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Sample records for calcareum preserves bone

  1. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed...

  2. A mineral-rich extract from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum preserves bone structure and function in female mice on a Western-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  3. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  4. Preservation of Bone Marrow for Clinical Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the results of many years' research into the problems of obtaining and preserving bone marrow in the quantities required for clinical use. Particular attention is paid to the preservation and long-term storage of bone marrow at ultra- low temperatures (-196°C), its separation from the protective medium and methods of determining whether the biological functions of thawed bone marrow have been impaired. (author)

  5. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M.; Norton, Andrew L.; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R. S.; Ronald A. Dixon; Nader, Helena B.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archae...

  6. Uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum como fonte alternativa de cálcio nas rações de frangos de corte Use of algae Lithothamnium calcareum as alternative source of calcium in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carreira Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug nas rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 21 a 42 dias de idade, em substituição à fonte de cálcio tradicional (calcário calcítico. Para isso, foram utilizados 300 pintos machos, da linhagem Cobb®, que receberam rações contendo o calcário calcítico e a alga Lithothamnium calcareum (colhida de inteira e na forma de areia biodentrítica como fontes de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 20 aves cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso (g/ave, consumo de ração (g/ave e conversão alimentar (g/g. No final do experimento foram avaliados os parâmetros ósseos: peso da tíbia (g, comprimento da tíbia (mm, diâmetro da tíbia (mm e teor de cinzas na tíbia (%. Na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias houve efeito (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the algae Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug in diets for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 21 to 42 days, to replace the traditional source of calcium (limestone. 300 male chicks from Cobb® strain, which received diets containing limestone and Lithothamnium calcareum algae (as a whole and as sand biodentritic were used as sources of calcium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and five replicates of 20 birds each. The variables analyzed were: weight gain (g / bird, feed intake (g / bird, feed per again (g / g. At the end of the experiment the bone parameters: weight of the tibia (g, tibia length (mm, diameter of the tibia (mm and ash content in the tibia (%. Were evaluated in the initial phase (1 to 21 days there was an effect (P <0.05 between treatments for weight gain and feed per again, and the control treatment showed better results. For the growing phase (21 to 42 days and total period (1 to 42 days there was no effect among the

  7. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas O. Parashis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  8. Mechanical properties of human bone-tendon-bone grafts preserved by different methods and radiation sterilised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Patellar tendon auto and allografts are commonly used in orthopaedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior crucial ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infection diseases transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation is supposed to decrease the mechanical strength of tendon tissue, it is important to establish methods of allografts preservation and sterilisation resulting in their best quality and safety. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength of the central one third of human patellar tendon (as used for ACL reconstruction), preserved by different methods (deep fresh freezing, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-tendon-bone grafts were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendon with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glicerolisation or lyophilisation and radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. To estimate mechanical properties all samples were subjected to tensile tests to failure using Instron system. Before these tests all lyophilised grafts were rehydrated. We found decrease of tensile strength of irradiated grafts compared to non-irradiated controls. Obtained results of the mechanical testing of studied grafts indicate their potential usefulness for clinical applications.(Author)

  9. Personalized Unicompartmental Knee Implant Treats Early Stage Arthritis While Preserving Bone

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Personalized Unicompartmental Knee Implant Treats Early Stage Arthritis while Preserving Bone (6:00pm CST) You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the ...

  10. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E Mason; Lele eAung; Sarah eGall; Meyers, Paul A; Robert eButler; Sarah eKrug; Mimi eKim; Healey, John H.; Richard eGorlick

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two lon...

  11. High-Frequency Acceleration: Therapeutic Tool to Preserve Bone following Tooth Extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, M; Lopez, J A; Alabdullah, H; Vongthongleur, T; Sangsuwon, C; Alikhani, M; Alansari, S; Oliveira, S M; Nervina, J M; Teixeira, C C

    2016-03-01

    A common problem in clinical dentistry is the significant and rapid bone loss that occurs after tooth extraction. Currently there is no solution for the long-term preservation of alveolar bone. Previously, we showed that high-frequency acceleration (HFA) has an osteogenic effect on healthy alveolar bone. However, it is not known if HFA can preserve alveolar bone after extraction without negatively affecting wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HFA on alveolar bone loss and the rate of bone formation after tooth extraction. Eighty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control, static (static load), and HFA. In all groups, the maxillary right third molar was extracted. The HFA group received HFA for 5 min/d, applied through the second molar. The static group received the same magnitude of static load. The control group did not receive any stimulation. Some animals received fluorescent dyes at 26 and 54 d. Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for fluorescence microscopy, micro-computed tomography, histology, RNA, and protein analyses. We found that HFA increased bone volume in the extraction site and surrounding alveolar bone by 44% when compared with static, while fully preserving alveolar bone height and width long-term. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of osteogenic markers and intramembranous bone formation and by decreased expression of osteoclastic markers and bone resorption activity, as well as decreased expression of many inflammatory markers. HFA is a noninvasive safe treatment that can be used to prevent alveolar bone loss and/or accelerate bone healing after tooth extraction. PMID:26672126

  12. Crestal bone preservation: A review of different approaches for successful implant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Krishna Prasad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review all the possible methods to preserve the crestal bone, when each method should be used and their success rates in an attempt to address this complex problem of crestal bone resorption. "PubMed" and "Google Scholar" were used to find out any studies involving platform switching concept from 1990 up to 2009. Twenty-four studies involving methods for preservation of crestal bone were evaluated, which included 26% studies on platform switching, 22% on non-submerged approach, 17% on scalloped implants, 13% on progressive loading and 22% on immediate implant placement. Crestal bone preservation should be thought of starting from the design of the implant to be placed. The technique to be followed in a given case will depend upon the density of bone, force factors by the patient, bone volume and amount of soft tissues, etc. The best possible method or the combination of the methods should be used to preserve the crestal bone for the long-term success of the implants.

  13. Osteoporosis imaging: effects of bone preservation on MDCT-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters and finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength due to a reduction of bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure predisposing an individual to an increased risk of fracture. Trabecular bone microstructure analysis and finite element models (FEM) have shown to improve the prediction of bone strength beyond bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. These computational methods have been developed and validated in specimens preserved in formalin solution or by freezing. However, little is known about the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM in human vertebrae. Four thoracic vertebrae were harvested from each of three fresh human cadavers (n = 12). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up. In the intervals between MDCT imaging, two vertebrae from each donor were formalin-fixed and frozen, respectively. BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters (histomorphometry and fractal dimension), and FEM-based apparent compressive modulus (ACM) were determined in the MDCT images and validated by mechanical testing to failure of the vertebrae after 6 months. Changes of BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM in formalin-fixed and frozen vertebrae over 6 months ranged between 1.0–5.6 % and 1.3–6.1 %, respectively, and were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM as assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up correlated significantly with mechanically determined failure load (r = 0.89–0.99; p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients r were not significantly different for the two preservation methods (p > 0.05). Formalin fixation and freezing up to six months showed no significant effects on trabecular bone microstructure

  14. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Mason

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two long-term survivors of lower extremity bone sarcoma were studied to make a comparison of the overall quality of life, pain assessment and psychological evaluations in limb preservation and amputation patients. Forty-eight patients with limb preservation and thirty-four patients with amputations were enrolled in the study. Validated psychometric measures including the Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and visual analog scales were utilized.RESULTS: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation was significantly higher than patients with amputation (p-value < 0.01. Significant differences were noted in the categories of material well being, job satisfiers and occupational relations. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation appears to be better than for those patients with amputation based on the quality of life questionnaire in patients surviving lower extremity bone sarcoma. Further analysis needs to verify the results and focus on the categories that significantly affect the overall quality of life.

  15. Relatively well preserved DNA is present in the crystal aggregates of fossil bones

    OpenAIRE

    Salamon, Michal; Tuross, Noreen; Arensburg, Baruch; Weiner, Steve

    2005-01-01

    DNA from fossil human bones could provide invaluable information about population migrations, genetic relations between different groups and the spread of diseases. The use of ancient DNA from bones to study the genetics of past populations is, however, very often compromised by the altered and degraded state of preservation of the extracted material. The universally observed postmortem degradation, together with the real possibility of contamination with modern human DNA, makes the acquisiti...

  16. Preservation of Bone Marrow by Deep Freezing with Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents original data on the preservation of human bone marrow at -196°C with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) of low molecular weight. For bone-marrow preservation the author has used a combined solution of PVP of low molecular weight - 17%, glucose - 10%, homologous blood serum ~ 10% heparin 2500 int. units, levomycetin 0.01-5 g and up to 100 ml of double-distilled water. The ratio of bone marrow to protective medium is 1:1. The final PVP concentration is between 8.5 and 9%. Using morphological, biochemical and historadiographic investigations the author has shown that the viability of the cells is not appreciably lowered during long-term storage. Stress is laid on the necessity of keeping constant low-temperature conditions during prolonged storage of bone marrow. Keeping the low temperature constant, the author succeeded in storing bone-marrow cells in liquid nitrogen for a period of four years. This is the longest period for which human bone marrow has yet been stored. Bone marrow which had been stored for lengthy periods was used for autotransplantation into patients suffering from haemopoietic hypoplasia following use of cytostatic substances and a pronounced therapeutic effect was observed. (author)

  17. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong;

    2015-01-01

    implant placement on both sides, the bone preservation on the experimental side led to a need for a shorter clinical crown compared to the control side. A higher activity level of the bone in the experimental side was demonstrated histologically. CONCLUSION: In this dog model the insertion of a mini-implant...... control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un...... across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant...

  18. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  19. What is the optimal bone-preserving strategy for patients with Addison's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2015-08-01

    Addison's disease is associated with low bone mineral density and increased risk of hip fractures. Causes are multifactorial, contributed by underlying adrenocortical hormonal deficiency, associated autoimmune endocrinopathies, electrolyte disturbances and, in some patients, supraphysiologic glucocorticoid replacement. Recent realization of physiologic cortisol production rate has revised downwards glucocorticoid replacement dosages. Meanwhile, new research has emerged suggesting complex interplay between sodium and calcium homoeostasis under the influence of mineralocorticoid and parathyroid hormone that may impact bone health. As the prevalence of Addison's disease is rising, and osteoporosis and fractures are associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality, attention to bone preservation in Addison's disease is of clinical relevance and importance. We suggest an approach to bone health in Addison's disease integrating physiologic adrenocortical hormonal replacement with electrolyte and mineral homoeostasis optimization. PMID:25640730

  20. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  1. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  2. [Grafting of preserved homogenous cancellous bone. Results of 90 operations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, W; Taillard, W

    1977-10-01

    Description of a simple technique for the removal of homogeneous cancellous bone from heads of femur removed during replacement of the hip-joint. The material has been preserved for one year at -20 degrees C and can be used after simple washing. Results in 89 grafts are analysed: They all took perfectly at the site of grafting. There was no rejection, no local or general allergy. Risk of infection was not increased. The technique is simple and useful where much cancellous bone is needed. PMID:337707

  3. Consolidation of massive bone allografts in limb-preserving operations for bone tumours

    OpenAIRE

    San-Julian, M.; Leyes, M.; Mora, G. (Gonzalo); Cañadell, J.M. (J. M.)

    1995-01-01

    This study analysed the influence of several factors affecting the consolidation time of 83 massive bone allografts in 79 patients with malignant bone tumours: osteosarcoma 57; Ewing's sarcoma 8; malignant fibrous histiocytoma 3; chondrosarcoma 4; fibrosarcoma 5; and giant cell tumours 2. The mean age of the patients was 19 years and the mean length of the allografts was 18 cm. The minimum follow up was for 12 months. The mean consolidation time for metaphyseal and diaphyseal osteotomies was ...

  4. Beneficial role of periosteum in distraction osteogenesis of mandible. Its preservation prevents the external bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process of new bone generation through the gradual extension of two segments of existing bone. DO is applied for maxillofacial surgeries to manage defects in mandibular continuity. Vertical DO with an oral device is often employed to augment the alveolar bone height for better implant anchorage for esthetic purposes or functional prosthetic requirements. To determine how the periosteum affects the vertical DO in mandibular reconstruction, we extracted the teeth and resected the alveolar parts of the mandible on both sides of dogs, along with removal of the surrounding periosteum in the right, but not left side. Three months later, box-shaped bone segments (vectors) were prepared from the resected alveolar part, and the segments were vertically elongated using a distraction device on both sides at 0.9 mm/day for one week. The extent of bone formation after distraction was determined with micro-focused computed tomography and by measuring incorporation of tetracycline and calcein with confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the initial two months after distraction, new bone formation was observed more prominently in the left side than in the right side of mandible with the periosteum. However, this difference was less clear during the bone-remodeling period. One notable change was the reduced height of the alveolar part of the right-side mandible, a sign of external bone resorption, observed in two out of three dogs at 6-month post-consolidation. These findings suggest that preservation of periosteum prevents the external bone resorption during the vertical DO of mandible. (author)

  5. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less residual graft particles in DFDBA group than in DBBM group.

  6. Histological and morphometric aspects of ridge preservation with a moldable, in situ hardening bone graft substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurišić M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP are widely used in alveolar ridge regeneration as a porous scaffold for new bone formation. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the regenerative effect of the combination of BCP and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA which can serve as a barrier membrane during bone regeneration. The study included five patients. Four months into the healing period, bone samples were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. The results of morphometric analysis showed that newly formed bone represented 32.2 ± 6.8% of the tissue, 31.9 ± 8.9% was occupied by residual graft and 35.9 ± 13.5% by soft tissue. Active osteogenesis was seen around the particles of the graft. The particles were occupied mostly by immature woven bone and connective tissue. The quality and quantity of newly formed bone, after the use of BCP/PLGA for ridge preservation, can be adequate for successful implant therapy after tooth extraction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175021 i br. OI 173009

  7. Platform-switching implants and bone preservation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J F; Batista, V E de Souza; Verri, F R; Honório, H M; de Mello, C C; Almeida, D A dF; Pellizzer, E P

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible benefits of platform-switching (PSW) implants when compared to regular platform (RP) implants in the categories of bone preservation and longevity. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement, PICO question, and Jadad scale. The relative risk (RR) of failure and the mean difference for marginal bone loss were calculated considering a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Heterogeneity and subgroup analyses were performed, and funnel plots drawn. Twenty-five studies (17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight prospective studies) involving 1098 patients and 2310 implants were analysed. The meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in crestal bone loss for PSW implants compared with RP implants (-0.41mm, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.29, P<0.00001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in implant failure (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.6-2.02, P=0.75). A reduction in bone loss with PSW implants was observed for the following subgroups: RCTs only, implants in the maxilla, and implants in the mandible. PSW implants presented lower bone resorption compared with RP implants. RCTs should be done to explain the possible biases. PMID:26723496

  8. Preservation of Bone-Marrow Cells, Leucocytes and Platelets at Low Temperatures. A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of cryobiology are discussed and applications of these principles by numerous workers in attempts to preserve marrow cells, leucocytes and platelets at low temperatures are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) Lymphocytes from animals and man can be stored for long periods of time at low temperatures when cooled slowly in 10-15% DMSO or glycerol and thawed rapidly. Recovery figures are high and function is intact and unaltered. DMSO is probably a better preservative than glycerol, and storage life at -196°C is probably indefinite for all practical purposes. Other leucocytes can be stored with similar techniques but recoveries after freezing and thawing are probably lower than with lymphocytes. (2) Bone-marrow cells of several animals including mouse, rabbit and dog can be preserved at -196°C, probably indefinitely, and similar procedures to those used for lymphocytes give the best results. The comprehensive studies of Lewis and Trobaugh indicate that under carefully controlled conditions 95% of the stem cells in mouse marrow are viable after freezing and thawing. Opinions are divided over the efficacy of the two preservatives, DMSO and glycerol, but in view of the well documented accounts of the lack of toxicity of glycerol it would seem advisable for the moment to use this agent with all human marrow samples. The usefulness of PVP as a preservative for marrow is still to be resolved. Human marrow after freezing and thawing probably behaves in a similar manner to mouse marrow both in vitro and in vivo. However, it would be wise to consider that there might be differences which could cause wrong assessments of freezing procedures. (3) Platelet preservation, clinically perhaps the most useful procedure discussed in this review, is still to a large extent in the experimental stage. Much work has been done but even the best methods available permit relatively low recoveries of viable platelets. Preservation of human platelets in 12% glycerol

  9. Extraction site preservation using new graft material that combines mineralized and demineralized allograft bone: a case series report with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a new allograft bone product composed of a 70 to 30 ratio of mineralized to demineralized cortical bone particles to preserve the alveolar ridge dimensions of patients requiring tooth extraction with plans for future dental implant placement. Ten patients received atraumatic tooth extractions with subsequent placement of the blended bone allograft. All sites were covered with a single layer of amnion-chorion, which was intentionally left exposed. After an average healing time of 14 weeks, the surgical sites were accessed for placement of dental implants. Prior to implant placement, trephine core samples were taken for histologic analysis. Dental implants were successfully placed in all previously grafted surgical sites; no sites required any additional bone augmentation. Histologic analysis of trephined bone core samples revealed bone compositions similar to those described in previously published site preservation studies. The results of this case series suggest that blended bone allograft containing a 70 to 30 ratio of mineralized to demineralized cortical bone particles can be successfully used to facilitate future placement of dental implants with as little as 14 weeks of healing. PMID:24571560

  10. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur

    2016-06-01

    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  11. Delayed loss of hearing after hearing preservation cochlear implantation: Human temporal bone pathology and implications for etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Rosowski, John J; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J; Nadol, Joseph B

    2016-03-01

    After initially successful preservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation, some patients experience subsequent delayed hearing loss. The etiology of such delayed hearing loss is unknown. Human temporal bone pathology is critically important in investigating the etiology, and directing future efforts to maximize long term hearing preservation in cochlear implant patients. Here we present the temporal bone pathology from a patient implanted during life with an Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid S8 implant, with initially preserved residual hearing and subsequent hearing loss. Both temporal bones were removed for histologic processing and evaluated. Complete clinical and audiologic records were available. He had bilateral symmetric high frequency severe to profound hearing loss prior to implantation. Since he was implanted unilaterally, the unimplanted ear was presumed to be representative of the pre-implantation pathology related to his hearing loss. The implanted and contralateral unimplanted temporal bones both showed complete degeneration of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the basal half of the cochleae, and only mild patchy loss of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the apical half. The total spiral ganglion neuron counts were similar in both ears: 15,138 (56% of normal for age) in the unimplanted right ear and 13,722 (51% of normal for age) in the implanted left ear. In the basal turn of the implanted left cochlea, loose fibrous tissue and new bone formation filled the scala tympani, and part of the scala vestibuli. Delayed loss of initially preserved hearing after cochlear implantation was not explained by additional post-implantation degeneration of hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons in this patient. Decreased compliance at the round window and increased damping in the scala tympani due to intracochlear fibrosis and new bone formation might explain part of the post-implantation hearing loss. Reduction of the inflammatory and immune response to

  12. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  13. Inactivated Bone Replantation with Preservation of the Epiphysis in Children with Osteosarcoma- Clinical Report of Two Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiuchun; LIUXiaoping; ZHOUYin; LIKaihua; QUZaiping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis following the effective chemotherapy in avoiding postoperative discrepancy of the affected limb in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: Two children (aged 5 and 10 years, 1 male and 1 female) with osteosarcoma underwent inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis following chemotherapy (MMIA protocol, including high-dose methotrexate, adriamycin and ifosfamide). After two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, pain vanished, the local mass shrank and there was no pain on pressing the affected parts. Sera AKP and LDH were reduced to normal levels; marked shrinkage and sclerotic changes and good margin of lesions were seen on plain radiographs and MR images. Two courses of the same protocol as preoperative chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Results: Postoperative histological examination of the specimens demonstrated absence of vital tumor cells. Incisions healed well and no complications occurred. The replanted inactivated bone healed with host at 6 months after operation.In the two patients, no evidence was seen of metastasis and recurrence and discrepancy of the affected limbs in postoperative 36 and 48 months. Functions of the affected limbs were satisfactory. Conclusion:Inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis was a viable option for osteosarcoma in children.The long-term outcomes remain to be further proven.

  14. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  15. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, M. P.; M.M. Alievi; C.A.C. Beck; I.S. Dal-Bó; P.C. Gonzalez; F.S. Nóbrega; de Silva, L M; R. Stédile; Scherer, S.; J.P.V. Rocha; A.P.F. Silva Filho; B. Svierk; Costa, G.

    2012-01-01

    Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24). In the control group (n=6), the defect was repaired using autogeno...

