Sample records for calcareum preserves bone

  1. Uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum como fonte alternativa de cálcio nas rações de frangos de corte Use of algae Lithothamnium calcareum as alternative source of calcium in diets for broiler chickens

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    André Carreira Carlos


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o uso da alga Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug nas rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 21 a 42 dias de idade, em substituição à fonte de cálcio tradicional (calcário calcítico. Para isso, foram utilizados 300 pintos machos, da linhagem Cobb®, que receberam rações contendo o calcário calcítico e a alga Lithothamnium calcareum (colhida de inteira e na forma de areia biodentrítica como fontes de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e cinco repetições de 20 aves cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso (g/ave, consumo de ração (g/ave e conversão alimentar (g/g. No final do experimento foram avaliados os parâmetros ósseos: peso da tíbia (g, comprimento da tíbia (mm, diâmetro da tíbia (mm e teor de cinzas na tíbia (%. Na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias houve efeito (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the algae Lithothamnium calcareum (Pallas Areschoug in diets for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 21 to 42 days, to replace the traditional source of calcium (limestone. 300 male chicks from Cobb® strain, which received diets containing limestone and Lithothamnium calcareum algae (as a whole and as sand biodentritic were used as sources of calcium. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and five replicates of 20 birds each. The variables analyzed were: weight gain (g / bird, feed intake (g / bird, feed per again (g / g. At the end of the experiment the bone parameters: weight of the tibia (g, tibia length (mm, diameter of the tibia (mm and ash content in the tibia (%. Were evaluated in the initial phase (1 to 21 days there was an effect (P <0.05 between treatments for weight gain and feed per again, and the control treatment showed better results. For the growing phase (21 to 42 days and total period (1 to 42 days there was no effect among the

  2. Preservation of ancient DNA in thermally damaged archaeological bone (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Koon, Hannah E. C.; Collins, Matthew J.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Rickards, Olga; Craig, Oliver E.


    Evolutionary biologists are increasingly relying on ancient DNA from archaeological animal bones to study processes such as domestication and population dispersals. As many animal bones found on archaeological sites are likely to have been cooked, the potential for DNA preservation must be carefully considered to maximise the chance of amplification success. Here, we assess the preservation of mitochondrial DNA in a medieval cattle bone assemblage from Coppergate, York, UK. These bones have variable degrees of thermal alterations to bone collagen fibrils, indicative of cooking. Our results show that DNA preservation is not reliant on the presence of intact collagen fibrils. In fact, a greater number of template molecules could be extracted from bones with damaged collagen. We conclude that moderate heating of bone may enhance the retention of DNA fragments. Our results also indicate that ancient DNA preservation is highly variable, even within a relatively recent assemblage from contexts conducive to organic preservation, and that diagenetic parameters based on protein diagenesis are not always useful for predicting ancient DNA survival.

  3. Comparing Ancient DNA Preservation in Petrous Bone and Tooth Cementum (United States)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Stenderup, Jesper; Lynnerup, Niels; Willerslev, Eske; Allentoft, Morten E.


    Large-scale genomic analyses of ancient human populations have become feasible partly due to refined sampling methods. The inner part of petrous bones and the cementum layer in teeth roots are currently recognized as the best substrates for such research. We present a comparative analysis of DNA preservation in these two substrates obtained from the same human skulls, across a range of different ages and preservation environments. Both substrates display significantly higher endogenous DNA content (average of 16.4% and 40.0% for teeth and petrous bones, respectively) than parietal skull bone (average of 2.2%). Despite sample-to-sample variation, petrous bone overall performs better than tooth cementum (p = 0.001). This difference, however, is driven largely by a cluster of viking skeletons from one particular locality, showing relatively poor molecular tooth preservation (pros and cons of sampling the different elements. PMID:28129388

  4. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons. (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B


    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified.

  5. Exploring the Bone Proteome to Help Explain Altered Bone Remodeling and Preservation of Bone Architecture and Strength in Hibernating Marmots. (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Roteliuk, Danielle M; Gookin, Sara E; McGrew, Ashley K; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Condon, Keith W; Prenni, Jessica E; Wojda, Samantha J; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W


    Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. We tested the hypothesis that bone turnover rates would decrease and bone structural and mechanical properties would be preserved in hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Femurs and tibias were collected from marmots during hibernation and in the summer following hibernation. Bone remodeling was significantly altered in cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation with suppressed formation and no change in resorption, unlike the increased bone resorption that occurs during disuse in humans and other animals. Trabecular bone architecture and cortical bone geometrical and mechanical properties were not different between hibernating and active marmots, but bone marrow adiposity was significantly greater in hibernators. Of the 506 proteins identified in marmot bone, 40 were significantly different in abundance between active and hibernating marmots. Monoaglycerol lipase, which plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system, was 98-fold higher in hibernating marmots compared with summer marmots and may play a role in regulating the changes in bone and fat metabolism that occur during hibernation.

  6. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

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    Andreas O. Parashis


    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  7. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique


    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  8. Lithothamnium calcareum no tratamento de osteotomia experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    N.S. Ucrós


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação com Lithothamnium calcareum na consolidação de osteotomia experimental em coelhos, por meio de exames radiográfico e histológico. Utilizaram-se 10 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia, de quatro a cinco meses de idade, com massa corporal média de 2,5kg, os quais foram submetidos à osteotomia do terço médio da tíbia direita e à fixação interna com dois pinos intramedulares. Os coelhos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais (A e B com cinco animais cada. O grupo A recebeu diariamente dieta contendo 0,75% de L. calcareum, e o grupo B constituiu o controle sem tratamento adicional à fixação da osteotomia. A evolução clínica ocorreu sem intercorrências. As radiografias foram realizadas antes do estudo e em intervalos de 15 dias até o final do experimento, e a histologia foi realizada aos 60 dias. As avaliações radiográficas permitiram acompanhar a evolução do processo de consolidação que ocorreu em todos os casos. Histologicamente, verificou-se consolidação completa em todos os animais do grupo B (controle e em 75% do grupo A. Dos resultados pode-se concluir que, embora tenha ocorrido a consolidação clínica e a radiográfica aos 60 dias em todos os casos, histologicamente o grupo-controle (B foi melhor, mostrando que o organismo sadio não necessita de estímulo para o processo de reparação óssea. Novas pesquisas devem ser realizadas para avaliar o efeito da suplementação mineral em animais portadores de deficiências nutricionais.

  9. Histologic and radiographic evaluation of different bone grafts in ridge preservation procedures


    Barallat Sendagorta, Lucía


    The main goal of this PhD project was to better understand how different types of bone grafts behave in ridge preservation procedures. There is clear evidence that, after tooth removal, a healing process takes place in which the blood clot that fills the socket is gradually substituted with new bone. This process is accompanied by a reduction in height and width of the alveolar ridge. These events may result in limited bone availability, which may compromise an adequate implant pl...

