lauren M.

    2004-10-01

    The microstructure of pathological biomineral deposits has received relatively little attention, perhaps, in part because of the difficulty preparing samples for microscopy. MicroCT avoids these difficulties, and laboratory microCT results are reviewed for aortic valve calcification (human as well as a rabbit model), for human renal calculi (stones) and for calcinoses formed in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). In calcified aortic valves of rabbits, numerical analysis of the data shows statistically significant correlation with diet. In a large kidney stone the pattern of mineralization is clearly revealed and may provide a temporal blueprint for stone growth. In JDM calcified deposits, very different microstructures are observed and may be related to processes unique to this disease.

  17. Trochlear calcification and intraorbital foreign body in ocular trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Tian-lin; Nileshkumar M Kalariya; YAN Zhi-han; CHEN Wei; LIU Xiao-qiang; ZHAO Zhen-quan; ZHOU Ye-hui; XU Dan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish trochlear calcification and intraorbital foreign body after eye injury in order to avoid misdiagnosis as well as mistreatment. Methods: The orbital CT images of 403 patients, who visited the Eye Hospital or the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College during May 2005-April 2007, were reviewed. The diagnosis of trochlear calcification and in-traorbital foreign body was made together by a skilled radi-ologist as well as an ophthalmologist. General information and CT characteristics in the patients with trochlear calcifi-cation were collected.Results: Using CT scan images, 27 among 403 pa-tients (6.69%) were identified with trochlear calcification. Three patients (3/27, 11.11%) were misdiagnosed by radi-ologists as intraorbital foreign body. Among the 27 patients with trochlear calcification, 23 (85.19%) were male and 4 (14.81%)were female, with an unilateral calcification in 7 patients (7/27, 25.93%) and bilateral in 20(74.07%). The highest occurrence of trochlear calcification was in 31-40 years old group (13/403, 3.23%) which reached to 12.87% (13/101) after age-correction. There were 3 types of trochlear calcification on the basis of CT images: commas, dot and inverted "U".Conclusions: The trochlear calcification is not an un-common phenomenon and should not be diagnosed as in-traorbital foreign body, especially when it co-exists with eye injury in 31-40 years old group. Injury history and our classification method on the basis of CT images could help to avoid misdiagnosis.

  18. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  19. Intraocular Lens Calcification; a Clinicopathologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei-Kanavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of a case of hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL calcification. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man underwent explantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in his left eye because of decreased visual acuity and milky white opalescence of the IOL. The opacified lens was exchanged uneventfully with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Gross examination of the explanted IOL disclosed opacification of the optic and haptics. Full-thickness sections of the lens optic were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, von Kossa and Gram Tworts'. Microscopic examination of the sections revealed fine and diffuse basophilic granular deposits of variable size within the lens optic parallel to the lens curvature but separated from the surface by a moderately clear zone. The deposits were of high calcium content as evident by dark brown staining with von Kossa. Gram Tworts' staining disclosed no microorganisms. CONCLUSION: This report further contributes to the existing literature on hydrogel IOL calcification.

  20. Incidental orbital calcifications on computed tomography scans; Calcificacoes orbitarias incidentais na tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugita, Dalton Yukio A.; Cruz, Daniela Nogueira; Cappucci, Alessandro; Arakava, Marcia Mayumi; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Wolosker, Angela Maria B.; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Manso, Paulo Goes [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Oftalmologia

    2001-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the computed tomography scans of the orbit in 75 patients in order to identify the presence of incidental calcifications (scleral and trochlear apparatus calcifications.). These imaging findings should integrate the vast list of differential diagnosis of orbital calcifications, as they may help radiologists to distinguish these calcifications from orbital foreign bodies. (author)

  1. Idiopathic calcification of the seminal vesicles: a rare cause for prostate cancer overstaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, J; Senge, T

    2001-01-01

    Calcification of the seminal vesicles is a rare phenomenon. We present 2 cases in whom calcification of the seminal vesicles led to preoperative overstaging of prostate cancer. Although idiopathic calcifications are extremely rare, calcifications appear more frequently in diabetic patients. Therefore, knowledge of these formations is essential to prevent overstaging, namely infiltration of the seminal vesicles.

  2. Relationship between intra thyroid calcifications and thyroglobulin in endemic goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccheroni, V.; Iagulli, M.P.; Vescini, F.; Bianchi, G.P.; Menini, S.; Vacirca, A.; Vallese, M.; Lodi, A. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di medicina interna, cardioangiologia e epatologia

    1999-06-01

    The authors have been looking for the presence of parameters associated with thyroid calcifications in patients affected by simple or nodular goiter, either sporadic or endemic. A multistep discriminant analysis taking the presence-absence of calcifications as dependent variant was applied and a new variable (TG1) was created to differentiate normal from supra physiologic concentrations of hTG. In conclusion, as far as a follicular hyperstimulation can be assumed, especially if long-lasting, the presence intra thyroid calcifications should rise clinical suspect toward an old goiter rather than a neoplastic lesion.

  3. Massive intracranial calcifications in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system involvement is frequently reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies usually show brain atrophy, cerebral infarction and/or intracranial bleeding. Extensive intracranial calcification in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is rare. We report a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with seizures and massive basal ganglia calcification and mild calcifications in the frontal lobes, seen on the brain computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensity on FLAIR images and hypointense signals on T2* gradient echo images in the basal ganglia. (author)

  4. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  5. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  6. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  7. Calcification of vestibular schwannoma: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcification rarely occurs in vestibular schwannoma (VS, and only seven cases of calcified VS have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 48-year-old man with VS, who had a history of progressive left-sided hearing loss for 3 years. Neurological examination revealed that he had left-sided hearing loss and left cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography angiography showed a mass with calcification in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA. The tumor was successfully removed via suboccipital craniotomy, and postoperative histopathology showed that the tumor was a schwannoma. We reviewed seven cases of calcified VS that were previously reported in the literature, and we analyzed and summarized the characteristics of these tumors, including the calcification, texture, and blood supply. We conclude that calcification in VS is associated with its texture and blood supply, and these characteristics affect the surgical removal of the tumor.

  8. CT imaging of metastatic liver cancer with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Kido, Choichiro (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital)

    1983-05-01

    In 15 out of 20 cases of hepatic metastases with calcication, the primary focal lesion was found to be colonic cancer (10 of which were rectal cancer). The rate of calcification of metastatic liver lesions from colorectal cancer was as high as 17.9%. According to pathological classification, the primary lesion was a differentiated adenocarcinoma in 16 cases. Calcification was found to be large and to have a tendency to occur more easily in a person with multiple metastatic liver lesions. The forms of calcification from ''disperse punctate''- ''collective punctate''-''central mass''-to'' vermicular'' were inferred to represent the changes in development of the calcification.

  9. Coronary calcification among 3477 asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Kristian A; Jasinskiene, Jurgita; Sand, Niels P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) can be detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT), is associated to cardiovascular risk, and common in asymptomatic individuals and patients referred for cardiac CT. DESIGN: CAC was evaluated in asymptomatic individuals and symptomatic patients.......001), hyperlipidaemia (42% vs. 12%, p  0; 45% vs. 45%, p = 0.94) or severe calcifications (Agatston > 400; 6% vs. 5%, p = 0.36). In multivariate analyses age (odds ratio (OR) 1.......71-1.02)), moderate (Agatston ≥ 100; OR 0.99 (0.79-1.24)) or severe calcifications (Agatston ≥ 400; OR 0.93 (0.65-1.33)). CONCLUSION: No difference in the presence or severity of coronary calcifications was observed between asymptomatic and symptomatic middle-aged individuals. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk...

  10. [Calcifications of the prostate: a transrectal echographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, E; Calugi, V; Stolfi, V; Rossi, P; D'Ascenzo, R; Solivetti, F M

    1989-05-01

    Prostatic lithiasis is a well know phenomenon. It has little clinical significance and is not easily shown by conventional radiography, which has poor sensitivity and specificity. The authors have studied 612 patients with both suprapubic and transrectal US in order to 1) assess US sensitivity and specificity and 2) report the frequency, spatial distribution, number and features of prostatic calcifications with special emphasis on differential diagnosis between prostatic neoplasms and chronic prostatitis. The authors have also studied the relationship between morphology and symptoms and the results agree with those reported in the scanty literature. The authors conclude that the parameters studied are directly related to age, except for a younger group with clear evidence of genital inflammation. The authors emphasize the impossibility to correlate morphology of prostatic calcifications with pathologic conditions: there are no specific symptoms clearly connected with calcification even though the inflammation is often associated with calcifications.

  11. Renal venous thrombosis with calcification and preservation of renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, A.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dept. of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.V. [Dept. of Nephrology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Stewart, G. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Two neonates were found on US to have branching linear calcification in the renal parenchyma, right sided in one and bilateral in the other. CT confirmed the presence of branching calcification in the kidneys and demonstrated calcified thrombus in the inferior vena cava in both babies. Antenatal detection of adrenal haemorrhage in one baby and presence of calcification at the age of 3 days in the other indicate that thrombosis probably occurred before birth. The kidneys remained normal in size, and uptake of {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA) was normal on follow-up examination. The presence of branching calcification and normal renal size probably indicates good prognosis for renal function in neonates in whom renal venous thrombosis is found and may indicate prenatal thrombosis. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  14. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

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    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  15. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  16. Calcification in marine molluscs: how costly is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Although crucial to our understanding of skeletal evolution in marine invertebrates, the cost of calcification has remained elusive for a simple reason: CaCO3 is an inorganic material. Its cost thus derives solely from the metabolic expenses of accumulating, transporting, and precipitating CaCO3 and cannot normally be separated from other metabolic costs. Traditionally, calcification cost has been ignored and total shell cost has been assumed to derive solely from skeletal organic matrix. The...

  17. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  18. Breast calcifications following electrical defibrillation: An unusual mammographic appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Steven M.; Jani, Manish; BADVE, SUNIL

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with a past medical history of end-stage renal disease and a recent history of electrical defibrillation who arrived for her annual mammogram with no breast-related complaints. The mammogram showed interval development of unusual clusters of heterogeneous calcifications. The patient underwent stereotactic core-needle biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The pathologic evaluation revealed fibrosis, abnormal adipocytes, and calcifications with no evidence of...

  19. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  20. Limbal and corneal calcification in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1993-09-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure on regular dialysis treatment, limboconjunctival degenerations and calcifications are commonly observed. In this study three groups of patients were followed over a period of 6 years. The first group consisted of 47 patients with renal failure, the second group of 17 patients with renal failure and hyperparathyroidism not controlled by drugs, and the third group seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism without renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the progression of the limboconjunctival changes over time. The hypothesis that an increase in serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, as a result of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, could possibly add a corneal component to the limbal calcification was also tested. All patients with renal failure (in as much as the degenerative limbal features were not obscured by deposits of lime salts), had a type II white limbus girdle of Vogt. This limbal degeneration was observed in only 45% of controls. In all 47 patients with renal failure conjunctival calcification was observed; 26 of them also had limbal calcification. After 6 years 41 patients had developed limbal calcification. This progression was statistically significant. In 15 out of 17 patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism a band-shaped keratopathy developed in addition to the limboconjunctival calcification.

  1. ADVANCE: Study to Evaluate Cinacalcet Plus Low Dose Vitamin D on Vascular Calcification in Subjects With Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Chronic Kidney Disease; End Stage Renal Disease; Coronary Artery Calcification; Vascular Calcification; Calcification; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Hyperparathyroidism; Kidney Disease; Nephrology; Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE WITH CAROTID ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS, DENTAL PULP CALCIFICATIONS AND DENTAL PULP STONES

    OpenAIRE

    DAĞISTAN, Saadettin; MİLOĞLU, Özkan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of carotid artery calcifications in dental panoramic radiographs and dental pulp calcifications together with dental pulp stones in periapical radiographs in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis and healthy individuals, and to identify the relationship between the two groups.Patients and methods: A total of 115 cases (57 patients on haemodialysis for chronic renal failure and 58 healthy individu...

  3. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  4. Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis Mimicking a Retropharyngeal Phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Gabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute retropharyngeal tendinitis is a little known but not an uncommon condition. It was first described by Hartley in 1964 as an inflammation of the longus colli muscle secondary to calcium crystals deposition on its insertion. The calcifications are mostly located on the oblique portion of the muscle at the level of C1-C2. Methods. We will describe this disease through 4 cases that presented in our institution. Results. The most common symptoms are severe neck pain, odynophagia, and a painful restriction of neck movement. It is associated with mild fever and inflammatory lab findings such as a slight elevation of white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. CT scan is recommended as the first-line imaging modality to establish a diagnosis. Treatments consist of NSAIDs and analgesics to accelerate the healing process. If symptoms are severe, a course of corticosteroids is required. Conclusion. Since the clinical and laboratory findings of this condition and those of a retropharyngeal abscess overlap, it is important to establish the right diagnosis in order to prevent more invasive procedures. A good knowledge of this clinical entity by otolaryngologists would prevent delays in hospital discharge and unnecessary anxiety.

  5. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis mimicking a retropharyngeal phlegmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Nathalie; Belair, Manon; Ayad, Tareck

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acute retropharyngeal tendinitis is a little known but not an uncommon condition. It was first described by Hartley in 1964 as an inflammation of the longus colli muscle secondary to calcium crystals deposition on its insertion. The calcifications are mostly located on the oblique portion of the muscle at the level of C1-C2. Methods. We will describe this disease through 4 cases that presented in our institution. Results. The most common symptoms are severe neck pain, odynophagia, and a painful restriction of neck movement. It is associated with mild fever and inflammatory lab findings such as a slight elevation of white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. CT scan is recommended as the first-line imaging modality to establish a diagnosis. Treatments consist of NSAIDs and analgesics to accelerate the healing process. If symptoms are severe, a course of corticosteroids is required. Conclusion. Since the clinical and laboratory findings of this condition and those of a retropharyngeal abscess overlap, it is important to establish the right diagnosis in order to prevent more invasive procedures. A good knowledge of this clinical entity by otolaryngologists would prevent delays in hospital discharge and unnecessary anxiety. PMID:23862089

  6. Experimental evidence for foraminiferal calcification under anoxia

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    M. P. Nardelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic foraminiferal tests are widely used for paleoceanographic reconstructions. There is ample evidence that foraminifera can live in anoxic sediments. For some species, this is explained by a switch to facultative anaerobic metabolism (i.e. denitrification. Here we show for the first time that adult specimens of three benthic foraminiferal species are not only able to survive but are also able to calcify in anoxic conditions, at various depths in the sediment, with and without nitrates. This demonstrates ongoing metabolic processes, even in micro-environments where denitrification is not possible. Earlier observations suggest that the disappearance of foraminiferal communities after prolonged anoxia is not due to instantaneous or strongly increased adult mortality. Here we show that it cannot be explained by an inhibition of growth through chamber addition either. Our observations of ongoing calcification under anoxic conditions means that geochemical proxy data obtained from benthic foraminifera in settings experiencing intermittent anoxia have to be reconsidered. The analysis of whole single specimens or of their successive chambers may provide essential information about short-term environmental variability and/or the causes of anoxia.

  7. Bovine pericardium coated with biopolymeric films as an alternative to prevent calcification: In vitro calcification and cytotoxicity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine pericardium, for cardiac valve fabrication, was coated with either chitosan or silk fibroin film. In vitro calcification tests of coated and non coated bovine pericardium were performed in simulated body fluid solution in order to investigate potential alternatives to minimize calcification on implanted heart valves. Complementary, morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were performed for structural characterization of coatings and biocompatibility of chitosan. Silk fibroin films were assayed by in vitro cytotoxicity and endothelial cell growth tests. Bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin or chitosan did not present calcification during in vitro calcification tests, indicating that these biopolymeric coatings do not induce bovine pericardium calcification. Chitosan and silk fibroin films were characterized as non cytotoxic and silk fibroin films presented high affinity to endothelial cells. The results indicate that bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin is a potential candidate for cardiac valve fabrication, since the affinity of silk fibroin to endothelial cells can be explored to induce the tissue endothelization and therefore, increase valve durability by increasing their mechanical resistance and protecting them against calcification.

  8. Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Miyake, Hidenori; Aoki, Michio; Takeuchi, Juji

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally.

  9. Abdominal calcification in cystic fibrosis with meconium ileus: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, I. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 (Canada); Daneman, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 (Canada); Cutz, E. [Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hagen, P. [Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shandling, B. [Division of General Surgery, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Background. There is confusion in the radiological literature as to the site of abdominal calcification in cystic fibrosis (CF) with meconium ileus (MI) in neonates. Purpose. To correlate the site of radiographic abdominal calcification with histologic and operative findings. Materials and methods. A review of clinical, radiographic, surgical and histologic data in 58 neonates with CF and MI. Results. Abdominal calcification was identified in 15 (26 %) neonates: on an abdominal radiograph in 8 (13 %), at laparotomy in 3 and histologically in 10 (37 %) of the 27 resected specimens. The radiographic pattern of calcification varied from small specks in three cases to small, better-defined areas in two. In the other three patients, the calcification was more extensive and curvilinear. Histologically, calcification was found to be intramural in ten resected specimens, of which two also had intraluminal and one serosal calcification. The more extensive, curvilinear calcification identified radiographically correlated with histologically proven dystrophic intramural calcification. The less marked flecks or discrete areas of radiographic calcification may represent intramural, serosal or intraluminal calcification. Conclusion. Intramural calcification is common microscopically in CF with MI. Extensive radiographic calcification in these patients is more likely to represent intramural rather than serosal or intraluminal calcification. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  10. Calcification of intervertebral discs in the Dachshund: An estimation of heritability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heritability of calcified intervertebral discs in the dachshund was estimated using data gathered from a radiographic study. Radiographs of the vertebral columns of 274 clinically normal, 12 to 18 months old dachshunds, were examined. The dogs were offspring from 75 different sires, representing the same number of half sib groups. There were 2 to 14 offspring in each half-sib group. The number of full sib groups was 81. Calcified intervertebral discs were identified in 20.4% of the dogs. An analysis of variance that used the data as a continuous and as an either/or-variable estimated the heritability of calcified discs to be 0.22 and 0.15 respectively. A genetic factor was found to be essential for the occurrence of calcified discs in a dog while a common environmental factor presumably resulting from non-genetic causes was significant in determining the number of discs to undergo calcification in affected dogs

  11. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4 years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6, p = 0.001 and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005 were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047 and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes.

  12. Recurrent CNVs on 1q21.1, 15q 13.3 and 16p 11.2: shared genetic risk factors for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Lin Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the last couple of years, the discovery and characterization of copy-number variations (CNVs) in the human genome have provided a new research tool for identifying genetic risk factors of common complex diseases, referred to as CNVs based genome-wide association studies (GWAS).As ever smaller genomic rearrangements have been discovered by high resolution GWAS, both de novo and inheritable CNVs (also referred to as microdeletion/microduplication or genomic imbalances) have emerged as an important type of genetic risk factor associated with complex diseases.

  13. Estimates of genetic and environmental contribution to 43 quantitative traits support sharing of a homogeneous environment in an isolated population from South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroni, Fabio; Grazio, Daniela; Pattaro, Cristian; Devoto, Marcella; Pramstaller, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As part of the genomic health care program 'GenNova', we measured 43 quantitative traits in 1,136 subjects living in three isolated villages in South Tyrol (Italy), for which extended genealogical information was available. Thirty-seven of the studied traits had been previously investigated in other populations, while six of them are, to the best of our knowledge, studied here for the first time. For all 43 traits we estimated narrow-sense heritability, individual-specific environmental effects, and shared environmental effects. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were in good agreement with previous findings. We found significant heritability for all traits; after correcting for multiple testing, all traits except serum concentration of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and potassium still showed significant heritability. In contrast, the effect of living in the same sibship or village (the so-called sibship and household effects, respectively) was significant for a few traits only, and after correcting for multiple testing no trait showed significant shared environment effect. We suggest that the sharing of a highly similar environment by the subjects included in this study explains the low contribution of the household effects to the overall trait variation. This peculiarity should provide an advantage in gene-mapping projects by reducing environmental bias.