  16. Estrogen preserves Fas ligand levels by inhibiting microRNA-181a in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to maintain bone remodeling balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bingyi; Liao, Li; Yu, Yang; Shuai, Yi; Su, Xiaoxia; Jing, Huan; Yang, Deqin; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen protects bone loss by promoting Fas ligand (FasL) transcription in osteoclasts and osteoblasts to induce apoptosis of osteoclasts. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) express FasL protein, which is necessary for BMMSCs to induce T-cell apoptosis in cell therapy. However, the physiologic function of FasL in BMMSCs is unknown. In this study, using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo BMMSC transplantation assay, we found that BMMSCs potently induced apoptosis of osteoclasts through the FasL/Fas pathway. Estrogen was necessary for this process as a promoter of FasL protein accumulation in BMMSCs. Furthermore, estrogen elevated FasL protein accumulation, not by increasing FasL gene transcription, but through microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation. In brief, estrogen down-regulated expression of miR-181a, a negative modulator of FasL targeting the 3'-UTR of FasL mRNA. Estrogen deficiency resulted in excessive miR-181a, which decreased FasL protein levels to suppress BMMSC-induced osteoclast apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-181a recovered the BMMSC defect to induce osteoclast apoptosis during estrogen deficiency. Taken together, our results showed that estrogen preserves FasL protein accumulation by inhibiting miR-181a expression in BMMSCs to maintain bone remodeling balance, suggesting a novel mechanism by which estrogen preserves bone mass. PMID:26062603

  17. Effect of transplants of preserved bone marrow on the course of combined radiation injury of the nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carried out investigations showed that whole-body irradiation with the dose of 0.15 C/kg in combination with mechanical trauma of sciatic nerve produces acute radiation sickness mostly of mean gravity in rabbits. Autotransplantation of preserved bone resulted in more pronounced therapeutic effect on the course of acute radiation sickness and on the course of of de- and regeneration processes in the traumatized nerve in comparison with transplantation of blood formation tissue in 48 hours

  18. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas D. Leventis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques.

  19. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Minas D.; Fairbairn, Peter; Kakar, Ashish; Leventis, Angelos D.; Margaritis, Vasileios; Lückerath, Walter; Horowitz, Robert A.; Rao, Bappanadu H.; Lindner, Annette; Nagursky, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone) in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material) while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques. PMID:27190516

  20. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4 mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation. PMID:19394137

  1. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities

  2. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Babaei, Maryam; Miremadi, S. Asghar; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alveolar ridge preservation could be performed immediately following tooth extraction to limit dimensional changes of alveolar process due to bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and histologic outcomes of socket preservation using two different graft materials; deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) with absorbable collagen membrane. Materials and Methods: Twenty extraction sockets in 20 patients were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups: 10 sockets were augmented with DBBM and collagen membrane whereas 10 sockets were filled with DFDBA and covered by collagen membrane. Primary closure was achieved over extraction sockets by flap advancement. Horizontal and vertical ridge dimensional changes were assessed at baseline and after 4-6 months at the time of implant placement. For histological and histomorphometrical analysis, bone samples were harvested from the augmented sites with trephine during implant surgery. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (α=0.05). Results: Clinical measurements revealed that average horizontal reduction was 2.3 ± 0.64 mm for DFDBA and 2.26 ± 0.51 mm for DBBM. Mean vertical ridge resorption at buccal side was 1.29 ± 0.68 mm for DFDBA and 1.1 ± 0.17 mm for DBBM. Moreover, mean vertical ridge reduction at lingual site was 0.41 ± 0.38 mm and 0.35 ± 0.34 mm for DFDBA and DBBM, respectively. No significant differences were seen between two groups in any of those clinical parameters. Histologic analysis showed statistically significant more new bone deposition for DFDBA compared to DBBM (34.49 ± 3.19 vs. 18.76 ± 3.54) (P < 0.01). Residual graft particles were identified significantly more in DBBM (12.77 ± 1.85) than DFDBA (6.06 ± 1.02). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less

  3. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  4. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  5. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong; Dalstra, Michel

    2014-01-01

    -decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental...

  6. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Fol...

  7. Comparative investigation of viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability of tissue-engineered bone preserved in sealed osteogenic media at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hengjian; Liu Guangpeng; Zhou Guangdong; Cen Lian; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin, E-mail: cuileite@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.co [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Preservation of tissue-engineered (TE) bone is one of the key problems needed to be solved for its clinic application and industrialization. Traditional cryopreservation has been restricted because of the damages caused by ice formation and solution. Hypothermic preservation at 4 {sup 0}C has been widely used for the preservation of transplanted organ despite potential negative effects on viability of cells and tissue. 37 {sup 0}C is the best temperature for maintaining cellular bioactivities. However, 37 {sup 0}C also has a potential negative effect on preserved cells due to consumption of nutrients and accumulation of by-products. No studies have reported which temperature is more suitable for the preservation of TE bone constructs. The current study explored the feasibility of preservation of TE bone constructs in sealed osteogenic media at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded into partially demineralized bone matrix (pDBM) scaffolds and cultured for 7 days to form TE bone constructs. The constructs were preserved in sealed osteogenic media at either 37 {sup 0}C or 4 {sup 0}C for 5, 7, 9 and 11 days, respectively. Growth kinetics, viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability were evaluated to explore the feasibility of preservation at 37 {sup 0}C and 4 {sup 0}C. The constructs cultured in osteogenic media at humidified 37 {sup 0}C/5%CO{sub 2} served as the positive control. The results demonstrated that all the constructs preserved at 4 {sup 0}C showed negative osteogenic capability at all time points with a much lower level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism compared to the positive control. However, the constructs preserved at 37 {sup 0}C showed good osteogenic capability within 7 days with a certain level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism, although an obvious decrease in osteogenic capability was observed in the constructs preserved at 37 {sup 0}C over 9 days. These results indicate that the

  8. Comparative investigation of viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability of tissue-engineered bone preserved in sealed osteogenic media at 37 0C and 4 0C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of tissue-engineered (TE) bone is one of the key problems needed to be solved for its clinic application and industrialization. Traditional cryopreservation has been restricted because of the damages caused by ice formation and solution. Hypothermic preservation at 4 0C has been widely used for the preservation of transplanted organ despite potential negative effects on viability of cells and tissue. 37 0C is the best temperature for maintaining cellular bioactivities. However, 37 0C also has a potential negative effect on preserved cells due to consumption of nutrients and accumulation of by-products. No studies have reported which temperature is more suitable for the preservation of TE bone constructs. The current study explored the feasibility of preservation of TE bone constructs in sealed osteogenic media at 37 0C and 4 0C. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were seeded into partially demineralized bone matrix (pDBM) scaffolds and cultured for 7 days to form TE bone constructs. The constructs were preserved in sealed osteogenic media at either 37 0C or 4 0C for 5, 7, 9 and 11 days, respectively. Growth kinetics, viability, metabolism and osteogenic capability were evaluated to explore the feasibility of preservation at 37 0C and 4 0C. The constructs cultured in osteogenic media at humidified 37 0C/5%CO2 served as the positive control. The results demonstrated that all the constructs preserved at 4 0C showed negative osteogenic capability at all time points with a much lower level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism compared to the positive control. However, the constructs preserved at 37 0C showed good osteogenic capability within 7 days with a certain level of growth kinetics, viability and metabolism, although an obvious decrease in osteogenic capability was observed in the constructs preserved at 37 0C over 9 days. These results indicate that the preservation of TE bone constructs is feasible at 37 0C within 7 days in sealed

  9. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  10. The effect of radiation-sterilization conditions and preservation procedures on physico-chemical and biological properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-sterilization of connective tissue allografts (bone including) with a dose of 35 kGy is routinely used in the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw since 1963. This method of sterilization offers many advantages: good penetration ability, relatively low temperature rise, and possibility of sterilization of grafts in closed beforehand vials, which protects against secondary contamination. It should be kept in mind, however that high doses of ionizing radiation (in the range of 20-35 kGy) used for sterilization evoke many chemical and physical changes which may influence biological properties of grafts. These changes have been studied using various methodological approaches. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry it has been found that in radiation-sterilized bone two types of paramagnetic entities are generated: i/ coliagen radicals which are unstable and disappear completely in the presence of air oxygen, ii/ very stable at room temperature paramagnetic defects (centers) localized in the crystalline lattice of bone mineral. These stable paramagnetic defects have been treated as a new kind of markers and used for: a/ quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing; b/ estimation of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed by living organism in the case of accidental exposure (skeleton serving as a dosimeter) and for control of radiation-sterilization process. The effect of radiation-sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts was studied using a model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis and measuring the solubility of bone collagen in vitro. It has been observed that lyophilized bone allografts irradiated at room temp. with doses of 35 and 50 kGy, respectively, were very quickly resorbed in vivo and did not induce osteogenesis, while lyophilized as well as deep-frozen matrices irradiated at -7OoC were slowly resorbed and induced de novo bone fon

  11. Clinical Outcome of a Wide-diameter Bone-anchored Hearing Implant and a Surgical Technique With Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowinckel, Marius S.; Møller, Martin N.; Wielandt, Kirsten N.; Foghsgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical outcome of a surgical technique with tissue preservation for a wide bone-anchored hearing implant concerning postoperative complications, skin reactions, implant loss, and implant stability. Study Design: Consecutive, prospective case series. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Twenty-four adult patients with normal skin quality were enrolled. Intervention(s): Implantation of bone-anchored implant was performed using a one-stage linear-incision technique with tissue preservation surgery. Main Outcome Measures(s): Skin and soft tissue reactions according to Holgers grading system. Pain and numbness measured according to visual analogue scale. Implant stability quotient values were recorded using resonance frequency analysis. Follow-up at 10 days, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Results: Primary implant stability was good and a significant increase in implant stability quotient occurred during the first 10 days and continued to be stable throughout the 1-year observation period. No implants were lost. Skin and soft tissue reactions were few, no reaction (Holger grade 0) was observed in 88% of the follow-up examinations and no grade 4 reactions occurred. Pain and numbness were minimal. Conclusion: The wide implant showed good stability initially and throughout the observation period. Skin and soft tissue reactions were rare and minor. No implants were lost. PMID:26954348

  12. Long-term hormone replacement therapy preserves bone mineral density in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Hjerrild, Britta E; Lauridsen, Anna L;

    2009-01-01

    non-dominant forearm. Bone formation and resorption markers, sex hormones, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake. RESULTS: At follow-up, forearm BMD, radius ultradistal BMD, and hip BMD remained unchanged, radius 1/3 BMD declined (0.601+/-0.059 vs 0.592+/-0.059, P=0.03), while spine BMD increased (0.......972+/-0.139 vs 1.010+/-0.144, P<0.0005). Bone formation markers did not change over time in TS. Bone resorption markers decreased over time in TS. Testosterone, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced in TS. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in BMD in TS were slight. BMD can be maintained at...

  13. Clinical and biometrical evaluation of socket preservation using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with and without the palatal connective tissue as a biologic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Moghaddas; Mohammad Reza Amjadi; Narges Naghsh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction has the ability to maintain the ridge dimensions and allow the implant placement in an ideal position fulfilling both functional and aesthetic results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal connective tissue as a biological membrane for socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). Materials and Methods: Twelve extraction sites were treated with DFDBA with (case gro...

  14. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P;

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...... females). Total hip Z-scores were

  15. Alveolar ridge preservation with the socket-plug technique utilizing an alloplastic putty bone substitute or a particulate xenograft: a histological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Lanka; Venkataraman, Narayan; Shukla, Sagrika; Prasad, Hari; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Following tooth extraction, ridge preservation procedures are employed to regenerate bone in the extraction socket, limit consequent ridge resorption, and provide a stable base for implant placement. The purpose of this study is to histologically evaluate and compare bone regeneration in extraction sockets grafted with either a putty alloplastic bone substitute or particulate anorganic bovine xenograft utilizing the socket-plug technique. Nineteen patients underwent 20 tooth extractions and ridge preservation following a standardized protocol. Ten sites were grafted with calcium phosphosilicate putty (CPS group) and the remaining 10 with anorganic bovine bone substitute (BO group). Patients were recalled after 4-6 months to evaluate the bone regeneration and to proceed with implant placement. A bone core was obtained during the implant procedure from each site and was used for histologic analysis. Histomorphometry revealed that residual graft values were significantly higher in the BO group (25.60% ± 5.89%) compared to the CPS group (17.40% ± 9.39%) (P anorganic bovine bone xenograft. PMID:23772806

  16. Socket Preservation Therapy with Acellular Dermal Matrix and Mineralized Bone Allograft After Tooth Extraction in Humans: A Clinical and Histomorphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Patricia Garani; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Moraes Grisi, Marcio Fernando; de Souza, Sergio Luís; Taba, Mario; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; de Almeida, Adriana G; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze through clinical and histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without mineralized bone allograft (AB) on bone formation in human alveoli after a 6- to 8-month healing period. A total of 19 patients in need of extraction of the maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus AB) or to the control group (ADM only). Clinical and histomorphometric measurements and histologic analysis were recorded 6 to 8 months after ridge preservation procedures. Clinical parameters and amount of mineralized and nonmineralized tissue were measured and analyzed. In the clinical measurements, the test group showed reduced bone loss in the buccopalatal dimension after 6 to 8 months (intragroup analysis P acellular dermal matrix in association with mineralized bone allograft reduced alveolar bone loss in the anterior maxillae both in height and width after a follow-up period of 6 to 8 months. PMID:26901306

  17. Cranioplasty with subcutaneously preserved autologous bone grafts in abdominal wall—Experience with 75 cases in a post-war country Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Dragusha, Shefki; Ahmeti, Feti; Morina, Dukagjin; Gashi, Kushtrim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study is to show the advantages of preservation of a calvarial bone flap in the abdominal pocket after decompressive craniotomy. Decompressive craniectomy is an option in the surgical management of refractory hypertension when maximal medical treatment (sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, moderate cooling, etc) has failed to control refractory high intracranial pressure. Methods: We have prospectively analyzed 82 consecutively operated cases decompressive craniotomies d...

  18. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  19. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  20. Post-transplant bendamustine reduces GvHD while preserving GvL in experimental haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jessica; Hoffman, Emely A; Zeng, Yi; Larmonier, Nicolas; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Advances in haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (h-BMT) have drastically broadened the treatment options for patients requiring BMT. The possibility of significantly reducing the complications resulting from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) with the administration of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) has substantially improved the efficacy and applicability of T cell-replete h-BMT. However, higher frequency of disease recurrence remains a major challenge in h-BMT with PT-CY. There is a critical need to identify novel strategies to prevent GvHD while sparing the graft-versus-leukaemia (GvL) effect in h-BMT. To this end, we evaluated the impact of bendamustine (BEN), given post-transplant, on GvHD and GvL using clinically relevant murine h-BMT models. We provide results indicating that post-transplant bendamustine (PT-BEN) alleviates GvHD, significantly improving survival, while preserving engraftment and GvL effects. We further document that PT-BEN can mitigate GvHD even in the absence of Treg. Our results also indicate that PT-BEN is less myelosuppressive than PT-CY, significantly increasing the number and proportion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(hi) cells, while decreasing lymphoid cells. In vitro we observed that BEN enhances the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while impairing the proliferation of T- and B-cells. These results advocate for the consideration of PT-BEN as a new therapeutic platform for clinical implementation in h-BMT. PMID:27030315

  1. Cranioplasty with subcutaneously preserved autologous bone grafts in abdominal wall—Experience with 75 cases in a post-war country Kosova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Dragusha, Shefki; Ahmeti, Feti; Morina, Dukagjin; Gashi, Kushtrim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study is to show the advantages of preservation of a calvarial bone flap in the abdominal pocket after decompressive craniotomy. Decompressive craniectomy is an option in the surgical management of refractory hypertension when maximal medical treatment (sedation, drainage of cerebrospinal fluid, moderate cooling, etc) has failed to control refractory high intracranial pressure. Methods: We have prospectively analyzed 82 consecutively operated cases decompressive craniotomies done at the University Neurosurgical Clinic in Prishtina/KOSOVA over a period of eight years (June 1999 to Aug 2008). Of the 75 who had their grafts replaced (7 patient died before replacement of bone graft), 62 patients had hemicraniectomy (fronto-parieto-temporal) 7 of them were bilateral. Results In 66 out of 75 patients was achieved a satisfactory and cosmetically reconstruction, in 9 cases was required augmentation with methyl methacrylate to achieve cosmetic needs. Two patients had infection and the bone was removed; 6 months later these patients had cranioplasty with methyl methacrylate. The duration of storage of calvarial bone in abdominal pouch before reimplantation was 14 – 232 days (range 56 days). Conclusion: We think that storage of the patients own bone flap in the abdominal pocket is a safe, easy, cheap, sterile, histocompatible, and better cosmetic results. PMID:21697987

  2. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength. PMID:27115490

  3. Bone Fractures Following External Beam Radiotherapy and Limb-Preservation Surgery for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Relationship to Irradiated Bone Length, Volume, Tumor Location and Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between tumor location, bone dose, and irradiated bone length on the development of radiation-induced fractures for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma (LE-STS) patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Of 691 LE-STS patients treated from 1989 to 2005, 31 patients developed radiation-induced fractures. Analysis was limited to 21 fracture patients (24 fractures) who were matched based on tumor size and location, age, beam arrangement, and mean total cumulative RT dose to a random sample of 53 nonfracture patients and compared for fracture risk factors. Mean dose to bone, RT field size (FS), maximum dose to a 2-cc volume of bone, and volume of bone irradiated to ≥40 Gy (V40) were compared. Fracture site dose was determined by comparing radiographic images and surgical reports to fracture location on the dose distribution. Results: For fracture patients, mean dose to bone was 45 ± 8 Gy (mean dose at fracture site 59 ± 7 Gy), mean FS was 37 ± 8 cm, maximum dose was 64 ± 7 Gy, and V40 was 76 ± 17%, compared with 37 ± 11 Gy, 32 ± 9 cm, 59 ± 8 Gy, and 64 ± 22% for nonfracture patients. Differences in mean, maximum dose, and V40 were statistically significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.01). Leg fractures were more common above the knee joint. Conclusions: The risk of radiation-induced fracture appears to be reduced if V40 <64%. Fracture incidence was lower when the mean dose to bone was <37 Gy or maximum dose anywhere along the length of bone was <59 Gy. There was a trend toward lower mean FS for nonfracture patients.

  4. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  5. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo

    2012-07-01

    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of well-preserved Middle Pleistocene bone collagen from Schöningen (Germany) and their paleoecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitems, Margot; van der Plicht, Johannes; Drucker, Dorothée G; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Palstra, Sanne W L; Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in bone collagen can provide valuable information about the diet and habitat of mammal species. However, bone collagen degrades in normal circumstances very rapidly, and isotope analyses are therefore usually restricted to fossil material with a Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. The Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen, dated to around 300,000 years ago, yielded bones and teeth with an exceptionally good state of collagen preservation. This allowed us to measure reliable biogenic carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for different herbivorous taxa from the families Elephantidae, Rhinocerotidae, Equidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae. The results provide insights regarding the paleoenvironmental setting in which Middle Pleistocene hominins operated. The vegetation consumed by the herbivores from the famous spear horizon originates from open environments. During the climatic Reinsdorf Interglacial optimum, the landscape seems to have been relatively open as well, but certainly included parts that were forested. The results also indicate some niche partitioning; different herbivore species used different plant resources. For instance, the horses seem to have been predominantly browsers, while the straight-tusked elephants were feeding chiefly on grass. PMID:25824673

  7. Darbepoietin-alfa has comparable erythropoietic stimulatory effects to recombinant erythropoietin whilst preserving the bone marrow microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Dewamitta, Sita R; Russell, Megan R.; Nandurkar, Harshal; Walkley, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are widely used for the treatment of anemia. Recently, we reported erythroid expansion with impaired B lymphopoiesis and loss of trabecular bone in C57BL/6 mice following ten days of treatment with low-dose short acting recombinant human erythropoietin. We have assessed erythropoietin against longer-acting darbepoietin-alfa at a comparable erythroid stimulatory dosage regime. Darbepoietin-alfa and erythropoietin induced similar in vivo erythropoietic expansio...

  8. LPS antagonism reduces graft-versus-host disease and preserves graft-versus-leukemia activity after experimental bone marrow transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Kenneth R.; Gerbitz, Armin; Crawford, James M.; Teshima, Takanori; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Tesolin, Amy; Rossignol, Daniel P.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and leukemic relapse remain the two major obstacles to successful outcomes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of gastrointestinal tract integrity, and specifically the translocation of LPS into the systemic circulation, is critical to the induction of cytokine dysregulation that contributes to GVHD. Using a mouse BMT model, we studied the effects of direct LPS antagonism on GVHD severity and...