  10. Decoronation of an ankylosed tooth for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. (United States)

    Filippi, A; Pohl, Y; von Arx, T


    A 12-year-old patient sustained avulsions of both permanent maxillary central incisors. Subsequently, both teeth developed replacement resorption. The left incisor was extracted alio loco. The right incisor was treated by decoronation (removal of crown and pulp, but preservation of the root substance). Comparison of both sites demonstrated complete preservation of the height and width of the alveolar bone at the decoronation site, whereas the tooth extraction site showed considerable bone loss. In addition, some vertical bone apposition was found on top of the decoronated root. Decoronation is a simple and safe surgical procedure for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. It must be considered as a treatment option for teeth affected by replacement resorption if tooth transplantation is not feasible.

  11. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

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    Gary E Mason


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two long-term survivors of lower extremity bone sarcoma were studied to make a comparison of the overall quality of life, pain assessment and psychological evaluations in limb preservation and amputation patients. Forty-eight patients with limb preservation and thirty-four patients with amputations were enrolled in the study. Validated psychometric measures including the Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and visual analog scales were utilized.RESULTS: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation was significantly higher than patients with amputation (p-value < 0.01. Significant differences were noted in the categories of material well being, job satisfiers and occupational relations. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation appears to be better than for those patients with amputation based on the quality of life questionnaire in patients surviving lower extremity bone sarcoma. Further analysis needs to verify the results and focus on the categories that significantly affect the overall quality of life.

  12. Disparities in correlating microstructural to nanostructural preservation of dinosaur femoral bones (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Kyun; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Huh, Min; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Youn-Joong


    Osteohistological researches on dinosaurs are well documented, but descriptions of direct correlations between the bone microstructure and corresponding nanostructure are currently lacking. By applying correlative microscopy, we aimed to verify that well-preserved osteohistological features correlate with pristine fossil bone nanostructures from the femoral bones of Koreanosaurus boseongensis. The quality of nanostructural preservation was evaluated based on the preferred orientation level of apatite crystals obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and by measuring the “arcs” from the {100} and {002} diffraction rings. Unlike our expectations, our results revealed that well-preserved microstructures do not guarantee pristine nanostructures and vice versa. Structural preservation of bone from macro- to nanoscale primarily depends on original bioapatite density, and subsequent taphonomical factors such as effects from burial, pressure, influx of external elements and the rate of diagenetic alteration of apatite crystals. Our findings suggest that the efficient application of SAED analysis opens the opportunity for comprehensive nanostructural investigations of bone. PMID:28358033

  13. Preferential preservation of noncollagenous protein during bone diagenesis: Implications for chronometric and stable isotopic measurements (United States)

    Masters, Patricia M.


    Preferential preservation of noncollagenous proteins (NCP) in diagenetically altered bone will affect amino acid compositions, inflate D/L aspartic acid ratios, and increase C/N ratios. Human skeletal remains representing both well preserved (collagenous) and diagenetically altered (noncollagenous) bones were selected from several southern California coastal archaeological sites that date from 8400 to 4100 years B.P. Amino acid compositions of the poorly preserved samples resembled NCP, which are probably retained by adsorption to the hydroxyapatite mineral phase of bone whereas collagen is degraded and lost to the environment over time. Since the racemization rate of aspartic acid in NCP is an order of magnitude faster than in collagen, the conservation of NCP in diagenetically altered bone can explain the high D/L aspartic acid ratios, and the erroneous Upper Pleistocene racemization ages calculated from these ratios, for several California Indian burials. Amino acid compositional analyses also indicated a non-amino acid source of nitrogen in the poorly preserved samples, which may account for their lower C/N ratios despite the acidic amino acid profiles typical of NCP. Preservation of NCP rather than collagen also precludes the extraction of a gelatin residue for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analyses, but remnant NCP can yield apparently accurate radiocarbon dates. As collagen and phosphoprotein purified from a sample of modern human dentin have the same δ 13C and δ 15N values, remnant NCP may also be useful for paleodiet reconstructions based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions. Dentin collagen appears to be more resistant to diagenetic changes than does bone collagen. Consequently, dentin promises to be a more reliable material than bone for chronometric and stable isotope measurements.

  14. Resveratrol supplementation preserves long bone mass, microstructure, and strength in hindlimb-suspended old male rats. (United States)

    Durbin, Stephanie M; Jackson, Janna R; Ryan, Michael J; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Alway, Stephan E; Tou, Janet C


    Resveratrol has gained popularity as an "anti-aging" compound due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have investigated the role of resveratrol supplementation in the prevention of age-related bone loss and skeletal disuse despite increased inactivity and age-related bone loss in the elderly. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol supplementation on disuse and age-related bone loss. Old (age 33 months) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway male rats were provided either trans-resveratrol (12.5 mg/kg bw/day) or deionized distilled water by oral gavage for 21 days. Rats were hindlimb-suspended (HLS) or kept ambulatory (AMB) for 14 days. Both femora and tibiae were collected. Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone microstructure was determined by micro-computed tomography. HLS of old male rats accelerated loss of bone mineral content, decreased trabecular bone volume per unit of total volume, and increased trabecular separation. Resveratrol supplementation ameliorated bone demineralization and loss of bone microarchitecture in HLS old male rats. The peak force measured by the three-point bending test was reduced (P = 0.007) in HLS/control compared to AMB/control rats. Resveratrol supplementation ameliorated HLS-induced loss of femur strength. Plasma osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase was higher (P resveratrol. The bone protective effects of resveratrol appeared to be mediated through increased osteoblast bone formation, possibly due to reduced inflammation. Based on the results, resveratrol supplementation appeared to provide a feasible dietary therapy for preserving the skeletal system during disuse and age-related bone loss.

  15. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

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    Beck, L., E-mail: [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)


    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  16. Histological and morphometric aspects of ridge preservation with a moldable, in situ hardening bone graft substitute

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    Jurišić M.


    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP are widely used in alveolar ridge regeneration as a porous scaffold for new bone formation. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the regenerative effect of the combination of BCP and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA which can serve as a barrier membrane during bone regeneration. The study included five patients. Four months into the healing period, bone samples were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. The results of morphometric analysis showed that newly formed bone represented 32.2 ± 6.8% of the tissue, 31.9 ± 8.9% was occupied by residual graft and 35.9 ± 13.5% by soft tissue. Active osteogenesis was seen around the particles of the graft. The particles were occupied mostly by immature woven bone and connective tissue. The quality and quantity of newly formed bone, after the use of BCP/PLGA for ridge preservation, can be adequate for successful implant therapy after tooth extraction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175021 i br. OI 173009

  17. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

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    Rokhsareh Sadeghi


    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less residual graft particles in DFDBA group than in DBBM group.