  14. Gene expression analysis in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Oliva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the expression of several genes involved in tissue remodelling and bone development in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Biopsies from calcified and non-calcified areas were obtained from 10 patients (8 women and 2 men; average age: 55 years; range: 40-68 with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed. A significantly increased expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG2 and its substrate, osteopontin, was detected in the calcific areas compared to the levels observed in the normal tissue from the same subject with calcific tendinopathy, whereas a modest increase was observed for catepsin K. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP4 and BMP6 in the calcific area. BMP-2, collagen V and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF did not show significant differences. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 were not detectable. A variation in expression of these genes could be characteristic of this form tendinopathy, since an increased level of these genes has not been detected in other forms of tendon lesions.

  15. Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Pathophysiology, Reactive Oxygen Species and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Sowers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA/calciphylaxis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement. Once thought to be rare, it is being increasingly recognized and reported on a global scale. The uremic milieu predisposes to multiple metabolic toxicities including increased levels of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation promote this arteriolopathy by adversely affecting endothelial function resulting in a prothrombotic milieu and significant remodeling effects on vascular smooth muscle cells. These arteriolar pathological effects include intimal hyperplasia, inflammation, endovascular fibrosis and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and differentiation into bone forming osteoblast-like cells resulting in medial calcification. Systemic factors promoting this vascular condition include elevated calcium, parathyroid hormone and hyperphosphatemia with consequent increases in the calcium × phosphate product. The uremic milieu contributes to a marked increased in upstream reactive oxygen species—oxidative stress and subsequent downstream increased inflammation, in part, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFκB and associated downstream cytokine pathways. Consitutive anti-calcification proteins such as Fetuin-A and matrix GLA proteins and their signaling pathways may be decreased, which further contributes to medial vascular calcification. The resulting clinical entity is painful, debilitating and contributes to the excess morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. These same histopathologic conditions also occur in patients without uremia and therefore, the term calcific obliterative arteriolopathy could be utilized in these conditions.

  16. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  17. Permanent tooth calcification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): patterns and polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, K L; Conroy, G C

    1996-01-01

    Tooth calcification is an important developmental marker for use in constructing models for early hominid life history, particularly for its application to the fossil record. As chimpanzees are commonly utilized in interspecific comparisons in such research, this study aims to improve available baseline data for tooth calcification patterns in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and to quantify basic patterns and polymorphisms. We present an analysis of developmental patterns for the left mandibular dentition (I1-M3) based on intraoral radiographs obtained from a cross-sectional sample of chimpanzees (58 males, 60 females) housed at LEMSIP (NYU Medical Center) and Yerkes (Emory University). No significant differences with previous descriptions of the basic sequences of tooth calcification in chimpanzees were found, but variation in such patterns was documented for the first time. In the overall sequence, polymorphisms between the canine and the group (M2 P4 P3) reached significant levels. This is due to the relative delay in canine crown formation compared to other teeth. Differences in the basic sequence between males and females were recorded, but are due to minor shifts in the percentages of occurrence for polymorphic sequences which are common to both genders. Perhaps our most important findings are that a) different polymorphic sequences occur in tooth calcification and tooth emergence in chimpanzees, and b) developmental relationships among teeth fluctuate throughout tooth calcification. Thus, characterizations of dental developmental patterns based on particular stages of development cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other stages without supporting data. PMID:8928717

  18. Libraries Sharing Technology for Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Stranack, Kevin; Mussell, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Recent resource sharing technology developments in the western Canadian consortia, BC Electronic Library Network and COPPUL are discussed. Highlights include the shelf status project of BC ELN, combining the functionality of a union catalogue with live lookup of circulation status via Z39.50, a tagging feature for the locally developed A to Z list CJDB (CUFTS Journal Database), a locally developed federated search tool, dbwiz, the Open Journal Systems software of the Public Knowledge Project,...

  19. Calcific Tendonitis of the Rotator Cuff: An Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Mitsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have described the surgical treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the subscapularis tendon. We present a case of symptomatic diffuse calcifying tendonitis involving the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions that was difficult to detect arthroscopically. The patient was treated with arthroscopic incision of the tendinous insertions thorough removal of the calcific deposits and subsequent repair using a suture-anchor technique. Two years after the surgical procedure, the patient was completely pain-free and attained full range of motion. Radiographic evaluation performed 2 years after the procedure revealed no calcific deposits. We conclude that the combination of incision of the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions, complete removal of the calcific deposits, and subsequent suture-anchor repair in an all-arthroscopic manner can lead to an excellent clinical outcome without compromising the functional integrity of the rotator cuff tendons.

  20. Decreased calcification in the Southern Ocean over the satellite record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Natalie M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.

    2015-03-01

    Widespread ocean acidification is occurring as the ocean absorbs anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, threatening marine ecosystems, particularly the calcifying plankton that provide the base of the marine food chain and play a key role within the global carbon cycle. We use satellite estimates of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), surface chlorophyll, and sea surface temperature to provide a first estimate of changing calcification rates throughout the Southern Ocean. From 1998 to 2014 we observe a 4% basin-wide reduction in summer calcification, with ˜9% reductions in large regions (˜1 × 106 km2) of the Pacific and Indian sectors. Southern Ocean trends are spatially heterogeneous and primarily driven by changes in PIC concentration (suspended calcite), which has declined by ˜24% in these regions. The observed decline in Southern Ocean calcification and PIC is suggestive of large-scale changes in the carbon cycle and provides insight into organism vulnerability in a changing environment.

  1. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  2. A Premature Infant with Fetal Myocardial and Abdominal Calcifications and Factor V Leiden Homozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Margaret G.K.; Webster, Gregory; Insoft, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a premature male neonate with confirmed Factor V Leiden deficiency diagnosed prenatally with cardiac and abdominal calcifications. Our patient’s findings suggest that clinicians consider thromboembolic conditions when multiple fetal calcifications are visualized. PMID:19861970

  3. Influence of scoring parameter settings on Agatston and volume scores for coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Vliegenthart, R; Witteman, JCM; Oudkerk, M

    2005-01-01

    Current multi-detector CT and electron beam tomography (EBT) technology enables the evaluation of coronary calcification. Multiple software packages are available to quantify calcification using several scoring algorithms implementing user-definable scoring parameters. We investigated the effect of

  4. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  5. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  6. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; MacLaren, Jana K.; Mason, Benjamin M.; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO32-], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  7. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth. PMID:26909578

  8. Comprehensive screening for reg1α gene rules out association with tropical calcific pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the allelic and haplotypic association of regla gene with tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP). Since TCP is known to have a variable genetic basis, we investigated the interaction between mutations in the susceptibility genes, SPINK1 and CTSB with reg1α polymorphisms.METHODS: we analyzed the polymorphisms in the regla gene by sequencing the gene including its promoter region in 195 TCP patients and 150 ethnically matched controls, compared their allele and haplotype frequencies, and their association with the pathogenesis and pancreaticolithiasis in TCP and fibro-calculous pancreatic diabetes.RESULTS: We found 8 reported and 2 novel polymo-rphisms including an insertion-deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of reg1α. None of the 5' UTR variants altered any known transcription factor binding sites, neither did any show a statistically significant association with TCP. No association with any reg1α variants was observed on dichotomization of patients based on their N34S SPINK1 or L26V CTSB status.CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in reg1α gene, including the regulatory variants singly or in combination with the known mutations in SPINK1 and/or CTSB genes, are not associated with tropical calcific pancreatitis.

  9. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N L; Fowler, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

  10. Symmetrical infantile thalamic degeneration with focal cytoplasmic calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, M; O'Neil, W

    1975-10-27

    Infantile thalamic degeneration is a rare clinico-pathological entity. Restricted location of the lesion and peculiar cytopathological changes serve to distinguish this disorder from other common encephalopathies. Optical and ultrastructural studies demonstrate cytoplasmic calcopherules in previously viable cells. According to current concepts of acute cellular reactions to injury and mechanism of intracellular calcification, the cytological changes cannot be attributed to either hypoxic ischemic cell change or dystrophic calcification. By analogy to other human and pathological material, the most likely basis for nondystrophic calcopherule formation is toxic or infectious injury with local synthesis, or autophagic or phagolysosomal degradation of cellular debris of specific chemical composition favoring calcium deposition.

  11. Breast calcifications following electrical defibrillation: An unusual mammographic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Steven M; Jani, Manish; Badve, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with a past medical history of end-stage renal disease and a recent history of electrical defibrillation who arrived for her annual mammogram with no breast-related complaints. The mammogram showed interval development of unusual clusters of heterogeneous calcifications. The patient underwent stereotactic core-needle biopsy for definitive diagnosis. The pathologic evaluation revealed fibrosis, abnormal adipocytes, and calcifications with no evidence of malignancy. The constellation of findings was consistent with fat necrosis and fibrosis related to tissue damage sustained during the recent defibrillation. PMID:27307857

  12. The Role of Mammographic Calcification in the Neoadjuvant Therapy of Breast Cancer Imaging Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-jie Li; Canming Chen; Yajia Gu; Genhong Di; Jiong Wu; Guangyu Liu; ZhiMin Shao

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Investigate the patterns of mammographically detected calcifications before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to determine their value for efficacy evaluation and surgical decision making. METHODS: 187 patients with malignant mammographic calcifications were followed to record the appearances and changes in the calcifications and to analyze their responses to NACT. RESULTS: Patients with calcifications had higher rates of hormonal receptor (HR) positive tumors (74.3% ver...

  13. Prevention of vascular calcification with bisphosphonates without affecting bone mineralization: a new challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Ellen G; De Broe, Marc E; D'Haese, Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Arterial calcification has been found to coexist with bone loss. Bisphosphonates, used as standard therapy for osteoporosis, inhibit experimentally induced vascular calcification, offering perspectives for the treatment of vascular calcification in renal failure patients. However, Lomashvili et al. report that the doses of etidronate and pamidronate that are effective in attenuating aortic calcification also decrease bone formation and mineralization in uremic rats, limiting their therapeutic use as anticalcifying agents.

  14. Calcific myonecrosis and the role of imaging in the diagnosis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Atsushi; Hatori, Masahito; Hosaka, Masami; Watanuki, Munenori; Itoi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Calcific myonecrosis is a rare posttraumatic complication characterized by the replacement of muscles of one or more compartments with central liquefaction and peripheral calcification. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT imaging features of calcific myonecrosis arising 43 years after trauma. A 62-year-old man presented with a slowly enlarging mass in the left lower leg. Plain radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass with extensive amorphous calcification. The middle third of the...

  15. CALCIFICATION OF SUBCUTANEOUSLY IMPLANTED COLLAGENS IN RELATION TO CYTOTOXICITY, CELLULAR INTERACTIONS AND CROSS-LINKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DIJKSTRA, PJ; DAMINK, LHHO; FEIJEN, J

    1995-01-01

    In general, calcification of biomaterials occurs through an interaction of host and implanted material factors, but up to now the real origin of pathologic calcification is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate incidence of calcification of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagens (DSCs) with r

  16. Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for Hashimoto's thyroiditis share a high proportion of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies to the immunodominant region A. Further evidence for genetic transmission of epitopic "fingerprints"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Gardas, Andrzej;

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) predominantly react with two immunodominant regions (IDR-A, IDR-B). Theoretically, as shown for the level of TPOAbs, the autoantibody epitopic recognition of the IDRs could be under genetic control. To examine this....... Two ELISAs based on competition with rabbit antisera were used to determine the IDR specificities in 23 patients with HT, 6 MZ co-twins, 8 siblings to patients with HT, and 11 healthy euthyroid subjects without predisposition to AITD. The fraction of TPOAbs recognizing IDR-A was 19, 18, and 9% in HT...

  17. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  18. Mammographic calcification cluster detection and threshold gold thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Cooke, J.; Given-Wilson, R.; Wallis, M. G.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2012-03-01

    European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify acceptable and achievable standards of image quality (IQ) in terms of threshold gold thickness using the CDMAM test object. However, there is little evidence relating such measurements to cancer detection. This work investigated the relationship between calcification detection and threshold gold thickness. An observer study was performed using a set of 162 amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) detector images (81 no cancer and 81 with 1-3 inserted calcification clusters). From these images four additional IQs were simulated: different digital detectors (computed radiography (CR) and DR) and dose levels. Seven observers marked and rated the locations of suspicious regions. DBM analysis of variances was performed on the JAFROC figure of merit (FoM) yielding 95% confidence intervals for IQ pairs. Automated threshold gold thickness (Tg) analysis was performed for the 0.25mm gold disc diameter on CDMAM images at the same IQs (16 images per IQ). Tg was plotted against FoM and a power law fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in FoM for calcification detection for CR images compared with DR; FoM decreased from 0.83 to 0.63 (pIQ. Since the majority of threshold gold thicknesses for the various IQs were above the acceptable standard despite large variations in calcification detection by radiologists, current EU guidelines may need revising.

  19. A preliminary study of periodontitis and vascular calcification compound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGYun; DENGJing; PanKe-qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This experiment is desired to establish a compound model of chronic periodontitis and vascular calcification,so as to study the relation of periodontal and vascular calcification.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into:control group(group C),periodontitis group(group CP),vascular calcification group(group VDN),compound group (group CP+VDN).Every groups accepted the corresponding manages to establish the animal model.Eight weeks later,al the rats were sacrificed and the fol owing items were observed:inflam-matory factor in serum were tested,Hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE)staining of vascular tissue were taken to test.Results Through detection of periodontal tissue,serum and vascular tissue,an-imal models were successful.Histopathologic observation revealed:obvious inflammation of periodontal tissue was obversed in group CP and CP+VDN.The red Mineralized nodules deposition in group VDN and CP+VDN were higher than in group C and CP(P<0.05)by HE staining,and that in group CP+VDN was significantly higher than in group VDN(P<0.05);Animals in group CP+VDN showed higher level of IL-1 in serum than that in group CP,VDN and C.Conclusion This study has demonstrated that periodontitis have some promoting ef ect on vascular cal-cification.

  20. Coronary calcification and risk of cardiovascular disease : an epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAlready in the eighteenth century, calcification of the coronary artery wall was recognized as being part of the atherosclerotic process.1 However, only after the recent development of electron-beam tomography (EBT), an ultrafast CT technique, it became possible to accurately quantify th

  1. High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduces coronary calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Bots, M.L.; Atsma, F.; Bartelink, M.L.; Prokop, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Grobbee, D.E.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary vitamin K is thought to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing coronary calcification, but inconsistent results are reported. This may be due to different effects of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone, MK), but few studies included both. Methods We

  2. Severe prostatic calcification after radiation therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W A; Miller, E V; Sullivan, L D; Chapman, W H

    1979-06-01

    Severe symptomatic prostatic calcification was seen in 3 patients who had carcinoma of the prostate treated initially with transurethral resection, followed in 2 to 4 weeks by definitive radiation therapy. This complication is probably preventable if an interval of 6 weeks is allowed between transurethral resection of the prostate and radiation therapy.

  3. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  4. Calcific left atrium:A rare consequence of endocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe; Dattilo; Carmelo; Anfuso; Matteo; Casale; Vincenza; Giugno; Lorenzo; Camarda; Natascia; Laganà; Gianluca; Di; Bella

    2014-01-01

    Usually, cardiac calcifications are observed in aortic and mitral valves, atrio-ventricular plane, mitral annulus, coronary arteries, pericaridium(usually causing constrictive pericarditis) and cardiac masses. Calcifications of atrial walls are unusual findings that can be identified only using imaging with high spatial resolution, such as cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography. We report a case of a 43-year-old patient with no history of heart disease that underwent cardiac evaluation for mild dyspnoea. The echocardiogram showed a calcific aortic valve and a hyper-echogenic lesion located in atrio-ventricular plane. The patient was submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance and to computed tomography imaging to better characterize the localization of mass. The clinical features and location of calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrioventricular plane and left atrium. Although we haven’t data to support a definite and clear diagnosis, the clinical features and location of the calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrio-ventricular plane and left atrium. The patient was followed for 12 mo both clinically and by electrocardiogram and echocardiography without worsening of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal methods for identifying and following over time patients with calcific degeneration in the heart.

  5. Medial arterial calcification in diabetes and its relationship to neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffcoate, W J; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Hofbauer, L C;

    2009-01-01

    is not strictly accurate because the morphological changes incorporate those of new bone formation, i.e. ossification. The processes are complex, but are closely related to those involved in bone homeostasis, and it is relevant that calcification of the arterial wall and osteopenia often co-exist. One particular...

  6. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  7. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  8. Loss of function of Slc20a2 associated with familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification in humans causes brain calcifications in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina; Daa Schrøder, Henrik; Kildall Hejbøl, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Deleterious mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), were recently linked to FIBGC in almost 50 % of the families...... reported worldwide. Here, we show that knockout of Slc20a2 in mice causes calcifications in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cortex, demonstrating that reduced PiT2 expression alone can cause brain calcifications....

  9. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  10. Idiopathic Infantile Arterial Calcification: A Rare Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  11. Sudden death in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cristina; Cairns, Robyn; Patel, Millan S

    2009-01-01

    The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasias are an expanding group of skeletal dysplasias with specific features differentiating each subtype. We review the precocious carpal mineralization, unique metacarpal shape, triangular distal phalanges and mushroom cloud-shaped proximal phalanges present at an early age in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type (SMED SL-AC) and report two patients with clinical and radiographic features consistent with SMED SL-AC, who died suddenly because of spinal cord compression. The patients presented are female siblings, providing further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Cervical cord compression is found in half of reported patients and is the major cause of mortality. SMED SL-AC should be added to the list of genetic causes of sudden death. Radiological features in the hand may be used in the first few years of life to support an early diagnosis and thus allow for prevention of premature demise. PMID:19050401

  12. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  13. The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-03-01

    Seventeen vitamin K-dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K-dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality, whereas circulating total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was associated with the extent of prevalent arterial calcification. Vitamin K intervention studies have shown that MGP carboxylation can be increased dose dependently, but thus far only 1 study with clinical endpoints has been completed. This study showed maintenance of vascular elasticity during a 3-y supplementation period, with a parallel 12% loss of elasticity in the placebo group. More studies, both in healthy subjects and in patients at risk

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate clinical (pain, mobility) and radiological (resolution of calcium deposits) efficacy of different energy levels of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. There were 90 study subjects with radiographically verified calcific tendinitis of one shoulder, mean age 52±6 years (range 29 - 65 years; females:males=55:35), all of whom had had symptoms for at least 6 months and substantial restriction of shoulder mobility and pain that required taking anti-inflammatory drugs. Calcium deposits were of type I or type II (clearly circumscribed and dense) and ranged from 1 cm to 3 cm in diameter. Subjects were divided into three groups to receive ESWT at one of two energy levels (E1=0.15 mJ/mm2, E2=0.44 mJ/mm2) or sham treatment. Treatment was given at 6 weekly intervals until symptoms resolved, five treatments had been given or the subject dropped out of the programme. All subjects in groups E1 and E2 completed the programme. Those in group E1 had significantly less pain during treatment but more treatments than those in group E2, and at 6 month follow-up had residual calcification and recurrence of pain (87%). Subjects in group E2 had no residual calcification or recurrence of pain. Sham treatment had no effect. There were no side effects except a small number of haematomas (2 in E1, 6 in E2; maximum size 2 cm). ESWT in calcific tendinitis of the shoulder is very effective. It does not have significant side effects at an energy level of E=0.44 mJ/mm2, which can therefore be recommended. (orig.)