  9. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a preliminary test of 14C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS 14C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C and δ15N values of the fragments. All 14C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some 14C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older 14C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  11. Preservação da proteína verde fluorescente no tecido ósseo descalcificado Preservation of the green fluorescent protein on decalcified bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankerle Neves Boeloni

    2010-10-01

    diseases. However, in the bone, the fluorescence generated by GFP can be lost during the decalcification process, hindering the tracking of stem cells used in the treatment of diseases or bone defects. The aim of this study was to compare different techniques of preservation of GFP in the decalcified bone tissue. Femurs of female Lewis GFP rats were distributed in four groups: 1 decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded; 2 decalcified in formic acid submitted to cryomicrotomy; 3 decalcified in EDTA and paraffin-embedded and 4 decalcified in EDTA with cryomicrotomy. Sections of bone tissue of all the groups were analyzed for identification of the natural fluorescence and subsequently submitted to the immunofluorescence using anti-GFP and Alexa Flúor 555. The images were obtained by confocal microscopy. Osteocytes, osteoblasts and bone marrow cells of GFP rats only had natural fluorescence preserved in the bone tissue decalcified in EDTA and submitted to cryomicrotomy. In others groups there were loss of the natural fluorescence and the GFP cells could be only identified with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP. In conclusion, the decalcification in EDTA and the cryomicrotomy are the best techniques to preserve the natural fluorescence of the GFP cells in the bone tissue and the GFP cells in bone tissue decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded can be visualized only with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP.

  12. How are teeth better than bone? An investigation of dental tissue diagenesis and state of preservation at a histological scale (with photo catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege I. Hollund

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are often the preferred substrate for isotopic and genetic assays in archaeological research. Teeth can yield isotopic signals from different periods of an individual's lifetime, useful in dietary reconstruction, climate research, and investigation into mobility of people and animals in the past. Additionally, it is generally accepted that teeth preserve biomolecules (e.g. DNA, collagen and isotopic signals better. Despite the importance of dental tissue in archaeological research, no systematic study has been carried out concerning diagenetic alterations at histological scale. This article reports the results of a thorough histological characterisation of post-mortem alterations observed in 34 ancient teeth. Such alterations are well described in bone whereas similar analyses of teeth are scant and highlight the need for diagenetic screening before analysis. Micrographs have been made, illustrating typical diagenetic features occurring within the dental tissues cementum, dentine and enamel including bioerosion, cracking, etching and staining. The photo catalogue produced can be used within fields such as archaeology, forensics and palaeontology.

  13. The medical and ethical challenges of fertility preservation in teenage girls: a case series of sickle cell anaemia patients prior to bone marrow transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Stuart A; Islam, Rumana; Hunt, Jennifer; Carby, Anna; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes has been proposed as a way of storing gametes in young patients at high risk of infertility and premature ovarian failure. Recent advances in cryobiology have yielded promising results, leading to oocyte cryopreservation becoming a mainstay of fertility preservation. In this case series, we describe the feasibility of performing ovarian stimulation, and the ethical challenges faced, in teenage girls, aged 14-18 years, prior to undergoing bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anaemia. All eight consecutive cases completed ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval with mature oocytes being found and cryopreserved for each patient. The mean dose of gonadotrophin stimulation was 2134.38 IU (95% CI 1593.34-2675.4) and the mean duration of treatment was 11 days (95% CI 10.02-11.98). The mean number of oocytes retrieved was 14.88 (95% CI 7.39-22.36), of which a mean of 12.13 (95% CI 4.72-19.54) oocytes were mature and cryopreserved. There was one case of moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome that required hospital admission for supportive treatment. Oocyte cryopreservation is a technique that can be successfully employed after the retrieval of mature oocytes from the peripubertal ovary, restoring hope to these patients, and their families, of having their own genetic children in the future. PMID:27112701

  14. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr.; Patricia Garani Fernandes; Flávia Adelino Suaid; Marcio Fernando de Moraes Grisi; Sergio Luis Scombatti de Souza; Mario Taba Jr.; Daniela Bazan Palioto; Valdir Antonio Muglia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM) / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15) or the control group (ADM only). Histomorphometric measurements and histological a...

  15. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  16. The effect of permanent grafting materials on the preservation of the buccal bone plate after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the dog.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bashara, Haitham

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bone substitute system (Natix(®)), consisting of porous titanium granules (PTG) and a bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss(®)), on hard tissue remodelling following their placement into fresh extraction sockets in dogs.

  17. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  18. Preservation or resection of the hyoid bone on aspiration after supraglottic horizontal partial laryngectomy%声门上水平喉部分切除术中舌骨去留对误咽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守玺; 刘荷珍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨声门上水平喉部分切除术中保留与切除舌骨对误咽的影响。方法回顾分析1998年1月至2011年10月菏泽市立医院耳鼻咽喉科收治的39例声门上型喉癌行声门上水平喉部分切除术的临床资料,将其中年龄在56~67岁且无脑血管病、神经系统疾病及呼吸系统疾病的声门上型喉癌(T1~T3)行声门上水平喉部分切除术的39例患者作为观察对象,其中19例未切除舌骨,20例切除舌骨。结果病例切缘均为阴性,发声接近正常,拔管率为100%;保留舌骨的19例中,2例(10.5%)有轻度误咽,10例(52.6%)中度误咽,7例(36.8%)重度误咽,误咽恢复时间为(31±3)d;2例并发吸入性肺炎。切除舌骨的20例中,轻度误咽11例(55.0%),中度误咽9例(45.0%),无重度误咽,误咽恢复时间为(15±2)d;无吸入性肺炎发生。结论声门上水平喉部分切除术中切除舌骨、充分利用舌根对声门的遮盖作用,可有效减轻术后误咽程度,缩短误咽恢复时间,防止或减少吸入性肺炎的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of preservation or resection of the hyoid bone on aspiration after supra-glottic horizontal partial laryngectomy.Methods A total of 39 patients(56 to 67 years old)with supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma (T1-T3 )without cerebrovascular diseases,nervous system diseases and respiratory diseases were chosen as the observation objects,and of them,19 patients were preserved the hyoid bone and 20 were removed the hyoid bone. Results The incision margin of all cases was negative.The phonation approached normal and the decannulation rate was 100%.Of the patients preserving the hyoid bone,2 had mild aspiration(10.5%),7 serious(36.8%)and 10 moderate(52.6%),and the restoration duration was (31 ±3)days.Of the patients removing the hyoid bone,11 had mild aspiration(55.0%),9 moderate(45.0%)and none serious,and the

  19. How are teeth better than bone? An investigation of dental tissue diagenesis and state of preservation at a histological scale (with photo catalogue)

    OpenAIRE

    Hege I. Hollund; Miranda M.E. Jans; Henk Kars

    2014-01-01

    Teeth are often the preferred substrate for isotopic and genetic assays in archaeological research. Teeth can yield isotopic signals from different periods of an individual's lifetime, useful in dietary reconstruction, climate research, and investigation into mobility of people and animals in the past. Additionally, it is generally accepted that teeth preserve biomolecules (e.g. DNA, collagen) and isotopic signals better. Despite the importance of dental tissue in archaeological research, no ...

  20. Adsorption of DNA on biomimetic apatites: Toward the understanding of the role of bone and tooth mineral on the preservation of ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Grunenwald, Anne; Keyser, Christine; Sautereau, Anne-Marie; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand; Drouet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    International audience In order to shed some light on DNA preservation over time in skeletal remains from a physicochemicalviewpoint, adsorption and desorption of DNA on a well characterized synthetic apatite mimicking boneand dentin biominerals were studied. Batch adsorption experiments have been carried out to determinethe effect of contact time (kinetics), DNA concentration (isotherms) and environmentally relevant factorssuch as temperature, ionic strength and pH on the adsorption behav...

  1. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  2. USO DO ENXERTO ÓSSEO CORTICAL BOVINO CONSERVADO EM GLICERINA A 98% NA OSTEOTOMIA FEMORAL EM GATOS USE BOVINE CORTICAL BONE, PRESERVED IN 98% GLICERIN IN FEMORAL OSTEOTOMY IN CATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena de Carvalho Penha

    2008-12-01

    . The objective of this study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of xenografts as a substitute for methalic implants. Animals were divided into two groups: five young cats and five adult cats. Clinically, the weight-bearing on the operated limb was observed the day after surgery in all animals, with complete remission of lameness at 15 days and bone union in 16.6 weeks. In five young animals, in two of them, the grafts were fractured carrying a serious bone bending without fracture of feline femur. In the last two young cats, remodeling was noted in mean time of 75 days or 10.7 weeks. In five adult cats, all of them suffered overriding of the fragments of osteotomized bone with various degrees, where two cases were considered severe cases dut to fracture of feline femur without bone bending. In the three remaining animals with slightly overriding, one was a case of delayed union, one suffered tow surgical procedures due to graft fracture and one did not show a radiographic exuberant bone callus, with remodeling at 110 days. The use of the bonive xenograft preserved in 98% glycerol in young and adult cats used as intramedularry nails was perfectly employed, offering mechanical support in time of bone consolidation in all of 10 animals.

    KEY WORDS: Cortical bovine graft, cats, femur, fracture, osteotomy.

  3. Comparative study of cryopreserved bone tissue and tissue preserved in a 98% glycerol solution Estudo comparativo entre o tecido ósseo criopreservado e o conservado em glicerol a 98%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Mazzini Miranda Giovani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the bone graft cryopreservation method (at -80ºC with a preservation method using a 98% glycerol solution at room temperature (10ºC-35ºC, by testing the antibacterial and fungal effects of 98% glycerol and comparatively analyzing the observed histological changes resulting from the use of both methods. METHOD: This study was of 30 samples of trabecular bone tissue from 10 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Each femoral head provided 3 samples that were randomized into 3 groups, namely, the control group, the cryopreserved group, and the group preserved in a 98% glycerol at room temperature for 1 year. The samples were submitted to histomorphologic, cell feasibility, and microbiologic analyses. The results were statistically analyzed using the McNemar test, with a statistical significance index of 0.05. RESULTS: Values obtained using the McNemar test to compare probability distributions of histomorphologic variables (mature or lamellar bone, immature bone, and necrosis and cell feasibility (osteoblasts and osteoclasts indicated that there is no difference between the distributions of variables under the 3 experimental conditions. Microbiological analysis of the 98% glycerol solution and bone fragments from samples stored for 1 year at room temperature did not show bacterial or fungal growth. The histological and microbiological investigation were performed at 2 different time points: immediately after the sample processing and after 1 year. CONCLUSION: The method used to preserve bone grafts kept in 98% glycerol at room temperature (10ºC-35ºC was similar to cryopreservation in terms of bone matrix preservation; no bacteria or fungi were found in the samples.OBJETIVO: Comparar o método da criopreservação de enxertos ósseos (- 80º C com o da conservação em glicerol a 98% em temperatura ambiente (10º C a 35º C, testando os efeitos antibacterianos e antifúngicos do glicerol a 98% e analisando

  4. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  5. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  6. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... stage gradually declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country......-Scottish double monarchy, it is fair to assume that his political ambitions are of a far reaching nature. King Christian wants revenge on Sweden and he wishes to preserve the military and naval power generated during the latest war with that country. However, this is certainly not to be achieved cheaply. To...

  7. Software preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards). Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overloo...

  8. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  9. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  10. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  11. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  12. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces and...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  13. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  14. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  15. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  16. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Evinc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 29-32

  17. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  18. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  19. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  20. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    OpenAIRE

    David Minor; Don Sutton; Ardys Kozbial; Brad Westbrook; Michael Burek; Michael Smorul

    2010-01-01

    The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL), and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric ...

  1. Software Preservation Benefits Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Chue Hong, Neil; Crouch, Steve; Hettrick, Simon; Parkinson, Tim; Shreeve, Matt

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of software preservation has been carried out by Curtis+Cartwright Consulting Limited, in partnership with the Software Sustainability Institute (SSI), on behalf of the JISC. The aim of the study was to raise awareness and build capacity throughout the Further and Higher Education (FE/HE) sector to engage with preservation issues as part of the process of software development. Part of this involved examining the purpose and benefits of employing preservation measures in relat...

  2. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  3. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. Experimental Study on Lyophilization Preservation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells%冷冻干燥法保存人骨髓间充质干细胞的实验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菊莉; 张绍志; 孙洁; 陈光明

    2012-01-01

    The lyophilization preservation of hBM-MSCs was conducted . 30% PVP and 20%Trehalose were used as freeze-drying protecta-nts. The vitrification temperatures of samples were measured by DSC in order to define the freeze-drying temperature scientifically. After lyophilization, hBM-MSCs were successfully resuscitated,the recovery rate reached at (55. 2 ± 7. 66)%. This work will make certain references to the researches of hBM-MSCs preservation.%尝试用冷冻干燥法来保存骨髓间充质干细胞.通过差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测量样品玻璃化转变温度,从而科学确定冻干工艺温度,合理设计冷冻干燥工艺,实验实现了以30% PVP、20%海藻糖为保护液的骨髓间充质干细胞的冻干保存,其复水率达(55.2±7.66)%.该研究对解决现有的hBM-MSCs的保存瓶颈具有一定的参考价值.

  5. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  6. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  7. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  8. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  9. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  10. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  11. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  12. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  13. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  14. Two preservation theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    2005-01-01

    I prove preservation theorems for countable support iteration of proper forcing concerning certain classes of capacities and submeasures. New examples of forcing notions and connections with measure theory are included.

  15. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the process of saving or protecting eggs, sperm, or reproductive tissue so that a person can ... children 2 . Fertility-preserving options for men include: Sperm cryopreservation (pronounced krahy-oh-prez-er-VEY-shuhn ). ...

  16. FARMLAND PRESERVATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Dale

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, May 25-27, 1998. The preservation of farmland is an important issue in most areas of the U.S. and all states have enacted legislation to promote this activity. This article reviews the various policy tools for preserving farmland. Use valuation of farmland for property tax purposes is the most common remedy but it is not effective where there are strong incentives to co...

  17. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  18. Geospatial Data Preservation Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Lauriault, Tracey P.; Hackett, Yvette; Kennedy, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This primer is one in a series of Operational Policy documents being developed by GeoConnections. It is intended to inform Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) stakeholders about the nature and scope of digital geospatial data archiving and preservation and the realities, challenges and good practices of related operational policies. Burgeoning growth of online geospatial applications and the deluge of data, combined with the growing complexity of archiving and preserving digita...

  19. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly...

  20. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  1. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about...

  2. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Pâmela Letícia Santos; Jéssica Lemos Gulinelli; Cristino da Silva Telles; Walter Betoni Júnior; Roberta Okamoto; Vivian Chiacchio Buchignani; Thallita Pereira Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immed...

  3. Plastination of decalcified bone by a new resin technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Rabiei; Ebrahim Esfandiary; Morteza Hajian; Atefe Shamosi; Mohammad Mardani; Bahman Rashidi; Mohsen Setayeshmehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: The scope of this study was to preserve whole detailed structure of dissected and decalcified bones, taken from used cadavers, by a new plastination technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens we used in this study were sheep femurs and human bones including pelvis, femur, tibia, and fibula. Bones, at first, fixed with 5% formalin and were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, and then were fixed again and washed under the tap water. The resulted flexible bones were dehydrated in -...

  4. Epiphyseal preservation and reconstruction with inactivated bone in distal femur for metaphyseal osteosarcoma in children%保留骨骺灭活再植术治疗儿童股骨远端骨肉瘤及术后肢体功能恢复特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀淳; 刘晓平; 周银; 付志厚; 宋若先; 孙海宁; 徐明

    2007-01-01

    和肢体长度的保持.%BACKGROUND: Limb salvage operations with preservation of the epiphysis (LSPPE) had been used clinically in order to overcome discrepancy of affected limb and poorer limb function, but more post-operation complications existed, including infection, grafting bone resorption, fracture and internal fixation cinch.OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical related matters of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis in children limb salvage with osteosarcoma.DESIGN: Clinical observation regularly.SETTING: General Hospital of Jinan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Eleven patients corresponded selected standard and accepted treatment from January 1999 to January distal metastasis was found with lung X-ray check and CT scanning, the patient would be excluded this study. There were 5 males, 6 females, and the mean age of (8±2) years old (4-11 years). The disease history was 1-6 months.FO) were adopted. After 2 weeks of chemotherapy, the operations of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis were performed. The operation was performed under epidural or general anesthesia. The patient lied on operating table. The knee anteriomedialis incision was adopted. Firstly, femur periosteum was opened beyond proximal end 2-3 cm from tumor, subperiosteum stripping was done to the proximal femur, descend femur with wire saw, separated and disconnected aboral periosteum, blunt dissecting femur aboral blood vessel and nerves to the popliteal fossa,deligating blood vessel around the tumor. Attachment of gastroenemius was cut off. Epiphyseal plate was identified carefully. According to pre-operation MR, the distal femur descend level was determined and the femur was descend with electro-saw. It was determined with cytology that no tumor cell existed in descend level, and reconstruction of bone de-fect with inactivated tumor-bone shell with 95% alcohol and bone cement containing ADR (20 g bone cement: 10 mg ADR), the diaphysis was fixed by intramedullary

  5. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  6. Open collagen membrane technique in socket preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Both hard and soft tissue undergo change after tooth extraction. In particular, the bone tissue surrounding teeth with fenestration or dehiscence defects undergoes dramatic change following tooth extraction, which can compromise further rehabilitation of the area. Adequate alveolar bone volume and keratinized mucosa are critical to the success of implant therapy. Therefore, the anatomic dimension of the alveolar ridge must be adequate to achieve an esthetically acceptable outcome of implant therapy. Previous studies have proposed many clinical techniques for preserving the extraction socket. This article presents a procedure in which an open collagen membrane technique was adopted to maintain an adequate volume of hard tissue and a sufficient width of the keratinized mucosa for further esthetic and functional implantation. Through this simple technique, an adequate volume and architecture around the implant can be achieved, with a long-term prognosis for implant therapy expected. PMID:27433553

  7. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  8. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  9. Selection for digital preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Seadle, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This editorial discusses long-term archiving and long-term access to digital documents, with an emphasis on criteria for selection. Selecting materials for digital preservation depends on whether the materials are both valuable and endangered, whether appropriate digitization procedures and standards for these materials exist, and whether copyright allows reasonable access for educational and research purposes.

  10. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  11. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  12. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where

  13. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  15. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  16. Reconstrucción craneofacial compleja: malla de titanio, hueso autólogo preservado en óxido de etileno y reconstrucciones tridimensionales en polimetilmetacrilato (HTR-PMI Complex craneofacial reconstruction: titanium mesh, autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and tridimensional polimetilmetacrilate implants (HTR-PMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La evolución de la Cirugía Craneofacial se inicio con Jean Paul Tessier, quien en 1967 preconizó el uso de injertos autólogos de hueso fresco en gran cantidad para cubrir extensas brechas óseas en la corrección de disóstosis craneofacial. Recientemente, diferentes tipos de reconstrucción utilizando hueso autólogo preservado en oxido de etileno y materiales como el polimetilmetacrilato poroso confeccionado a medida, han permitido también la corrección de grandes defectos óseos craneofaciales. Presentamos nuestra experiencia inicial en el uso de estas técnicas a través de un análisis retrospectivo sobre 21 pacientes operados por un equipo multidisciplinario entre Enero del 2007 y Marzo del 2009 en el Hospital Militar, Centro Panamericano de Ojos y Hospital de Diagnóstico de El Salvador, en los que se utilizaron formas alternativas pera reconstrucción de calota craneana, piso de órbita, fosa craneal anterior, área órbito-cigomática y maxilar superior. No registramos casos de infección o retirada de material de osteosíntesis aloplástico o de los injertos autólogos, ni hubo fístulas. Si se presentó una úlcera postraumática en una zona de unión de tejido desvitalizado, que se resolvió con tratamiento conservador. Los resultados estéticos obtenidos fueron de aceptables a buenos. Como conclusión, el equipo multidisciplinario, la combinación de técnicas quirúrgicas y el uso de material protésico para la reconstrucción craneofacial compleja ha dado como resultado avances significativos desde el punto de vista funcional y estético ante lesiones que involucran esta compleja área anatómica.The evolution of craniofacial surgery began with Jean Paul Tessier, who in 1967 supported the use of fresh autologous bone to cover bone defects in the craniofacial area. Recently different types of reconstructions using autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and advanced custom-made polimetacrilate implants that have allowed

  17. Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO 2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tiainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

  18. On Distribution Preserving Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Minyue; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Upon compressing perceptually relevant signals, conventional quantization generally results in unnatural outcomes at low rates. We propose distribution preserving quantization (DPQ) to solve this problem. DPQ is a new quantization concept that confines the probability space of the reconstruction to be identical to that of the source. A distinctive feature of DPQ is that it facilitates a seamless transition between signal synthesis and quantization. A theoretical analysis of DPQ leads to a distribution preserving rate-distortion function (DP-RDF), which serves as a lower bound on the rate of any DPQ scheme, under a constraint on distortion. In general situations, the DP-RDF approaches the classic rate-distortion function for the same source and distortion measure, in the limit of an increasing rate. A practical DPQ scheme based on a multivariate transformation is also proposed. This scheme asymptotically achieves the DP-RDF for i.i.d. Gaussian sources and the mean squared error.