  18. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells


    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James


    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  19. Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. (United States)

    Tarng, Yih-Wen; Yang, Shan-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Jen


    We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension. Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion. Successful union with no recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up.

  20. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs


    Ko-Ning Ho; Eisner Salamanca; Kuo-Chi Chang; Tsai-Chin Shih; Yu-Chi Chang; Haw-Ming Huang; Nai-Chia Teng; Che-Tong Lin; Sheng-Wei Feng; Wei-Jen Chang


    Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable pur...

  1. Successful function-preserving therapy for chondroblastoma of the temporal bone involving the temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Junkichi; Yoshimoto, Hitoshi; Ito, Shin; Ohba, Shinichi; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Yazawa, Masaki; Fujimiya, Nozomi; Hanaguri, Makoto


    We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach - postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa - was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  2. Successful Function-Preserving Therapy for Chondroblastoma of the Temporal Bone Involving the Temporomandibular Joint

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    Junkichi Yokoyama


    Full Text Available We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach – postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa – was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  3. Preservation of rodent bones from El Harhoura 2 cave (Morocco, Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic): Microstructure, mineralogy, crystallinity and composition (United States)

    Farre, Bastien; Massard, Pierre; Nouet, Julius; Dauphin, Yannicke


    Thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffraction X (DRX) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR) have been used to study the structure, mineralogy, crystallinity and bulk composition of fossil rodent long bones extracted from a succession of sedimentary layers in a cave from Morocco (Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic, El Harhoura 2). The microstructure of fossil bones is well-preserved at this scale of observation, and encrusted deposits are rare. All bones are preserved in apatite, but the crystallinity is modified, as well as the crystallite shape, the organic content and the organic-mineral ratio. No fluor enrichment has been observed. Alone or together, the studied parameters do not show a regular trend from the upper to the lower layers of the cave. The preservation of the fossil bones does not confirm the sequence of arid and humid periods inferred from taphonomic analyses.

  4. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present. (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H


    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules.

  5. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods. (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur


    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  6. Efficient decellularization for tissue engineering of the tendon-bone interface with preservation of biomechanics (United States)

    Foehr, Peter; Kuempel, Katharina; Wagner, Alexandra; Tuebel, Jutta; Deimling, Constantin V.; Burgkart, Rainer H.


    Interfaces between tendon/ligament and bone (“entheses”) are highly specialized tissues that allow for stress transfer between mechanically dissimilar materials. Entheses show very low regenerative capacity resulting in high incidences of failure after surgical repair. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to recover functionality of entheses. Here, we established a protocol to decellularize porcine entheses as scaffolds for enthesis tissue engineering. Chemical detergents as well as physical treatments were investigated with regard to their efficiency to decellularize 2 mm thick porcine Achilles tendon entheses. A two-phase approach was employed: study 1 investigated the effect of various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and t-octylphenoxypolyethoxy-ethanol (Triton X-100) as decellularization agents. The most efficient combination of SDS and Triton was then carried forward into study 2, where different physical methods, including freeze-thaw cycles, ultrasound, perfusion, and hydrostatic washing were used to enhance the decellularization effect. Cell counts, DNA quantification, and histology showed that washing with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 72 h at room temperature could remove ~ 98% cells from the interface. Further investigation of physical methods proved that washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure shortened the detergent exposing time from 72 h to 48 h. Biomechanical tensile testing showed that the biomechanical features of treated samples were preserved. Washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 48 h efficiently decellularized entheses with preservation of matrix structure and biomechanical features. This protocol can be used to efficiently decellularize entheses as scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:28170430

  7. Inactivated Bone Replantation with Preservation of the Epiphysis in Children with Osteosarcoma- Clinical Report of Two Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiuchun; LIUXiaoping; ZHOUYin; LIKaihua; QUZaiping


    Objective: To evaluate the value of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis following the effective chemotherapy in avoiding postoperative discrepancy of the affected limb in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: Two children (aged 5 and 10 years, 1 male and 1 female) with osteosarcoma underwent inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis following chemotherapy (MMIA protocol, including high-dose methotrexate, adriamycin and ifosfamide). After two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, pain vanished, the local mass shrank and there was no pain on pressing the affected parts. Sera AKP and LDH were reduced to normal levels; marked shrinkage and sclerotic changes and good margin of lesions were seen on plain radiographs and MR images. Two courses of the same protocol as preoperative chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Results: Postoperative histological examination of the specimens demonstrated absence of vital tumor cells. Incisions healed well and no complications occurred. The replanted inactivated bone healed with host at 6 months after operation.In the two patients, no evidence was seen of metastasis and recurrence and discrepancy of the affected limbs in postoperative 36 and 48 months. Functions of the affected limbs were satisfactory. Conclusion:Inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis was a viable option for osteosarcoma in children.The long-term outcomes remain to be further proven.

  8. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

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    Ko-Ning Ho


    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  9. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

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    Minas D. Leventis


    Full Text Available Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques.

  10. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series (United States)

    Leventis, Minas D.; Fairbairn, Peter; Kakar, Ashish; Leventis, Angelos D.; Margaritis, Vasileios; Lückerath, Walter; Horowitz, Robert A.; Rao, Bappanadu H.; Lindner, Annette; Nagursky, Heiner


    Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone) in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material) while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques. PMID:27190516

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats. (United States)

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping


    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities

  12. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong


    on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un...... across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental...

  13. Preserving the socket dimensions with bone grafting in single sites: an esthetic surgical approach when planning delayed implant placement. (United States)

    Irinakis, Tassos; Tabesh, Moe


    Recent advancements in barrier membranes, bone grafting substitutes, and surgical techniques have led to a predictable arsenal of treatment methods for clinicians who practice implant dentistry. The contemporary clinician is supplied with proven knowledge, substantiated materials, and instrument inventory that allows implant placement in cases that used to be reserved for the specialist in the past because of their complexity. Nowadays, postextraction alveolar ridge maintenance can be a predictable procedure and can certainly aid the clinician in preventing ridge collapse, thereby allowing for implant placement in a position that satisfies esthetics and function. Extraction socket maintenance for future implant therapy does not rule out immediate implant placement but rather provides an additional option when treatment planning implant patients. This article will focus on the concept of extraction socket preservation using regenerative materials. It will describe a technique suggested by the authors to resist bone resorption and soft tissue shrinkage following tooth extraction.