  15. Isolated splenic calcifications in two patients with portal hypertension; Calcificaciones esplenicas aisladas en dos pacientes con hipertension portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixandre, A.; Cugat, A. [Hospital de la Malvarrosa. Valencia (Spain); Ruiz, A.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hosptial Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain); Tardaguila, F. [Clinica Provisa. Vigo (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Calcification of the walls of the veins of the portal hypertension (PHT) (1-0), is uncommon. Calcification of the intra splenic vessels is exceptional. We report two cases of isolated calcification of intra splenic vessels, without calcification of the splenoportal venous axis, in patients with liver cirrhosis and PHT. The calcification was not clear. Computed tomography identified the calcification as linear tubular, branched structures located in the wall of intra splenic vessels. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed signs of cirrhosis and PHT but did not show the splenic classifications because of technical limitations. The cause of these calcifications was sustained PHT due to chronic liver disease. (Author) 15 refs.

  16. The role of mammographic calcification in the neoadjuvant therapy of breast cancer imaging evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie Li

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Investigate the patterns of mammographically detected calcifications before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT to determine their value for efficacy evaluation and surgical decision making. METHODS: 187 patients with malignant mammographic calcifications were followed to record the appearances and changes in the calcifications and to analyze their responses to NACT. RESULTS: Patients with calcifications had higher rates of hormonal receptor (HR positive tumors (74.3% versus 64.6% and HER2 positive tumors (51.3% versus 33.4%, p = 0.004 and a similar pathologic complete response (pCR rate compared to patients without calcifications (35.4% versus 29.8%. After NACT, the range of calcification decreased in 40% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 52.5%; the calcification density decreased in 15% of patients, increased in 7.5% and remained stable in 77.5%; none of these change patterns were related to tumor response rate. No significant correlation was observed between the calcification appearance (morphology, distribution, range, diameter or density and tumor subtypes or pCR rates. Among patients with malignant calcifications, 54 showed calcifications alone, 40 occurred with an architectural distortion (AD and 93 with a mass. Calcifications were observed inside the tumor in 44% of patients and outside in 56%, with similar pCR rates and patterns of change. CONCLUSIONS: Calcification appearance did not clearly change after NACT, and calcification patterns were not related to pCR rate, suggesting that mammogram may not accurate to evaluate tumor response changes. Microcalcifications visible after NACT is essential for determining the extent of excision, patients with calcifications that occurred outside of the mass still had the opportunity for breast conservation.

  17. Coccolithophore calcification response to past ocean acidification and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Sarah A; Gibbs, Samantha J; Bown, Paul R; Young, Jeremy R; Poulton, Alex J; Newsam, Cherry; Wilson, Paul A

    2014-11-17

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are forcing rapid ocean chemistry changes and causing ocean acidification (OA), which is of particular significance for calcifying organisms, including planktonic coccolithophores. Detailed analysis of coccolithophore skeletons enables comparison of calcite production in modern and fossil cells in order to investigate biomineralization response of ancient coccolithophores to climate change. Here we show that the two dominant coccolithophore taxa across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) OA global warming event (~56 million years ago) exhibited morphological response to environmental change and both showed reduced calcification rates. However, only Coccolithus pelagicus exhibits a transient thinning of coccoliths, immediately before the PETM, that may have been OA-induced. Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change.

  18. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas C.; Reuter, Markus; Krüger, Stefan; Klaus, James S.; Helmle, Kevin; Lough, Janice M.

    2016-08-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands often allow for reconstructions of annual extension ( = growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. This report presents the bulk density, extension rates and calcification rates of fossil reef corals which underwent minor diagenetic alteration only. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (south-eastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated approximately 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, voids are commonly present along centres of calcification which lack secondary cements. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1), mean bulk density was 0.96 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.83 g cm-3) and calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification rates with those of modern zooxanthellate corals (z corals) from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found a widely analogous relationship with SST in z corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger

  19. Low Florida coral calcification rates in the Plio-Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.; Krüger, S.; Klaus, J. S.; Helmle, K.; Lough, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In geological outcrops and drill cores from reef frameworks, the skeletons of scleractinian corals are usually leached and more or less completely transformed into sparry calcite because the highly porous skeletons formed of metastable aragonite (CaCO3) undergo rapid diagenetic alteration. Upon alteration, ghost structures of the distinct annual growth bands may be retained allowing for reconstructions of annual extension (= growth) rates, but information on skeletal density needed for reconstructions of calcification rates is invariably lost. Here we report the first data of calcification rates of fossil reef corals which escaped diagenetic alteration. The corals derive from unlithified shallow water carbonates of the Florida platform (southeastern USA), which formed during four interglacial sea level highstands dated 3.2, 2.9, 1.8, and 1.2 Ma in the mid Pliocene to early Pleistocene. With regard to the preservation, the coral skeletons display smooth growth surfaces with minor volumes of marine aragonite cement within intra-skeletal porosity. Within the skeletal structures, dissolution is minor along centers of calcification. Mean extension rates were 0.44 ± 0.19 cm yr-1 (range 0.16 to 0.86 cm yr-1) and mean bulk density was 0.86 ± 0.36 g cm-3 (range 0.55 to 1.22 g cm-3). Correspondingly, calcification rates ranged from 0.18 to 0.82 g cm-2 yr-1 (mean 0.38 ± 0.16 g cm-2 yr-1), values which are 50 % of modern shallow-water reef corals. To understand the possible mechanisms behind these low calcification rates, we compared the fossil calcification with modern zooxanthellate-coral (z-coral) rates from the Western Atlantic (WA) and Indo-Pacific (IP) calibrated against sea surface temperature (SST). In the fossil data, we found an analogous relationship with SST in z-corals from the WA, i.e. density increases and extension rate decreases with increasing SST, but over a significantly larger temperature window during the Plio-Pleistocene. With regard to the

  20. Calcific Aortic Stenosis: Lessons Learned from Experimental and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2008-01-01

    Calcific aortic stenosis is the most common indication for surgical valve replacement in the United States. For years this disease has been described as a passive degenerative process during which serum calcium attaches to the valve surface and binds to the leaflet to form nodules. Therefore, surgical treatment of this disease has been the approach towards relieving outflow obstruction in these patients. Recent studies demonstrate an association between atherosclerosis and its risk factors fo...

  1. Calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 1/2 month old boy was diagnosed as having hydrocephalus secondary to an aneurysm of the vein of Galen. Cerebral angiography 2 1/2 years later showed the aneurysm to be completely occluded and CT demonstrated it to be thrombosed and completely calcified. Complete calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen has only been described on two previous occasions and never in a child this young. (orig.)

  2. Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas with massive central calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Goetze; Matthias Banasch; Klaus Junker; Wolfgang E. Schmidt; Christian Szymanski

    2005-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas is extremely rare, with only six cases described in the worldwide literature.An asymptomatic case of unicentric, hyaline, vascular-type Castleman's disease (UCD) localized to the tail of the pancreas with central calcification imitating a primary neoplasm of the pancreas is presented. This is the first description of endosonographic and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic findings of pancreatic UCD. Additionally, computed tomography, histological and serologic findings are reported.

  3. Calcification of the external carotid arteries and their branches

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, D. S.; Zhang, L.; Gu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This patient had longstanding hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia owing to chronic renal disease, then finally failure, inducing tertiary hyperparathyroidism. He also had long histories of diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. He then reported a painful expansile swelling of the anterior mandible which was diagnosed as a “brown tumour”. Subsequent review of the CT data set by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist revealed two patterns of calcification of the car...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of inflammation and calcification in aortic valve stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Edit

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a slowly progressive disorder with a spectrum of disease ranging from aortic sclerosis to severe destroyed valvular architecture leading to critical outflow obstruction. The diseased valve is characterized by inflammation, as an initiating event, pathological remodeling of extracellular matrix and pronounced calcification, which all eventually cause restricted leaflet mobility. Compelling evidence obtained from both experimental animal models and human studies provide...

  5. Brain calcification process and phenotypes according to age and sex: Lessons from SLC20A2, PDGFB, and PDGFRB mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Charbonnier, Camille; de Lemos, Roberta Rodrigues; Richard, Anne-Claire; Guillin, Olivier; Wallon, David; Legati, Andrea; Geschwind, Daniel; Coppola, Giovanni; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; Hannequin, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Primary Familial Brain Calcification (PFBC) is a dominantly inherited cerebral microvascular calcifying disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Three causative genes have been identified: SLC20A2, PDGFRB and, recently, PDGFB, whose associated phenotype has not yet been extensively studied. We included in the largest published case series of genetically confirmed PFBC, 19 PDGFB (including three new mutations), 24 SLC20A2 (including 4 new mutations), and 14 PDGFRB mutation carriers, from two countries (France and Brazil). We studied clinical features and applied our visual rating scale on all 49 available CT scans. Among the symptomatic mutation carriers (33/57, 58%), the three most frequently observed categories of clinical features were psychiatric signs (72.7%, 76.5%, and 80% for PDGFB, SLC20A2, and PDGFRB, respectively), movement disorders (45.5%, 76.5%, and 40%), and cognitive impairment (54.6%, 64.7%, and 40%). The median age of clinical onset was 31 years, 25% had an early onset (before 18) and 25% a later onset (after 53). Patients with an early clinical onset exhibited mostly isolated psychiatric or cognitive signs, while patients with a later onset exhibited mostly movement disorders, especially in association with other clinical features. CT scans rating allowed identifying four patterns of calcification. The total calcification score was best predicted by the combined effects of gene (SLC20A2 > PDGFB > PDGFRB mutations), sex (male), and (increasing) age, defining three risk classes, which correlated with the four patterns of calcification. These calcification patterns could reflect the natural history of the calcifying process, with distinct risk classes characterized by different age at onset or rate of progression.

  6. Calcification provides mechanical reinforcement to whale baleen alpha-keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, L J; de Kerckhove, D G; Grime, G W; Fudge, D S

    2010-09-01

    Hard alpha-keratins such as hair, nail, wool and horn are stiff epidermal appendages used by mammals in a variety of functions including thermoregulation, feeding and intraspecific competition. Hard alpha-keratins are fibre-reinforced structures consisting of cytoskeletal elements known as 'intermediate filaments' embedded in an amorphous protein matrix. Recent research has shown that intermediate filaments are soft and extensible in living keratinocytes but become far stiffer and less extensible in keratinized cells, and this stiffening may be mediated by air-drying. Baleen, the keratinous plates used by baleen whales during filter feeding, is an unusual mammalian keratin in that it never air dries, and in some species, it represents the most heavily calcified of all the hard alpha-keratins. We therefore tested the hypothesis that whale baleen is stiffened by calcification. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive description of baleen material properties and show that calcification contributes to overcoming the shortcomings of stiffening this hard alpha-keratin without the benefit of air-drying. We also demonstrate striking interspecies differences in the calcification patterns among three species of baleen whales and provide novel insights into the function and evolution of this unusual biomaterial.

  7. [Pathogenesis and treatment of vascular calcification in CKD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, D; Gallieni, M; Pasho, S; Fallabrino, G; Olivi, L; Volpi, E; Ciceri, P; Missaglia, E; Ronga, C; Brambilla, C; Butti, A; Rocca-Rey, L; Chiarelli, G; Cozzolino, M

    2009-01-01

    Increased vascular calcification is a major cause of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is the result of an active ossification process counteracted by ''bone'' proteins such as osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, and osteocalcin. Chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism that occurs in CKD. In addition to abnormalities in the serum calcium and phosphate profile, CKD-MBD is characterized by abnormalities of bone turnover, mineralization, volume and growth as well as vascular calcification. Considering that the presence and extent of vascular calcification in CKD portend a poor prognosis, many efforts have been made to shed light on this complicated phenomenon to prevent vascular calcium deposition and its progression. Indeed, careful control of calcium load, serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone along with the use of calcium-free phosphate binders and vitamin D receptor activators represent a new therapeutic armamentarium to improve quality of life and reduce mortality in CKD. PMID:19382090

  8. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K G; Zondervan, I; Gerringa, L J A; Timmermans, K R; Veldhuis, M J W; Riebesell, U

    2004-08-01

    The deposition of atmospheric dust into the ocean has varied considerably over geological time. Because some of the trace metals contained in dust are essential plant nutrients which can limit phytoplankton growth in parts of the ocean, it has been suggested that variations in dust supply to the surface ocean might influence primary production. Whereas the role of trace metal availability in photosynthetic carbon fixation has received considerable attention, its effect on biogenic calcification is virtually unknown. The production of both particulate organic carbon and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) drives the ocean's biological carbon pump. The ratio of particulate organic carbon to CaCO3 export, the so-called rain ratio, is one of the factors determining CO2 sequestration in the deep ocean. Here we investigate the influence of the essential trace metals iron and zinc on the prominent CaCO3-producing microalga Emiliania huxleyi. We show that whereas at low iron concentrations growth and calcification are equally reduced, low zinc concentrations result in a de-coupling of the two processes. Despite the reduced growth rate of zinc-limited cells, CaCO3 production rates per cell remain unaffected, thus leading to highly calcified cells. These results suggest that changes in dust deposition can affect biogenic calcification in oceanic regions characterized by trace metal limitation, with possible consequences for CO2 partitioning between the atmosphere and the ocean.

  9. Consideration of coastal carbonate chemistry in understanding biological calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Feifel, Kirsten M.

    2016-05-01

    Correlations between aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and calcification have been identified in many laboratory manipulation experiments aiming to assess biological responses to ocean acidification (OA). These relationships have been used with projections of ΩAr under continued OA to evaluate potential impacts on marine calcifiers. Recent work suggests, however, that calcification in some species may be controlled by the ratio of bicarbonate to hydrogen ion, or the substrate-to-inhibitor ratio (SIR), rather than ΩAr. SIR and ΩAr are not always positively correlated in the natural environment, which means that ΩAr can be a poor indicator of the calcifying environment when ΩAr->1. Highly variable carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone challenges our ability to monitor fluctuations in ΩAr, SIR, and the ΩAr-SIR relationship making it difficult to assess biological OA exposures and vulnerability. Careful consideration of natural variability throughout ocean environments is required to accurately determine the influence of OA on biological calcification.

  10. A case of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Gulati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triad of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications and cysts (LCC is a recently reported rare disease named ′Labrune syndrome′ after the first case was reported in 1996 by Labrune et al. Herein, we report a case of a 36-year-old man with mild right-sided weakness and seizures for 5 years. CT of brain revealed extensive calcification involving bilateral basal ganglia, right thalamus and bilateral deep cerebellar nuclei. A supratentorial cystic lesion with blood fluid level was seen in left occipitotemporal region. MRI examination revealed diffuse symmetric white matter hyperintensity suggesting leukoencephalopathy. On follow-up, patient reported improvement in the weakness and no further seizure episodes. However, follow-up of MRI revealed persistence of lesions. Differential diagnosis considered were parasitic infections (hydatid, cysticercosis, Coat′s plus disease and causes of diffuse cerebral calcification like Fahr′s disease and post-radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Serology for parasitic infections was negative. No history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the past could be elicited in the history. Another close differential is Coat′s plus disease which can mimic LCC pathologically.

  11. The role of cellular senescence during vascular calcification: a key paradigm in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, N C W; MacRae, V E

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification has severe clinical consequences and is considered an accurate predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events. Vascular calcification refers to the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, most often hydroxyapatite, in arteries. Extensive calcification of the vascular system is a key characteristic of aging. In this article, we outline the mechanisms governing vascular calcification and highlight its association with cellular senescence. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence and its affect on calcification of vascular cells, the relevance of phosphate regulation and the function of FGF23 and Klotho proteins. The association of vascular calcification and cellular senescence with the rare human aging disorder Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is highlighted and the mouse models used to try to determine the underlying pathways are discussed. By understanding the pathways involved in these processes novel drug targets may be elucidated in an effort to reduce the effects of cellular aging as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  12. Decrease in coccolithophore calcification and CO2 since the middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Clara T.; Hernández-Sánchez, María T.; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; González-Lemos, Saúl; Abrevaya, Lorena; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Flores, José-Abel; Probert, Ian; Giosan, Liviu; Johnson, Joel; Stoll, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae are instrumental in carbon cycling and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation. One group, coccolithophores, uses carbon to photosynthesize and to calcify, covering their cells with chalk platelets (coccoliths). How ocean acidification influences coccolithophore calcification is strongly debated, and the effects of carbonate chemistry changes in the geological past are poorly understood. This paper relates degree of coccolith calcification to cellular calcification, and presents the first records of size-normalized coccolith thickness spanning the last 14 Myr from tropical oceans. Degree of calcification was highest in the low-pH, high-CO2 Miocene ocean, but decreased significantly between 6 and 4 Myr ago. Based on this and concurrent trends in a new alkenone εp record, we propose that decreasing CO2 partly drove the observed trend via reduced cellular bicarbonate allocation to calcification. This trend reversed in the late Pleistocene despite low CO2, suggesting an additional regulator of calcification such as alkalinity.

  13. Study on leaching rare earths from bastnaesite treated by calcification transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇坤; 张廷安; 豆志河; 刘江; 唐方方

    2014-01-01

    Extracting rare earths from bastnaesite concentrate treated by calcification transition was studied through the single factor test and XRD patterns of bastnaesite after calcification and slags after leaching in HCl solution. And the effects of the main calcified parameters such as temperature, liquid/solid and calcified time on transition performance of bastnaesite were investigated. It was found that under the optimal conditions of calcification temperature of 250 ºC, liquid/solid of 20 mL/g, calcification time of 180 min, the highest leaching rate of rare earth were obtained, with the leaching ratio of rare earths 83.70%and Ce 77.01%, La 90.55%, Nd 92.03%, respectively;loss rates of fluorine with different calcification conditions were always less than 1%and XRD patterns of cal-cification slags and leaching slags showed that fluorine existed in the form of CaF2.

  14. Changes in coccolith calcification under stable atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bauke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coccolith calcification is known to respond to ocean acidification in culture experiments as well as in present and past oceans. Previous studies basically focus on changes in coccolith weight due to increasing CO2 and the resulting changes in the carbonate system but pay little attention to the influence of other environmental factors. In order to untangle changes in coccolithophore calcification due to environmental factors such as temperature and/or productivity from changes caused by increasing pCO2 and carbonate ion concentration we here present a study on coccolith calcification from the Holocene North Atlantic Ocean. The pre-industrial Holocene with its predominantly stable carbonate system provides the conditions for such a comprehensive analysis. For a realistic analysis on changes in major components of Holocene coccolithophores, the family Noelaerhabdaceae was selected, which constitutes the main part of the assemblage in the North Atlantic. Records of average coccolith weights from three Holocene sediment cores along a North–South transect in the North Atlantic were analysed. During the Holocene mean weight (and therefore calcification of Noelaerhabdaceae (E. huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa coccoliths decreases at the Azores (Geofar KF 16 from around 7 to 5.5 pg, but increases at the Rockall Plateau (ODP Site 980 from around 6 to 8 pg and at the Vøring Plateau (MD08-3192 from 7 to 10.5 pg. This amplitude of average weight variability is within the range of glacial/interglacial changes that were interpreted to be an effect of decreasing carbonate ion concentration. By comparison with SEM assemblage counts, we show that weight changes are partly due to variations in the coccolithophore assemblage, but also an effect of a change in calcification and/or morphotype variability within single species. Our results indicate that there is no single key factor responsible for the observed changes in coccolith weight. A major increase in coccolith

  15. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  16. Progression to calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, I A; Madu, E C

    1995-12-01

    A 59-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and on hemodialysis had neither mitral stenosis nor mitral calcification on echo-Doppler examination in 1989, but had extensive mitral calcification and definite mitral stenosis on conventional and transesophageal echocardiography in 1994. The left ventricle had marked concentric hypertrophy. To our knowledge this is the first documentation of the development of calcific mitral stenosis in end-stage renal disease revealed by serial echo-Doppler studies.