  19. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  20. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  1. Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ravi; Chitra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in data collection and monitoring using data mining for security and business-related applications has raised privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) techniques require data modification to disinfect them from sensitive information or to anonymize them at an uncertainty level. This study uses PPDM with adult dataset to investigate effects of K-anonymization for evaluation metrics. This study uses Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm for feature generalization and suppr...

  2. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed

  3. Socket preservation as a precursor of future implant placement: review of the literature and case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vanchit; De Poi, Robert; Blanchard, Steven

    2007-12-01

    Dimensional changes after tooth extraction often result in bone resorption that complicates restorations with implant or traditional prostheses. Preservation of alveolar dimensions after tooth extraction is crucial to achieve optimal esthetic and functional prosthodontic results. In addition, with the increasingly frequent use of dental implants to replace nonrestorable teeth, preservation of the existing alveolus is essential to maintain adequate bone volume for placement and stabilization of the implants. Atraumatic extraction and socket preservation techniques have been introduced to minimize bone resorption after tooth extraction. This article reviews the literature, presents clinical cases on the healing of the alveolus and its dimensional changes after tooth extraction, and discusses socket preservation techniques that have been introduced to minimize these dimensional changes. PMID:18186170

  4. A Framework for Software Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Matthews; Arif Shaon; Juan Bicarregui; Catherine Jones

    2010-01-01

    Software preservation has not had detailed consideration as a research topic or in practical application. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework to capture and organise the main notions of software preservation, which are required for a coherent and comprehensive approach.  This framework has three main aspects. Firstly a discussion of what it means to preserve software via a performance model which considers how a software artefact can be rebuilt from preserved components and can t...

  5. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  6. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  7. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  8. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction. This...... cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  9. Transplanting defrozen mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration was studied of blood formation in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice 30 and 60 days after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow. Also studied were the counts of leukocytes, thrombocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. Hematopoiesis changes were described and it was shown that after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow, regeneration and progressive normalization of hematopoiesis took place in the lethally irradiated recipients. It was found that the freezing procedure used was tender and preserved the proliferation capacity of the stem hemopoietic cells. (author)

  10. 4D Shape-Preserving Modelling of Bone Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads; Kreiborg, Sven

    1998-01-01

    subdivide the growth analysis into growth simulation, growth modelling, and finally the growth analysis. In this paper, we present results of growth simulation of the mandible from 3 scannings of the same patient in the age of 9 months, 21 months, and 7 years. We also present the first growth models and...

  11. Improving access to endogenous DNA in ancient bones and teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Damgaard, Peter B.; Ashot Margaryan; Hannes Schroeder; Ludovic Orlando; Eske Willerslev; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2015-01-01

    Poor DNA preservation is the most limiting factor in ancient genomic research. In the majority of ancient bones and teeth, endogenous DNA molecules represent a minor fraction of the whole DNA extract, rendering shot-gun sequencing inefficient for obtaining genomic data. Based on ancient human bone samples from temperate and tropical environments, we show that an EDTA-based enzymatic ‘pre-digestion’ of powdered bone increases the proportion of endogenous DNA several fold. By performing the pre...

  12. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  13. Establishing a temporal bone laboratory: considerations for ENT specialist training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G

    2012-02-01

    Cadaveric temporal bone dissection in a temporal bone laboratory is a vital component in training safe, competent otorhinolaryngologists. Recent controversies pertaining to organ retention have resulted in a more limited supply of temporal bones. Consequently, current trainees are dissecting far fewer bones than their consultants. We discuss the establishment of a temporal bone laboratory in the Department of Anatomy in the University College Cork, from the timely preparation and preservation of the tissue to its disposal. Comparisons are drawn between our experience and that of the United States training schemes. The temporal bone laboratory in Cork is the only one in existence in Ireland. The exposure and experience obtained by registrars rotating through Cork, has resulted in noticeable improvements in their operative abilities. The temporal bone laboratory remains a core component to training. It is hoped that this article may facilitate other units overcoming obstacles to establish a temporal bone laboratory.

  14. The Pontic-Shield: Partial Extraction Therapy for Ridge Preservation and Pontic Site Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Augmentive ridge preservation techniques aim to manage the postextraction ridge. The partial extraction of teeth may better preserve the ridge form by maintaining the bundle bone-periodontal ligament apparatus. Root submergence has been demonstrated to retain the periodontal tissues and preserve the ridge beneath dentures or fixed prostheses. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results contributory to esthetic implant treatment. A retrospective 10-patient case series treating 14 partial extraction sites demonstrates how a modification of the socket-shield technique can successfully develop pontic sites and preserve the ridge. PMID:27100812

  15. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  16. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  17. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having a...... too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation to...... current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  18. LMFRs knowledge preservation (viewgraphs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of LMFRs Knowledge Preservation program is to create an everlasting data base of documentation with easy access for consulting, in order to keep knowledge and experience acquired through the development, design, construction and operation of the French LMFR Plants (Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, SPX2 and EFR Projects). The main issues to be taken into account are: History, concept approach, evolution, supporting R and D; 22 R and D Topics, 41 Superphenix Plant Systems; Common CEA, EdF and FRAMATOME-ANP realisation; More than 15 000 documents (paper and CD-ROM medium); RCC-MR 2000 version (update of mechanical analysis rules); ARCOPAC data base of measures obtained from Superphenix operation. Since there is no project on the way, the LMFRs knowledge has to be perpetuated: CEA and EDF and FRAMATOME-ANP decided to collaborate in order to build an everlasting data base

  19. PRESERVING A TRADITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  20. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  1. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  2. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  3. Understanding the local actions of lipids in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Alexandrine; Penel, Guillaume; Hardouin, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The adult skeleton is a metabolically active organ system that undergoes continuous remodeling to remove old and/or stressed bone (resorption) and replace it with new bone (formation) in order to maintain a constant bone mass and preserve bone strength from micro-damage accumulation. In that remodeling process, cellular balances--adipocytogenesis/osteoblastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis/osteoclastogenesis--are critical and tightly controlled by many factors, including lipids as discussed in the present review. Interest in the bone lipid area has increased as a result of in vivo evidences indicating a reciprocal relationship between bone mass and marrow adiposity. Lipids in bones are usually assumed to be present only in the bone marrow. However, the mineralized bone tissue itself also contains small amounts of lipids which might play an important role in bone physiology. Fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and several endogenous metabolites (i.e., prostaglandins, oxysterols) have been purported to act on bone cell survival and functions, the bone mineralization process, and critical signaling pathways. Thus, they can be regarded as regulatory molecules important in bone health. Recently, several specific lipids derived from membrane phospholipids (i.e., sphingosine-1-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and different fatty acid amides) have emerged as important mediators in bone physiology and the number of such molecules will probably increase in the near future. The present paper reviews the current knowledge about: (1°) bone lipid composition in both bone marrow and mineralized tissue compartments, and (2°) local actions of lipids on bone physiology in relation to their metabolism. Understanding the roles of lipids in bone is essential to knowing how an imbalance in their signaling pathways might contribute to bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26118851

  4. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR......-ReMS prototype to calculate measures for how well bit preservation requirements are met. Planning storage of data as part of preservation planning involves classification of data with regard to requirements on confidentiality, bit safety, available and costs. Choice of storage with such parameters is quite...... complex since e.g. more copies of data means better bit safety, but higher cost and bigger risk of breaking confidentiality. Based on a case of a bit repository offering varied bit preservation solutions, the article will present results of using the methodology to make plans and choices of alternatives...

  5. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  6. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  7. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  8. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  9. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  10. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  11. Designing Parity Preserving Reversible Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Goutam; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Chandak, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Making a reversible circuit fault-tolerant is much more difficult than classical circuit and there have been only a few works in the area of parity-preserving reversible logic design. Moreover, all of these designs are ad hoc, based on some pre-defined parity preserving reversible gates as building blocks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a novel and systematic approach towards parity preserving reversible circuits design. We provide some related theoretical results and give two a...

  12. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  13. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  14. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  15. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  16. Chronopolis: Preserving our Digital Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Minor, David; Sutton, Don; Kozbial, Ardys; Burek, Michael; Smorul, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress' latest efforts to collect and preserve atrisk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of cultural and social domains. In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis.

  17. A Framework for Software Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Matthews

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software preservation has not had detailed consideration as a research topic or in practical application. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework to capture and organise the main notions of software preservation, which are required for a coherent and comprehensive approach.  This framework has three main aspects. Firstly a discussion of what it means to preserve software via a performance model which considers how a software artefact can be rebuilt from preserved components and can then be seen to be representative of the original software product. Secondly the development of a model of software artefacts, describing the basic components of all software, loosely based on the FRBR model for representing digital artefacts and their history within a library context. Finally, the definition and categorisation of the properties of software artefacts which are required to ensure that the software product has been adequately preserved. These are broken down into a number of categories and related to the concepts defined in the OAIS standard. We also discuss our experience of recording these preservation properties for a number of BADC software products, which arose from a series of case studies conducted to evaluate the software preservation framework, and also briefly describe the SPEQS toolkit, a tool to capture software preservation properties within a software development.

  18. A comprehensive bone-health management approach for men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. E.; Leslie, W.D.; Czaykowski, P.; Gingerich, J.; Geirnaert, M.; Lau, Y.K.J.

    2011-01-01

    For advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (adt) is the mainstay of treatment. Awareness of the potential bone-health complications consequent to adt use is increasing. Many studies have shown that prolonged adt leads to significant bone loss and increased fracture risk that negatively affect quality of life. Clinical practice guidelines for preserving bone health in men with prostate cancer on adt vary across Canada. This paper reviews recent studies on bone he...

  19. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  20. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling: lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L; Duong, Le T; Engelholm, Lars H; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-10

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is

  1. Preservation Is Knowledge: A community-driven preservation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Derrot, Sophie; Fauduet, Louise; Oury, Clément; Peyrard, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    In the beginning, SPAR, the National Library of France's repository, was designed as the OAIS softwarified. It was intended to be a "full OAIS", covering all preservation needs in one tidy system. Then as its potential revealed itself across the library, high hopes arose for a do-it-all digital curation tool. Yet in day to day preservation activities of the BnF, it turns out that SPAR's growth takes a practical approach to the essentials of preservation and the specific needs of communities. ...

  2. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate. PMID:27108185

  3. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  4. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  5. Determinants of alveolar ridge preservation differ by anatomic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Salas, Mabel; Ort, Yirae; Johnson, Ashley; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Agarwal, Sudha; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in posterior maxilla and mandible. Methods Twenty-four patients (54 ± 3 years) with single posterior tooth extraction were included. ARP was performed with freeze-dried bone allograft and collagen membrane. Clinical parameters were recorded at extraction and re-entry. Harvested bone cores were analysed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results In both jaws, ARP prevented ridge height loss, but ridge width was significantly reduced by approximately 2.5 mm. Healing time, initial clinical attachment loss and amount of keratinized tissue at extraction site were identified as determinants of ridge height outcome. Buccal plate thickness and tooth root length were identified as determinants of ridge width outcome. In addition, initial ridge width was positively correlated with ridge width loss. Micro-CT revealed greater mineralization per unit volume in new bone compared with existing bone in mandible (p < 0.001). Distributions of residual graft, new cellular bone and immature tissue were similar in both jaws. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that in different anatomic locations different factors may determine ARP outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand determinants of ARP outcomes. PMID:23432761

  6. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  7. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  8. Privacy Preserving Online Convex Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Prateek; Thakurta, Abhradeep

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of preserving privacy for online convex programming (OCP), an important online learning paradigm. We use the notion of differential privacy as our privacy measure. For this problem, we distill two critical attributes a private OCP algorithm should have, namely, linearly decreasing sensitivity and sub-linear regret bound. Assuming these two conditions, we provide a general framework for OCP that preserves privacy while guaranteeing sub-linear regret bound. We then analyze Implicit Gradient Descent (IGD) algorithm for OCP in our framework, and show $\\tilde O(\\sqrt{T})$ regret bound while preserving differential privacy for Lipschitz continuous, strongly convex cost functions. We also analyze the Generalized Infinitesimal Gradient Ascent (GIGA) method, a popular OCP algorithm, in our privacy preserving framework to obtain $\\tilde O(\\sqrt{T})$ regret bound, albeit for a slightly more restricted class of strongly convex functions with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We then co...

  9. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  10. Privacy-preserving data publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Benjamin C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The success of data mining relies on the availability of high quality data. To ensure quality data mining, effective information sharing between organizations become a vital requirement in today’s society. Since data mining often involves person-specific and sensitive information like medical records, the public has expressed a deep concern about their privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a study of eliminating privacy threats while, at the same time, preserving useful information i...

  11. Socket preservation procedure after extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar ridge prophylaxis immediately upon tooth extraction may reduce such sequelae for both, the treating dentist and the patient. Attempts to reduce alveolar bone resorption have included the placement of natural roots, root analogues, and immediate implants into the extraction socket, sometimes in combination with membrane or graft techniques. Various materials are used in modern dental and maxillofacial surgery for bone tissue substitution and reconstruction. All osteoplastic materi...

  12. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  13. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  15. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  16. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  17. Spectroscopic Studies on Organic Matter from Triassic Reptile Bones, Upper Silesia, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Surmik, Dawid; Boczarowski, Andrzej; Balin, Katarzyna; Dulski, Mateusz; Szade, Jacek; Kremer, Barbara; Pawlicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Fossil biomolecules from an endogenous source were previously identified in Cretaceous to Pleistocene fossilized bones, the evidence coming from molecular analyses. These findings, however, were called into question and an alternative hypothesis of the invasion of the bone by bacterial biofilm was proposed. Herewith we report a new finding of morphologically preserved blood-vessel-like structures enclosing organic molecules preserved in iron-oxide-mineralized vessel walls from the cortical re...

  18. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  19. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  20. [Bone and Nutrition. The association of vitamin K intake and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The association of vitamin K with bone mineral density has been reported in some previous cohort studies and intervention studies. In cohort studies, higher vitamin K1 intake was associated with lower fracture incidence. Some intervention studies have described that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 : MK-4) supplementation were modestly efficacious in preventing fracture, but not in preserving bone mass. Although dietary reference intake (adequate intake : AI) for vitamin K was increased from previous value, current AI was determined as the dose sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation with little mentioning to bone. Vitamin K intake greater than the current AI would be required for the bone health. PMID:26119310

  1. Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Glocker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

  2. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  3. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone. PMID:27118173

  4. Preservation of information and records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology offers distinctive advantages in the preservation of knowledge and information. The power of full text searching, sophisticated cross-collection indexing, newly developed system interfaces, new ways to deliver manageable portions of large image data files promise to revolutionize the ways in which research materials are used for teaching and learning. The required investments for digitization and digital preservation are quite large. Metadata, often called data about data or information about information, are the key to ensuring that resources will survive and continue to be accessible to future users. The nature of the physical media on which digital data are stored presents a serious challenge to the preservation of digital content. The main technologies for storing and maintaining information are briefly described in the paper. (author)

  5. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  6. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  7. Preservatives from Nature: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Pawar; Ashwini V. Shenoy; Pranita D. Narawade; Pranay Y. Soni; Priyanka P. Shanbhag; Vaibhav A.Rajal

    2011-01-01

    Natural food preservatives have been used and known to mankind since a very long time. These are used in both raw as well as cooked food to increase the shelf life of food so that aroma, taste and the food itself can be stored for a longer period of time. Also food degradation is prevented by them. Preservatives, whether natural or artificial, work as in three different ways: Antimicrobial, Antioxidants and Act on enzymes. In antimicrobial, the growth of microbes like bacteria and fungi is in...

  8. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed

  9. Honey preserved cortical allografts in the repair of diaphyseal femoral defect in dogs: clinical and radiographic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen adult mongrel dogs were used to evaluate the honey preserved cortical allografts in the repair of diaphyseal femoral defect. The allografts were inserted into a 5cm segmental defect created in the mid-diaphysis of the right femur in each dog. The bones were stabilized with a dynamic compression plate and eight bone screws. Healing was followed clinically and femora were evaluated radiographically, periodically. Nineteen (79.2%) of the twenty-four host-graft interfaces were radiographically incorporated. Average time to allograft incorporation was 67.1 days (range 45 days to 90 days). There was no statistical difference in the allograft incorporation time between proximal and distal host-graft interfaces. Complications observed were nonunion, allograft fracture, and allograft resorption. The conclusion is that despite the complications, honey preserved cortical allografts are a viable option to bone reconstruction

  10. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... with the aid of a mapping of presence of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces, the method may be used to study possible biochemical interactions between bone and muscle tissue at the muscle/bone interface....

  11. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which is...... costs are taken into account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the various findings from previous research which have led to the holistic approach to bit preservation. This paper also includes an introduction to digital preservation with a focus on the role of bit preservation, which...... to do bit preservation of its digital material....

  12. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  13. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  14. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  15. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  16. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  17. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  18. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  19. Implementing Metadata that Guide Digital Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use these metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  20. Implementing Metadata that Guides Digital Preservation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Dappert, Angela; Farquhar, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use this metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  1. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  2. Shape Preserving Filament Enhancement Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2001-01-01

    Morphological connected set filters for extraction of filamentous details from medical images are developed. The advantages of these filters are that they are shape preserving and do not amplify noise. Two approaches are compared: (i) multi-scale filtering (ii) single-step shape filtering using conn

  3. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts duri

  4. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  5. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L;

    2014-01-01

    canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone...

  6. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  7. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  8. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  9. Texture-preserving Bayesian image reconstruction for low-dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Han, Hao; Hu, Yifan; Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Li, Lihong; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2016-03-01

    Markov random field (MRF) model has been widely used in Bayesian image reconstruction to reconstruct piecewise smooth images in the presence of noise, such as in low-dose X-ray computed tomography (LdCT). While it can preserve edge sharpness via edge-preserving potential function, its regional smoothing may sacrifice tissue image textures, which have been recognized as useful imaging biomarkers, and thus it compromises clinical tasks such as differentiating malignant vs. benign lesions, e.g., lung nodule or colon polyp. This study aims to shift the edge preserving regional noise smoothing paradigm to texture-preserving framework for LdCT image reconstruction while retaining the advantage of MRF's neighborhood system on edge preservation. Specifically, we adapted the MRF model to incorporate the image textures of lung, bone, fat, muscle, etc. from previous full-dose CT scan as a priori knowledge for texture-preserving Bayesian reconstruction of current LdCT images. To show the feasibility of proposed reconstruction framework, experiments using clinical patient scans (with lung nodule or colon polyp) were conducted. The experimental outcomes showed noticeable gain by the a priori knowledge for LdCT image reconstruction with the well-known Haralick texture measures. Thus, it is conjectured that texture-preserving LdCT reconstruction has advantages over edge-preserving regional smoothing paradigm for texture-specific clinical applications.

  10. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  11. The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Lodowska; Daniel Wolny; Sławomir Kurkiewicz; Ludmiła Węglarz

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of...

  12. Scientific and Organizational Problems Connected with the Establishment of Bone-Marrow and Blood-Component Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the results of studies carried out with a view to devising rational means for the long-term preservation of bone-marrow and blood cells at ultra- low temperatures. Attention is especially directed to freezing conditions and cryoprotective agents. The paper stresses the significance of the apparatus that has been constructed for programmed freezing operations and analyses the data regarding bone-marrow donors. The present level of knowledge in regard to the preservation of bone-marrow and blood components makes it possible to organize banks for their long-term storage, thereby permitting more extensive clinical use of bone-marrow transplantation and haemotherapy. (author)

  13. Preservation Planning in the OAIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHAN STRODL; ANDREAS RAUBER

    2008-01-01

    The OAIS model has gained widespread acceptance as the fundamental design reference model for an archival system by the digital library community.One of its core entities is Preservation Planning,for which central functional entities are given yet without every detail breaking down into activities requirements.The Planets Preservation Planning approach addresses this by providing a way to make informed and accountable decisions on which preservation strategy to implement in order to most suitably preserve digital objects for a given preservation context.It allows the explicit definition of requirements and goals and offers a systematic way to evaluate preservation strategies.This paper shows the implementation of the Develop Preservation Strategies and Standards function of the OAIS model through the Planets Preservation Planning approach.Moreover,the paper examines the information flows within the OAIS Preservation Planning entity and with other functional entities with respect to the Planets model.

  14. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C;

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and...... preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC...