  14. Darbepoietin-alfa has comparable erythropoietic stimulatory effects to recombinant erythropoietin whilst preserving the bone marrow microenvironment. (United States)

    Dewamitta, Sita R; Russell, Megan R; Nandurkar, Harshal; Walkley, Carl R


    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are widely used for the treatment of anemia. Recently, we reported erythroid expansion with impaired B lymphopoiesis and loss of trabecular bone in C57BL/6 mice following ten days of treatment with low-dose short acting recombinant human erythropoietin. We have assessed erythropoietin against longer-acting darbepoietin-alfa at a comparable erythroid stimulatory dosage regime. Darbepoietin-alfa and erythropoietin induced similar in vivo erythropoietic expansion. Both agents induced an expansion of the colony-forming unit-erythroid populations. However, unlike erythropoietin, darbepoietin-alfa did not impair bone marrow B lymphopoiesis. Strikingly the bone loss observed with erythropoietin was not apparent following darbepoietin-alfa treatment. This analysis demonstrates that whilst darbepoietin-alfa has similar in vivo erythropoietic potency to erythropoietin, it preserves the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus erythropoietin and darbepoietin-alfa manifest different action showing that erythropoiesis stimulating agents have differential non-erythroid effects dependent on their duration of action.

  15. Socket preservation using bovine bone mineral and collagen membrane: a randomized controlled clinical trial with histologic analysis. (United States)

    Cardaropoli, Daniele; Tamagnone, Lorenzo; Roffredo, Alessandro; Gaveglio, Lorena; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe


    After tooth extraction, varying amounts of bone resorption occur because of qualitative and quantitative changes at the edentulous site of the alveolar process. The aims of this randomized controlled clinical trial were (1) to compare the postextraction changes in residual ridge dimensions during spontaneous healing with those during socket preservation, (2) to analyze the histologic and histomorphometric aspects of the grafted sockets, and (3) to compare probing procket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) changes at teeth adjacent to extraction sites. Forty-eight teeth were extracted from 41 patients referred for extraction of 1 or more maxillary or mandibular premolars or molars. The edentulous sites were randomly assigned to the control (EXT, extraction alone) or experimental groups (SP, extraction and socket preservation). In the SP group, the sockets were filled with bovine bone mineral and covered with porcine collagen membrane. At baseline and after 4 months, PPD, gingival recession (REC), and CAL were measured at teeth adjacent to the edentulous sites. The changes in ridge dimensions from baseline to 4 months were assessed on dental casts. At 4 months, bone was harvested from the grafted areas in the SP group and the edentulous areas in the EXT group. PPD, REC, and CAL were comparable between groups. However, from baseline to 4 months, the SP group showed significantly less reduction in ridge width (1.04 ± 1.08 mm vs 4.48 ± 0.65 mm, P collagen membrane considerably limits the amount of horizontal and vertical bone resorption when compared with extraction alone.

  16. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

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    M.P. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  17. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P


    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  18. Hearing preservation in acoustic neuroma resection: Analysis of petrous bone measurement and intraoperative application

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    Levent Tanrikulu


    Conclusion: Petrous bone measurement by high-resolution MRI data enables safe surgical exposure of the internal acoustic canal with avoidance of injury to the labyrinth and a better postoperative prognosis, especially for intrameatal ANs and for the resection of intrameatal portions of larger neuromas. The prognostic factors enable the patients and the surgeon a better estimation of postoperative results regarding deafness and postoperative hypacusis and support a consolidated treatment planning.

  19. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed


    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  20. Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Guan, Jianjun; Tamama, Kenichi


    Cell therapy with bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising approach in the field of regenerative medicine. Low frequency of MSCs in adult bone marrow necessitates ex vivo expansion of MSCs after harvest; however, such a manipulation causes cellular senescence with loss of differentiation, proliferative, and therapeutic potentials of MSCs. Hydrogen molecules have been shown to exert organ protective effects through selective reduction of hydroxyl radicals. As oxidative stress is one of the key insults promoting cell senescence in vivo as well as in vitro, we hypothesized that hydrogen molecules prevent senescent process during MSC expansion. Addition of 3% hydrogen gas enhanced preservation of colony forming early progenitor cells within MSC preparation and prolonged the in vitro replicative lifespan of MSCs without losing differentiation potentials and paracrine capabilities. Interestingly, 3% hydrogen gas treatment did not decrease hydroxyl radical, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting that scavenging hydroxyl radical might not be responsible for these effects of hydrogen gas in this study.

  1. Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka (United States)

    Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Hauschka, Peter V.; Collins, Matthew J.


    We report the first complete sequences of the protein osteocalcin from small amounts (20 mg) of two bison bone (Bison priscus) dated to older than 55.6 ka and older than 58.9 ka. Osteocalcin was purified using new gravity columns (never exposed to protein) followed by microbore reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequencing of osteocalcin employed two methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS): peptide mass mapping (PMM) and post-source decay (PSD). The PMM shows that ancient and modern bison osteocalcin have the same mass to charge (m/z) distribution, indicating an identical protein sequence and absence of diagenetic products. This was confirmed by PSD of the m/z 2066 tryptic peptide (residues 1 19); the mass spectra from ancient and modern peptides were identical. The 129 mass unit difference in the molecular ion between cow (Bos taurus) and bison is caused by a single amino-acid substitution between the taxa (Trp in cow is replaced by Gly in bison at residue 5). Bison mitochondrial control region DNA sequences were obtained from the older than 55.6 ka fossil. These results suggest that DNA and protein sequences can be used to directly investigate molecular phylogenies over a considerable time period, the absolute limit of which is yet to be determined.

  2. Endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow are required to preserve muscle function in mdx mice. (United States)

    Fujita, Ryo; Tamai, Katsuto; Aikawa, Eriko; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi


    The physiological role of "endogenous" bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is poorly understood. Here, we show the significant contribution of unique endogenous BM-MSC populations to muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mice (mdx). Transplantation of BM cells (BMCs) from 10-week-old mdx into 3-4-week-old mdx mice increased inflammation and fibrosis and reduced muscle function compared with mdx mice that received BMCs from 10-week-old wild-type mice, suggesting that the alteration of BMC populations in mdx mice affects the progression of muscle pathology. Two distinct MSC populations in BM, that is, hematopoietic lineage (Lin)(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) cells, were significantly reduced in 10-week-old mdx mice in disease progression. The results of a whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that these two MSC populations have distinct gene expression profiles, indicating that the Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) MSC populations are proliferative- and dormant-state populations in BM, respectively. BM-derived Lin(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs abundantly migrated to damaged muscles and highly expressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, in damaged muscles. We also demonstrated that TSG-6 stimulated myoblast proliferation. The injection of Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs into the muscle of mdx mice successfully ameliorated muscle dysfunction by decreasing inflammation and enhancing muscle regeneration through TSG-6-mediated activities. Thus, we propose a novel function of the unique endogenous BM-MSC population, which countered muscle pathology progression in a DMD model.

  3. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone. (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui


    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation.