  17. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Han Zhang; Long Cao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scen...

  18. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  19. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho 2, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8602 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, 1001 Gakuhara-cho, Kishiwada city, Osaka 596-8501 (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis.

  20. Massive left atrial and interatrial septal calcification after mitral valve replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Shen Lin; Feng-Chun Tsai; Pao-Hsien Chu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Massive calcification of left atrium is an uncommon complication of long-standing rheumatic valvular disease, and is most often observed in patients with a previous operation on mitral valve.1 Most patients have experienced symptoms for more than 15 years.2 Massive calcification of the left atrium generally spared the interatrial septum in the previous studies.4 However, to our knowledge, fewer than five cases have presented as full left atrial calcification (Table).

  1. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis

  2. Calcific tendonitis of the tibialis posterior tendon at the navicular attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Harries, Luke; Kempson, Susan; Watura, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Calcific tendinosis (tendonosis/tendonitis) is a condition which results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in any tendon of the body. Calcific tendonitis usually presents with pain, which can be exacerbated by prolonged use of the affected tendon. We report a case of calcific tendinosis in the posterior tibialis tendon at the navicular insertion. The pathology is rare in the foot, and extremely rare in the tibialis posterior tendon, indeed there are only 2 reported in the...

  3. Calcification does not stimulate photosynthesis in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata

    OpenAIRE

    Gattuso, J. P.; Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; P Furla; Romaine-Lioud, S.; Jaubert, J.; I Bourge; Frankignoulle, M.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between photosynthesis and calcification remains poorly known in zooxanthellate scleracti-nian corals. We tested whether calcification is a significant source of CO2 for photosynthesis in Stylophora pistillata. Rates of net photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured on colonies incubated in synthetic seawater (SSW) controlled with respect to the inorganic carbon system and containing standard (11.40 mmol kg-1 ) and low (2.85 mmol kg-1 ) calcium concentrations...

  4. The relationship between aortic calcification on chest radiography and ionizing radiation in RERF's Adult Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic calcification has been reported to be an indicator of atherosclerosis and a predictor of coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between aortic calcification and conventional coronary risk factors or recently reported coronary risk factors including ionizing radiation, which is one kind of oxidative stress, has not been established. Objective: To investigate the relationship between aortic calcification and ionizing radiation in a longitudinal study design. The study cohort comprises the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Adult Health Study participants which include atomic-bomb survivors and sex- and age-matched controls. A total of 522 men and 938 women identified as not having aortic calcification based on plain chest X-ray examinations at baseline examination between 1991 and 1993 were assessed regarding the presence of aortic calcification (mild/ severe calcification) about 10 years later. The relationship between cumulative incidence of aortic calcification and atomic-bomb radiation was analyzed using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for sex, age, and other coronary risk factors such as blood pressure, total cholesterol, and inflammation markers. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence of aortic calcification showed a possible increase with atomic-bomb radiation dose for both total aortic calcification and severe aortic calcification. But after adjusting for other coronary risk factors such as smoking, SBP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and leukocyte neutropils, radiation dose was not a significant predictor of cumulative incidence of severe aortic calcification. Age-adjusted increase of cumulative incidence of aortic calcification with atomic-bomb radiation dose suggests ionizing radiation is one predictor of atheroscelerosis. Nevertheless, its predictive impact may not be as significant as conventional coronary risk factors

  5. Association of Aortic Calcification on Plain Chest Radiography with Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han; Chang, Jeong Ho [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Sam [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was conducted to determine an association between aortic calcification viewed on plain chest radiography and obstructive coronary artery disease. Retrospective review of all chest radiography obtained from consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest PA images were reviewed by technical radiologist and radiologist. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, images were compared with the results of coronary angiography. In addition, the size of aortic arch calcification were divided into two groups - the smaller and the larger than 10 mm. Among the total 846 patients, the number of the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease is total 417 (88.3%) in males and 312 (83.4%) in females. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, the positive predictive value of relation between aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease was 91.4% and the relative risk of the group with aortic arch calcification to the opposite group was 1.10. According to the size of aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease, the positive predictive value was 91.9% and the relative risk between two groups was 1.04. This study shows that aortic calcification was closely associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. If the aortic calcification is notified on plain chest radiography, we strongly recommend to consult with doctor.

  6. Role of extracellular vesicles in de novo mineralization: an additional novel mechanism of cardiovascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Sophie E P; Aikawa, Elena

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles are membrane micro/nanovesicles secreted by many cell types into the circulation and the extracellular milieu in physiological and pathological conditions. Evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles, known as matrix vesicles, play a role in the mineralization of skeletal tissue, but emerging ultrastructural and in vitro studies have demonstrated their contribution to cardiovascular calcification as well. Cells involved in the progression of cardiovascular calcification release active vesicles capable of nucleating hydroxyapatite on their membranes. This review discusses the role of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular calcification and elaborates on this additional mechanism of calcification as an alternative pathway to the currently accepted mechanism of biomineralization via osteogenic differentiation.

  7. Association of Aortic Calcification on Plain Chest Radiography with Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine an association between aortic calcification viewed on plain chest radiography and obstructive coronary artery disease. Retrospective review of all chest radiography obtained from consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Chest PA images were reviewed by technical radiologist and radiologist. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, images were compared with the results of coronary angiography. In addition, the size of aortic arch calcification were divided into two groups - the smaller and the larger than 10 mm. Among the total 846 patients, the number of the patients with obstructive coronary artery disease is total 417 (88.3%) in males and 312 (83.4%) in females. Considering the presence of aortic arch calcification, the positive predictive value of relation between aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease was 91.4% and the relative risk of the group with aortic arch calcification to the opposite group was 1.10. According to the size of aortic arch calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease, the positive predictive value was 91.9% and the relative risk between two groups was 1.04. This study shows that aortic calcification was closely associated with obstructive coronary artery disease. If the aortic calcification is notified on plain chest radiography, we strongly recommend to consult with doctor.

  8. Marble brain syndrome: osteopetrosis, renal acidosis and calcification of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C.; Mullaney, P.; Svedberg, E. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-10-01

    Cerebral calcification in children is frequently associated with systemic metabolic disease. We present a case of ``marble brain syntrome``, which showed this abnormality. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs.

  9. Massive calcification in basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum caused by postoperative hypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depicted case is of a 65 year old woman, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of excess sweating, dizziness and loss of consciousness. Symptomatic epilepsy was established after examination from a neurologist. A CT scan showed hyperdense symmetrical striation of the hemisphere of the small brain (parasagittal); symmetrical double-sided calcifications in the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus and medial to the capsula interna; snake-like calcifications of the sulcus (occipital, parasagittai). Paraclinical tests have found hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Past illnesses: resection of the thyroid due to a nodose struma 20 years before. Key words: Calcifications in Basal Ganglia. Calcifications in the Cerebrum. Hypoparathyroidism

  10. The evolution of reciprocal sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Genetical models of the evolution of reciprocal altruism (as distinct from cooperation, mutualism, or nepotism) have difficulty explaining the initial establishment of an altruist gene in a selfish deme. Though potential mechanisms have been suggested, there is an alternative: much "altruistic" behavior may in fact be purely selfish in origin and consequently reciprocity need not be invoked to provide a selective benefit to the actor. _Sharing_ and _helping_ are fundamentally different behavi...

  11. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna

    2015-12-14

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  12. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Roder, Cornelia; Röthig, Till; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  13. Autophagy protects end plate chondrocytes from intermittent cyclic mechanical tension induced calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-guang; Yu, Yun-fei; Zheng, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chuang-dong; Zhao, Xiao-yn; Tong, Wen-xue; Wang, Hong; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Xiao-ling

    2014-09-01

    Calcification of end plate chondrocytes is a major cause of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of end plate chondrocyte calcification is still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify whether autophagy in end plate chondrocytes could protect the calcification of end plate chondrocytes. Previous studies showed that intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) contributes to the calcification of end plate chondrocytes in vitro. While autophagy serves as a cell survival mechanism, the relationship of autophagy and induced end plate chondrocyte calcification by mechanical tension in vitro is unknown. Thus, we investigated autophagy, the expression of the autophagy genes, Beclin-1 and LC3, and rat end plate chondrocyte calcification by ICMT. The viability of end plate chondrocytes was examined using the LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the expression of Beclin-1; LC3; type I, II and X collagen; aggrecan; and Sox-9 genes. Immunofluorescent and fluorescent microscopy showed decreased autophagy in the 10- and 20-day groups loaded with ICMT. Additionally, Alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase staining detected the palpable calcification of end plate chondrocytes after ICMT treatment. We found that increased autophagy induced by short-term ICMT treatment was accompanied by an insignificant calcification of end plate chondrocytes. To the contrary, the suppressive autophagy inhibited by long-term ICMT was accompanied by a more significant calcification. The process of calcification induced by ICMT was partially resisted by increased autophagy activity induced by rapamycin, implicating that autophagy may prevent end plate chondrocyte calcification.

  14. Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Carricart-Ganivet

    Full Text Available Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR, and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm(-2 year(-1 in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (Ω(ar at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of Ω(ar changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological

  15. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari, E-mail: tetsu-n@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Koichi [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Akio [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 {mu}m/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  16. A case of idiopathic intracranial calcifications - Hahr syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to review the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and pathophysiology of the Fahr syndrome and to present a case of the Fahr syndrome from our clinic. The Fahr syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by seizures, tetany, psychomotor retardation, development of a spastic paralysis, athetosis and parkinson like syndrome. It is inherited by an AR way but in affected families (relatives) an AD way is also possible. Sporadic cases have been known. Recently a possible chromosome locus on 14q was proved. Probably the case in point is a group of anomalies, in which symmetrically and bilaterally significant calcifications in the region of the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei in cerebellum and centrum semiovale are found. It is not clear yet whether these calcifications are a result from a 'metastatic' deposition because of a local destruction of the blood-brain barrier or are due to a disturbance in the neuronic calcium metabolism. The X-ray findings could be accidental in an asymptomatic patient but a progressive development of an extrapyramidal syndrome may be also observed. Our case is a 37 years old woman with seizures with loss of consciousness, convulsions and urine incontinence. The complaints are dated from the age of 5 years old. The X-ray images disclosed striking non-natural calcifications in globus pallidus, putamen, n.caudatus, thalami, n.dentati, cerebellum.The blood test revealed normal serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase. The CT findings put together with the typical clinical history and the normal blood test were a prerequisite for this diagnosis

  17. Changes in calcification of coccoliths under stable atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, C.; Meier, K. J. S.; Kinkel, H.;

    2014-01-01

    The response of coccolithophore calcification to ocean acidification has been studied in culture experiments as well as in present and past oceans. The response, however, is different between species and strains, and for the relatively small carbonate chemistry changes observed in natural...... North Atlantic Ocean. The pre-industrial Holocene, with its predominantly stable atmospheric CO2, provides the conditions for such a comprehensive analysis. For an analysis on changes in major components of Holocene coccolithophores under natural conditions, the family Noelaerhabdaceae was selected...

  18. Sequential sharing rules for river sharing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ansink, Erik; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the redistribution of a resource amongst agents who have claims to the resource and who are ordered linearly. A well known example of this particular situation is the river sharing problem. We exploit the linear order of agents to transform the river sharing problem to a sequence of two-agent river sharing problems. These reduced problems are mathematically equivalent to bankruptcy problems and can therefore be solved using any bankruptcy rule. Our proposed class of solutions, that...

  19. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  20. The association between coronary calcification assessed by electron beam computed tomography and measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, HHS; Vliegenthart, R; Hak, AE; del Sol, AI; Hofman, A; Oudkerk, M; Witteman, JCM

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The present study was designed to examine the associations of coronary calcification assessed by electron beam computed tomography (CT) with measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND Although measures of extracoronary atherosclerosis have been used to predict coronary events,

  1. Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) deployed across U.S. Pacific Reefs since 2010 (NCEI Accession 0137093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laboratory experiments reveal calcification rates of crustose coralline algae are strongly correlated to seawater aragonite saturation state. Predictions of reduced...

  2. Dietary vitamin K and therapeutic warfarin alter susceptibility to vascular calcification in experimental chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with vascular calcification (VC) being a key modifier of disease progression. A local regulator of vascular calcification is vitamin K. This gamma-glutamyl carboxylase substrate is an essential ...

  3. Multiple Intracranial Calcifications as a Complication of External Ventricular Drain Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Cheol; Ahn, Jae-Gun

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a case of multiple intracranial calcifications after the procedure of external ventricular drain placement in a 50-year-old man with pericallosal artery aneurysm. We believe that calcifications formed dust that had fallen into the track during the external ventricular drain procedure. The clinical features and radiological findings are presented with review of literature.

  4. Frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmke, K.; Winkler, P.

    1986-02-01

    There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years.

  5. Frequency and position of pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Fumio; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W.J.; Kogure, Takashi

    1964-04-23

    A review of all skull roentgenograms of 525 normal patients was conducted to determine the incidence of pineal gland and habenular nucleus calcification, and to compile normal values for pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population. These data are presented as tables and graphs for use in roentgenological interpretation. 17 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted imaging in detecting intracranial calcification and hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-zhen; QI Jian-pin; ZHAN Chuan-jia; SHU Hong-ge; ZHANG Lin; WANG Cheng-yuan; XIA Li-ming; HU Jun-wu; FENG Ding-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is better than routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting intracranial calcification. This study aimed to assess the value of MR susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the detection and differentiation of intracranial calcification and hemorrhage.Methods Enrolled in this study were 35 patients including 13 cases of calcification demonstrated by CT and 22 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage. MR sequences used in all the subjects included axial T1WI, T2WI and SWI. The phase shift (PS) of calcification and hemorrhage on SWI was calculated and their signal features on corrected phase images were compared. The sensitivity of T1WI, T2WI and SWI in detecting intracranial calcification and hemorrhage was analyzed statistically.Results The detection rate of SWI for cranial calcification was 98.2%, significantly higher than that of T1 Wl and T2WI. It was not significantly different from that of CT (P >0.05). There were 49 hemorrhagic lesions at different stages detected n SWI, 30 on T2WI and 18 on T1WI. The average PS of calcification and hemorrhage was +0.734han routine MRI in detecting micro-hemorrhage, SWI may play an important role in differentiating cerebral diseases associated with calcification or hemorrhage.

  8. Hypothesis: Phytate is an important unrecognised nutrient and potential intravenous drug for preventing vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Pieter; Ketteler, Markus; Salcedo, Carolina; Perello, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) associated with conditions such as ageing, diabetes or renal impairment, results from the deposition of hydroxyapatite in the endothelium or media of blood vessels. Key medical management options are directed towards controlling plasma calcium and phosphate concentrations (e.g. parathormone inhibition, phosphate binders, dialysis), enhancing the effect of calcification inhibitors (e.g. fetuin-A, pyrophosphate, vitamin K, osteopontin, matrix Gla protein) and decreasing the effect of promoters of calcification (e.g. vitamin D, lipids, cytokines). Dietary phytate prevents the calcification of ageing in rats and epidemiological data suggest that phytate rich diets are associated with a lower incidence of CVC in the elderly. Intravenous phytate prevents aggressive CVC induced by vitamin D in rats. We propose that phytate should be added to the list of inhibitors of vascular calcification. We further suggest that adequate dietary phytate could prevent mild forms of calcification and that the low phytate content of diets for patients with renal disease can contribute to the increased risk of vascular calcification. It is also our contention that supra-physiological systemic phytate concentrations not achievable orally, might prevent aggressive vascular calcification. Appropriate epidemiological (to determine nutritional value) and clinical studies (evaluating safety and efficacy) are required to confirm, modify or reject our hypothesis. PMID:27515210

  9. Sonological appearance of idiopathic arterial calcification in fetus: A rare case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic arterial calcification (IAC) is a rare disease characterized by extensive arterial wall calcification. This condition is almost always fatal. A total of 162 cases have been reported to date, with most cases diagnosed postnatally and less than 13 cases having been suspected antenatally. This case report describes a case of IAC detected antenatally with USG at 28 weeks' gestation

  10. Does treatment with statins have the potential of enhancing Vascular calcification?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; LI Xu-ping; QIAO Yan; NIE Shao-ping; MA Chang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Vascular calcification is commonly found in atherosclerosis and recognized as a marker of atherosclerotic plaque burden.Many evdiences have demonstrated that vascular calcification is an active process and can be seen in all stages of development and intimately associated with atherosclerosis.

  11. Association of renal function with cardiac calcifications in older adults : the cardiovascular health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Katz, Ronit; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Fried, Linda F.; Gottdiener, John S.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Siscovick, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) are highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is less well established whether milder kidney disease is associated with cardiac calcifications. We evaluated the relationships between renal function an

  12. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  13. Computer-aided detection and quantification of arterial calcifications with CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Išgum, I.

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Arterial calcifications are a marker of the disease and can be detected with computed tomography (CT) scans. In this thesis automatic methods for CT calcium scoring are presented. In CT scans calcifications appear as

  14. Share Prices and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andersen; Robert Subbaraman

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we examine two related propositions: the efficiency of pricing of Australian shares and the influences of share prices on business investment. In line with similar studies overseas, we find that the Australian share market may deviate from efficient pricing over short time horizons but that there is little evidence of inefficiency over longer time horizons. To investigate the influence of share prices on investment decisions we use a simple model of real share prices to identify...

  15. 生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢 The International Legal Developments on the Access and Benefit-Sharing of Biological Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    倪貴榮 Kuei-Jung Ni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 遺傳資源的規範,特別關於取得與利益分享機制,已成為國際社會關注之焦點;由於該議題具跨領域性,已非單一國際條約可以克竟其功。本文在於分析當今各國際條約或組織與此有關之基本規範意涵與趨勢,輔以各國實踐,期以提供更深入研究之基礎,以及我國立法之參考。本文初步發現各國際條約或組織須加強整合,以追求相互支持;而目前部分開發中國家之實踐是否過於嚴格,皆值得深思。 The regulation on genetic resources, in particular on the topic of access to and benefit-sharing, has become a focal point of the international society. Given the inter-disciplined nature, there seems no single international treaty or institution may fully govern the issue and then achieve a satisfactory outcome alone. The article aims to analyze the basic legal implications and developments generated by relevant treaties and organizations on the topic and to reveal the practices of some nations. The study may serve as a basis for further in-depth research and a reference for our national legislations. It is primarily found that a further coordination of relevant international norms is highly desirable and essential to reach mutual supportiveness. In addition, it needs to have a thorough examination on whether the current practices of some developing countries are unreasonably rigid.

  16. 3-D CT angiographic demonstration of a neonatal ductus arteriosus aneurysm with development of ductal calcification: are the ''ductus bump'', ductus arteriosus aneurysm, and ductal calcification related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ''ductus bump'' was noted as an incidental finding on a chest radiograph in a newborn infant with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. A chest CT performed on the first day of life demonstrated this to be a ductus arteriosus aneurysm (DAA), which subsequently thrombosed. Ductal calcification was noted on follow-up imaging. We propose that the ''ductus bump'' may actually be a DAA, which resolves presumably by thrombus formation. Ductal calcification may also be related to the regression of the thrombus. (orig.)