  15. Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfar, John; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas; Stanbury, Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education-applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for many reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high level of anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  16. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  17. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T;

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  18. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Cruz A, L. C. [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, Toluca 50130, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez R, M. A., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro de Especialidades Odontologicas, Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon esquina Felipe Angeles s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  19. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  20. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  1. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  2. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  3. Preserving Terminal Distances using Minors

    CERN Document Server

    Krauthgamer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the following notion of compressing an undirected graph G with edge-lengths and terminal vertices $R\\subseteq V(G)$. A distance-preserving minor is a minor G' (of G) with possibly different edge-lengths, such that $R\\subseteq V(G')$ and the shortest-path distance between every pair of terminals is exactly the same in G and in G'. What is the smallest f*(k) such that every graph G with k=|R| terminals admits a distance-preserving minor G' with at most f*(k) vertices? Simple analysis shows that $f*(k)\\leq O(k^4)$. Our main result proves that $f*(k)\\geq \\Omega(k^2)$, significantly improving over the trivial $f*(k)\\geq k$. Our lower bound holds even for planar graphs G, in contrast to graphs G of constant treewidth, for which we prove that O(k) vertices suffice.

  4. Fabrication and anti-microbial evaluation of drug loaded polylactide space filler intended for ridge preservation following tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Nebu George Thomas; Sanil, George P.; Gopimohan Rajmohan; Prabhakaran, Jayachandran V.; Amulya K Panda

    2011-01-01

    Background: The preservation or reduction of alveolar ridge resorption following tooth extraction is important in patients especially for those intended for implants at a later stage. One way to achieve this is by using membranes, graft materials, and biodegradable space fillers to prevent alveolar bone resorption and promote regeneration. A major attraction for using biodegradable and biocompatible polymers as space fillers for ridge preservation is their safety profile in comparison to xeno...

  5. Privacy Preserving Distributed DBSCAN Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2013-01-01

    DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we...

  6. DSpace as a Preservation Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This presentation, given on September 15, 2005 at the Vancuover Regional Digital Archives Group meeting, introduces institutional repositories, briefly surveys the international and Canadian repository communities, and describes the Simon Fraser University Institutional Repository. The presentation then focuses on aspects of the DSpace software that address digital preservation, and also surveys some current work being done to expand these aspects. A live demonstation of DSpace (in which this...

  7. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  8. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  9. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  10. Fertility Preservation in Gynecological Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Shakuntala Chhabra; Imran Kutchi

    2013-01-01

    For cancers of reproductive system in women, fertility preservation is complex. Fertility is also affected by therapies, however prevention is possible. Radiotherapy affects gonads, uterus, and subsequent pregnancy outcomes in all ages. However, degree and damage depend on dose, irradiation field, and age at the time of exposure. Ovarian transposition is considered if ovarian involvement is unlikely. Gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy are related to agent’s type, cumulative doses, age, and o...

  11. Privacy-preserving Loyalty Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Justicia, Alberto; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Loyalty programs are promoted by vendors to incentivize loyalty in buyers. Although such programs have become widespread, they have been criticized by business experts and consumer associations: loyalty results in profiling and hence in loss of privacy of consumers. We propose a protocol for privacy-preserving loyalty programs that allows vendors and consumers to enjoy the benefits of loyalty (returning customers and discounts, respectively), while allowing consumers to stay anonymous and emp...

  12. The ZEUS data preservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Janusz; Wichmann, Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    A project to allow long term access and physics analysis of ZEUS data (ZEUS data preservation) has been established in collaboration with the DESY-IT group. In the ZEUS approach the analysis model is based on the Common Ntuple project, under development since 2006. The real data and all presently available Monte Carlo samples are being preserved in a flat ROOT ntuple format. There is ongoing work to provide the ability to simulate new, additional Monte Carlo samples also in the future. The validation framework of such a scheme using virtualisation techniques is being explored. The goal is to validate the frozen ZEUS software against future changes in hardware and operating system. A cooperation between ZEUS, DESY-IT and the library was established for document digitisation and long-term preservation of collaboration web pages. Part of the ZEUS internal documentation has already been stored within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. Existing digital documentation, needed to perform physics analysis also in the future, is being centralised and completed.

  13. The ZEUS data preservation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to allow long term access and physics analysis of ZEUS data (ZEUS data preservation) has been established in collaboration with the DESY-IT group. In the ZEUS approach the analysis model is based on the Common Ntuple project, under development since 2006. The real data and all presently available Monte Carlo samples are being preserved in a flat ROOT ntuple format. There is ongoing work to provide the ability to simulate new, additional Monte Carlo samples also in the future. The validation framework of such a scheme using virtualisation techniques is being explored. The goal is to validate the frozen ZEUS software against future changes in hardware and operating system. A cooperation between ZEUS, DESY-IT and the library was established for document digitisation and long-term preservation of collaboration web pages. Part of the ZEUS internal documentation has already been stored within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. Existing digital documentation, needed to perform physics analysis also in the future, is being centralised and completed.

  14. Radiocarbon dating human bone from Namu, Taumako, Solomon Islands : a comparison of two methods of bone pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of this study indicate that moderately well preserved bone with high levels of contamination require more sophisticated methods of pretreatment than collagen extraction and gelatinisation. Either protein and amino acid purification using the Biorad ion exchange resins, or the simpler amino acid purification method using XAD-2 resin can be used. (author). 31 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Radiosterilization of Tissues Preserved for Clinical Purposes: Effect on Tissue Antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper contains practical considerations on the radiosterilization of preserved human bone, human and calf cartilage, cow’s fascia and aponeurosis, based on material from the Tissue Bank which produces about 2500 transplants yearly. The method of preservation and packing of each type of tissue is mentioned briefly. The preserved tissues are irradiated in a cobalt bomb or in a nuclear reactor. The conditions of irradiation and the control of sterility are described. The advantages and disadvantages of radiosterilization are discussed on the basis of the authors’ own experience and clinical reports of surgeons using radiosterilized tissues in practice. In the second part of the paper, experimental studies on the influence of freezing, lyophilization and radiosterilization on tissue antigenicity are reported. The regional lymph node reacts to an antigenic stimulus by an increased production of large, pyroninophylic cells, so-called ''blast'' cells. The rabbits used as recipients received grafts of allogeneic cancellous bone, fresh or subjected to different experimental procedures. Smears from lymph node cell suspension were prepared and the percentage of blast cells was estimated. On the basis of the lymph node response, it appears that freezing and lyophilization, as well as radiosterilization, may abolish the antigenicity of cancellous bone. The practical implication of these results for methods of preservation of tissues for clinical purposes is discussed. (author)

  16. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  17. Prolonged platelet preservation by transient metabolic suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badlou, Bahram Alamdary

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Different clinical studies have shown that transfusion of stored platelets results in better haemostasis in patients with thrombocytopenia with and without a platelet function defect. Objectives: Current preservation procedures aim to optimally preserve the metabolic status of platel

  18. On the reliability of archaeological rat bone for radiocarbon dating in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway and Beavan (1999) discussed the radiocarbon dating of bone of various species from the site of Hukanui Pool, Hawkes Bay. We question their conclusion that two apparently reliable rat bone gelatin determinations from the Hukanui Pool site provide support for the entire suite of rat determinations from previously dated 'natural' sites. We present evidence that contradicts their conclusion that bone material from the broad range of archaeological midden sites is generally less well-preserved than bone from 'natural' caves in New Zealand such as Hukanui Pool. We show that when dates from archaeological bone from Pleasant River and Shag River Mouth are evaluated, the state of preservation is comparable with material from the 'natural' site of Hukanui Pool, and should provide accurate and reproducible radiocarbon determinations. Our conclusion has serious implications for the acceptance of the model proposed by Holdaway (1999), because if archaeological bone is well-preserved but yields unreliable and unreproducible results, it is likely that well-preserved 'natural' bone is similarly affected. (author)

  19. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  20. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  1. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  2. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  3. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  4. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  5. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  6. Digital preservation technology for cultural heritage

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke

    2012-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation Technology for Cultural Heritage"" discusses the technology and processes in digital preservation of cultural heritage. It covers topics in five major areas: Digitization of cultural heritage; Digital management in the cultural heritage preservation; Restoration techniques for rigid solid relics; Restoration techniques for paintings; Digital museum. It also includes application examples for digital preservation of cultural heritage. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Graphics and Image Processing as well as Cu

  7. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  8. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  9. Bone densitometry and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of bone densitometry and its relevance to osteoporosis diagnosis and management. Therefore, this book will give the reader an introduction to the nature of osteoporosis, its pathophysiology and epidemiology, and the clinical consequences of performing bone densitometry. Aside from standard bone densitometry, newer technologies such as quantitative ultrasound techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and bone structure analysis are discussed in the context of diagnosing osteoporosis. (orig.)

  10. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  11. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  12. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators

  13. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, 27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  14. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E

    2006-01-01

    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  15. Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Mark

    This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,…

  16. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Yamazaki, Kana; Omori, Takayuki; Nakamura, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate 14C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on 14C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values, and 14C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin™ 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older 14C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that 14C ages of unfiltered gelatin extracted from well-preserved bones can be sufficiently accurate, and that care should be taken not to

  17. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Kana [Faculty of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate {sup 14}C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on {sup 14}C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values, and {sup 14}C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin Trade-Mark-Sign 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older {sup 14}C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that {sup 14}C ages of unfiltered

  18. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate 14C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on 14C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values, and 14C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, δ13CPDB and δ15NAIR values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin™ 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older 14C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that 14C ages of unfiltered gelatin extracted from well-preserved bones can be sufficiently accurate, and that care should be taken not to

  19. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  20. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  1. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  2. Tattoo preservation during surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Tenna, Pietro Francesco Delle Femmine, Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Beniamino Brunetti, Paolo Persichetti Plastic Surgery Unit, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: In recent years, the number of people getting tattoos has continued to increase. Tattoos are much more than cultural fads and cosmetic complements, and nowadays often represent events that express the patient's personality without words. The presence of a tattoo in the surgical field may be a problem for both the patient and the surgeon. However, the relevant literature is mostly based on complications related to application of tattoos or methods used to remove them. To date, few reports have focused on the importance of preserving a tattoo during a surgical procedure, and no organized studies could be found. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the range of solutions that surgeons can use to preserve tattoos during surgery. A PubMed database search was done to assess other surgeons' experience. The terms "tattoo" in combination with "incision", "surgery", "surgical", or "operative" were used as key words. Following a review of the literature, photographs of patients presenting with a tattoo in the last 5 years at University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were identified in order to determine the frequency of patients presenting with tattoos in our department. The patients were classified according to sex, age, type of surgery, number of tattoos, and tattoo location. Specific requests to preserve tattoos were recorded. Finally, an algorithm of treatment according to tattoo dimension and location is proposed. Knowledge of all the strategies available for saving tattoos is important for plastic and cosmetic surgeons. If a tattooed area needs to be operated on, surgeons should attempt, when possible, to avoid altering the tattoo in order to maximize the final cosmetic result. Keywords: tattoo incision, body contouring, surgery

  3. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  4. The Law Of Environmental Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with preservation regulation on environment, which includes the meaning of environmental law, foundation of environmental law and development, characteristic of the law, the right of environment, the method and the case of lawmaking of environment, formation of environmental law in Korea, organization of administration, explanation of environmental regulation with term and definition, exclusion of application, safety of nature, supervision of air and water, discharge facilities and prevention facility, air pollution, discharge facility business, management of industrial waste substance and grievance mediation and compensation for the lost.

  5. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy. To...... remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  6. Digital preservation for libraries, archives, and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Corrado, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums is designed for all types of information professionals who are interested in digital preservation. This is not a how-to book giving step-by-step processes for certain materials in a given kind of system. Instead, it addresses a broad group of resources that could be housed in any number of digital preservation systems. Finally, this book is about "Things (not technology; not how-to; not theory) I wish I had known before I got started." It is divided into four parts based on the Digital Preservation Triad: Situating Digital Preservation, I

  7. AMS radiocarbon age for fossil bone by XAD-2 chromatography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XAD-2 chromatography method was examined for its ability to efficiently eliminate exogenous organic matter from fossil bones and to improve the accuracy of radiocarbon (14C) dating and stable isotope determinations on bone proteins. The fossil bones used in the experiment were animal fossil bones collected from the Awazu submarine archaeological site, Shiga, Japan. For comparison, the gelatin-extraction method was also applied to the same samples. It was found that the gelatin-extraction method is sufficient for 14C dating on well-preserved bones, but insufficient on poorly preserved bones, containing less than 1% extractable gelatin. The XAD-2 resin is useful for the clean up of proteins especially from poorly preserved bones. The carbon stable isotope fractionation of around 0.1percent by XAD-2 treatment on modern collagen standards was larger than reported previously. The isotopic variation by sequential extraction of bones probably originates from changes in the amino acid composition and seems to be less sensitive to the indication of the removal of organic contamination

  8. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Gui-feng; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiu-mei; Tang, Zhi-hui

    2016-04-01

    Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

  9. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Gui-feng; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiu-mei; Tang, Zhi-hui

    2016-06-01

    Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

  10. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  11. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Angela K; Klock, Susan C; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N; Kazer, Ralph R

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues that arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: (1) preexisting psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, (2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, (3) decision making regarding use of third-party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), (4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, (5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and (6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  12. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs and the...... benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based on...... experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  13. A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmidt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing a service-oriented environment for the definition and evaluation of preservation strategies for human-centric data. It focuses on the question of logically preserving digital materials, as opposed to the physical preservation of content bit-streams. This includes the development of preservation tools for the automated characterisation, migration, and comparison of different types of Digital Objects as well as the emulation of their original runtime environment in order to ensure long-time access and interpretability. The Planets integrated environment provides a number of end-user applications that allow data curators to execute and scientifically evaluate preservation experiments based on composable preservation services. In this paper, we focus on the middleware and programming model and show how it can be utilised in order to create complex preservation workflows.

  14. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  15. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  16. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Low-Rank Preserving Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuwu; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Zhang, David; Yuan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    As one of the most popular dimensionality reduction techniques, locality preserving projections (LPP) has been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. However, in practical applications, data is always corrupted by noises. For the corrupted data, samples from the same class may not be distributed in the nearest area, thus LPP may lose its effectiveness. In this paper, it is assumed that data is grossly corrupted and the noise matrix is sparse. Based on these assumptions, we propose a novel dimensionality reduction method, named low-rank preserving projections (LRPP) for image classification. LRPP learns a low-rank weight matrix by projecting the data on a low-dimensional subspace. We use the L21 norm as a sparse constraint on the noise matrix and the nuclear norm as a low-rank constraint on the weight matrix. LRPP keeps the global structure of the data during the dimensionality reduction procedure and the learned low rank weight matrix can reduce the disturbance of noises in the data. LRPP can learn a robust subspace from the corrupted data. To verify the performance of LRPP in image dimensionality reduction and classification, we compare LRPP with the state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction methods. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed method with encouraging results. PMID:26277014

  18. Fertility preservation in gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Shakuntala; Kutchi, Imran

    2013-03-21

    For cancers of reproductive system in women, fertility preservation is complex. Fertility is also affected by therapies, however prevention is possible. Radiotherapy affects gonads, uterus, and subsequent pregnancy outcomes in all ages. However, degree and damage depend on dose, irradiation field, and age at the time of exposure. Ovarian transposition is considered if ovarian involvement is unlikely. Gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy are related to agent's type, cumulative doses, age, and ovarian reserve. Some agents are highly toxic. Rendering follicular development quiescent by suppression of gonadotropins does reduce the ovarian damage. Simple or radical trachelectomy can be used in early cervical cancer. Fertility saving surgery is possible only in early stage low grade epithelial cancers of the ovary, however, in germ cell tumors even in advanced stages it may be possible to preserve fertility. There are no standard recommendations for endometrial cancer. Embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are possible. The human embryo is very resistant to damage. In view of these possibilities, it is advocated that attention to long term health and quality of life in gonadotoxic therapy must be incorporated into plans as early as possible. PMID:24453519

  19. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  20. Number of osteogenic precursor cells in bone marrow and their multiplication in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study which fraction of clonogenic cells (CFU /SUB f/ ) isolated from bone marrow possesses osteogenic properties and whether the number of osteogenic precursor cells increases during culture of bone marrow fibroblasts. Experiments were carried out on Californian rabbits. In the experiments, allogeneic bone marrow cells were irradiated in a dose of 6000 rads. The results described show that the proliferative potential of CFU /SUB f/ is extremely great and that the progeny of CFU /SUB f/ preserve the properties of osteogenic precursors during cell multiplication. Osteogenic stem CFU /SUB f/ account for not less than 4% of all clonogenic bone marrow stromal cells

  1. Need of reactor dosimetry preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Today's nuclear renaissance in national and European aspect, expressed in building of new NPPs, as well as the development of Gen. IV nuclear reactors, meets new challenges of accuracy of the reactor analysis methods used for reliable operation and nuclear safety assessment. The nuclear safety requirements and philosophy have changed by the development of new nuclear systems and this imposes special research and development activity. Reactor Dosimetry (RD) which is applied for determination of neutron field parameters and neutron flux responses in different regions of the reactor system plays an important role in determining of consecutive effects from the irradiation. That is, for determination of radiation exposure on reactor system elements as reactor vessel, internals, shielding; dose determination for material damage study; determination of radiation field parameters for conditioning of irradiation; dose determination for medicine and industry application; induced activity determination for decommissioning purposes. The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Reinforcement of science and technology potential of many EU institutes is needed so to be able to support the nuclear operators and nuclear regulator in safety assessment as well as to strengthen the utilization of the research reactor for medicine and industry purposes. The ways to preserve and develop the RD knowledge could be asked in the good practice of the near past within the European Working Group for Reactor Dosimetry (EWGRD), members of which are research organizations of the countries in Europe operating VVER, PWR and BWR type reactors. Joint workshops and training, common intercomparisons will maintain the RD

  2. Underweight, overweight, and pediatric bone fragility: impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialo, Shara R; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal health is modulated by a variety of factors, including genetic makeup, hormonal axes, and environment. Across all ages, extremes of body weight may exert a deleterious effect on bone accretion and increase fracture risk. The incidence of both anorexia nervosa and obesity, each involving extreme alterations in body composition, is rising among youth, and secondary osteoporosis is increasingly being diagnosed among affected children and adolescents. Compared with the elderly, the definition of osteoporosis that stems from any underlying condition differs for the pediatric population and special precautions are required with regard to treatment of young patients. Early recognition and management of both underweight and overweight youth and the accompanying consequences on bone and mineral metabolism are essential for preservation of skeletal health, although prevention of bone loss and optimization of bone mineral accrual remain the most important protective measures. PMID:24986712

  3. Disruption of bone and skeletal muscle in severe burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon L Klein

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn injury triggers the body’s nonspecific adaptive responses to acute insult, including the systemic inflammatory and stress responses, as well as the sympathetic response to immobilization. These responses trigger inflammatory bone resorption followed by glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and probably osteocytes. Because these patients are catabolic, they suffer concomitant muscle wasting and negative nitrogen balance. The use of anabolic agents such as recombinant human growth hormone and oxandrolone results in improved bone mineral content and muscle strength after approximately 1 year. Use of bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of a severe burn completely blocks the resorptive bone loss and has the added advantage of appearing to preserve muscle protein from excessive breakdown. The mechanism for the protective effect on muscle is not currently known. However, if the effect of bisphosphonates on muscle can be confirmed, it raises the possibility that bone communicates with muscle.

  4. Socket Preservation with Implant Placement in the Daily Practice – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Papakoca, Kiro; Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Gordana; Radeska, Ana; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Nacevski, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to show that significant changes in bone volume and morphology following tooth extraction, can make prosthetic – implant rehabilitation very difficult. In order to prevent ridge atrophy and optimize esthetic in the posterior mandibular area, the local process of socket preservation procedure and exposes, is important as an available treatment. Case report: Male patient, age 32 with a noncontributory medical history, presents to our clinic. The clinical evaluation showed ...