  4. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  5. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  6. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring. (United States)

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María


    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  7. Bone (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  8. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone. (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia


    Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  9. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Higby Schweitzer

    Full Text Available Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  10. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo


    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  11. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (Trenbolone) preserves bone mineral density in skeletally mature orchiectomized rats without prostate enlargement. (United States)

    McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Borsa, Paul A; Tillman, Mark D; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Johnson, Sally E; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Ye, Fan; Borst, Stephen E


    Testosterone enanthate (TE) administration attenuates bone loss in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. However, testosterone administration may increase risk for prostate/lower urinary tract related adverse events and polycythemia in humans. Trenbolone enanthate (TREN) is a synthetic testosterone analogue that preserves bone mineral density (BMD) and results in less prostate enlargement than testosterone in young ORX rodents. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramuscular TREN administration attenuates bone loss and maintains bone strength, without increasing prostate mass or hemoglobin concentrations in skeletally mature ORX rodents. Forty, 10 month old male F344/Brown Norway rats were randomized into SHAM, ORX, ORX+TE (7.0mg/week), and ORX+TREN (1.0mg/week) groups. Following surgery, animals recovered for 1 week and then received weekly: vehicle, TE, or TREN intramuscularly for 5 weeks. ORX reduced total and trabecular (t) BMD at the distal femoral metaphysis compared with SHAMs, while both TREN and TE completely prevented these reductions. TREN treatment also increased femoral neck strength by 28% compared with ORX animals (pTREN induced a non-significant 20% reduction in prostate mass compared with SHAMs, ultimately producing a prostate mass that was 64% below that found in ORX+TE animals (pTREN animals to a similar degree above both SHAM and ORX conditions (pTREN completely prevented the ORX-induced loss of tBMD at the distal femoral metaphysis and increased LABC mass. TREN also augmented femoral neck strength and maintained prostate mass at SHAM levels. These findings indicate that TREN may be an advantageous agent for future clinical trials evaluating agents capable of preventing bone loss resulting from androgen deficiency.

  12. A comparative evaluation of extraction socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin: A clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval J Thakkar


    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate clinically and radiographically, the bone fill in extraction sockets using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 36 nonrestorable single-rooted teeth sites. Sites were randomized into demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA combined with PRF - test and DFDBA - control groups using a coin toss method. After the placement of graft material, collagen membrane was used to cover it. The clinical parameters recorded were ridge width and ridge height. All the parameters were recorded at baseline and at 90 and 180 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test and paired t-test. Results: In both groups, there is significant reduction in loss of ridge width and ridge height from baseline to 90 days (P < 0.001, baseline to 180 days (P < 0.001, and 90-180 days (P < 0.001. However, when both the groups were compared the test group favored in the reduction of ridge width while there was no statistical difference in reduction of ridge height among at different intervals. Conclusions: Although DFDBA is considered as an ideal graft material, PRF can be used as an adjunctive with DFDBA for socket preservation.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  14. Preservação da proteína verde fluorescente no tecido ósseo descalcificado Preservation of the green fluorescent protein on decalcified bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankerle Neves Boeloni


    diseases. However, in the bone, the fluorescence generated by GFP can be lost during the decalcification process, hindering the tracking of stem cells used in the treatment of diseases or bone defects. The aim of this study was to compare different techniques of preservation of GFP in the decalcified bone tissue. Femurs of female Lewis GFP rats were distributed in four groups: 1 decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded; 2 decalcified in formic acid submitted to cryomicrotomy; 3 decalcified in EDTA and paraffin-embedded and 4 decalcified in EDTA with cryomicrotomy. Sections of bone tissue of all the groups were analyzed for identification of the natural fluorescence and subsequently submitted to the immunofluorescence using anti-GFP and Alexa Flúor 555. The images were obtained by confocal microscopy. Osteocytes, osteoblasts and bone marrow cells of GFP rats only had natural fluorescence preserved in the bone tissue decalcified in EDTA and submitted to cryomicrotomy. In others groups there were loss of the natural fluorescence and the GFP cells could be only identified with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP. In conclusion, the decalcification in EDTA and the cryomicrotomy are the best techniques to preserve the natural fluorescence of the GFP cells in the bone tissue and the GFP cells in bone tissue decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded can be visualized only with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP.

  15. How are teeth better than bone? An investigation of dental tissue diagenesis and state of preservation at a histological scale (with photo catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege I. Hollund


    Full Text Available Teeth are often the preferred substrate for isotopic and genetic assays in archaeological research. Teeth can yield isotopic signals from different periods of an individual's lifetime, useful in dietary reconstruction, climate research, and investigation into mobility of people and animals in the past. Additionally, it is generally accepted that teeth preserve biomolecules (e.g. DNA, collagen and isotopic signals better. Despite the importance of dental tissue in archaeological research, no systematic study has been carried out concerning diagenetic alterations at histological scale. This article reports the results of a thorough histological characterisation of post-mortem alterations observed in 34 ancient teeth. Such alterations are well described in bone whereas similar analyses of teeth are scant and highlight the need for diagenetic screening before analysis. Micrographs have been made, illustrating typical diagenetic features occurring within the dental tissues cementum, dentine and enamel including bioerosion, cracking, etching and staining. The photo catalogue produced can be used within fields such as archaeology, forensics and palaeontology.

  16. Bone Mass Gained in Response to External Loading is Preserved for Several Weeks Following Cessation of Loading in 10 Week C57BL/6J Mice (United States)


    increased BMC in the loaded bone is caused by both bone size and vBMD changes. Bone size, as reflected by periosteal circumference (PC), was increased by 18...days four-point bending on 10 week female C57BL/6J mice. The x-axis corresponds to various time points. (a) Bone mineral content (BMC), (b) Periosteal ...tibia. In the pQCT analysis of bone parameters using the lower threshold (180-730), we found that the magnitude of increase in periosteal circumference

  17. Research prowess on reduction of bone resorption through alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%应用牙槽窝保存技术减少拔牙后骨吸收的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    口腔种植作为一种缺失牙的修复方式已经被临床广泛地接受,然而,成功的种植修复需要有足够的牙槽骨骨量和良好的牙槽嵴外形.患者的牙齿拔除后,骨吸收会造成牙槽嵴体积和外形的变化.若这种变化在临床上较为明显,可以对种植修复或传统修复造成困难.牙槽嵴保存技术则可以使拔牙后的牙槽嵴吸收最小化,可以保持足够的牙槽骨量,从而有助于获得理想的美学和功能修复.本文对牙槽窝保存技术、微创拔牙技术、拔牙后的牙槽窝愈合模式以及骨移植材料和屏障膜的使用作一综述.%Implant therapy has become a widely recognized treatment alternative for replacing missing teeth.While successful implant therapy requires sufficient alveolar bone volume and favorable ridge architecture. After tooth extraction, dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge often occur due to bone resorption. These changes are usually clinically significant and can complicate restorations with implant or conventional prostheses. Preservation of alveolar dimension can minimize residual ridge resorption and can be essential to maintain adequate bone volume, thus be crucial to achieve optimal esthetic and functional prosthodontic results. This article reviewed the literature, presents socket preservation techniques, atraumatic tooth extraction, healing pattern of socket after tooth extraction as well as the use of bone grafting materials and barrier membranes.