  17. The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations%全球多边惠益分享机制:遗传资源获取和惠益分享谈判的新焦点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐靖; 蔡蕾; 王爱华; 薛达元; 杨庆文; 李俊生; 银森录

    2013-01-01

    The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM) is an important issue in the negotiations of access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. The consultation in regard with need for and modalities of GMBSM were initiated after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. This paper reviews the development and the main content of the GMBSM and analyzes positions both from provider and user countries. African groups were not able to lead negotiations of these issues due to constraints in capacity, although it is in support of the GMBSM. Some provider countries such as Brazil did not provide their support because of the concern that the GMBSM is likely to be an obstacle to these countries' sovereign rights. Representative for user countries delayed the process by raising many technical questions. These negotiations indicate that the GMBSM may become a focus of the Conference of Parties serving as the Meetings of Nagoya Protocol, or even have the potential to be a new supplementary protocol. Regardless of this result, the process will be difficult. Participation proposals for the GMBSM negotiations at diplomatic, legal and technical aspects are also provided as follows: (1) strengthening position coordination among major partners, in particular African group; (2) conducting legal research and evaluate the consistency between the GMBSM and other international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Antarctic Treaty; (3) carrying out a series of domestic studies to provide support for participation of the GMBSM debate and negotiations.%全球多边惠益分享机制(The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism,GMBSM)问题是遗传资源的获取和惠益分享谈判进程中的重要问题. 《名古屋议定书》通过后,各方就建立全球多边惠益分享机制的必要性和模式进行了磋商.作者梳理了GMBSM问题的由来和主要内容,分析了遗传资源提供国和

  18. The role of coccolithophore calcification in bioengineering their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darren R.; Wheeler, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis. Such bioengineering provides a more stable pH environment for growth and fits the empirical evidence for changes in rates of calcification under different environmental conditions. Under this scenario, simulations suggest that the optimal production ratio of inorganic to organic particulate C (PIC : POCprod) will be lower (by approx. 20%) with ocean acidification and that overproduction of coccoliths in a future acidified ocean, where pH buffering is weaker, presents a risk to calcifying cells. PMID:27358373

  19. Calcification response to climate change in the Pliocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Davis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of anthropogenic pCO2 increases future oceans are growing warmer and lower in pH and oxygen, conditions that are likely to impact planktic communities. Past intervals of elevated and changing pCO2 and temperatures can offer a glimpse into the response of marine calcifying plankton to changes in surface oceans under conditions similar to those projected for the future. Here we present new records of planktic foraminiferal and coccolith calcification from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 (mid North Atlantic and Ocean Drilling Program Site 999 (Caribbean Sea from the Pliocene, the last time that pCO2 was similar to today, and extending through a global cooling event into the Intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (3.3 to 2.6 million years ago. Test weights of both surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and thermocline-dwelling foraminifera Globorotalia puncticulata vary, with a potential link to regional temperature variation in the North Atlantic, whereas in the tropics Globigerinoides ruber test weight remains stable. In contrast, reticulofenestrid coccoliths show a narrowing size range and a decline in the largest lith diameters over this interval. Our results suggest no major changes in plankton calcification during the high pCO2 Pliocene or during the transition into an icehouse world.

  20. Mineralization by inhibitor exclusion: the calcification of collagen with fetuin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul A; Toroian, Damon; Lim, Joo Eun

    2009-06-19

    One of our goals is to understand the mechanisms that deposit mineral within collagen fibrils, and as a first step we recently determined the size exclusion characteristics of the fibril. This study revealed that apatite crystals up to 12 unit cells in size can access the water within the fibril, whereas molecules larger than a 40-kDa protein are excluded. Based on these observations, we proposed a novel mechanism for fibril mineralization: that macromolecular inhibitors of apatite growth favor fibril mineralization by selectively inhibiting crystal growth in the solution outside of the fibril. To test this mechanism, we developed a system in which crystal formation is driven by homogeneous nucleation at high calcium phosphate concentration and the only macromolecule in solution is fetuin, a 48-kDa inhibitor of apatite growth. Our experiments with this system demonstrated that fetuin determines the location of mineral growth; in the presence of fetuin mineral grows exclusively within the fibril, whereas in its absence mineral grows in solution outside the fibril. Additional experiments showed that fetuin is also able to localize calcification to the interior of synthetic matrices that have size exclusion characteristics similar to those of collagen and that it does so by selectively inhibiting mineral growth outside of these matrices. We termed this new calcification mechanism "mineralization by inhibitor exclusion," the selective mineralization of a matrix using a macromolecular inhibitor of mineral growth that is excluded from that matrix. Future studies will be needed to evaluate the possible role of this mechanism in bone mineralization.

  1. The role of coccolithophore calcification in bioengineering their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin J; Clark, Darren R; Wheeler, Glen

    2016-06-29

    Coccolithophorids are enigmatic plankton that produce calcium carbonate coccoliths, which over geological time have buried atmospheric CO2 into limestone, changing both the atmosphere and geology of the Earth. However, the role of coccoliths for the proliferation of these organisms remains unclear; suggestions include roles in anti-predation, enhanced photosynthesis and sun-screening. Here we test the hypothesis that calcification stabilizes the pH of the seawater proximate to the organisms, providing a level of acidification countering the detrimental basification that occurs during net photosynthesis. Such bioengineering provides a more stable pH environment for growth and fits the empirical evidence for changes in rates of calcification under different environmental conditions. Under this scenario, simulations suggest that the optimal production ratio of inorganic to organic particulate C (PIC : POCprod) will be lower (by approx. 20%) with ocean acidification and that overproduction of coccoliths in a future acidified ocean, where pH buffering is weaker, presents a risk to calcifying cells. PMID:27358373

  2. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases.

  3. Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification in Multiple Myeloma in a 45-Year-Old Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim R. Surani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic calcification has been associated with multiple-myeloma-induced hypercalcemia. Despite of a relatively high prevalence of metastatic pulmonary calcification in patients with multiple myeloma, only a few cases have been clinically and radiologically detected. A 45-year-old Hispanic male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of worsening weakness and myalgia. Laboratory findings revealed renal insufficiency and hypercalcemia. CT scan of chest revealed calcified pleural and pulmonary nodule. Technetium (Tc 99 bone scan revealed diffuse activity in the pulmonary parenchyma consistent with metastatic pulmonary calcification. Metastatic pulmonary calcification, despite its high prevalence, remains undetected. This is, in part, due to its radiographic characteristic properties that evade detection by routine imaging studies. We present a case of a metastatic pulmonary calcification in a patient diagnosed with multiple myeloma and chronic kidney disease, as well as a brief literature review including clinical findings and treatment options.

  4. The effect of calcification on the structural mechanics of the costal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Kent, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    The costal cartilage often undergoes progressive calcification with age. This study sought to investigate the effects of calcification on the structural mechanics of whole costal cartilage segments. Models were developed for five costal cartilage specimens, including representations of the cartilage, the perichondrium, calcification, and segments of the rib and sternum. The material properties of the cartilage were determined through indentation testing; the properties of the perichondrium were determined through optimisation against structural experiments. The calcified regions were then expanded or shrunk to develop five different sensitivity analysis models for each. Increasing the relative volume of calcification from 0% to 24% of the cartilage volume increased the stiffness of the costal cartilage segments by a factor of 2.3-3.8. These results suggest that calcification may have a substantial effect on the stiffness of the costal cartilage which should be considered when modelling the chest, especially if age is a factor.

  5. Nano-analytical electron microscopy reveals fundamental insights into human cardiovascular tissue calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Gentleman, Eileen; Cloyd, Kristy L; Chester, Adrian H; Yacoub, Magdi H; Stevens, Molly M

    2013-06-01

    The accumulation of calcified material in cardiovascular tissue is thought to involve cytochemical, extracellular matrix and systemic signals; however, its precise composition and nanoscale architecture remain largely unexplored. Using nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques, we examined valves, aortae and coronary arteries from patients with and without calcific cardiovascular disease and detected spherical calcium phosphate particles, regardless of the presence of calcific lesions. We also examined lesions after sectioning with a focused ion beam and found that the spherical particles are composed of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite that crystallographically and structurally differs from bone mineral. Taken together, these data suggest that mineralized spherical particles may play a fundamental role in calcific lesion formation. Their ubiquitous presence in varied cardiovascular tissues and from patients with a spectrum of diseases further suggests that lesion formation may follow a common process. Indeed, applying materials science techniques to ectopic and orthotopic calcification has great potential to lend critical insights into pathophysiological processes underlying calcific cardiovascular disease.

  6. BMD PREDICTION OF DEATH IS ENCAPSULATED BY THE MORPHOLOGICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS CALCIFICATION DISTRIBUTION (MACD) INDEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Nielsen, Mads; Karsdal, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Background: We investigate the relation between the BMD and the aortic calcification markers AC24 and MACD, triglyceride level, cholesterol level, waist-to-hip ratio and the incidence of cardiovascular death. Methods: Our population consists of 308 women aged 48 to 76 that were followed for 8.......3±0.3 years and of which CVD, cancer, and all cause deaths were recorded. The spine BMD and aortic calcification markers, AC24 and the recently proposed Morphological Atherosclerosis Calcification Distribution (MACD) index, were quantified from DXA scans and lateral X-rays respectively. The MACD...... is constructed to capture the risk of death from the outline of aortic calcifications, and not just from the amount of calcification quantified by the AC24. The relation to death was analysed using markers adjusted for age, triglyceride level, and waist circumference (ATW adjusted). A student's t-test of group...

  7. Direct comparison of regulators of calcification between bone and vessels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, N; Aigelsreiter, A; Trummer, O; Graf-Rechberger, M; Hacker, N; Kniepeiss, D; Wagner, D; Stiegler, P; Trummer, C; Pieber, T; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Müller, H

    2016-07-01

    Calcification is not only physiologically present in bone but is a main pathophysiological process in vasculature, favouring cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate changes in the expression of calcification regulators during vascular calcification in bone and vasculature. Levels of gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteopontin (OPN), matrix gla protein (MGP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), SMAD6, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were determined in bone, aorta, and external iliac artery tissue samples of transplant donors. Histological stages of atherosclerosis (AS) in vessels are defined as "no changes", "intima thickening", or "intima calcification". Patients' bone samples were subgrouped accordingly. We demonstrate that in vessels BSP and OPN expression significantly increased during intima thickening and decreased during intima calcification, whereas the expression of regulators of calcification did not significantly change in bone during intima thickening and intima calcification. At the stage of intima thickening, MGP, OPG, and SMAD6 expression and at stage of intima calcification only MGP expression was lower in bone than in vessel. The expression of BSP and RANKL was regulated in opposite ways in bone and vessels, whereas the expression of MGP, OC, RUNX2, and OPN was regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Our study is the first direct comparison of gene expression changes during AS progression in bone and vessels. Our results indicate that changes in the expression of regulators of calcification in the vessel wall as well as in bone occur early in the calcification process, even prior to deposition of calcium/phosphate precipitation. PMID:27108945

  8. Maximum-likelihood estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Zhang, Yuhua; Tuohy, Therese M; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.; Guthery, Stephen L; Woodward, Scott R.; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional information about shared ancestry. We developed a maximum-likelihood method for the estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA) from the number a...

  9. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  10. Expectations and Share Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin J. Elton; Martin J. Gruber; Mustafa Gultekin

    1981-01-01

    It is generally believed that security prices are determined by expectations concerning firm and economic variables. Despite this belief there is very little research examining expectational data. In this paper we examine how expectations concerning earning per share effect share price. We first show that knowledge concerning analyst's forecasts of earnings per share cannot by itself lead to excess returns. Any information contained in the consensus estimate of earnings per share is already i...

  11. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long

    2016-01-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  12. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Hematology Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimim@sums.ac.ir; Rasekhi, A.R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rasekhia@sums.ac.ir; Rasekh, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Rasekhm@sums.ac.ir; Nabavizadeh, S.A. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nabavia@gmail.com; Assadsangabi, R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: assadsangabi@yahoo.com; Amirhakimi, G.H. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amirhakimig@sums.ac.ir

    2009-06-15

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  13. Simulated effect of calcification feedback on atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Cao, Long

    2016-02-01

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 reduces pH and saturation state of calcium carbonate materials of seawater, which could reduce the calcification rate of some marine organisms, triggering a negative feedback on the growth of atmospheric CO2. We quantify the effect of this CO2-calcification feedback by conducting a series of Earth system model simulations that incorporate different parameterization schemes describing the dependence of calcification rate on saturation state of CaCO3. In a scenario with SRES A2 CO2 emission until 2100 and zero emission afterwards, by year 3500, in the simulation without CO2-calcification feedback, model projects an accumulated ocean CO2 uptake of 1462 PgC, atmospheric CO2 of 612 ppm, and surface pH of 7.9. Inclusion of CO2-calcification feedback increases ocean CO2 uptake by 9 to 285 PgC, reduces atmospheric CO2 by 4 to 70 ppm, and mitigates the reduction in surface pH by 0.003 to 0.06, depending on the form of parameterization scheme used. It is also found that the effect of CO2-calcification feedback on ocean carbon uptake is comparable and could be much larger than the effect from CO2-induced warming. Our results highlight the potentially important role CO2-calcification feedback plays in ocean carbon cycle and projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Decreased calcification affects photosynthetic responses of Emiliania huxleyi exposed to UV radiation and elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Helbling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in calcification of coccolithophores may affect their photosynthetic responses to both, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm and temperature. We operated semi-continuous cultures of Emiliania huxleyi (strain CS-369 at reduced (0.1 mM, LCa and ambient (10 mM, HCa Ca2+ concentrations and, after 148 generations, we exposed cells to six radiation treatments (>280, >295, >305, >320, >350 and >395 nm by using Schott filters and two temperatures (20 and 25 °C to examine photosynthesis and calcification responses. Overall, our study has demonstrated that: (1 decreased calcification resulted in a down regulation of photoprotective mechanisms (i.e., as estimated via non-photochemical quenching, NPQ, pigment contents and photosynthetic carbon fixation; (2 Calcification (C and photosynthesis (P (as well as their ratio have different responses related to UVR with cells grown under the high Ca2+ concentration having a better performance as compared to those grown under the low Ca2+ level; (3 elevated temperature increased photosynthesis and calcification of E. huxleyi grown at high Ca2+ concentrations whereas the opposite was observed in low Ca2+ grown cells. Therefore, a decrease in calcification rates in E. huxleyi is expected to decrease photosynthesis rates and producing also a negative feedback, further reducing calcification.

  15. A Genomics-Based Model for Prediction of Severe Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Khutornaya, Maria V; Kutikhin, Anton G; Rutkovskaya, Natalia V; Tsepokina, Anna V; Kondyukova, Natalia V; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Barbarash, Leonid S

    2016-01-01

    Severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification is a significant problem in cardiovascular surgery. Unfortunately, clinical markers did not demonstrate efficacy in prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Here, we examined whether a genomics-based approach is efficient in predicting the risk of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. A total of 124 consecutive Russian patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery were recruited. We investigated the associations of the inherited variation in innate immunity, lipid metabolism and calcium metabolism genes with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Genotyping was conducted utilizing the TaqMan assay. Eight gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification and were therefore included into stepwise logistic regression which identified male gender, the T/T genotype of the rs3775073 polymorphism within the TLR6 gene, the C/T genotype of the rs2229238 polymorphism within the IL6R gene, and the A/A genotype of the rs10455872 polymorphism within the LPA gene as independent predictors of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. The developed genomics-based model had fair predictive value with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.73. In conclusion, our genomics-based approach is efficient for the prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. PMID:27589735

  16. Reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Lacerda Brasileiro Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study evaluated the reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients under high-risk for development of carotid artery calcifications who had digital panoramic radiography were referred to undergo ultrasonography. Thus, 70 arteries were assessed by both methods. The main parameters utilized to evaluate the panoramic radiography reliability in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications were accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of this method as compared with ultrasonography. Additionally, the McNemar's test was utilized to verify whether there was a statistically significant difference between digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography. Results Ultrasonography demonstrated carotid artery calcifications in 17 (48.57% patients. Such individuals presented with a total of 29 (41.43% carotid arteries affected by calcification. Radiography was accurate in 71.43% (n = 50 of cases evaluated. The degree of sensitivity of this method was 37.93%, specificity of 95.12% and positive predictive value of 84.61%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was observed between the methods evaluated in their capacity to diagnose carotid artery calcifications. Conclusion Digital panoramic radiography should not be indicated as a method of choice in the investigation of carotid artery calcifications.

  17. Famotidine suppresses osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro and pathological calcification of tendon in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenichi; Hojo, Hironori; Koshima, Isao; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2012-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification or calcification follows any type of musculoskeletal trauma and is known to occur after arthroplasties of hip, knee, shoulder, or elbow; fractures; joint dislocations; or tendon ruptures. Histamine receptor H2 (Hrh2) has been shown to be effective for reducing pain and decreasing calcification in patients with calcifying tendinitis, which suggested that H2 blockers were effective for the treatment of tendon ossification or calcification. However, the detailed mechanisms of its action on tendon remain to be clarified. We investigated the mechanisms underlying H2 blocker-mediated suppression of tendon calcification, with a focus on the direct action of the drug on tendon cells. Famotidine treatment suppressed the mRNA expressions of Col10a1 and osteocalcin, ossification markers, in a tendon-derived cell line TT-D6, as well as a preosteoblastic one MC3T3-E1. Both of the cell lines expressed Hrh2; histamine treatment induced osteocalcin expression in these cells. Famotidine administration suppressed calcification in the Achilles tendon of ttw mice, a mouse model of ectopic ossification. These data suggest that famotidine inhibits osteogenic differentiation of tendon cells in vitro, and this inhibition may underlie the anti-calcification effects of the drug in vivo. This study points to the use of H2 blockers as a promising strategy for treating heterotopic ossification or calcification in tendon, and provides evidence in support of the clinical use of famotidine.

  18. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  19. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of gallstone calcification for biliary lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslowitz, P L; Fishman, E K; Kafonek, D R; Lillemoe, K D; Mitchell, S; Widlus, D M; Saba, G P

    1991-04-01

    As the Food and Drug Administration trials for biliary lithotripsy in the United States near completion, future criteria for patient eligibility remain to be defined. Gallstone calcification greater than 3-mm partial rim on plain film (KUB) or oral cholecystogram (OCG) has excluded patients thus far, since early results of gallstone clearance (lithotripsy plus chemodissolution) were suboptimal with calcified stones. To evaluate the usefulness of these criteria for gallstone fragmentation, computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed on 20 patients immediately prior to lithotripsy to evaluate gallstone density and 24 hours after lithotripsy to observe the CT appearance of fragmentation. The adequacy of fragmentation was determined by pre- and post-lithotripsy sonography. This report constitutes the results of these investigations. PMID:10149158

  1. Diffuse Brain Hypoperfusion in Advanced Leukoencephalopathy with Calcifications and Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Emanuele; Bianchi, Andrea; Bartolomei, Ilaria; Vella, Alessandra; Sali, Lapo; Ciccarone, Antonio; Salvi, Fabrizio; Mascalchi, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology occurring in children and adults. Pathological findings include obliterative hyalinosis of the small vessels, myelin loss, intense gliosis, Rosenthal fiber formation, microcalcifications, and hemosiderin deposits. Herein we report a 55-year-old man with LCC documented 10 years ago, in whom we examined brain perfusion by pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling technique. We demonstrated diffused hypoperfusion of the affected white matter (WM) and of the subcortical gray matter (GM) and cortical GM in the patient in comparison to a group of healthy control subjects, using both qualitative evaluation and region of interest analysis. WM and subcortical GM hypoperfusion reflects the known distribution of LCC microangiopathy. We speculate that cortical hypoperfusion may be related to cerebral atrophy or may reflect deafferentation secondary to severe leukoencephalopathy, and may possibly contribute to severe motor and cognitive impairment. Further studies addressing cerebral blood flow in LCC are necessary. PMID:27212271

  2. Vascular and Valvular Calcifications in Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update

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    Luca Di Lullo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage renal disease patients cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality, with incidence of cardiac related mortality increasing as renal function declines. Even after controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, age, gender, dyslipidaemia, and arterial hypertension, patients with CKD have a higher incidence of major cardiovascular events. CKD is characterised by the presence of many other non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as chronic inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, and especially, secondary hyperparathyroidism. This review will summarise the current evidence on vascular calcifications and valvular heart disease in CKD patients, from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategies.