  5. Canonical commutation relation preserving maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study maps preserving the Heisenberg commutation relation ab-ba=1. We find a one-parameter deformation of the standard realization of the above algebra in terms of a coordinate and its dual derivative. It involves a non-local 'coordinate' operator while the dual 'derivative' is just the Jackson finite-difference operator. Substitution of this realization into any differential operator involving x and d/dx results in an isospectral deformation of a continuous differential operator into a finite-difference one. We extend our results to the deformed Heisenberg algebra ab-qba=1. As an example of potential applications, various deformations of the Hahn polynomials are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Virtual Environments for Data Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Volker

    Data preservation in a wider sense includes also the ability to analyse data of past experiments. Because operation systems, such as Linux and Windows, are evolving rapidly, software packages can be outdated and not usable anymore already a few years after they have been written. Creating an image of the operation system is a way to be able to launch the analysis software on a computing infrastructure independent on the local operation system used. At the same time, virtualization also allows to launch the same software in collaborations across several institutes with very different computing infrastructure. At the François Arago Centre of the APC in Paris we provide user support for virtualization and computing environment access to the scientific community

  7. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  8. Radiation preservation of fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is in the process of considering radiation technology as a safe process for treatment of any food at doses less than 1.0kGy, while higher doses of up to 35kGy are allowed for treatment of a wide variety of dried spices. However, radiation preservation of fresh fish and dozen/packaged fish products requires selections of doses ranging from 1.0kGy up to 10kGy to achieve the intended effect. The treatment needs to be accompanied by good handling and manufacturing practices. Studies have showed that irradiated food is wholesome while the process itself possesses economic and health benefits. (author)

  9. Mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweesedt, Pahnwat T; Disthabanchong, Sinee

    2015-12-24

    After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels. FGF-23 excess during the first 3-12 mo results in exaggerated renal phosphate loss and hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients. After 1 year, FGF-23 and serum phosphate return to normal levels but persistent hyperparathyroidism remains in some patients. The progression of vascular calcification also attenuates. High dose corticosteroid and persistent hyperparathyroidism are the most important factors influencing abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Bone loss occurs at a highest rate during the first 6-12 mo after transplantation. Measurement of bone mineral density is recommended in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min. The use of active vitamin D with or without bisphosphonate is effective in preventing early post-transplant bone loss. Steroid withdrawal regimen is also beneficial in preservation of bone mass in long-term. Calcimimetic is an alternative therapy to parathyroidectomy in KT recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. If parathyroidectomy is required, subtotal to near total parathyroidectomy is recommended. Performing parathyroidectomy during the waiting period prior to transplantation is also preferred in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia. PMID:26722650

  10. Abdominoplasty With Scarpa Fascia Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Ferreira, António; Marco, Rebelo; Vásconez, Luis; Amarante, José

    2016-06-01

    The plane of dissection used during a full abdominoplasty has been implicated on the seroma rate. Avoiding the classic plane of dissection on top of the rectus fascia and using a more superficial plane of dissection has been suggested as a strategy to improve recovery and lower the complication rate. The authors have been applying this principle in their practice for more than a decade, and they performed 2 prospective comparative studies to evaluate the clinical effects of using a more superficial plane of dissection (with Scarpa fascia preservation) during a full abdominoplasty.The technique is presented and explained along with the results of both comparative studies.The results of both studies are discussed particularly the effects on drain volume (total and daily), the duration of drain usage and the avoidance of "long drainers." These are very relevant advantages of the technique that have not been discussed in the literature. The results and surgical strategies used by other authors which apply a more superficial plane of dissection are presented.Controversy still exits on the manipulation of the deep fat compartment by liposuction or direct fat excision. No manipulation is another option which should be considered but it has been questioned due to the risk of aesthetic compromise. A morphometric study performed on the surgical specimens of 41 female patients submitted to a full abdominoplasty validates that option.Based on this evidence, the authors recommend that surgeons consider performing abdominoplasties using a more superficial plane of dissection in the infraumbilical area with total preservation of Scarpa fascia and the deep fat compartment. The classic plane of dissection, on top of the deep fascia, should be avoided in the lower abdomen. PMID:27187249

  11. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  12. EVALUATION OF HRCT TEMPORAL BONE AND PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the role of High Resolution Computer Tomography as the prime modality in the diagnosis and characterization of lesions of the temporal bone. METHODOLOGY: Patients presenting with symptoms and clinical features suggestive of lesion involving temporal bone were included in the study. RESULTS: High Resolution Computed Tomography was highly sensitive and specific in evaluating lesions like mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, paragangliomas, cerebello pontine meningiomas and fractures. CONCLUSION: High Resolution Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of the temporal bone which is a relatively inaccessible area of the human anatomy. By using an orthogonal plane of 30° we are able to reduce the radiation to the eye with no compromise in the image quality. It also dictates proper and adequate medical treatment or timely surgery that can prevent further serious complications. High Resolution Computed Tomography has abled in planning more direct procedures like cochlear implantation, avoiding fatal surgical interventions on aberrant ICA etc, while preserving function of the essential structures of Temporal bone thereby making HRCT a valuable tool in diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Resection followed by vascularized bone autograft in patients with possible recurrence of malignant bone tumors after conservative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conservative treatment of malignant bone tumors, assessment of the local condition is difficult. The radiological changes seen in the irradiated tumor and the frequent occurrence of pathological fractures at this site may give rise to the fear that the tumor has relapsed. Resection of the whole of the involved bone is the best way to assure adequate local control but the extent of the bone defect and the bad local conditions secondary to irradiation make reconstruction hazardous. In two patients (one with Ewing's sarcoma of the femur and one with osteogenic sarcoma of the humerus) the authors used a free, vascularized fibular graft for the reconstruction having obtained consolidation of the limb after resection of the irradiated tumor, with preservation of its function. The encouraging results obtained have suggested a conservative attitude as primary treatment of specific malignant bone tumors

  14. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong-Eun; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Yang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Wall, Ivan B; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-07-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctional and structurally-stable biomatrices. The hybrid protein, integrated homogeneously with collagen fibrillar networks, preserved structural stability over a month. Biological efficacy of the hybrid matrix was proven onto tethered surface of biopolymer porous scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells quickly anchored to the hybrid matrix, forming focal adhesions, and substantially conformed to cytoskeletal extensions, benefited from the fibronectin adhesive domains. Cells achieved high proliferative capacity to reach confluence rapidly and switched to a mature and osteogenic phenotype more effectively, resulting in greater osteogenic matrix syntheses and mineralization, driven by the engineered osteocalcin. The hybrid biomimetic matrix significantly improved in vivo bone formation in calvarial defects over 6 weeks. Based on the series of stimulated biological responses in vitro and in vivo the novel hybrid proteinaceous composition will be potentially useful as stem cell interfacing matrices for osteogenesis and bone regeneration. PMID:25934278

  15. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  16. Raman spectroscopy delineates radiation-induced injury and partial rescue by amifostine in bone: a murine mandibular model

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, Peter A.; Gong, Bo; Ahsan, Salman; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine; Morris, Michael D.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its therapeutic role in head and neck cancer, radiation administration degrades the biomechanical properties of bone and can lead to pathologic fracture and osteoradionecrosis. Our laboratories have previously demonstrated that prophylactic amifostine administration preserves the biomechanical properties of irradiated bone and that Raman spectroscopy accurately evaluates bone composition ex vivo. As such, we hypothesize that Raman spectroscopy can offer insight into the temporal and m...

  17. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    files in a digital repository and outputting the copies on film, which is preserved in a traditional storage facility. The issues are put into perspective by a case study completed at the Royal Library, where endangered nitrate negatives of unique national value have been digitized. The paper starts by...... cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs.......This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...

  18. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  19. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  20. Maternal aldehyde elimination during pregnancy preserves the fetal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P; Patel, Ketan J

    2014-09-18

    Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2(-/-)Fanca(-/-) embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. PMID:25155611

  1. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  2. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  3. Digital preservation at the British Library

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyard, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the comprehensive coverage, recording and preservation of the UK national published output is one of the British Library’s key responsibilities. A significant proportion of the Library’s cultural heritage collections will be in digital formats and require long term access, so the Library has to be at the forefront of national and international efforts to develop digital preservation. The Library is addressing digital preservation by establishing policy, negotiating and legally obtain...

  4. Digital preservation in Slovenia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Alenka Kavčič-Čolić

    2011-01-01

    Digital preservation has been gaining its significance mostly because of the exponential growth of digital resources, which should be understood in the framework of the information technology and society development. As a consequence, many of national and international policy and strategy initiatives which foster the development of preservation of digital heritage are taking rise. An overview of digital preservation in Slovenia from the library science perspective is presented, and the compar...

  5. Fertility Preservation in Female Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Hoon Kim; Gyun-Ho Jeon

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiat...

  6. Fertility-preserving surgical procedures, techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Alejandra; Poilblanc, Mathieu; Ferron, Gwenael; DE CUYPERE, Marjolein; Jouve, Eva; Querleu, Denis

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the trend toward late childbearing, fertility preser- vation has become a major issue in young women with gynaeco- logical cancer. Fertility-sparing treatments have been successfully attempted in selected cases of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer, and gynaecologists should be familiar with fertility- preserving options in women with gynaecological malignancies. Options to preserve fertility include shielding to reduce radiation damage, fertility preservation when underg...

  7. Patterns of behavior in biodiversity preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Metrick, Andrew; Weitzman, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Conservation budgets are limited, so it is right to ask of biodiversity programs, What should be preserved? How much should be preserved? Where? Recent papers on optimal preservation policy have tried to integrate three considerations: the relative uniqueness of different species or habitats, the degree of risk to their continued survival, and the opportunity cost of the resources needed to enhance their prospects for survival. It is natural to ask, How are we doing? Have biodiversity conserv...

  8. Science Data Infrastructure for Preservation - Earth Science

    OpenAIRE

    Albani, Mirko; Marelli, Fulvio; Giaretta, David; Shaon, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The proper preservation of both current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDI...

  9. AB006. Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery is applied in the management of the primary tumor in penile cancer as well as severe genital anomalies or loss. Its indications relate to preserving successful sexual relationships and retaining quality of life. For penile cancer, it is acknowledged that the historical “gold standard” of surgical amputation of the penis that results in penile disfigurement or emasculation should not be uniformly accepted. The option of organ-preserving treatment is...

  10. Is My Network Module Preserved and Reproducible?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Langfelder; Rui Luo; Oldham, Michael C.; Steve Horvath

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved) in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservati...

  11. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  12. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  13. Bone fractures after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Evers, J.L.H.; Glasier, A.; Negri, Eva; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Ralston, Stuart H; Rizzoli, Rene; Baird, D T; Collins, J.; G. Benagiano; P.G. Crosignani; La Vecchia, C.; Volpe, A

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength.PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion.Ageing ...

  14. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  15. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  16. Developing Practical Approaches to Active Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brown

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Archives is developing a range of practical solutions to the active preservation of electronic records, using an extensible service-oriented architecture and a central technical registry (PRONOM. This paper describes TNA’s methodologies for characterisation, preservation planning, and preservation action, the technologies being adopted to implement them, and the role of PRONOM in supporting these services. It describes how this approach fits with international research programmes, and the types of preservation service which TNA may be able to provide externally in the future.

  17. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325828

  18. The ZEUS long term data preservation project

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The ZEUS data preservation (ZEUS DP) project assures continued access to the data and documentation related to the experiment. It aims to provide the ability to continue the generation of valuable scientific results from these data in the future. This talk presents analysis opportunities within the ZEUS DP project and its benefits for the physics community. The implications of the preserved data are discussed in the context of current data analyses, verification of contemporary and future theoretical models and the planning of future experiments and analyses. The detailed documentation on the data preservation effort can serve as an example for the data preservation efforts in current and future experiments.

  19. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    U. G. AKPAN; A. S. KOVO

    2005-01-01

    Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The ...

  20. A ray of hope for the hopeless: Hemisection of mandibular molar with socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The management, treatment and long-term retention of mandibular molar teeth with furcation involvement have always been a challenge in periodontal therapy. Hemisection has been used successfully to retain teeth with furcation involvement. The term hemisection refers to the sectioning of a molar tooth, with the removal of an unrestorable root which may be affected by periodontal, endodontic, structural (cracked roots, or caries. Case Report : This case report describes a simple procedure of hemisection in a mandibular molar with socket preservation with help of an alloplastic bone graft and subsequent restoration of the tooth with fixed prothesis. Discussion: Hemisection represents a form of conservative procedure, which aims at retaining as much of the original tooth structure as possible. It may be a suitable alternative to extraction. Hemisection of the affected tooth allows the preservation of tooth structure, alveolar bone and cost savings (time and money over other treatment options. The preservation of posterior abutment teeth permits oral rehabilitation with fixed bridges instead of removable prosthesis. Conclusion: The keys to long term success appear to be thorough diagnosis followed by interdisciplinary approach with endodontic, surgical and prosthetic procedures. Preservation of a hopeless tooth is possible by selecting patients with good oral hygiene, and careful surgical and restorative management.

  1. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  2. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  3. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  4. Nuclear knowledge preservation in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lithuania operates only one Nuclear Power Plant - Ignalina NPP with two latest RBMK - type design reactors with a nominal capacity of 1500 each. Our Parliament has set a decision to close the first unit before the year 2005, taking into consideration long-term substantial financial assistance from countries of European Union, G7 group, other countries and international financial institutions. The second unit will be closed in 2009. During fourteen year of independence Lithuania accumulated a lot of knowledge, prepared specialists in nuclear energy sector. It would be unforgivable to lose all that. In connection with approaching decommissioning of Ignalina NPP Lithuania faces few problems: how to keep Ignalina NPP personnel, how to promote nuclear energy between younger generation and how to preserve nuclear knowledge and expertises. To educate population about processes going on in Ignalina NPP and popularize nuclear power the information centre of Ignalina NPP was founded in 1995. Till 2004, January 1st about 50 thousand people from 20 different countries have visited the centre. Information centre publishes 'The Information bulletin' every month, where you can find an information about the plant operational data, reliability and safe operation of Ignalina NPP, radiation situation on the plant site, events on INES, news and events; 'The News Sheet', which contain articles about the most important things and events at the plant and in the nuclear energy; prepares and different booklets, calendars and magazines about Ignalina NPP. One of the ways to store and preserve knowledge is to make database of all information available. So Lithuania joined INIS (International Nuclear Information System) in 1994 and established it's own INIS national centre. That is the possibility to add information available in Lithuania to INIS database and share it with the rest of INIS users all over the world and to operate information already existing in database for users in

  5. Susbtituição do ligamento cruzado cranial por segmento teno-ósseo homólogo conservado em glicerina a 98%: estudo experimental em cães Substitution of cranial cruciate ligament in dogs by homologous bone-tendon segment preserved in 98% glycerin: experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Zanini Salbego

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa, foram utilizados implantes teno-ósseos homólogos conservados em glicerina a 98%, na reparação do ligamento cruzado cranial, em 24 cães adultos pesando entre 15 e 30kg. Os implantes foram passados por um leito receptor preparado no fêmur e outro na tíbia e ancorados por meio de fios de poliéster em parafusos fixados respectivamente nas extremidades distal e proximal desses ossos. A articulação do joelho foi imobilizada por um período de 30 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos para as avaliações radiográfica, macroscópica e histológica do implante aos 60 dias (grupo B e aos 90 dias (grupo A de evolução pós-operatória. Em nenhum dos cães, houve evidência de fragilização do implante ou evidência radiográfica ou macroscópica de degeneração articular até os 90 dias de pós-operatório.In the present study, homologue bone-tendon implants conserved in 98% glycerin were used in the restoration of the cranial cruciate ligament in 24 adult dogs weighing between 15 and 30 kg. The implants were placed in a stratified layer prepared in the femur and the tibia and anchored with polyester filament fastened to the distal and proximal extremities of these bones, respectively. The knee joint was immobilized for a period of 30 days. The animals were distributed into two groups for radiographic, macroscopic and histological evaluation of the implant at 60 days after the operation for group B and at 90 days for group A. There was no evidence in any of the dogs of fragility of the implant, nor radiographic or macroscopic evidence of joint degeneration up to 90 days post-operative.

  6. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  7. Paleogenetic and taphonomic analysis of human bones from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho Sambaquis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Nonato do Rosario Marinho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses mtDNA and taphonomy of human remains from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho sambaquis of Saquarema, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New human bone dating by 14C-AMS for Moa archeological site (3810+50 BP - GX-31826-AMS is included. Preservation of microscopic lamellae and DNA is not related to the macroscopic integrity of the bones. Results here suggest that the preservation of amplifiable DNA fragments may have relation to the preservation of the lamellar arrangement as indicated by optical microscopic examination (polarized light. In 13 human bone fragments from Moa, Beirada, and Zé Espinho it was possible to sequence mtDNA from the 3 individuals of Moa, and from 1 of 4 individuals of Beirada, whose bones also show extensive areas with preserved lamellar structures. The 6 human bone fragments of Zé Espinho and 3 of the 4 fragments of Beirada showed extensive destruction of cortical microstructure represented by cavities, intrusive minerals, and agglomerated microscopic bodies of fungi and bacteria; it was not possible to extract mtDNA from these samples. The results support the hypothesis that the preservation of the microscopic osteon organization is a good predictor for DNA preservation. It was also confirmed the C haplogroup antiquity in Brazil.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  12. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  13. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  14. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  15. Perforator plus flaps: Optimizing results while preserving function and esthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tenuous blood supply of traditional flaps for wound cover combined with collateral damage by sacrifice of functional muscle, truncal vessels, or nerves has been the bane of reconstructive procedures. The concept of perforator plus flaps employs dual vascular supply to flaps. By safeguarding perforators along with supply from its base, robust flaps can be raised in diverse situations. This is achieved while limiting collateral damage and preserving nerves, vessels, and functioning muscle with better function and aesthesis. Materials and Methods: The perforator plus concept was applied in seven different clinical situations. Functional muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were employed in five and adipofascial flaps in two cases, primarily involving lower extremity defects and back. Adipofascial perforator plus flaps were employed to provide cover for tibial fracture in one patients and chronic venous ulcer in another. Results: All flaps survived without any loss and provided long-term stable cover, both over soft tissue and bone. Functional preservation was achieved in all cases where muscle flaps were employed with no clinical evidence of loss of power. There was no sensory loss or significant oedema in or distal to the flap in both cases where neurovascular continuity was preserved during flap elevation. Fracture union and consolidation were satisfactory. One patient had minimal graft loss over fascia which required application of stored grafts with subsequent take. No patient required re-operation. Conclusions: Perforator plus concept is holistic and applicable to most flap types in varied situations. It permits the exercise of many locoregional flap options while limiting collateral functional damage. Aesthetic considerations are also addressed while raising adipofascial flaps because of no appreciable donor defects. With quick operating times and low failure risk, these flaps can be a better substitute to traditional flaps and at

  16. Radiation-sterilized bone grafts evaluated by electron spin resonance technique and mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Central Tissue Bank in Poland are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on evaluation of changes in the mechanical properties of bone tissue subjected to lyophilization and radiosterilization and the application of the electron spin resonance technique in the research of mineralizing tissues. The following topics are discussed: technology of tissue conservation; clinical results of conserved tissue application; mechanical properties of preserved bone; free radicals and other paramagnetic substances in radiosterilized bone grafts; electron spin resonance studies of irradiated bone tissue; electron spin resonance analysis of irradiated hydroxyapatites in the course of their synthesis in vitro; stable paramagnetic centers as labels in research on bone graft resorption, creeping substitution, and new bone formation; determination of crystallinity of various mineralized tissues; and dosimetry of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation

  17. The Challenge of Preserving Digital Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Stenvall

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses some general matters on the preservation of different types of digital materials. The well-known technical problems are explained and also some of the usual strategies to resolve these problems. Digital maps and their preservation is considered in the light of the future legal deposit act in Finland.

  18. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  19. The Challenge of Preserving Digital Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Stenvall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some general matters on the preservation of different types of digital materials. The well-known technical problems are explained and also some of the usual strategies to resolve these problems. Digital maps and their preservation is considered in the light of the future legal deposit act in Finland.

  20. Knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents examples of knowledge loss in different areas related to attrition, retirements or layoff as well as the consequences of the loss of knowledge. The nature of the so called tacit knowledge and its role as a barrier to knowledge preservation is discussed. Strategies for knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry are presented

  1. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., Broadband Industry Practices, published at 76 FR 59192, September 23, 2011, in WC Docket No. 07-52, GN... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES:...

  2. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  3. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Campanini

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation o

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern diagnostic pathology requires that both morphology and molecular integrity are preserved throughout processing and handling of the tissue. The major challenge for molecular analysis of breast cancer samples is to preserve the molecular integrity of the specimen while insuring the structural integrity needed for diagnostic pathology.

  5. Web Archiving: Preserving the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    At-risk web content needs to be preserved for future research.  It is especially important to preserve through web archiving social media and other web content of protest movements such as Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement of the Fall of 2014.  Libraries, researchers and data journalists have separately engaged in capturing social media. 

  6. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  7. Structures Preserved by Exceptional Lie Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    For sp(n+2) and each exceptional Lie algebra a realization of depth 2 preserving the spaces spanned by a contact one-form and a bilinear form is given. For e_7 and e_6 a realization of depth 1 preserving a lightcone and the space spanned by a bilinear form is also presented. This makes the origin of the exceptions clear.