  18. Clinical effects on the prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis%牙周炎患牙位点保存术的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊毅; 汪明敏; 董凯; 朱春晖; 刘瑾; 董妍; 李昂


    目的:观察位点保存术在牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨量改变的临床效果。方法纳入门诊确诊为牙周炎不能保留的患牙85颗,随机分为2组:①常规拔牙组,40颗患牙,采用传统的牙拔除术;②位点保存组,45颗患牙,经微创拔牙后牙槽窝同期植入Bio-OSS胶原,覆盖Bio-Gide胶原膜并且严密缝合。对比两组患牙的临床疗效,并分别于术前术后行 X线和锥形束CT(cone beam CT,CBCT)影像学检查,评估2组牙槽骨量变化情况及比较牙槽骨的密度情况。结果两组术区均无感染,愈合良好,牙龈质地坚韧,颜色粉红。X线和CBCT结果显示,常规拔牙组牙槽骨水平和垂直吸收增加,位点保存组牙槽骨垂直和水平吸收量显著低于常规拔牙组(P<0.05),术后6月 CBCT显示位点保存组新生骨密度显著高于常规拔牙组。结论位点保存术可有效预防及减少牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨的吸收,改善牙槽骨高度和宽度,成骨效果良好,有利于满足后期的修复需要。%Objective To observe the clinical effects on prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis.Methods The experimental group consisted of 40 patients with 45 extracted teeth due to periodontitis.The fresh sockets were immediately grafted and filled with Bio-oss collagen and Bio-Gide after minimally invasive tooth extraction,while 40 teeth of control group were only treated with cotton balls bitten tightly over the socket for half an hour.Two groups were observed for changes in alveolar bone density by X-ray and cone beam CT (CBCT)after 6 months.Results There were the wound healing and no infection in extraction site of all patients with or without site preservation operation.The gingiva of extraction site was pink and tough in all groups.The alveolar bone loss in regular extraction patients significantly increased in horizontal and vertical aspects by X-ray and CBCT,while site

  19. Bone and muscle structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise on a new stepper device in 21 days tail-suspended rats. (United States)

    Sun, L W; Blottner, D; Luan, H Q; Salanova, M; Wang, C; Niu, H J; Felsenberg, D; Fan, Y B


    Human performance in microgravity is characterized by reversed skeletal muscle actions in terms of active vs. passive mode contractions of agonist/antagonist groups that may challenge principal biodynamics (biomechanical forces translated from muscle to bone) of the skeletal muscle-bone unit. We investigated active vs. passive muscle motions of the unloaded hindlimb skeletal muscle-bone unit in the 21 days tail-suspended (TS) rat using a newly designed stepper exercise device. The regimen included both active mode motions (TSA) and passive mode motions (TSP). A TS-only group and a normal cage group (CON) served as positive or negative controls. The muscle and bone decrements observed in TS-only group were not seen in the other groups except TSP. Active mode motions supported femur and tibia bone quality (5% BMD, 10% microtrabecular BV/TV, Tb.Th., Tb.N. parameters), whole soleus muscle/myofiber size and type II distribution, 20% increased sarcolemma NOS1 immunosignals vs. CON, with 25% more hybrid fiber formation (remodeling sign) for all TS groups. We propose a new custom-made stepper device to be used in the TS rat model that allows for detailed investigations of the unique biodynamic properties of the muscle-bone unit during resistive-load exercise countermeasure trials on the ground or in microgravity.

  20. 引导骨再生膜技术在牙槽嵴位点保存的临床疗效观察%On clinical effect of guided bone regeneration on postextracting socket site preservation in implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼加提·吐尔逊; 王艳; 赵涓彤; 吴佩玲


    目的:探讨牙周病拔牙后应用引导骨再生膜技术在牙槽嵴位点保存的临床疗效。方法22例32颗具有拔牙适应证的患牙拔除后随机分为植骨组和非植骨组,植骨组即刻在拔牙创窝内填塞羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷骨替代材料,覆盖口腔生物膜,周围软组织松弛后拉拢缝合,严密关闭拔牙创;非植骨组常规处理拔牙创面。结果植骨组16个拔牙位点,牙槽嵴位点骨形成有效位点数为15个,未见明显骨质形成位点1个;非植骨组16个拔牙位点,牙槽嵴位点骨形成有效位点数为9个,未见明显骨质形成位点共7个。结论采用羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷充填骨缺损区同时覆盖生物膜的引导骨再生技术可获得良好的骨引导再生效果。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of guided bone regeneration on postextracting socket site preservation in implantology .Methods 22 patients with 32 extracted teeth were randomly divided into ex-perimental group and control group .The experimental group was placed coralline hydroxyapatite in socket site after extraction while the control group with cotton balls bitten tightly over the socket for half an hour .Results All patients had no adverse symptoms .New bone formation in the coralline hydroxyapatite implanted area in the 3rd month ,after 6 months the artificial bone and bone around integrated and the height of the alveolar bone were significantly increased ,higher than that of the contral group (P <0 .05) , and the soft tissue healing of the experimental group was better than that of the control group (P<0 .05) . Conclusion Coralline hydroxyapatite combined with guided bone regeneration technique can have good effect on guiding bone regeneration and repair bone defects .

  1. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;


    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  2. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec


    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  3. The effect of permanent grafting materials on the preservation of the buccal bone plate after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the dog.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bashara, Haitham


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bone substitute system (Natix(®)), consisting of porous titanium granules (PTG) and a bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss(®)), on hard tissue remodelling following their placement into fresh extraction sockets in dogs.

  4. Motion-preserving wrist reconstruction using a microsurgical medial femur condylus bone graft and radio-scapho-lunate (RSL limited fusion after osteomyelitis following open distal radius fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann, Claudia


    Full Text Available This case presents the microsurgical management in the rare situation after sequestering osteomyelitis of the distal radius to achieve both bony stability and partially preserved wrist motion. A 38-year-old patient underwent after sequestrectomy microsurgical reconstruction using a medial femoral condyle as a prerequisite for simultaneous motion-preserving radio-scapho-lunate (RSL fusion. As a result, 11 months postoperatively, a good functional result was achieved with range of motion of 60° in extension/flexion and 40° in ulnar/radial deviation and grip strength of 12 kg correspondeding to 33% of the dominant contralateral side. Upper extremity usability as measured by Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire improved from preoperative 24 to after the reconstruction and enabled the patient to resume his work without pain.