  3. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized. PMID:27214002

  4. Structure and Morphology of Nanocrystalline Calcifications in Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Danilchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on morphology, structure, elemental and phase composition of the calcified fragments from pathological formations of the thyroid gland. The X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy revealed that all investigated pathological calcifications are represented by a defective carbonate substituted calcium apatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. The use of transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron microdiffraction is shown to reveal some structural and morphological features of crystals of thyroid apatite, which are not detectable by other methods. Therefore, the local morphological and structural analysis of a mineral component of the deposits can be implemented both in one clinical case, and in wide variety of cases, if a delicate preparation at anatomical studies and sample preparation procedure will be applied.

  5. Spontaneous regression together with increased calcification of incidental meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Hirota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regression of meningioma has been reported after hemorrhage or hormonal withdrawal. However, meningioma regression is rarely observed spontaneously. Case Description: A right falx meningioma was incidentally diagnosed and was followed at every one-year by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for over 7 years. The tumor, with a maximum diameter of 4 cm, showed a slightly high density and was enhanced on computed tomography (CT, and a high intensity with a low-intensity core on T2 MRI, with significant edema. The meningioma gradually shrank together with a decrease of edema and increase of calcification. The initial volume, 25.5 cm 3 , regressed linearly to less than half, 9.9 cm 3 . Conclusion: Here, we report a case of an incidentally diagnosed meningioma that regressed spontaneously. The pattern of the regression was similar to that following gamma knife radiosurgery.

  6. The role of light in mediating the effects of ocean acidification on coral calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufault, Aaron M; Ninokawa, Aaron; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Cumbo, Vivian R; Fan, Tung-Yung; Edmunds, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We tested the effect of light and PCO2 on the calcification and survival of Pocillopora damicornis recruits settled from larvae released in southern Taiwan. In March 2011, recruits were incubated at 31, 41, 70, 122 and 226 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) under ambient (493 μatm) and high PCO2 (878 μatm). After 5 days, calcification was measured gravimetrically and survivorship estimated as the number of living recruits. Calcification was affected by the interaction of PCO2 with light, and at 493 μatm PCO2 the response to light intensity resembled a positive parabola. At 878 μatm PCO2, the effect of light on calcification differed from that observed at 493 μatm PCO2, with the result that there were large differences in calcification between 493 μatm and 878 μatm PCO2 at intermediate light intensities (ca. 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), but similar rates of calcification at the highest and lowest light intensities. Survivorship was affected by light and PCO2, and was highest at 122 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in both PCO2 treatments, but was unrelated to calcification. In June 2012 the experiment was repeated, and again the results suggested that exposure to high PCO2 decreased calcification of P. damicornis recruits at intermediate light intensities, but not at lower or higher intensities. Together, our findings demonstrate that the effect of PCO2 on coral recruits can be light dependent, with inhibitory effects of high PCO2 on calcification at intermediate light intensities that disappear at both higher and lower light intensities.

  7. [Multidetector row CT in assessment of coronary artery calcification on hemodialisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, P; Delgado, R; Dapena, F; Núñez, A

    2007-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcification is more frequent, more extensive and progresses more rapidly in CKD than in general population. They are also considered a marker of coronary heart disease, with high prevalence and functional significance. It suggests that detection and surveillance may be worthwhile in general clinical practice. New non-invasive image techniques, like Multi-detector row CT, a type of spiral scanner, assess density and volume of calcification at multiple sites and allow quantitative scoring of vascular calcification using calcium scores analogous to those from electron-beam CT. We have assessed and quantified coronary artery calcification with 16 multidetector row CT in 44 patients on hemodialysis and their relationship with several cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification prevalence was of 84 % with mean calcium score of 1580 +/- 2010 ( r 0-9844) with calcium score > 400 in 66% of patients. It was usually multiple, affecting more than two vessels in more than 50%. In all but one patient, left anterior descending artery was involved with higher calcium score level at right coronary artery. Advanced age, male, diabetes, smoking, more morbidity, cerebrovascular disease previous, and calcium-binders phosphate and analogous vitamin D treatment would seem to be associated with coronary artery calcification. Coronary artery calcification is very frequent and extensive, usually multiple and associated to modifiable risk factors in hemodialysis patients. Multi-detector-row CT seems an effective, suitable, readily applicable method to assess and quantify coronary artery calcification. PMID:18336102

  8. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  9. PREVALENCE OF LARYNGEAL CARTILAGE CALCIFICATIONS IN MANGALORE POPULATION; A RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Shenoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue calcifications in the orofacial region are uncommon and are usually asymptomatic in nature. Some of the common calcifications found are Carotid artery calcifications (CAC, Triticeous cartilage, and Superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, Tonsilloliths and lymph nodes calcifications. Disordered ossification or calcification of ligaments or cartilages may compress neurovascular structures, may be able to cause serious implications in any surgical intervention in the region, may lead to false neurological differential diagnosis or may be benign in nature without any clinical significance. Ossification and calcification of the laryngeal cartilages have been widely investigated since the original study by Chievitz in 1882 1 . The thyroid, cricoid, and greater part of the arytenoid cartilages consist of hyaline cartilage that undergoes calcification and ossification as part of the ageing process. The thyroid cartilage tends to be visible on the cephalometric and lateral neck radiograph when the ossification starts within the lamina or either of the cornua. The cricoids and arytenoid cartilages also become apparent when the ossification begins within their laminae. Radiographs of the head and neck are used to study the growth and development of skeletal structures can be used for identification of these calcifications 2 . A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilage ossification is important for all clinicians especially while interpreting head and neck radiographs of patients who exhibit anatomical or functional deviations from the normal. The lateral cephalometric radiographs are advised more commonly by an orthodontist to look for occlusion and lateral profile of the patient pre and post orthodontic treatment. They also demonstrate the posterosuperior part of the lamina, and the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Laryngeal and related cartilages like the cricoid and triticeal

  10. Value of conventional chest radiography for the detection of coronary calcifications: Comparison with MSCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, Andreas H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: mahnken@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Wein, Berthold B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Sinha, Anil M. [II Medical Clinic, Coburg Hospital, Coburg (Germany); Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if computed tomography (CT) coronary calcium scoring is needed after detection of coronary calcifications on conventional chest radiographs. Materials and methods: One hundred and five patients (67 men; 57.2 {+-} 12.8 years) with suspected coronary artery disease underwent conventional chest radiography and non-enhanced, retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT (MSCT) of the heart (4 mm x 2.5 mm, 120 kV, 133 mAs{sub eff.}). Chest radiographs were assessed independently by two radiologists. Detection of coronary calcifications was compared between both methods. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, median, 25% and 75% percentiles for the detection of coronary calcifications were calculated. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were computed. Results: In 90 patients, MSCT revealed coronary calcifications. The mean coronary calcium score was 526.2 (0-4784.5). On chest radiographs, coronary calcifications were correctly detected in 46 (61) patients by observer 1 (observer 2). The corresponding sensitivity was 51.1% in observer 1 and 67.8% in observer 2. Median of detected coronary calcifications was 361.9 (426.4) for observer 1 (observer 2). Corresponding 25% und 75% percentiles were 109.6 (109.6) and 798.5 (898.5). The area under the ROC curve was 0.636 for observer 1 and 0.715 for observer 2. There was no correlation between image quality and the detection of coronary calcifications on plain film radiographs. Conclusion: As coronary calcifications of various extents are inconsistently detected on plain chest radiographs, CT calcium scoring may not be omitted even if coronary artery calcifications were detected on conventional chest radiographs.

  11. Calcification in bleached and unbleached Montastraea faveolata: evaluating the role of oxygen and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Pallotta, M. F.; Rodríguez-Román, A.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.

    2010-12-01

    All reef-building corals are symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, which influences many aspects of the host’s physiology including calcification. Coral calcification is a biologically controlled process performed by the host that takes place several membranes away from the site of photosynthesis performed by the symbiont. Although it is well established that light accelerates CaCO3 deposition in reef-building corals (commonly referred to as light-enhanced calcification), the complete physiological mechanism behind the process is not fully understood. To better comprehend the coral calcification process, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted in the major Caribbean reef-building species Montastraea faveolata, to evaluate the effect of glycerol addition and/or the super-saturation of oxygen in the seawater. These manipulations were performed in bleached and unbleached corals, to separate the effect of photosynthesis from calcification. The results suggest that under normal physiological conditions, a 42% increase in seawater oxygen concentration promotes a twofold increase in dark-calcification rates relative to controls. On the other hand, the results obtained using bleached corals suggest that glycerol is required, as a metabolic fuel, in addition to an oxygenic environment in a symbiosis that has been disrupted. Also, respiration rates in symbiotic corals that were pre-incubated in light conditions showed a kinetic limitation, whereas corals that were pre-incubated in darkness were oxygen limited, clearly emphasizing the role of oxygen in this regard. These findings indicate that calcification in symbiotic corals is not strictly a “light-enhanced” or “dark-repressed” process, but rather, the products of photosynthesis have a critical role in calcification, which should be viewed as a “photosynthesis-driven” process. The results presented here are discussed in the context of the current knowledge of the coral

  12. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more common in women. "nCase presentation: We present a 37-year-old woman with a painless right posterior neck space mass which gradually appeared during one year. Except for mild numbness of the overlying skin of the mentioned mass, there were no other associated symptoms. Examination confirmed a 25 × 18mm, firm, mobile, non tender lump in the right posterior neck. Ultrasonography revealed a 30×20 mm hypo-echoic mass with multiple calcified foci and in color Doppler mild vascularity was detected. On contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck a 30×18mm heterogeneous enhancing mass with multiple calcified foci (on non contrast cuts was found posterior to the neck vessels and had displaced them anteriorly. No surrounding fat stranding or any other gross pathology was evident in the other neck spaces. "nAccording to the above findings, lymphadenopathy due to TB or less possibly, fungal infection, hemangioma, lymphangiomam, schwannoma were our differential diagnosis. Mass resection and histopathology revealed schwannoma of the accessory nerve with an unusual calcification presentation. No evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. "nDiscussion: The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI Schwannomas relates to their location and extent. The interesting point of this case was the unusual manifestation of accessory nerve schwannoma, not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual calcification presentation and symptom-free appearance.  

  13. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Bots

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence,and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC, relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and ECG abnormalities with CAC.Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study.Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle was obtained using electrocardiography.Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detectorrow computed tomography (MDCT scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16 to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantifyCAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assessthe relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification.Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15 of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34, whereas 8.5% (n = 48 had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2. Similarly,compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1.Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  14. A Prevalence Study on Ectopic Calcification in Digital Panoramic Radiographs in Shahid Sadoughi Dental School of Yazd in 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kh Kheirollahi; H Kheirollahi; F Ezoddini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: soft tissue calcification is a relatively common issue in panoramic radiography. These opacities include calcification of lymph nodes, tonsilolith, sialolith, calcification of stylohyoid complex and carotid artery bifurcation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcification in panoramic radiographs, their differential diagnosis, and their correlation with the underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, hypertension, cardiovascular diseas...

  15. Calcific haemorrhagic bursitis anterior to the knee mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahnke, M.; Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mangham, D.C. [Department of Pathology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Woodlands, B31 2AP, Northfield, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    We describe the radiological and pathological findings of two cases of calcific haemorrhagic bursitis, one involving the superficial infrapatellar bursa and the other the prepatellar bursa. It was the presence of dystrophic calcification within the lesion that suggested a mineralizing soft tissue sarcoma such as synovial sarcoma. As the radiographic and MR features of the two conditions can be similar but the appropriate management very different, rare calcifying haemorrhagic bursitis needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of masses adjacent to the knee joint showing calcification. (orig.)

  16. Developmental Venous Anomaly With Asymmetrical Basal Ganglia Calcification: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developmental venous anomaly (DVA is a common lesion formerly known as venous angioma. DVAs drain normal brain parenchyma; however, parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVAs have been reported. Unilateral putamen and caudate calcification in the drainage territory of DVAs has so far been reported in 7 cases, all with deep venous drainage. We present two additional cases of DVAs, one with superficial and the other one with deep venous drainage, associated with basal ganglia calcifications. We emphasize that DVAs should be in the differential diagnosis of unilateral basal ganglia calcifications.

  17. The realm of vitamin K dependent proteins: shifting from coagulation toward calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A G; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2014-08-01

    In the past few decades vitamin K has emerged from a single-function "haemostasis vitamin" to a "multi-function vitamin." The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) inevitably showed that the inhibition was not restricted to vitamin K dependent coagulation factors but also synthesis of functional extrahepatic vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs), thereby eliciting undesired side effects. Vascular calcification is one of the recently revealed detrimental effects of VKA. The discovery that VKDPs are involved in vascular calcification has propelled our mechanistic understanding of this process and has opened novel avenues for diagnosis and treatment. This review addresses mechanisms of VKDPs and their significance for physiological and pathological calcification.

  18. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, Pvitamin K2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. PMID:27212383

  19. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  20. Apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not direct calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins defines pathogenic effects of calcium phosphate bions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikhin, Anton G.; Velikanova, Elena A.; Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A.; Glushkova, Tatiana V.; Borisov, Vadim V.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Antonova, Larisa V.; Filip’Ev, Dmitriy E.; Golovkin, Alexey S.; Shishkova, Daria K.; Burago, Andrey Yu.; Frolov, Alexey V.; Dolgov, Viktor Yu.; Efimova, Olga S.; Popova, Anna N.; Malysheva, Valentina Yu.; Vladimirov, Alexandr A.; Sozinov, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Zinfer R.; Russakov, Dmitriy M.; Lomzov, Alexander A.; Pyshnyi, Dmitriy V.; Gutakovsky, Anton K.; Zhivodkov, Yuriy A.; Demidov, Evgeniy A.; Peltek, Sergey E.; Dolganyuk, Viatcheslav F.; Babich, Olga O.; Grigoriev, Evgeniy V.; Brusina, Elena B.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.

    2016-06-01

    Calcium phosphate bions (CPB) are biomimetic mineralo-organic nanoparticles which represent a physiological mechanism regulating the function, transport and disposal of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. We hypothesised that CPB may be pathogenic entities and even a cause of cardiovascular calcification. Here we revealed that CPB isolated from calcified atherosclerotic plaques and artificially synthesised CPB are morphologically and chemically indistinguishable entities. Their formation is accelerated along with the increase in calcium salts-phosphates/serum concentration ratio. Experiments in vitro and in vivo showed that pathogenic effects of CPB are defined by apoptosis-mediated endothelial toxicity but not by direct tissue calcification or functional changes in anti-calcification proteins. Since the factors underlying the formation of CPB and their pathogenic mechanism closely resemble those responsible for atherosclerosis development, further research in this direction may help us to uncover triggers of this disease.

  1. Intervertebral disc calcification in children: Case description and review of relevant literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervertebral disc calcification is a rare condition in children; in most cases, it is asymptomatic and therefore not diagnosed. In our study, we present a case of idiopathic intervertebral disc calcification within the cervical segment, at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae in a 5-year-old girl with torticollis. Basic neurological examination supplemented by X-ray examination was performed, showing calcification within the cervical segment at the level of C2/C3 and C4/C5 vertebrae. In order to complement the diagnostics, a CT scan of the cervical spine was performed; the scan confirmed the diagnosis and revealed additional calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament at the level of C4/C5 vertebrae

  2. Dunk Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1875 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  3. Darnley Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1788 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  4. Sanctuary Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1501 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  5. Lupton Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1818 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  6. Snapper Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1923 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  7. Scawfell Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1821 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  8. Britomart Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1574 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  9. Yankee Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1888 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  10. North Molle Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1831 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  11. Burkitt Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1916 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  12. Masthead Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1753 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  13. Stanley Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1912 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  14. Red Wallis Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1860 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  15. South Molle Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1814 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  16. Stonehaven Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1793 to 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  17. Abraham Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1479 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  18. Coombe Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1822 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  19. Flinders Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1718 to 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  20. Low Isles Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1934 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  1. Otter Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1792 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  2. Kurrimine Beach Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1771 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  3. Magnetic Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1820 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  4. Pascoe River Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1807 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  5. Lodestone Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1615 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  6. Rib Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1853 to 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  7. Wheeler Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1744 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  8. Great Palm Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1872 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  9. Brook Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1746 to 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  10. Cid Harbour Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1816 to 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  11. Pandora Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1875 to 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  12. Jeannie River Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1740 to 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  13. Havannah Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1583 to 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  14. Conical Rocks Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1851 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  15. Agincourt Reef Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1779 to 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  16. Hook Island Extension, Density, and Calcification Data for 1690 to 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extension, Density, and Calcification data from 35 Porites coral cores covering the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Data set contains 35...

  17. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

    1987-07-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

  18. Serum soluble Klotho level is associated with abdominal aortic calcification in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between serum soluble Klotho(sKL) level and abdominal aortic calcification in maintenance hemodialysis(MHD) patients.Methods One hundred and twenty nine cases of MHD patients were

  19. The Association Between Serum Magnesium Concentrations and Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Jenna; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist, and is inversely associated with coronary heart disease, cardiovascular mortality rates, and vascular calcification. Coronary artery calcification score is a tool used to evaluate the prognosis of coronary artery disease in individuals. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower coronary artery calcification scores (CACS), and recent studies have found a significant inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS in Korean and Mexican-mestizo populations. The correlation between serum magnesium concentrations and CACS is not well researched, so our aim was to examine this relationship in astronauts. We found that a higher serum magnesium concentration is significantly related to a higher coronary artery calcification score (p=.0217), and that there is a significant difference in magnesium concentrations of subjects who have a CACS greater than 100 and a CACS less than 100.

  20. Evidence for Rhythmicity Pacemaker in the Calcification Process of Scleractinian Coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Schneider, Kenneth; Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Yam, Ruth; Meibom, Anders; Shemesh, Aldo; Levy, Oren

    2016-02-01

    Reef-building scleractinian (stony) corals are among the most efficient bio-mineralizing organisms in nature. The calcification rate of scleractinian corals oscillates under ambient light conditions, with a cyclic, diurnal pattern. A fundamental question is whether this cyclic pattern is controlled by exogenous signals or by an endogenous ‘biological-clock’ mechanism, or both. To address this problem, we have studied calcification patterns of the Red Sea scleractinian coral Acropora eurystoma with frequent measurements of total alkalinity (AT) under different light conditions. Additionally, skeletal extension and ultra-structure of newly deposited calcium carbonate were elucidated with 86Sr isotope labeling analysis, combined with NanoSIMS ion microprobe and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our results show that the calcification process persists with its cyclic pattern under constant light conditions while dissolution takes place within one day of constant dark conditions, indicating that an intrinsic, light-entrained mechanism may be involved in controlling the calcification process in photosymbiotic corals.

  1. Quantification of the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Beck, S.; Christensen, K.A.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective-To quantify the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds. Design-Longitudinal study. Animals-61 Dachshunds that had been radiographically screened for calcification of intervertebral disks at 2 years of age in other studies. Thirty......-seven of the dogs had survived to the time of the present study and were >= 8 years of age; 24 others had not survived. Procedures-Radiographic examination of 36 surviving dogs was performed, and information on occurrence of disk calcification at 2 years of age were obtained from records of all 61 Dachshunds....... Information on occurrence of disk herniation between 2 and 8 years of age was obtained from owners via questionnaire. Associations between numbers of calcified disks and disk herniation were analyzed via maximum likelihood logistic regression. Results-Disk calcification at 2 years of age was a significant...