  8. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  9. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  10. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  11. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  12. Fertility-preserving surgical procedures, techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alejandra; Poilblanc, Mathieu; Ferron, Gwenael; De Cuypere, Mariolene; Jouve, Eva; Querleu, Denis

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the trend toward late childbearing, fertility preservation has become a major issue in young women with gynaecological cancer. Fertility-sparing treatments have been successfully attempted in selected cases of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer, and gynaecologists should be familiar with fertility-preserving options in women with gynaecological malignancies. Options to preserve fertility include shielding to reduce radiation damage, fertility preservation when undergoing cytotoxic treatments, cryopreservation, assisted reproduction techniques, and fertility-sparing surgical procedures. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy is an oncologically safe, fertility-preserving procedure. It has been accepted worldwide as a surgical treatment of small early stage cervical cancers. Selected cases of early stage ovarian cancer can be treated by unilateral salpingo-ophorectomy and surgical staging. Hysteroscopic resection and progesterone treatment are used in young women who have endometrial cancer to maintain fertility and avoid surgical menopause. Appropriate patient selection, and careful oncologic, psychologic, reproductive and obstetric counselling, is mandatory. PMID:22503435

  13. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper will...

  14. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  15. The normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applications of the bone scan. It is the most frequently performed nuclear medicine investigation, the commonest indication being the detection of occult metastases, for which purpose the entire skeleton should be imaged. For other purposes it is often adequate to examine only part of the skeleton. The amount of isotope taken up at any site depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on bone mass. The scintigraphic appearance therefore does not necessarily correlate with the radiographic one; however, as there is a relationship between the rate at which bone is replaced and the quantity of bone which is present at any point, the two appearances are not entirely unrelated. Recognition of abnormality is based on a detailed knowledge of normal scintigraphic appearances

  16. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  17. Preservation of the Rotorua geysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the preservation of the Rotorua Geysers the geothermal activity at Rotorua, New Zealand, which has always been noted for its special cultural, tourist, and scientific values. A gradual increase in the drawoff of geothermal fluid through wells since the 1950s raised national concerns in the early 1980s when spring and geyser activity significantly declined. A government-funded monitoring program began in 1982 to establish the rate and cause of the decline in activity, as well as the magnitude of the drawoff. No new wells were permitted within 1.5 km of the geyser area. By late 1985, the monitoring program confirmed that drawdown of the geothermal field was linked to the drawoff by geothermal wells. It recommended that the drawoff could be reduced by 75% by well sharing and efficiency increases. The link between well discharges and the activity of thermal decline was disputed by the Rotorua Geothermal Users Association. By late 1986, the continuing decline in field pressure was considered to be serious, so the Government recommended compulsory closure of wells within 1.5 km of the geysers, and imposed a charging policy for geothermal usage elsewhere in Rotorua. The closures were battled in the High Court, and subsequently there was also considerable local resistance and publicity to the forced entry onto private land by authorities trying to cement up wells. The combination of enforced well closures, and what was considered by some to be punitive charges for geothermal usage, resulted in an 80% reduction in geothermal well discharges by late 1989. Some of hot spring activity has returned, and geyser activity is more intense. Recently, some residents have been concerned that cooled former thermal areas near houses may be heating up again, and that the well closures have also caused a dangerous build up in gas pressure near surface. This claim is presently being investigated

  18. Preserving Privacy in Social Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya M. Deshmane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our system works on the collaborative tagging technique which is very famous in online system or social networking system. This system works on the bottle neck area of some previous tagging method. Our system contains the module that extends the tagging functionality capacity and features. Our system is having one policy layer that analyzes the collaborative tagging before it is into action. Our system required this layer to consider user preferences, deliberately defining sources on the basis of tag categories associated with them, and, some other parameters considering their trust worthiness. Along with this our systems try to preserve the user’s sensitive information which is predictable from his feedback and comments. Hence our system also provides one privacy protection layer. Along with this there is an issue in some social networking sites like facebook. These social networking sites are using user’s profile to analysis and extract behavioral aspect of user. This type of profile sometimes may contain sensitive information. Our system avoids misuse of such profile by using technology namely tag suppression. Hence our system first filter tags using our policy layer and then for user interest it uses our privacy layer and finally from user interest respective tag is shared. We contribute one phase using which user can view social network status / reputation of particular user. Based on this online social network status / reputation of particular user we can take decision whether to allow such user or not. It is completely preventive approach that helps user to take decision whether to block particular user or not.

  19. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  20. Preserving and documenting the Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkut

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of preservation may be described as a physical process that depends onconceptual facts. When observed from a conceptual point of view, ‘values’ cause the divergencesin the preservation process, which could be named as the pre-requisites of the construction.Values carry emotional and physical points of view. The emotional context, of course, dependson recognizing and remembering while physical context depends on direction of research. They are indicators of cultural characteristics and historical identity. ‘Cultural values’1, more over, explains the meanings attributed to the cultural property, which meanings will be preserved, and the reasons for their preservation. On behalf of this context, the preservation process may be defined as the preservation of the cultural heritage within an effective system. This effective system isaimed at attaining the total quality as a result of a synthesis of the technology, technique, and material originally deployed with those of the present. Besides, one of the most important inputin the preservation process is the priorities of the intervention to be held, as the latter will determine the decisions and types of intervention during the implementation phase of the preservation project. As a significant paradox, the most important parameter that shapes both a preservationproject and its process appears to be the risks that consist of indefinite input preventing theproject from a proper definition of its context. Since all physical problems and the social statusof the cultural property to be preserved have direct impact upon the design process of thepreservation project, these priorities and the risks should be clarified in the course of pre-assessment phase at the beginning of the preservation process.

  1. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  2. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  4. Preservation of neuroendocrine control of reproductive function despite severe undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K K; Grinspoon, S; Gleysteen, S; Grieco, K A; Ciampa, J; Breu, J; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A

    2004-09-01

    .3 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.0001)]. In contrast, preservation of menstrual function was not protective at the total hip (total hip T-score, -0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. -1.1 +/- 0.1; P = 0.27), trochanter, or femoral neck. In summary, patients with eumenorrhea had more body fat and higher serum leptin levels than their amenorrheic counterparts of similar weight. Moreover, reduced bone density was observed in both groups, but was less severe at the spine, but not the hip, in women with undernutrition and preserved menstrual function than in amenorrheic women of similar weight. Therefore, fat mass may be important for preservation of normal menstrual function in severely undernourished women, and this may be in part mediated through leptin secretion. In addition, nutritional intake and normal hormonal function may be independent contributors to maintenance of trabecular bone mass in low-weight women. PMID:15356043

  5. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Fotino, Carmen; Ricordi, Camillo; Lauriola, Vincenzo; Alejandro, Rodolfo; Pileggi, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    The bone marrow is an invaluable source of adult pluripotent stem cells, as it gives rise to hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal cells, amongst others. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMC) transplantation (BMT) may be of assistance in achieving tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in modulating immune responses in the context of autoimmunity and transplantation. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effects of BMC to preserve functiona...

  6. Alterations to Bone Mineral Composition as an Early Indication of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Holmes, Crystal M.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot is a major risk factor for amputation, but there is a limited understanding of early-stage infection, impeding limb-preserving diagnoses. We hypothesized that bone composition measurements provide insight into the early pathophysiology of diabetic osteomyelitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Compositional analysis by Raman spectroscopy was performed on bone specimens from patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot requiring surgi...

  7. Orbital Emphysema Causing SyncopeChiari Malformation with Thick Occipital Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhara, Takao; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

    2011-01-01

    A case of a Chiari malformation with an extraordinarily thick occipital bone is described. The thick occipital bone might make the posterior fossa narrow with consequent herniation of the cerebellar tonsils to the foramen magnum and formation of a syrinx. At dural plasty, well-developed marginal and occipital sinuses should be deliberately handled with the preservation of normal venous drainage. This case gives us the essence of the occurrence mechanisms of Chiari malformation and foramen mag...

  8. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  9. Hallux rigidus: Joint preserving alternatives to arthrodesis - a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Hans; Polzer, Sigmund; Brumann, Mareen; Mutschler, Wolf; Regauer, Markus

    2014-01-18

    Hallux rigidus describes the osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It was first mentioned in 1887. Since then a multitude of terms have been introduced referring to the same disease. The main complaints are pain especially during movement and a limited range of motion. Radiographically the typical signs of osteoarthritis can be observed starting at the dorsal portion of the joint. Numerous classifications make the comparison of the different studies difficult. If non-operative treatment fails to resolve the symptoms operative treatment is indicated. The most studied procedure with reproducible results is the arthrodesis. Nevertheless, many patients refuse this treatment option, favouring a procedure preserving motion. Different motion preserving and joint sacrificing operations such as arthroplasty are available. In this review we focus on motion and joint preserving procedures. Numerous joint preserving osteotomies have been described. Most of them try to relocate the viable plantar cartilage more dorsally, to decompress the joint and to increase dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal bone. Multiple studies are available investigating these procedures. Most of them suffer from low quality, short follow up and small patient numbers. Consequently the grade of recommendation is low. Nonetheless, joint preserving procedures are appealing because if they fail to relief the symptoms an arthrodesis or arthroplasty can still be performed thereafter. PMID:24649409

  10. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  11. Distributed Digital Preservation Workshop for ETDs

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Gail; Halbert, Martin; Donovan, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the second ETD Preservation Workshop is to share with you the information necessary to establish a sound preservation program and describe how the MetaArchive Cooperative can meet your institution’s needs. We hope you will consider joining with us to preserve ETDs and better ensure that they will be available for the long term. The instructors are: Gail McMcMillan, Director of the Digital Library and Archives at Virginia Tech’s University Libraries; Martin Halbert, Director of Dig...

  12. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling the...

  13. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  14. Low-level vibrations retain bone marrow's osteogenic potential and augment recovery of trabecular bone during reambulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Ozcivici

    Full Text Available Mechanical disuse will bias bone marrow stromal cells towards adipogenesis, ultimately compromising the regenerative capacity of the stem cell pool and impeding the rapid and full recovery of bone morphology. Here, it was tested whether brief daily exposure to high-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations can preserve the marrow environment during disuse and enhance the initiation of tissue recovery upon reambulation. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to hindlimb unloading (HU, n = 24, HU interrupted by weight-bearing for 15 min/d (HU+SHAM, n = 24, HU interrupted by low-level whole body vibrations (0.2 g, 90 Hz for 15 min/d (HU+VIB, n = 24, or served as age-matched controls (AC, n = 24. Following 3 w of disuse, half of the mice in each group were released for 3 w of reambulation (RA, while the others were sacrificed. RA+VIB mice continued to receive vibrations for 15 min/d while RA+SHAM continued to receive sham loading. After disuse, HU+VIB mice had a 30% greater osteogenic marrow stromal cell population, 30% smaller osteoclast surface, 76% greater osteoblast surface but similar trabecular bone volume fraction compared to HU. After 3 w of reambulation, trabecular bone of RA+VIB mice had a 30% greater bone volume fraction, 51% greater marrow osteoprogenitor population, 83% greater osteoblast surfaces, 59% greater bone formation rates, and a 235% greater ratio of bone lining osteoblasts to marrow adipocytes than RA mice. A subsequent experiment indicated that receiving the mechanical intervention only during disuse, rather than only during reambulation, was more effective in altering trabecular morphology. These data indicate that the osteogenic potential of bone marrow cells is retained by low-magnitude vibrations during disuse, an attribute which may have contributed to an enhanced recovery of bone morphology during reambulation.

  15. Bone cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the considerable disparity in published values of the risk for bone cancers from ionising radiation, the article 'An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model' by Leenhouts and Brugmans in the June 2000 issue of this Journal deserves further comment and consideration. The letter concludes that radiological protection and risk estimation has acquired an extra dimension, and it is clear that the risk of bone cancer from exposure to ionising radiation needs further review. Letter-to-the-editor

  16. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  17. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. Sex steroids and bone: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Although the process of bone remodelling or its control has not yet been fully elucidated there is, at present, sufficient information available to conclude that ovarian steroids (estrogens, androgens, progesterone) play an essential role in skeletal homeostasis. The mechanism of action of sex steroids on the skeleton is still not entirely clear, but it has traditionally included indirect effects on systemic hormones that regulate calcium balance and a direct receptor-mediated action. More recently, changes in cytokine production within the bone marrow, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects in the osteoblastic cells, have been proposed as new perspectives on the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sex steroids influence adult bone homeostasis. Mechanical loading, when combined with estrogens or androgens, results in a greater osteogenic response than either condition separately. Women are especially at risk for osteoporosis if they have had a premature or surgical menopause and have not received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Other reproductive factors that can help to identify women with osteopenia and emphasize the role of sex steroids in preserving bone mass in premenopausal women include: age at menarche, menstrual history and irregularities (including those associated with excessive exercise), age at menopause, previous hysterectomy, hyperprolactinaemia, anorexia nervosa, scoliosis, ovarian dysgenesis, pregnancy and lactation, and pharmacological ovarian suppression. The prevention of osteoporosis starts with the onset of the menarche. A combination of exercise, appropriate nutrition and a healthy lifestyle all maximize bone mineral accrual and result in optimal peak bone mass; normal ovarian function is essential to this process. Unfortunately, many women actually become aware of the need for osteoporosis prevention much later in life, usually after they have already become menopausal. HRT, however, has important limitations for

  20. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  1. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  2. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  4. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  8. Towards the Preservation of the Scientific Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Matthews

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the requirements for preserving the memory of science.  This is becoming more challenging as data volumes and rates continue to increase.  Further, to capture a full picture of the scientific memory we need to move beyond the bit preservation challenge to consider how to capture research in context, represent the meaning of the data, and how to interpret data in relation to other scientific artefacts distributed in multiple information spaces. We review the progress of scientific research into the digital preservation of science over the last decade, emphasising in particular the research and development programme of STFC. We conclude with a number of observations into the future directions of research and also the practical deployment of policy and infrastructure to effectively preserve the scientific memory.

  9. Fertility preservation methods for female neoplastic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The ability to have biological children is of great importance to cancer patients and fertility preservation before the oncological treatment is nowadays not rare. Oncologists have the responsibility to inform patients about the risks that their cancer treatment will permanently impair fertility and about the ways to limit this iatrogenic damage. Methods of fertility preservation are evolving quickly, yet the medical oncology literature is still poor regarding this topic. Indications and contraindications, limits and controversies of the fertility sparing techniques are reviewed in order to help the oncologist to counsel patients. Conclusions. Any oncologist seeing reproductive-aged patients should discuss the fertility implications of the oncological treatment and the fertility preservation options. A referral to appropriate fertility specialists as early as possible is recommended. People attempting fertility preservation in the context of cancer treatment are encouraged to enrol in clinical trials. (author)

  10. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    South, David M

    2011-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are in many cases unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets are simply lost. In a period of a few years, several important and unique experimental programs will come to an end, including those at HERA, the b-factories and at the Tevatron. An inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was formed and a series of workshops were held to investigate this issue in a systematic way. The physics case for data preservation and the preservation models established by the group are presented, as well as a description of the transverse global projects and strategies already in place.

  11. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  12. Preservation of organic artefacts by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many museum objects, particularly artifacts made of organic materials, have to be treated and coated with suitable materials to preserve them from degradation. Due to various interactions of the environment with different types of artifacts such as papers, books, textile and leather including paintings, these will lead to their eventual degradation. Some of environmental factors that causing degradation are atmospheric oxygen, air pollutants, light, temperature and humidity. In their effort to preserve our heritage and comprehend the causes of decay, coatings are often used for preservation purposes. This paper will summarize the use of ultraviolet (UV) light or low energy electron beam (EB) radiation in the free radical polymerization process as an alternative method to preserve these artifacts.(Author)

  13. A Monograph on St. Vincent's Game Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the geography, history, climate, and wildlife of St. Vincent’s Game Preserve. Photographs, maps, articles, and letters are included.

  14. Ambient Preservation of Clinical Analytes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is in response to the In-flight Biological Sample Preservation and Analysis topic and offers a non-invasive, proven, space and cost and time...

  15. Digitisation for access to preserved documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlis Bremer-Laamanen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the digitisation of our collections is a goal for libraries all over Europe. The choices we make in digitisation and preservation now will have a significant impact on the future. Do we only emphasise access? How do we enable access and preserve our originals in a qualitative and productive way? What will actually be left of our cultural heritage in the next millennium? In this paper I am going to look at promoting access to preserved originals mirrored by the experience at the Helsinki University Library, the National Library of Finland: · Preservation activities as platform for digitisation and OCR · Processing access to collections · The future - looking ahead

  16. Immunoregulation of bone remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also. PMID:22837895

  17. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  18. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  19. New methods of museum objects preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contains 22 papers of which four discuss the use of ionizing radiation in the preservation and restoration of cultural objects, this namely: radiation methods used for the impregnation of wooden cultural objects, a mobile irradiation robot and its uses for the preservation of museum objects, X-ray fluorescence analysis as an auxiliary scientific discipline for restorers, and the use of neutron activation analysis for expertise of paintings. Some 230 participants attended the seminar. (J.B.)

  20. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Yuan Zhang; Yue Ji

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provi...

  1. A Privacy-Preserving Benchmarking Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschbaum, Florian

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-preserving benchmarking platform is practically feasible, i.e. its performance is tolerable to the user on current hardware while fulfilling functional and security requirements. This dissertation designs, architects, and evaluates an implementation of such a platform. It contributes a novel (secure computation) benchmarking protocol, a novel method for computing peer groups, and a realistic evaluation of the first ever privacy-preserving benchmarking platform.

  2. Welfare Gains from Wood Preservatives Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barry J. Seldon; Hyde, William F.

    1991-01-01

    The economic productivity of publicly funded wood preservatives research from 1950 to 1980 exemplifies public research in the forest product industries. We find a high internal rate of return for wood preservatives, nearly 300 percent. The research investments would not have been made by private industrial investors, however, since the welfare gains are not captured by producers. This provides justification for government involvement in research. The marginal internal rate of return is negati...

  3. Preserving Social Media: the Problem of Access

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Sara Day; Kilbride, William

    2015-01-01

    As the applications and services made possible through Web 2.0 continue to proliferate and influence the way individuals exchange information, the landscape of social science research, as well as research in the humanities and the arts, has the potential to change dramatically and to be enriched by a wealth of new, user-generated data. In response to this phenomenon, the UK Data Service have commissioned the Digital Preservation Coalition to undertake a 12-month study into the preservation of...

  4. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Treacy, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adju...

  5. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S.; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Corrine K Welt; Gerard T. Berry; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach...

  6. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Farquhar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  7. Transparent Format Migration of Preserved Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, David S. H.; Lipkis, Thomas; Robertson, Thomas; Morabito, Seth

    2005-01-01

    The LOCKSS digital preservation system collects content by crawling the web and preserves it in the format supplied by the publisher. Eventually, browsers will no longer understand that format. A process called format migration converts it to a newer format that the browsers do understand. The LOCKSS program has designed and tested an initial implementation of format migration for Web content that is transparent to readers, building on the content negotiation capabilities of HTTP.

  8. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  9. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Farquhar; Helen Hockx-Yu

    2007-01-01

    The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  10. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Cecília; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between those methods and current ones. Students were involved in discussing the relationship between science and social issues, and about the impact th...

  11. Linear Maps Preserving Idempotence on Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lian CUI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the rank-1-preserving linear maps on nest algebras of Hilbertspace operators. We obtain several characterizations of such linear maps and apply them to show that a weakly continuous linear bijection on an atomic nest algebra is idempotent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism, and in turn, if and only if it is an automorphism or an anti-automorphism.

  12. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  13. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    1999-12-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  14. Preserving and documenting the Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Özkut

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of preservation may be described as a physical process that depends onconceptual facts. When observed from a conceptual point of view, ‘values’ cause the divergencesin the preservation process, which could be named as the pre-requisites of the construction.Values carry emotional and physical points of view. The emotional context, of course, dependson recognizing and remembering while physical context depends on direction of research. They are indicators of cultural characterist...

  15. The value of bone scintigraphy on the determination of the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones%核素骨显像在预测颌骨肿瘤范围中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiawei Xie; Chao Ma; Guoming Wang; Shuyao Zuo; Ningyi Li; Muyun Jia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively investigate the value of bone scintigraphy on determining the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones and to assess the presence of metastases. Methods: This study had local ethical committee ap-proval, and all patients gave written informed consent. Thirty seven consecutive patients with primary malignant tumor in jaw bones were recruited for the study. Bone scintigraphy was performed in all patients before surgery to measure the full extent of bony involvement, which was compared with histologic findings. Results: Whole body scan revealed one case with multiple bony metastases. Resection specimens of 36 bone neoplasms were pathologically analyzed to identify type and size of each tumor. The lengths of the tumor involvement in jaw bones defined by bone scintigraphy and pathology were 5.62 ± 1.58 cm, 4.48 ± 1.57 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The tumor negative margins from removed specimens according to bone scintigraphy were pathologically confirmed. With histologic findings as the standard of reference, the accuracy of bone scintigraphy was 100% (36 of 36 patients) in determining the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones. Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy tends to offer specific guidelines in determining the appropriate extent of bone resection while entirely clearing the tumor cells and preserving functions whenever possible and in establishing the bony metastases.