  5. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn


    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena de Carvalho Penha


    . The objective of this study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of xenografts as a substitute for methalic implants. Animals were divided into two groups: five young cats and five adult cats. Clinically, the weight-bearing on the operated limb was observed the day after surgery in all animals, with complete remission of lameness at 15 days and bone union in 16.6 weeks. In five young animals, in two of them, the grafts were fractured carrying a serious bone bending without fracture of feline femur. In the last two young cats, remodeling was noted in mean time of 75 days or 10.7 weeks. In five adult cats, all of them suffered overriding of the fragments of osteotomized bone with various degrees, where two cases were considered severe cases dut to fracture of feline femur without bone bending. In the three remaining animals with slightly overriding, one was a case of delayed union, one suffered tow surgical procedures due to graft fracture and one did not show a radiographic exuberant bone callus, with remodeling at 110 days. The use of the bonive xenograft preserved in 98% glycerol in young and adult cats used as intramedularry nails was perfectly employed, offering mechanical support in time of bone consolidation in all of 10 animals.

    KEY WORDS: Cortical bovine graft, cats, femur, fracture, osteotomy.

  7. Digital Preservation. (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth


    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  8. The comparision of the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss用于牙槽嵴保存效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 丁宇翔; 秦瑞峰; 侯锐; 周宏志; 张林林; 胡开进


    Objective:To compare the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction.Methods:280 patients were divided into two groups randomly.Each patient had single tooth extracted.The sockets were filled with calcined bovine bone in 140 patients and Bio-Oss graft in another 140 patients. After shaping,all the sockets were covered with Bio-Gide membrane.Buccal mucoperiosteal flap was released and sutured to close the alveolar sockets.The patients were regularly examined at the 1st,12th and 24th week after surgery.Physical examination and X-ray evaluation were applied to compare the outcomes of the two materials in alveolar ridge preservation.Results:No infection and re-jection occurred.The radiographic results showed the width and height of the alveolar bone were preserved well at the 12th and 24th weeks.No statistically difference was found in the two groups at the 1st and 24th weeks(P>0.05).Conclusion:The two graft ma-terials can effectively preserve alveolar bone after tooth extraction.%目的:对比骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss应用于拔牙后牙槽嵴保存的效果。方法:280例患者单颗牙拔除后,随机分为2组,将骨引导天然煅烧骨和Bio-Oss各植入140例拔牙窝中,塑形后均用Bio-Gide生物膜覆盖,颊侧黏骨膜翻瓣、滑行缝合、封闭拔牙创,并在术后第1周、12周、24周复查,拍摄全口曲面断层片及CT,评价2种植骨材料牙槽嵴保存的效果。结果:2组的大体观察均显示出了较好的结果,无感染及排斥反应。12周及24周影像学结果显示2组牙槽嵴的宽度和高度均得到了较好的保存,组间比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:2种植骨材料均能有效地保存拔牙后牙槽骨的骨量。

  9. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi


    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  10. Preserving Chile


    Brennand, Charlotte P.


    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  11. Two kinds of bone in the extraction socket preservation preliminary observation on the clinical ef ect of intraoperative%两种骨粉在拔牙窝保存术中临床效果的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:研究两种骨粉在拔牙窝保存术中的临床效果,比较不同骨代材料恢复和重建拔牙窝处软硬组织的能力。方法:将2013年5月-2014年12月份在我院口腔颌面外科拔除前牙或前磨牙的60例患者,随机分为3组,进口骨粉组和国产骨粉组于拔牙后分别应用 Bio -Oss、羟基磷灰石对拔牙窝进行填充,空白对照组拔牙后不进行任何干预。1、3、6个月复诊,观察拔牙窝愈合情况。拔牙前及拔牙6个月后进行口内取模灌注石膏模型并拍摄 X 线牙片,分别测量牙槽嵴的高度和宽度,进行统计学分析,P <0.05为差异具有统计学意义。结果:60例患者中,进口骨粉组和国产骨粉组拔牙窝均愈合良好,牙槽骨丰满,牙龈色、形、质与邻牙协调。牙槽窝骨质均得到有效保护,牙槽嵴的宽度均满足临床种植需求。而对照组牙槽嵴吸收、萎缩,高度降低、宽度显著缩小。经比较发现,进口骨粉(Bio -Oss)组各项指标变化最小,国产骨粉(羟基磷灰石)组次之,空白对照组变化最大。结论:将 Bio -Oss 或羟基磷灰石人工骨粉在拔牙后即刻植入牙槽窝中,均可以有效保护牙槽骨量,维持牙槽骨形态,顺利完成种植手术,软硬组织美学效果良好。国产骨粉更加经济和实用,适经济欠发达地区推广。%Objective:To study the two kinds of bone in the extraction socket preservation inclinical ef ect,comparison of dif erent reconstruction ability of tooth extraction socket of soft tissue and bone restoration materials.Methods:from 2013 May -2014 year in December 60 cases of oral and maxil ofacial surgery in our hospital were anterior teeth or premolars of patients, were randomly divided into 3 groups,imported meal group and domestic meal groupafter extraction respectively using Bio -Oss,hydroxyapatite on the sockets were fil ed,the blank control group after tooth

  12. Clinical study on two kinds of bone substitutes in socket preservation%两种骨代材料在拔牙位点保存术中的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常旭; 王立军


    目的 比较β-磷酸三钙(β-tricalcium phosphate ,β-TCP)和珊瑚羟基磷灰石( coral hydroxyapatite ,CHA)在拔牙位点保存术中的临床效果. 方法 纳入2013-06至2014-06于武警总医院口腔种植颌面外科拔除下颌磨牙的患者64例,随机分为4组,β-TCP组和CHA组各16例,拔牙同期分别植入两种骨代材料,植入组织补片( acellular dermal matrix ,ADM)组16例,自然愈合组16例. 测量拔牙前及6个月后牙槽嵴宽度及高度变化进行统计学分析,于6个月后种植术中取活检进行组织学观察. 结果 两实验组牙槽嵴宽度及高度的吸收值显著低于自然愈合组和组织补片组(P0.05).Conclusions Application of β-TCP and CHA combined with acellular dermal matrix for socket preservation can obtain both good effects in preserving the bone quantity .In the aspect of osteogenesis ,β-TCP is better than CHA .