  2. Lack of Correlation Between Depression and Coronary Artery Calcification in a Non-Selected Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Sand, Niels Peter;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis seems to play a central role in this relation. In several studies, multislice computed tomography (CT) has been applied for detection and quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in relation...

  3. Effects of Atorvastatin on Warfarin-induced Aortic Medial Calcification and Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyun LIU; Jingjing WAN; Qunfang YANG; Benling QI; Wen PENG; Xuelin CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The effect of atorvastatin on warfarin-induced aortic medial calcification and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats induced by warfarin was studied. Thirty healthy and adult rats were randomly divided into Warfarin group (n=10), Atorvastatin group (n=10) and normal control group (n=10). Caudal arterial pressure of rats was measured once a week, and 4 weeks later, aorta was obtained. Elastic fiber, collagen fiber and calcium accumulation in tunica media of cells were measured by Von Kossa staining. The results showed that warfarin treatment led to elevation of systolic blood pressure and aortic medial calcification. The chronic treatment also increased collagen, but decreased elastin in the aorta. However, the atorvastatin treatment had adverse effects. It was concluded that treatment with atorvastatin presented evidence of blood pressure lowing and calcification reducing. These data demonstrate that atorvastatin protected aortic media from warfarin-induced calcification and elevation of systolic blood pressure.

  4. Distal arterial occlusive disease in diabetes is related to medial arterial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Lee, K M; Jungblut, R

    1997-01-01

    In diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial occlusive disease predominantly affects the lower leg (tibial and peroneal vessel disease). Our study suggests that this feature is related to the presence of forefoot medial arterial calcification.

  5. Sudden death in a captive meerkat (Suricata suricatta with arterial medial and myocardial calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bongiovann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old male meerkat was found dead by the owner. The animal was clinically healthy and was regularly vaccinated for distemper virus. Necropsy revealed multifocal to confluent dry white areas in the myocardium, pneumonia and congestive hepatopathy. All the other organs, including gross vessels, were macroscopically normal. The heart showed histologically large, multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization of the myocardium and the wall of small coronary artery. Vascular calcifications were also observed in the hepatic portal tracts and kidneys arteries of small/medium sizes. The arterial lumen appeared narrowed and the wall thickened due to the calcification of the tunica media. In veterinary medicine, arterial mineralization is regarded as a metastatic calcification, as the result of hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. However, today, the pathogenesis of medial artery calcification in humans seems to be the results of an active process resembling embryonic osteogenesis, rather than a mere passive process.

  6. [Soft tissue calcifications in panoramic radiography. A risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariayi, Ayesha Shekeba; Berndt, Dorothea; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a basic diagnostic tool in the dental field where calcifications are seen occasionally in the lateral parts of the x-ray. The differential diagnosis are carotid artery atheromas, calcified submandibular lymphnodes and sialoliths of the submandibular gland. 4007 panoramic radiographs (100%) from patients >40 years were scanned retrospectively. Special emphasis was given to the carotid artery territory (CAT). 225 soft tissue calcifications were found (5.6%). 144 patients had calcifications in the CAT (3.6%), 73 showed calcified submandibular lymphnodes (1.8%), and 8 (0.2%) sialoliths. The female to male ratio was 54.7%:45.3%. Pneumatic diseases were beside hypertension and smoking a risk factor for CAT calcification. Carotid artery atheromas are the main risk for cerebrovascular insults. Dentists can help to detect patients at risk for stroke. Their patients can be referred for further diagnostics (ultrasound). PMID:19954131

  7. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlı, Ali Murat; Göksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Başsorgun, Cumhur İbrahim; Coşkun, Hasan Şenol

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient's history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage. PMID:23956898

  8. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  9. Does carbonate ion control planktonic foraminifera shell calcification in upwelling regions?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Godad, S.P.; Naidu, P.D.

    calcification, we compared the sediment core shell weights with annual SST estimates, reconstructed using artificial neural networks, based on quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminifera 18 (Table 1). During recent to 16 kyr, the correlations between...

  10. Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

    The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band

  11. Correlation between Circulating Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines TNF-alpha and Vascular Calcification Inhibitor Matrix Gla Protein in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilis Yulianti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult obesity is rapidly increasing in the world including Indonesia. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α was chronically elevated in obese adipose tissue. TNF-α, a pleiotropic cytokine and also a regulator of bone formation, may might represent an important link between obesity and vascular calcification. Elegant genetic studies in mice and human have highlighted the important roles for Matrix Gla Protein (MGP as an inhibitor of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and vascular calcification inhibitor MGP in obese men. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study including 40 central obese men (waist circumference ≥90 cm aged 31-60 years old. Serum MGP and serum TNF-α concentrations were quantified by ELISA principle. Fasting plasma glucose was assessed using hexokinase methods, triglyceride by GPO-PAP methods, and creatinine by Jaffe methods. All assays were performed according to the manufacture instruction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for windows ver 16. Univariate analysis were performed to analyze mean, maximum, minimum value and SD. Pearson correlation statistic were performed to determine the correlation between variables. Significance value were define as alpha level=0.05 based on two-tailed tests. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study (n=40 showed that the advancing age was correlated with plasma TNF-α concentration (r = 0.348; p = 0.028. The mean concentration of TNF-α and MGP were 8.323 and 8.368, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation between TNF-α with MGP (r=-0.425; p=0.006 and a significant correlation between TNF-α and triglyceride (r=0.375; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating level of TNF-α was inversely correlated with MGP concentration in obese men. This finding suggested that high level TNF-α leads to low MGP concentration obese men, hence, limits inhibitory

  12. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  13. The radiology of abdominal calcification including demonstration of a readily useful and comprehensive classification scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of abdominal calcifications and other radiopacities on plain radiographs is often a diagnostic challenge. Occasionally, historical information will be a value; at times, physical examination will contribute important clues. Laboratory date such as the presence of microscopic hematuria will sometimes be helpful. Yet, very frequently, the appearance of the opacity is unexpected. The contents are morphology; concretions; conduit wall, cyst wall, solid mass calcification; mobility; effect of respiration; effect of peristalsis, growth of masses

  14. Detection of Asymptomatic Renal Calcifications in Astronauts Using a Novel Ultrasound Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) specifically looking for asymptomatic renal calcifications that may be renal stones is typically not done in the terrestrial setting. Standard abdominal US without a renal focus may discover incidental, mineralized renal material (MRM); however punctate solid areas of MRM is less than 3 mm are usually considered subclinical. Detecting these early calcifications before they become symptomatic renal stones is critical to prevent adverse medical and mission outcomes during spaceflight.

  15. Calcification in Chronically-Implanted Blood Pumps: Experimental Results and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen A.; Bossart, Mattie I.; Milam, John D.; Fuqua, John M.; Igo, Stephen R.; McGee, Michael G.; Frazier, O. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Blood compatibility is a major objective in the development of long-term, implantable circulatory assist (left ventricular assist devices) and replacement (total artificial heart) devices. An important problem in experimental studies in animals has been the propensity for calcification to occur at the blood/material interface. Presented is a summary of our experience (27 studies) with blood pump calcification and a review of the current literature regarding this complication.

  16. Repeated mitral valve replacement in a patient with extensive annular calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura Tadashi; Fukuda Sachito; Sawada Takahiro; Miura Sumio; Kigawa Ikutaro; Miyairi Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitral valve replacement in the presence of severe annular calcification is a technical challenge. Case report A 47-year-old lady who had undergone mitral and aortic valve replacement for rheumatic disease 27 years before presented with dyspnea. At reoperation, extensive mitral annular calcification was hindering the disc motion of the Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis. The old prosthesis was removed and a St Jude Medical mechanical valve was implanted after thorough annular...

  17. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 Promotes Vascular Calcification via SMAD1/5/8 Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Joo Lee; Ji Yun Jeong; Chang Joo Oh; Sungmi Park; Joon-Young Kim; Han-Jong Kim; Nam Doo Kim; Young-Keun Choi; Ji-Yeon Do; Younghoon Go; Chae-Myung Ha; Je-Yong Choi; Seung Huh; Nam Ho Jeoung; Ki-Up Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification, a pathologic response to defective calcium and phosphate homeostasis, is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In this study, we have observed that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is upregulated and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex phosphorylation is increased in calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in calcified vessels of patients with atherosclerosis, suggesting that PDK4 plays an important role in vascular calcification...

  18. Case Report: Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis Due to Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Sener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this case, it was reported that a 48 year old male patient with spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO due to calcific aortic valve stenosis. He had no other systemic disease. CRAO usually occurs in elder patients with systemic risk factors. CRAO results in sudden, painless and severe vision loss. Altough, CRAO is seen rarely under 50 year old, it may appear in younger patient with aortic valve disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis caused cardiac disease.

  19. Vanishing calcification of the brain in an infant after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurological complications after cardiac operations with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia are well known. A 6 months-old child is described with severe neurological complications after cardiac surgery for Fallots tetralogy. On the CT scan cortical calcification was seen to vanish. Such calcification has not been reported in similar patients. Possible causes are discussed but the precise pathophysiology of this phenomenon remains unclear. (orig.)

  20. Rapid progression of massive hepatic calcification visible by CT: The case of a dialysed patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been single reported cases of patients with diffuse hepatic calcifications revealed 4-36 months after the first examination in the course of hemodialysis-treated renal failure, severe heart failure, shock liver, primary amyloidosis, or corticosteroid administration. In the presented case, many different factors for liver calcification and dynamic tomographic manifestation are seen. A 23-year-old man who was on hemodialysis because of acute renal failure after a motor vehicle accident (multiorgan trauma) with occurrence of hypovolemic shock was admitted to the hospital's intensive care unit presenting with clostridial infection of the lower extremities. During his stay at a prior hospital, ultrasonography did not reveal hepatic lesions. He underwent 22 sessions of treatment with hyperbaric oxygen as well as several necrectomies and amputation of both lower limbs. Abdominal CT performed three weeks after the accident demonstrated diffuse hepatic calcification which was later confirmed during autopsy. Liver parenchymal calcifications may be related to elevated calcium-phosphorus products in the uremic state and after multiple bone fractures and possible ischemic liver injury. Although a definitive explanation for the unusually short time of the appearance of liver calcification was not obtained, it may be related to many factors acting synergistically. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is of unknown significance in this process. CT plays a basic role in detecting and assessing liver calcifications forming both diffuse lesions and those with well-defined borders. Diffuse calcifications revealed by CT must be analyzed together with the patient's history, especially considering renal and heart failure, bone fractures, states of shock, and treatment. Diffuse liver calcifications in these patients after respiratory therapy and transfusions when no subcapsular hematoma is found should be considered of metabolic origin. (author)

  1. Scale calcification in the goldfish in vitro : histological and quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    OGAWA, NOBUHIRO; Ura, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yasuaki

    2010-01-01

    The external layer of a teleost fish scale is composed of type I collagen, an amorphous matrix substance and hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcification of this layer can be inhibited in the scale-regenerating process under a calcium and phosphate deficient (CaDPD) conditions, and can be facilitated by incubation in physiological saline. The aim of this study was to evaluate this model of calcification using histological and quantitative analysis in order to promote further understanding of the me...

  2. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris

    OpenAIRE

    Atoun Ehud; Rath Ehud; Van Tongel Alexander; Narvani Ali; Sforza Giusseppe; Levy Ofer

    2012-01-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a “Hoover” (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resec...

  3. Pulmonary calcification in renal failure patient incidentally revealed by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary calcification is a subdiagnosed metabolic lung disease that is commonly asymptomatic and frequently associated with end-stage renal disease. We report a case of a 21-year-old man with a 4-year history of end-stage renal disease without respiratory symptoms. We discover incidentally on a bone scan a pulmonary calcification. Parathyroidectomy was refused by the patient. After 3 months of medical treatment, a second bone scan was done, and we found a partial response

  4. Microenvironmental changes support evidence of photosynthesis and calcification inhibition in Halimeda under ocean acidification and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinutok, S.; Hill, R.; Doblin, M. A.; Kühl, M.; Ralph, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification of two important calcifying reef algae ( Halimeda macroloba and Halimeda cylindracea) were investigated with O2 microsensors and chlorophyll a fluorometry through a combination of two pCO2 (400 and 1,200 μatm) and two temperature treatments (28 and 32 °C) equivalent to the present and predicted conditions during the 2100 austral summer. Combined exposure to pCO2 and elevated temperature impaired calcification and photosynthesis in the two Halimeda species due to changes in the microenvironment around the algal segments and a reduction in physiological performance. There were no significant changes in controls over the 5-week experiment, but there was a 50-70 % decrease in photochemical efficiency (maximum quantum yield), a 70-80 % decrease in O2 production and a threefold reduction in calcification rate in the elevated CO2 and high temperature treatment. Calcification in these species is closely coupled with photosynthesis, such that a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency leads to a decrease in calcification. Although pH seems to be the main factor affecting Halimeda species, heat stress also has an impact on their photosystem II photochemical efficiency. There was a strong combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature in both species, where exposure to elevated CO2 or temperature alone decreased photosynthesis and calcification, but exposure to both elevated CO2 and temperature caused a greater decline in photosynthesis and calcification than in each stress individually. Our study shows that ocean acidification and ocean warming are drivers of calcification and photosynthesis inhibition in Halimeda. Predicted climate change scenarios for 2100 would therefore severely affect the fitness of Halimeda, which can result in a strongly reduced production of carbonate sediments on coral reefs under such changed climate conditions.

  5. Arthroscopic excision of heterotopic calcification in a chronic rectus femoris origin injury: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    El-Husseiny, M; Sukeik, M.; Haddad, FS

    2012-01-01

    Rectus femoris origin injuries in adult athletes are uncommon. In the acute phase, conservative treatment seems to have a favourable outcome, with surgical repair reserved for unsuccessful cases only. However, a group of patients may develop chronic pain and disability after recovery from the acute phase due to heterotopic calcification occurring at the site of injury. Open and arthroscopic excision of such calcifications has been described in the literature although arthroscopic excision of ...

  6. Prenatal Calcification of the Inferior Vena Cava and Renal Veins in a Normal Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ranch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal calcification of the inferior vena cava (IVC and renal veins is a rare condition with unclear etiology and prognosis. It occurs with renal vein thrombosis in utero and is associated with congenital anomalies and abnormal prenatal hemodynamic status. We report a rare case of prenatal IVC and renal vein calcification in a normal neonate without any history of compromised prenatal or perinatal condition, or significant deterioration of kidney function.

  7. Automated aortic calcification detection in low-dose chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiting; Htwe, Yu Maw; Padgett, Jennifer; Henschke, Claudia; Yankelevitz, David; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2014-03-01

    The extent of aortic calcification has been shown to be a risk indicator for vascular events including cardiac events. We have developed a fully automated computer algorithm to segment and measure aortic calcification in low-dose noncontrast, non-ECG gated, chest CT scans. The algorithm first segments the aorta using a pre-computed Anatomy Label Map (ALM). Then based on the segmented aorta, aortic calcification is detected and measured in terms of the Agatston score, mass score, and volume score. The automated scores are compared with reference scores obtained from manual markings. For aorta segmentation, the aorta is modeled as a series of discrete overlapping cylinders and the aortic centerline is determined using a cylinder-tracking algorithm. Then the aortic surface location is detected using the centerline and a triangular mesh model. The segmented aorta is used as a mask for the detection of aortic calcification. For calcification detection, the image is first filtered, then an elevated threshold of 160 Hounsfield units (HU) is used within the aorta mask region to reduce the effect of noise in low-dose scans, and finally non-aortic calcification voxels (bony structures, calcification in other organs) are eliminated. The remaining candidates are considered as true aortic calcification. The computer algorithm was evaluated on 45 low-dose non-contrast CT scans. Using linear regression, the automated Agatston score is 98.42% correlated with the reference Agatston score. The automated mass and volume score is respectively 98.46% and 98.28% correlated with the reference mass and volume score.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Specific Coronary Artery Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Prokop

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarctions at different locations have been related to different sets of risk factors. This study was designed to examine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and specific coronary artery calcification (CAC.Methods: The study population comprised 573 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Established vascular risk factors were measured. The women underwent a multi detector-row computed tomography (16-MDCT (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16 to assess coronary calcium. The Agatston score was used to quantify coronary calcium. Logistic regression models were utilized to assess the relations.Results: The prevalence of coronary artery calcification (Agatston score>0 was 61.5% (n=348. CAC was most common in the left anterior descending (LAD artery with a prevalence of 43.9%; and the rates of prevalence in the right coronary artery (RCA, the circumflex (LCX, the left main artery (LM, and the posterior descending artery (PDA were 23.1%, 19.4%, 15.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. In the multivariate regression models, age was predominantly related to the calcification in the LAD and LCX, low density lipoprotein to calcification in the LAD, and cholesterol to the calcification of the RCA. Hypertension and systolic & diastolic blood pressures were related to the calcification of the LCX, whereas smoking was predominantly related to the calcification of both LAD and RCA. Finally, age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the calcification in the LM.Conclusion: Our findings showed that the consequences of elevated risk factor levels on the development of atherosclerosis appeared to be different across the segments of the coronary arteries.

  9. Severe mitral annular calcification in rheumatic heart disease: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Rana, Sandeep S

    2012-01-01

    Severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) is frequently seen in patients with advanced age and chronic kidney disease, but it is rare in rheumatic heart disease (RHD). We hereby report a case of 45-year-old female with chronic RHD, who had severe MAC and mitral regurgitation. Fluoroscopy revealed a “crown”-like severe calcification of the mitral annulus. Autopsy of the heart revealed a calcified posterior mitral annulus, fused commissures, and calcified nodules at the atrial aspect of the mit...

  10. Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of coccoliths and coccolithophores is important in oceanic radiative transfer simulations and remote sensing implementations. In this study, the invariant imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) is employed to investigate the IOPs of coccoliths and coccolithophores. The Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) coccolith and coccolithophore models are built based on observed biometric parameters including the eccentricity, the number of slits, and the rim width of detached coccoliths. The calcification state that specifies the amount of calcium of a single coccolith is critical in the determination of the size–volume/mass relationship (note, the volume/mass of coccoltihs at different calcification states are different although the diameters are the same). The present results show that the calcification state, namely, under-calcification, normal-calcification, or over-calcification, significantly influences the backscattering cross section and the phase matrix. Furthermore, the linear depolarization ratio of the light scattered by coccoliths is sensitive to the degree of calcification, and provides a potentially valuable parameter for interpreting oceanic remote sensing data. The phase function of an ensemble of randomly oriented coccolithophores has a similar pattern to that of individual coccoliths, but the forward scattering is dominant in the coccolithophores due to the large geometric cross sections. The linear depolarization ratio associated with coccolithophores is found to be larger than that for coccoliths as polarization is more sensitive to multiple scattering than the phase function. The simulated coccolithophore phase matrix numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements. For scattering angles larger than 100°, an increase of the phase function with respect to the scattering angle is confirmed based on the present coccolithophore model while the spherical approximation fails. - Highlights: • Realistic

  11. The Share Price Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A. Dyl

    2006-01-01

    We document substantial variation in the prices of common stocks in U.S. markets due to firms selecting particular price ranges for their shares. Cross-sectional evidence indicates that variables consistent with Merton's model of capital market equilibrium explain roughly two-thirds of this variation in share prices. In addition, measures of trading range and share price appreciation predict stock splits, and the "investor base" of firms that split their stock increases compared to other firm...

  12. Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hockings, Kimberley; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Cláudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wil...