  16. Skull base bone hyperpneumatization

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, E J; Kouokam, L.M.; Nchimi, A L

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a long standing history of compulsive Valsalva maneuvers, complaining of episodes of vertigo underwent head computed tomography. Axial CT slices at the level of the skull base (Fig. A) and the first cervical vertebrae (Fig. B) shows an extensive unusual pneumatization of both the body and lateral processes of the first cervical vertebrae (arrows), with air pouches dissecting planes between bone cortex and the periosteum around the occipital bone and the lateral process...

  17. Inca bones at asterion

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Suhit E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, In...

  18. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  19. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  20. Detecting microdamage in bone.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, T Clive; Mohsin, Sahar; Taylor, David; Parkesh, Raman; Gunnlaugsson, TThorfinnur; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Giehl, Michael; Gowin, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and ...

  1. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  2. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  3. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  4. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and fu...

  5. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  6. Data preservation in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and preservation models, technological expectations and governance aspects at local and international levels are examined.

  7. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options. PMID:26370157

  8. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  9. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  10. Uranium content and U-Th dating of fossil bones and dental tissues from Lazaret cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil bone and dental tissues from Lazaret cave and modern ones are here the subject of a comparative microscopical study. Porous tissues such as dentine and bone have retained their Haversian and Tomes canals respectively. However, cracked areas with calcite were detected, indicating a water percolation within porous tissues and an alteration of tissue in places. In addition, compact fossil enamel is particularly well preserved. These results are essential for U-Tb and ESR dating application. Uranium contents, U-Tb ages of two fossil mandibular tissues, two tibias and of six burnt fossil bones are presented and discussed. (authors)

  11. Potential Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein in Modulating Acute Methotrexate Chemotherapy-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J. King

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced bone damage is a frequent side effect which causes diminished bone mineral density and fracture in childhood cancer sufferers and survivors. The intensified use of anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX and other cytotoxic drugs has led to the need for a mechanistic understanding of chemotherapy-induced bone loss and for the development of protective treatments. Using a young rat MTX-induced bone loss model, we investigated potential bone protective effects of phytoestrogen genistein. Oral gavages of genistein (20 mg/kg were administered daily, for seven days before, five days during, and three days after five once-daily injections (sc of MTX (0.75 mg/kg. MTX treatment reduced body weight gain and tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone volume (p < 0.001, increased osteoclast density on the trabecular bone surface (p < 0.05, and increased the bone marrow adipocyte number in lower metaphyseal bone (p < 0.001. Genistein supplementation preserved body weight gain (p < 0.05 and inhibited ex vivo osteoclast formation of bone marrow cells from MTX-treated rats (p < 0.001. However, MTX-induced changes in bone volume, trabecular architecture, metaphyseal mRNA expression of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, and marrow adiposity were not significantly affected by the co-administration of genistein. This study suggests that genistein may suppress MTX-induced osteoclastogenesis; however, further studies are required to examine its potential in protecting against MTX chemotherapy-induced bone damage.

  12. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  13. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  14. [Morphological analysis of bone dynamics and metabolic bone disease. Histomorphometric concepts of bone remodeling and modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki E

    2011-04-01

    In tissue level turnover of bone cells, bone remodeling shows a sequential events of activation, resorption, reversal and formation. This may be observed as secondary osteons in the cortical bone and trabecular packets in the cancellous bone. Microcracks are repaired by targeted remodeling, and calcium is released by non-targeted remodeling. In macromodeling, a macroscopic size of a bone increases with growth, without changing its basic figure. In micromodelimg, a shift of trabecula, a minishift, is biomechnically controlled. New lamellar bone is added parallel to compressive and tensile force, and bone resorption occurs at the opposite surface of formation. In minimodeling new lamellar bone is formed with a sequence of activation, then directly formation, without scalloping at the cement line between newly formed bone and its basic bone. PMID:21447918

  15. Diatom preservation: differential preservation of sedimentary diatoms in two saline lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Flower, R. J.; D. B. Ryves

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of all sedimentary diatom assemblages is influenced to sonic degree by taphonomic processes. Recognising these processes with regard to preservation pathways for diatom assemblages and for individual species can be instructive for interpreting sediment core diatom records. Diatoms deposited in saline lakes are usually particularly exposed to both chemical and physical processes that promote poor preservation. Aspects of diatom preservation are explored in two markedly different ...

  16. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  17. Biomimetic composites by surface-initiated polymerization of cyclic lactones at anorganic bone: preparation and in vitro evaluation of osteoblast and osteoclast competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Troy; Hiebner, Kris; Gauza, Lukasz; Schwartz, Chris; Song, Zheng; Miller, Steve; Zacharias, Nora; Wooley, Paul H; Redepenning, Jody

    2014-06-01

    Biomimetic composites were constructed using anorganic bone to initiate the polymerization of cyclic lactones. The resulting anorganic bone/polylactone composites preserve the inorganic structure and the mechanical properties of the original bone. Thermal conditions used to prepare the anorganic bone were shown to control the surface functionalities, surface area, and crystallinity, all of which influence the rates of subsequent polymerizations. Thermal pretreatment of anorganic bone was examined as a function of time and temperature, ranging from 400°C to 800°C. Polymerization rates of different monomers were also compared. Additionally, in vitro evaluations of anorganic bone/poly-L-lactide and anorganic bone/polyglycolide composites for osteoblast and osteoclast competence suggest that these composites are good candidates for potential in vivo use, since both composites promoted osteoblast differentiation. The anorganic bone/poly-L-lactide composite also promoted osteoclast differentiation. PMID:23776188

  18. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  19. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  20. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  1. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  2. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99mTc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99mTc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67Ga citrate and 111In white blood cells (111In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  3. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  4. WRIST ARTHRODESIS WITH MINIMAL FIXATION PRESERVING THE CARPOMETACARPAL JOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Arlindo Gomes; Pádua Gonçalves, Rodolfo Fonseca; Freitas, Afrânio Donato; Chaves, Antonio Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Wrist arthrodesis is a surgical procedure that should always be considered in cases of pathological conditions in which anatomical and functional structures are altered. In general, the results are very satisfactory, particularly for pain relief, and in the majority of cases, there is considerable functional improvement. Various techniques have been described, with different methods of internal fixation, most of which include the carpometacarpal joints in the fusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results from wrist arthrodesis using a technique that is simpler, more biological, less expensive, and does not involve the carpometacarpal joints. Methods: Fifteen patients with wrist arthrodesis were evaluated (six with sequelae from trauma, four with rheumatoid arthritis, three with Kienbock grade IV, one with Preiser and one with panarthrosis). The technique consisted of using an iliac bone plate and internal fixation with Kirschner wires, avoiding the carpometacarpal joints. Results: The evaluation was based on consolidation time (93% in seven weeks); movements of the fingers and pronosupination; pinch and grasp strength; functional evaluation through the DASH, pain and patient satisfaction questionnaires. In general, the results were similar to those of other, more aggressive techniques, and the non-inclusion of the carpometacarpal joints did not affect the final result. Conclusion: Wrist arthrodesis with fixation using Kirschner wires and an iliac bone plate, preserving the carpometacarpal joints, gives good or excellent results that are not inferior to those of other techniques that have been described. However, it presents major advantages over other methods: it is less aggressive and cheaper, and does not have the inconvenience and complications associated with the use of plates and screws. PMID:27022522

  5. Bone health in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  6. Management of traumatic tibial diaphyseal bone defect by “induced-membrane technique”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Ahmad, Sohail; Mohd. Zahid; Khan, A H; Sherwani, M K A; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gap nonunion of long bones is a challenging problem, due to the limitation of conventional reconstructive techniques more so if associated with infection and soft tissue defect. Treatment options such as autograft with non-vascularized fibula and cancellous bone graft, vascularized bone graft, and bone transportation are highly demanding on the part of surgeons and hospital setups and have many drawbacks. This study aims to analyze the outcome of patients with wide diaphyseal bone gap treated with induced-membrane technique (Masquelet technique). Materials and Methods: This study included 9 patients (7 males and 2 females), all with tibial bone-gap. Eight of the 9 patients were infected and in 3 patients there was associated large soft tissue defect requiring flap cover. This technique is two-stage procedure. Stage I surgery included debridement, fracture stabilization, application of spacer between bone ends, and soft tissue reconstruction. Stage II surgery included removal of spacer with preservation of induced membrane formed at spacer surface and filling the bone-gap with morselized iliac crest bone-graft within the membrane sleeve. Average bone-gap of 5.2 cm was treated. The spacer was always found to be encapsulated by a thick glistening membrane which did not collapse after its removal. All patients were followed up for an average period of 21.5 months. Results: Serial Radiographs showed regular uptake of autograft and thus consolidation within themselves in the region of bone gap and also with host bone. Bone-union was documented in all patients and all patients are walking full weight-bearing without support. Conclusions: The study highlights that the technique provide effective and practical management for difficult gap nonunion. It does not require specialized equipment, investigations, and surgery. Thus, it provides a reasonable alternative to the developing infrastructures and is a reliable and reproducible technique. PMID:27293290

  7. Removal of vestibular schwannoma and facial nerve preservation using small suboccipital retrosigmoid craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling; CHEN Li-hua; LING Feng; LIU Yun-sheng; Madjid Samii; Amir Samii

    2010-01-01

    Background Vestibular schwannoma, the commonest form of intracranial schwannoma, arises from the Schwann cells investing the vestibular nerve. At present, the surgery for vestibular schwannoma remains one of the most complicated operations demanding for surgical skills in neurosurgery. And the trend of minimal invasion should also be the major influence on the management of patients with vestibular schwannomas. We summarized the microsurgical removal experience in a recent series of vestibular schwannomas and presented the operative technique and cranial nerve preservation in order to improve the rates of total tumor removal and facial nerve preservation.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 145 patients over a 7-year period who suffered from vestibular schwannomas that had been microsurgicaily removed by suboccipital retrosigmoid transmeatus approach with small craniotomy. CT thinner scans revealed the tumor size in the internal auditory meatus and the relationship of the posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus to the bone labyrinths preoperatively. Brain stem evoked potential was monitored intraoperatively. The posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus was designedly drilled off. Patient records and operative reports, including data from the electrophysiological monitoring, follow-up audiometric examinations, and neuroradiological findings were analyzed.Results Total tumor resection was achieved in 140 cases (96.6%) and subtotal resection in 5 cases. The anatomical integrity of the facial nerve was preserved in 91.0% (132/145) of the cases. Intracranial end-to-end anastomosis of the facial nerve was performed in 7 cases. Functional preservation of the facial nerve was achieved in 115 patients (Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ, 79.3%). No patient died in this series. Preservation of nerves and vessels were as important as tumor removal dudng the operation. CT thinner scan could show the relationship between the posterior wall of the internal

  8. AB006. Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Arthur L.

    2016-01-01

    Penile preserving and reconstructive surgery is applied in the management of the primary tumor in penile cancer as well as severe genital anomalies or loss. Its indications relate to preserving successful sexual relationships and retaining quality of life. For penile cancer, it is acknowledged that the historical “gold standard” of surgical amputation of the penis that results in penile disfigurement or emasculation should not be uniformly accepted. The option of organ-preserving treatment is possible when oncologically feasible. With penile preservation, the objective is to maintain penile length, appearance and sensation as well as urethral integrity. For the low-risk primary tumor in penile cancer, determinants of the treatment plan involve the pathological definition of the disease and discussion with the patient regarding preference based on informed counseling and understanding of comparative risks (oncologic efficacy versus morbidity). Innovative surgical options for penile preservation include wide local excision, glansectomy, and glans resurfacing. Surgical reconstructive techniques, as dictated by the extent of the penile defect, include primary closure, closure using skins flaps and grafts, penile lengthening and/or enhancement, and neophalloplasty.

  9. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  10. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  11. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  12. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  13. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  15. [Inflammation and bone : Osteoimmunological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, K W; Neumann, E; Lange, U

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation. PMID:27250491

  16. [Fertility preservation in boys: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testicular grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, E; Tournaye, H

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the founder cells of spermatogenesis and are responsible for the lifelong production of spermatozoa. The cryopreservation and transplantation of these cells has been proposed as a fertility preservation strategy for young boys at risk for stem cell loss, i.e. patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or as a conditioning treatment for bone marrow transplantation. To prevent lifelong sterility in boys, two fertility restoration strategies are being developed: the injection of SSC and the grafting of testicular tissue containing SSC. Depending on the disease of the patient one of these two approaches will be applicable. Grafting has the advantage that SSC can reside within their natural niche, preserving the interactions between germ cells and their supporting cells and may therefore be regarded as the first choice strategy. However, in cases where the risk for malignant contamination of the testicular tissue is real, e.g. leukemia, transplantation of SSC by injection is preferable over grafting. PMID:23972916

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid reduces acute graft-versus-host disease and preserves graft-versus-leukemia effect

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pavan; Maeda,Yoshinobu; Hotary, Kevin; Liu, Chen; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and leukemic relapse are the two major obstacles to successful outcomes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), an effective therapy for hematological malignancies. Several studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and the loss of gastrointestinal tract integrity contribute to GVHD, whereas the donor cytotoxic responses are critical for graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) preservation. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic ac...

  18. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  19. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity...... function on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale...

  20. BlogForever: Intelligent Blog Preservation

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A new EU co-funded project, BlogForever, has set its sights on a developing region of the Internet: the blogosphere. With society growing ever more online-oriented, blogs have become rich repositories of cultural, scientific and social information. The BlogForever software platform is designed to manage and distribute this content and preserve it for posterity.   The BlogForever project will gather blog content into a safeguarded, online archive, turning the once temporary into a well-preserved resource. The project is scheduled for completion in 2013, with partners spread across 12 different companies, universities and research organisations, including CERN. While the CERN team is primarily involved in the technical aspect of the project – designing and implementing the repository – it will also contribute to the preservation guidelines that will be used to choose what content will be kept. “Building on the success of Invenio, the digital library software used by th...

  1. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  2. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement, an...... operation important for the top-down design of concurrent systems. We show that-unlike hp-bisimilarity-checking hhp-bisimilarity for finite labelled asynchronous transition systems is not decidable, by a reduction from the halting problem of 2-counter machines. To make the proof more transparent we...... introduce an intermediate problem of checking domino bisimilarity for origin constrained tiling systems, whose undecidability is interesting in its own right. We also argue that the undecidability of hhp-bisimilarity holds for finite labelled 1-safe Petri nets....

  3. The Planets Testbed: Science for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seamus Ross

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of digital objects requires specific software tools or services. These can be characterisation tools that abstract the essential characteristics of a digital object from a file, migration tools that convert digital objects to different formats, or emulation tools that render digital objects in their original context on a new infrastructure. Until recently digital preservation has been characterised by practices and processes that could best be described as more art and craft than science. The Planets Testbed provides a controlled environment where preservation tools can be tested and evaluated, and where experiment results can be empirically compared. This paper presents an overview of the Testbed application, an analysis of the experiment methodology and a description of the Testbed's web service approach.

  4. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  5. Privacy-preserving backpropagation neural network learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2009-10-01

    With the development of distributed computing environment , many learning problems now have to deal with distributed input data. To enhance cooperations in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving two-party distributed algorithm of backpropagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the other. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets. PMID:19709975

  6. Incentive Compatible Privacy-Preserving Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, competing parties who have private data may collaboratively conduct privacy-preserving distributed data analysis (PPDA tasks to learn beneficial data models or analysis results. Most often, the competing parties have different incentives. Although certain PPDA techniques guarantee that nothing other than the final analysis result is revealed, it is impossible to verify whether participating parties are truthful about their private input data. Unless proper incentives are set, current PPDA techniques cannot prevent participating parties from modifying their private inputs. This raises the question of how to design incentive compatible privacy-preserving data analysis techniques that motivate participating parties to provide truthful inputs. In this paper, we first develop key theorems, and then base on these theorems, we analyze certain important privacy-preserving data analysis tasks that could be conducted in a way that telling the truth is the best choice for any participating party.

  7. Towards Smart Storage for Repository Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hitchcock

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The move to digital is being accompanied by a huge rise in volumes of (born-digital content and data. As a result the curation lifecycle has to be redrawn. Processes such as selection and evaluation for preservation have to be driven by automation. Manual processes will not scale, and the traditional signifiers and selection criteria in older formats, such as print publication, are changing. The paper will examine at a conceptual and practical level how preservation intelligence can be built into software-based digital preservation tools and services on the Web and across the network ‘cloud’ to create ‘smart’ storage for long-term, continuous data monitoring and management. Some early examples will be presented, focussing on storage management and format risk assessment.

  8. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-03-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  9. Radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between December 1986 and January 1978, 68 patients with bone metastases were analyzed to evaluate the effect of radiation for the relief of pain. The 68 patients, who had a total of 97 lesions, complained of pain caused by their bone metastasis. The good, fair, and poor responses were found to be 18%, 60%, and 22%, respectively. With reference to the primary neoplasms, the effective response rate was 73% in lung cancer, 100% in breast cancer, 75% in gastric cancer, 100% in hepatic cancer, 100% in bladder cancer, 25% in epipharyngeal cancer, and 70% in the other neoplasms. Depending on the cell types of the lung cancer, the effective response rate was 80% for small cell carcinomas, 72% for adenocarcinomas and 40% for squamous cell carcinomas. Our results suggest that radiotherapy for bone metastases is to be recommended, since the effective response rate was 78% for the relief of pain. (author)

  10. Fertility preservation in females with malignant disease-1: causes, clinical needs and indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sönmezer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence is progressively increasing in parallel with an increase in the rate of cancer survivors with the help of advanced treatment modalities. By the year 2010, it is estimated that one in every 250 persons will have survived a childhood malignancy. The increased rates of survival bring about complications related to reproductive health. Cytotoxic treatments due to chemo- and radiotherapy or bone marrow transplantation suppress or irreversibly harm not only female ovarian reserve but also male testicular sperm production. In this review, cryopreservation of gametes and gonads with fertility preservation options and indications prior to cancer treatments are discussed.

  11. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  12. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone's propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities, such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  13. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  14. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites

    OpenAIRE

    Molly, Liene; Vandromme, Heleen; Quirynen, Marc; Schepers, Evert; Adams, Jessica L; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adequate bone volume is imperative for the osseointegration of endosseous implants, but post-extraction resorption and remodeling may challenge implant placement. The use of bone biomaterials has been advocated to fill extraction sites and to enhance primary implant stability during osseointegration. The objective of the case series was to evaluate bone formation histologically and biomechanically in extraction sites following implantation of three commercially available bone biom...

  15. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  17. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  18. Alterations of skull bones found in anencephalic skeletons from an identified osteological collection. Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irurita, Javier; Alemán, Inmaculada; Viciano, Joan; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Miguel Cecilio

    2015-07-01

    One of the most common conditions during fetal development is anencephaly, which often involves many identification difficulties in the context of physical anthropology, as it causes severe skull challenges. In this paper, we describe the alterations found in the skulls of two perinatal individuals with anencephaly from the osteological collection of identified infants in the Anthropology Laboratory of the University of Granada, Spain. Both subjects of study are in perfect state of preservation. Despite the severe malformations, all skull bones have been targeted and identified, as the possibility of studying a subject with a complete, articulated, and partially mummified skull; the other was disjointed and well preserved. The skull bones of these two individuals affected with anencephaly have been described in detail, allowing this pathological condition to be identified in skeletonized individuals in archaeological or forensic contexts, in cases where these bones did not have anatomical connection or when these were taphonomically altered. PMID:25416960

  19. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. For example, in medical data, sensitive information can be the fact that a particular patient suffers from HIV. In spatial data, sensitive information can be a specific location of an individual. In web surfing data, the information that a user browses certain websites may be considered sensitive. Consider a dataset conta

  20. Fluctuation preserving coarse graining for biochemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Altaner, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Finite stochastic Markov models play a major role for modelling biochemical pathways. Such models are a coarse-grained description of the underlying microscopic dynamics and can be considered mesoscopic. The level of coarse-graining is to a certain extend arbitrary since it depends on the resolution of accomodating measurements. Here, we present a way to simplify such stochastic descriptions, which preserves both the meso-micro and the meso-macro connection. The former is achieved by demanding locality, the latter by considering cycles on the network of states. Using single- and multicycle examples we demonstrate how our new method preserves fluctuations of observables much better than na\\"ive approaches.