  13. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  14. Efficiency in Shared Services

    OpenAIRE

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  15. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  16. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  17. Acute symptomatic calcific discitis in adults: a case report and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.; Botchu, R.; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grainger, M.F. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Spinal Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Symptomatic calcific discitis has been reported in the paediatric population but is a rare entity in adults with only eight cases reported in the English literature. We present a case of adult calcific discitis presenting with acute onset back pain. Radiographs and CT demonstrated central T11-T12 disc calcification with diffuse marrow oedema on subsequent MRI. The patient was referred to our spinal oncology unit due to the extensive marrow oedema as a possible underlying primary bone tumour. Review of the CT confirmed an end-plate defect with herniated calcific nucleus pulposus with no underlying bone lesion. Features were in keeping with acute calcific discitis. The patient was treated symptomatically and made an uneventful recovery. We discuss the characteristic imaging features seen on radiograph, CT and MRI and review the current literature. Calcific discitis is a self-limiting pathology requiring symptomatic management only. Radiologists need to be aware of this rare entity as it can occur in adults and may be mistaken for a more sinister pathology such as infective discitis or a bone tumour and lead to further unnecessary imaging or invasive procedures. (orig.)

  18. Acute symptomatic calcific discitis in adults: a case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptomatic calcific discitis has been reported in the paediatric population but is a rare entity in adults with only eight cases reported in the English literature. We present a case of adult calcific discitis presenting with acute onset back pain. Radiographs and CT demonstrated central T11-T12 disc calcification with diffuse marrow oedema on subsequent MRI. The patient was referred to our spinal oncology unit due to the extensive marrow oedema as a possible underlying primary bone tumour. Review of the CT confirmed an end-plate defect with herniated calcific nucleus pulposus with no underlying bone lesion. Features were in keeping with acute calcific discitis. The patient was treated symptomatically and made an uneventful recovery. We discuss the characteristic imaging features seen on radiograph, CT and MRI and review the current literature. Calcific discitis is a self-limiting pathology requiring symptomatic management only. Radiologists need to be aware of this rare entity as it can occur in adults and may be mistaken for a more sinister pathology such as infective discitis or a bone tumour and lead to further unnecessary imaging or invasive procedures. (orig.)

  19. Calcification, a physiological process to be considered in the context of the whole organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Findlay

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms that produce calcium carbonate structures are predicted to be most vulnerable to a decline in oceanic pH (ocean acidification based on the understanding that calcification rates will decrease as a result of changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry thereby reducing carbonate ion concentration (and associated saturation states. Coastal seas are critical components of the global carbon cycle yet little research has been conducted on acidification impacts on coastal benthic organisms. Here, a critical appraisal of calcification in six benthic species showed, contrary to popular predictions, calcification can increase, and not decrease, in acidified seawater. Measuring the changes in calcium in isolated calcium carbonate structure as well as structures from live animals exposed to acidified seawater allowed a comparison between a species' ability to calcify and the dissolution affects across decreasing levels of pH. Calcium carbonate production is dependant on the ability to increase calcification thus counteracting an increase in dissolution. Comparison with paleoecological studies of past high carbon dioxide (CO2 events presents a similar picture. This conclusion implies that calcification may not be the critical process impacted by ocean acidification; particularly as all species investigated displayed physiological trade offs including reduced metabolism, health, and behavioural responses, in association with this calcification upregulation, which possess as great a threat to survival as an inability to calcify.

  20. Calcification, a physiological process to be considered in the context of the whole organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, H. S.; Wood, H. L.; Kendall, M. A.; Spicer, J. I.; Twitchett, R. J.; Widdicombe, S.

    2009-02-01

    Marine organisms that produce calcium carbonate structures are predicted to be most vulnerable to a decline in oceanic pH (ocean acidification) based on the understanding that calcification rates will decrease as a result of changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry thereby reducing carbonate ion concentration (and associated saturation states). Coastal seas are critical components of the global carbon cycle yet little research has been conducted on acidification impacts on coastal benthic organisms. Here, a critical appraisal of calcification in six benthic species showed, contrary to popular predictions, calcification can increase, and not decrease, in acidified seawater. Measuring the changes in calcium in isolated calcium carbonate structure as well as structures from live animals exposed to acidified seawater allowed a comparison between a species' ability to calcify and the dissolution affects across decreasing levels of pH. Calcium carbonate production is dependant on the ability to increase calcification thus counteracting an increase in dissolution. Comparison with paleoecological studies of past high carbon dioxide (CO2) events presents a similar picture. This conclusion implies that calcification may not be the critical process impacted by ocean acidification; particularly as all species investigated displayed physiological trade offs including reduced metabolism, health, and behavioural responses, in association with this calcification upregulation, which possess as great a threat to survival as an inability to calcify.

  1. Failure of aneurysm sac shrinkage after endovascular repair; the effect of mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.love@royalhospitals.n-i.nhs.uk; Wray, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Worthington, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Ellis, P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall calcification on subsequent sac shrinkage after endovascular repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. The degree of sac wall calcification on pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) examination was graded from 1 to 4 according to the degree of circumferential involvement. On follow-up CT imaging, the maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of the sac was recorded, as well as the presence or absence of endoleak. In those patients with a non-shrinking aneurysm, but no CT evidence of endoleak, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (USS) was performed. Any patient with an endoleak, however diagnosed, was excluded from the study. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient testing was applied to compare the degree of calcification and change in MTD. RESULTS: Sixty-three pre-procedural CT images were available for calcification grading. Six of this group had endoleaks resulting in 57 sets of data being available for the study. A reduction in MTD occurred in 68.25% of these patients by 1 year post-procedure. Our figures show aortic calcification is inversely associated with MTD reduction at 6 months (p=0.01), 1 year (p=0.05) and 2 years (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the degree of aortic wall calcification is significant in predicting MTD reduction post-endovascular repair. The possible mechanisms and implications of this are discussed.

  2. Can Dental Pulp Calcification Predict the Risk of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD using digital panoramic dental radiographs.Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated.Results: Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  3. Physiological controls on seawater uptake and calcification in the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bijma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades conceptual models describing the calcification pathway of foraminifera and its physiological controls have been developed. These models are derived by combining data of tracer experiments and microscopic observations obtained from different species. Although vital for understanding their calcitic isotopic and trace elemental composition, direct observational evidence on e.g. seawater vacuolization and intracellular Ca-cycling is lacking for most species. To analyse the relation between seawater uptake and calcification, we incubated juveniles of the cosmopolitan benthic, intertidal foraminifer Ammonia tepida with various fluorescent probes. Visualizing the membranes of endocytosed vesicles was achieved by incubating specimens with the dye FM1-43, while Ca ions in the calcification vesicles were detected by the Ca2+-indicator Fluo3-AM. Uptake of fluorescent latex-beads (0.5 μm diameter and subsequent transport to the site of chamber formation provided additional evidence that endocytosis is related to the calcification pathway and not merely involved in membrane cycling. Our results show for the first time that endocytosis of seawater is part of the calcification process in Ammonia tepida. Data on the intracellular calcium ion-cycling allowed for calculating a preliminary cellular Ca-budget during foraminiferal calcification.

  4. Limitations to sharing entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong San; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-01-01

    We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.

  5. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  6. Mammographically detected breast arterial calcifications: Indicators for arteriosclerotic diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) detected on mammography and search for conditions that may influence their existence. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 6156 consecutive patients were reevaluated for the presence of BAC. Four hundred eighty-five women having BAC were enrolled in the patient group. Additionally, randomly selected 500 women, without BAC constituted the control group. Hospital records of the participants were reviewed for parity, menopausal status, oral contraceptive agent (OCA) usage, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) usage, presence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, albuminuria and history of myocardial infarction (MI). Results: Prevalence of BAC was 7.9% on mammograms. Ninety-four women were aged between 40 and 49 years, 165 were aged between 50 and 59 years and 226 were over 60 years among BAC positive 485 women. A significant relationship was found for the frequency of BAC versus age and HRT usage in all age groups (p 0.05). Conclusion: Most benign findings like BAC are not routinely reported during mammographic evaluation. Our study showed that, presence of BAC on mammography was strongly related to advancing age. However, these findings may signify a systemic risk and can be used as precautious indicators for undocumented systemic diseases, especially in premenopausal women

  7. PVAL breast phantom for dual energy calcification detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukou, V.; Martini, N.; Velissarakos, K.; Gkremos, D.; Fountzoula, C.; Bakas, A.; Michail, C.; Kandarakis, I.; Fountos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Microcalcifications are the main indicator for breast cancer. Dual energy imaging can enhance the detectability of calcifications by suppressing the tissue background. Two digital images are obtained using two different spectra, for the low- and high-energy respectively, and a weighted subtracted image is produced. In this study, a dual energy method for the detection of the minimum breast microcalcification thickness was developed. The used integrated prototype system consisted of a modified tungsten anode X-ray tube combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor. The breast equivalent phantom used was an elastically compressible gel of polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL). Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate microcalcifications with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 500 μm. The custom made phantom was irradiated with 40kVp and 70kVp. Tungsten (W) anode spectra filtered with 100μm Cadmium and 1000pm Copper, for the low- and high-energy, respectively. Microcalcifications with thicknesses 300μm or higher can be detected with mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.62mGy.

  8. Inverse Associations Between Perceived Racism and Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVERAGE, NICHOLAS J.; GJELSVIK, ANNIE; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN T.; LINKLETTER, CRYSTAL D.; LOUCKS, ERIC B.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether racial discrimination is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in African-American participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: The study included American Black men (n = 571) and women (n = 791) aged 33 to 45 years in the CARDIA study. Perceived racial discrimination was assessed based on the Experiences of Discrimination scale (range, 1–35). CAC was evaluated using computed tomography. Primary analyses assessed associations between perceived racial discrimination and presence of CAC using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic position (SEP), psychosocial variables, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. RESULTS: In age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression models, odds of CAC decreased as the perceived racial discrimination score increased (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–0.98 per 1-unit increase in Experiences of Discrimination scale). The relationship did not markedly change after further adjustment for SEP, psychosocial variables, or CHD risk factors (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87–0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived racial discrimination was negatively associated with CAC in this study. Estimation of more forms of racial discrimination as well as replication of analyses in other samples will help to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:22365645

  9. Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy on Multimodal Combination Therapy: Still Unmet Goal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Hammawa Malabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA or calciphylaxis though generally noted for its high mortality, recent case reports have shown promising results using single agent therapies. However, it is not clear whether combination therapeutic agents will improve course of the disease. Objective. To determine clinical outcome in subjects with CUA on multimodal treatment. Methods. All patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF at The Townsville Hospital, Australia, from April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2011, with diagnosis of CUA were retrospectively studied. Results. Six subjects with CUA (4 females and 2 males were on various combination therapeutic agents comprising sodium thiosulphate, hyperbaric oxygen, prednisolone, cinacalcet, and parathyroidectomy in addition to intensified haemodialysis, specialist local wound care, and antibiotics. The wounds failed to heal in 3 patients while 5 of the 6 subjects died; cause of death being sepsis in 3 and myocardial infarction in 2. Conclusion. Prognosis of CUA remains poor in spite of multimodal combination therapy. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  10. Role of proteoglycans in the onset of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellone, C.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to inquire if the presence or absence of proteoglycans or their chemical subunits had a direct effect on the onset of calcification. High density spot cultures of limb bud mesenchyme obtained from mouse embryos on the 12th day of gestation were exposed to medium containing 30 mM phosphate. Calcium deposits observed after staining by the von Kossa method were confined to the non-cartilagenous intenodular areas. Electron microscopy illustrated that a large proportion of the calcium deposits were associated with collagen fibrils. A significant increase in the uptake of /sup 45/Ca was observed in cultures supplemented with 30 mM phosphate. Atomic absorption analysis of the cultures showed that they contained 2.00 ng calcium/ug DNA. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was significantly reduced by phosphate and both extruded and cell associated GAG were affected. Exposure of mineralizing cultures to a biologically active anticalculus agent, ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, resulted in a significant reduction in /sup 45/Ca uptake, providing confidence that the culture did response as a biological system. These data suggest that under the conditions employed, proteoglycans in the extracellular environment of limb bud mesenchyme inhibit calcium deposition. The inhibitory effect was observed only when proteoglycans were added as polymeric aggregates. The culture system employed was unable to detect the inhibitory effects, if any, of proteoglycan monomers or the subunits of proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate.

  11. The roentgenographic study of aortic calcification in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteriosclerosis generally has various changes such as thickening and hypertrophy of the intima, fatty infiltration and calcium deposition in the arterial wall and atheroma, which lead to their loss of elasticity. Numerous experiments in animals have demonstrated with production of atheromatous lesions following the administration of large amount of lipoid substances such as cholesterol. However, many other factors such as hypertension, aging, heredity, maleness arterial anatomy play an important role in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic involvement of aorta usually produces no subjective symptoms unless involvement of the medium sized arteries arising from the aorta. In asymptomatic cases of atherosclerosis no method of antemortem diagnosis is available except roentgenographic detection of aortic calcification. Schilling, et al insisted that the lateral abdominal roentgenogram appeared to be not only useful in detecting large vessel atherosclerosis, but also in the detection of asymptomatic aortic aneurysms, which are of more significance to the internist and surgeon. This study included reviews of 5166 chest roentgenograms (Thoracic group) and 1062 lateral roentgenograms of lumbar spine (Abdominal group) which were taken in Hanyang University Hospital during the period of May 1972 to April 1977. The age of these cases were 40 or more.

  12. Review article: Getting the balance right: assessing causes and extent of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Markus; Biggar, Patrick H

    2009-06-01

    Vascular calcification is part of the definition of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It is also a surrogate parameter of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk in the CKD population. However, vascular calcification is not a homogenous entity, but a rather complex manifestation influenced by derangements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, by dysregulated calcification inhibitors and promoters, and by the type of arterial disease (atherosclerosis vs arteriosclerosis). Despite the clear-cut risk association between the presence of vascular calcification and mortality, it is currently not well defined, how this knowledge about calcification should be translated into active clinical management. Further, the choice of the appropriate imaging test is a matter of debate. This article attempts to provide an update on insights into the pathophysiology of vascular calcification processes and a subjective view of the clinical consequences of management of CKD patients at risk. PMID:19563380

  13. Significant Association Between Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase and Vascular Calcification of the Hand Arteries in Male Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Ishimura

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP hydrolyzes pyrophosphate, which inhibits vascular calcification. We examined association between serum BAP and vascular calcification of male hemodialysis patients. Methods: Hand roentgenography of 167 male maintenance hemodialysis patients was conducted, and visible vascular calcification of the hand arteries was evaluated. Serum levels of 3 bone formation markers (BAP, osteocalcin, and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen and 2 bone resorption markers (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured, along with serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH. Results: Of 167 patients, visible vascular calcification was seen in 37 patients. Among the bone formation and resorption markers, serum BAP was significantly higher in patients with vascular calcification than in those without (pConclusions: Higher serum BAP, but not other bone markers, is significantly associated with the presence of vascular calcification in male hemodialysis patients.

  14. Phosphate and Vascular Calcification: Emerging Role of the Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter PiT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wei Ling; Festing, Maria H; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in kidney disease as well as in the general population. Elevated phosphate levels drive vascular calcification, in part, by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene expression, function, and fate. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, is necessary for phosphate-induced VSMC osteochondrogenic phenotype change and calcification, and has recently been shown to have une...

  15. Growing heterotopic calcification in the prevertebral space of a cervical spine as a late complication of irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jina; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Heterotopic calcification following head and neck irradiation has rarely been reported. It usually develops as a late complication of radiotherapy in patients with malignancies, including breast cancer, lymphoma, and genitourinary malignancies. The occurrence of heterotopic calcification in the prevertebral space of the cervical spine has not been described as a late complication of irradiation. Here, we report a case of prevertebral heterotopic calcification in a patient with history of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for tonsil cancer 21 years ago.

  16. Incidental finding of lamellar calcification of the falx cerebri leading to the diagnosis of gorlin-goltz syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Saulite, I.; Voykov, B; Mehra, T; Hoetzenecker, W.; Guenova, E

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the case of an incidental finding of lamellar calcification of the falx cerebri in a routine computed tomography scan of the head after an accidental trauma. This lamellar calcification led to the diagnosis of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) in the patient and her daughter. Lamellar calcification of the falx cerebri is a pathognomonic feature of GGS. Our case report highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach to GGS.

  17. Long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride on abdominal aortic calcification in patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Kazunori(Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan); Nakao, Kazushi; Takatori, Yuji; Inoue, Junko; Kojo, Shoichirou; Akagi, Shigeru; Fukushima, Masaki; Wada, Jun; Makino,Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients.Subjects and methods:...

  18. Long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride on abdominal aortic calcification in patients on hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Kazunori(Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan); Nakao, Kazushi; Takatori, Yuji; Inoue, Junko; Kojo, Shoichirou; Akagi, Shigeru; Fukushima, Masaki; Wada, Jun; Makino,Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the common complications in dialysis patients, and is associated with increased risk of vascular calcification. The effects of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on bone and mineral metabolism have been previously reported, but the benefit of cinacalcet on vascular calcification remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cinacalcet on abdominal aortic calcification in dialysis patients. Subjects and methods ...

  19. Emiliania huxleyi increases calcification but not expression of calcification-related genes in long-term exposure to elevated temperature and pCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Ina; Diner, Rachel E; Lefebvre, Stephane C; Li, Dian; Komada, Tomoko; Carpenter, Edward J; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2013-01-01

    Increased atmospheric pCO2 is expected to render future oceans warmer and more acidic than they are at present. Calcifying organisms such as coccolithophores that fix and export carbon into the deep sea provide feedbacks to increasing atmospheric pCO2. Acclimation experiments suggest negative effects of warming and acidification on coccolithophore calcification, but the ability of these organisms to adapt to future environmental conditions is not well understood. Here, we tested the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature on the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi over more than 700 generations. Cells increased inorganic carbon content and calcification rate under warm and acidified conditions compared with ambient conditions, whereas organic carbon content and primary production did not show any change. In contrast to findings from short-term experiments, our results suggest that long-term acclimation or adaptation could change, or even reverse, negative calcification responses in E. huxleyi and its feedback to the global carbon cycle. Genome-wide profiles of gene expression using RNA-seq revealed that genes thought to be essential for calcification are not those that are most strongly differentially expressed under long-term exposure to future ocean conditions. Rather, differentially expressed genes observed here represent new targets to study responses to ocean acidification and warming.

  20. Vitamin K-antagonists accelerate atherosclerotic calcification and induce a vulnerable plaque phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J Schurgers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA are treatment of choice and standard care for patients with venous thrombosis and thromboembolic risk. In experimental animal models as well as humans, VKA have been shown to promote medial elastocalcinosis. As vascular calcification is considered an independent risk factor for plaque instability, we here investigated the effect of VKA on coronary calcification in patients and on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in the ApoE(-/- model of atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 266 patients (133 VKA users and 133 gender and Framingham Risk Score matched non-VKA users underwent 64-slice MDCT to assess the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD. VKA-users developed significantly more calcified coronary plaques as compared to non-VKA users. ApoE(-/- mice (10 weeks received a Western type diet (WTD for 12 weeks, after which mice were fed a WTD supplemented with vitamin K(1 (VK(1, 1.5 mg/g or vitamin K(1 and warfarin (VK(1&W; 1.5 mg/g & 3.0 mg/g for 1 or 4 weeks, after which mice were sacrificed. Warfarin significantly increased frequency and extent of vascular calcification. Also, plaque calcification comprised microcalcification of the intimal layer. Furthermore, warfarin treatment decreased plaque expression of calcification regulatory protein carboxylated matrix Gla-protein, increased apoptosis and, surprisingly outward plaque remodeling, without affecting overall plaque burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VKA use is associated with coronary artery plaque calcification in patients with suspected CAD and causes changes in plaque morphology with features of plaque vulnerability in ApoE(-/- mice. Our findings underscore the need for alternative anticoagulants that do not interfere with the vitamin K cycle.