  13. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  14. Bone tumor (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  15. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini


    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  16. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  17. Effect of the attachment remnant preservation on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%保留残迹对前交叉韧带移植物腱骨愈合影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宗峤; 吴波; 李士光; 孙磊


    目的 探讨保留残迹重建前交叉韧带对移植物腱骨愈合的影响.方法 32只新西兰兔一期行双侧前交叉韧带重建术,一侧保留残端纤维,对侧切除残端纤维.重建术后6、12、18及24周时,采用HE染色、甲苯胺蓝染色观测,分析移植物腱骨愈合变化情况.结果 重建术后各观察时间点上,保留残迹组移植物腱骨界面组织构建更接近正常,术后24周时保留残迹组腱骨界面软骨细胞含量明显高于切除残迹组[(56.5±2.4) vs (45.7±2.7),P<0.05].结论 保留残迹重建前交叉韧带有助于移植物腱骨愈合.%Objective To investigate the effect of attachment remnant preservation on the healing of tendon-bone interface in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods 32 New Zealand rabbits were involved and both knees of each rabbit received transection of anterior cruciate ligament simultaneously. ACL of one knee was reconstructed with preservation of the residual portion of ligament, and the contralateral one was reconstructed with excision of the remnant. At6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks after reconstruction, the healing status and morphology of tendon-bone interface were observed in vitro by hemaetoxylin-eosin staining and Toluidine Blue staining. Results At each observation time point, the morphology and structure of tendon-bone interface in the remnant-preserved group were improved similar to normal, and the number of chondrocytes at the interface was significantly increased in the remnant-preserved group compared with that of control group [ (56. 5 ±2. 4) vs (45. 7 ±2. 7) , P <0. 05]. Conclusions The preservation of attachment remnant in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction could enhance the healing of tendon-bone interface.

  18. Bone Biopsy (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  19. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  20. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish (United States)

    Meacham, Amanda


    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  1. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian


    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  2. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail:; Chapman, S


    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  3. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Evinc


    Full Text Available In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 29-32

  4. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report


    Rahmi Evinc; Can Kopal; Dogan Bek; Muzaffer Durmus


    In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000): 29-32

  5. Clinical application of site preservation in posterior area in order to prevent alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction%应用位点保存技术预防拔牙后牙槽骨吸收的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景辉; 杨瑛; 张方明


    目的:观察和评价应用位点保存技术预防拔牙后牙槽骨吸收的临床疗效。方法选取需要拔除下颌磨牙的患者40例,随机分为两组。实验组20例患者拔牙后即刻在拔牙窝内植入 Bio - Oss骨粉,创口表面覆盖 Bio -Gide胶原膜,对照组20例患者拔牙后进行常规处理。定期复查观察两组患者拔牙窝愈合情况,于拔牙后即刻与拔牙后6个月拍摄锥形束 CT(CBCT),观察和测量牙槽骨垂直向吸收量、牙槽骨高度与宽度、骨密度和新骨轮廓的变化,评价位点保存的临床效果。结果拔牙后6个月实验组牙槽骨垂直向吸收量明显小于对照组;实验组骨密度、新骨轮廓明显优于对照组,两组之间具有统计学差异( P <0.05)。CBCT 测量统计学分析后证实两组间牙槽骨高度与宽度的变化具有显著性差异( P <0.05)。结论位点保存技术可以有效减少因拔牙而造成的牙槽骨吸收,很好地维持拔牙位点的骨量,从而为后期的种植牙修复提供良好的位点条件,值得临床推广。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of site preservation in posterior area in order to prevent alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction. Methods Forty patients with posterior sick teeth were selected for this study,and they were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients in trial group were implanted with Bio - Oss in the alveolar socket immediately after tooth extraction,the wound surface covered by Bio- Gide collagen membrane,and the tooth extraction in 20 patients of control group had been performed by conventional treatment. The results of patients in these two groups were observed The changes in alveolar bone density,height,width and new bone contour were observed by CBCTscan-ning in patients of these 2 groups after 6 months. Results In comparison with these two groups,new bone contour and bone density in patients of trial group were significantly

  6. To Explore Application of CGF Composite Bone Induction Activity Material for Periodontitis Site Preservation of Teeth%探讨CGF复合骨诱导活性材料在牙周炎患牙位点保存中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满云娜; 刘菁; 丁锐


    Objective To explore application of CGF composite bone induction activity materials in periodontitis site preservation of tooth. MethodsFrom January 2015 to June 2016, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis in urumqi oral hospital, a total of 46 teeth can not be preserved, randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 23 teeth in each group. Control group was treated with routine treatment, experimental group using CGF composite bone inducing active material for the patients with periodontitis, comparison of two groups of patients with therapeutic effect. Results The experimental group was significantly better than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of CGF composite bone inducing active material for the preservation of dental site in patients with periodontitis, which can effectively improve the treatment of the disease.%目的:探讨CGF复合骨诱导活性材料在牙周炎患牙位点保存中的应用。方法选取2015年1月~2016年6月在乌鲁木齐市口腔医院就诊并诊断为慢性牙周炎患者40例,需拔出患牙46颗,随机分为实验组与对照组,每组各23颗。对照组采用常规方式治疗,实验组使用CGF复合骨诱导活性材料行牙周炎患牙位点保存术。比较两组患者治疗效果。结果实验组治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用CGF复合骨诱导活性材料行牙周炎患牙位点保存术,可有效提升该类病症的治疗效果。

  7. [Preservatives in ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Messmer, E M


    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  8. Bone Markers (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  9. Bone scan (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  10. Bone Cancer (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  11. Bone Diseases (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  12. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross


    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  13. Osteoradionecrosois of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornley, G.D.; Gullane, P.J.; Ruby, R.R.; Heeneman, H.


    Six cases of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone are described. Persistent symptoms of otitis externa refractory to local treatment measures should alert the physician to the possibility of underlying osteoradionecrosis. Treatment of superficial parotidectomy and partial temporal bone resection with preservation of the facial nerve is indicated if local aggressive conservative measures fail to control the disease. Benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland should be treated surgically with avoidance of radiotherapy.

  14. Modes of fossil preservation (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.


    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian


    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  16. Self-preserving cosmetics. (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C


    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  17. Experimental Study on Lyophilization Preservation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells%冷冻干燥法保存人骨髓间充质干细胞的实验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菊莉; 张绍志; 孙洁; 陈光明


    The lyophilization preservation of hBM-MSCs was conducted . 30% PVP and 20%Trehalose were used as freeze-drying protecta-nts. The vitrification temperatures of samples were measured by DSC in order to define the freeze-drying temperature scientifically. After lyophilization, hBM-MSCs were successfully resuscitated,the recovery rate reached at (55. 2 ± 7. 66)%. This work will make certain references to the researches of hBM-MSCs preservation.%尝试用冷冻干燥法来保存骨髓间充质干细胞.通过差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测量样品玻璃化转变温度,从而科学确定冻干工艺温度,合理设计冷冻干燥工艺,实验实现了以30% PVP、20%海藻糖为保护液的骨髓间充质干细胞的冻干保存,其复水率达(55.2±7.66)%.该研究对解决现有的hBM-MSCs的保存瓶颈具有一定的参考价值.

  18. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor


    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  19. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)


    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  1. Bone marrow aspiration (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  2. VT Historic Preservation Grant (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  3. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming


    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  4. 不同测量方法评价磨牙拔牙位点保存术后牙槽骨的变化%Evaluation with different measuring methods for the alveolar bone change of ridge preservation in molar sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽萍; 詹雅琳; 胡文杰; 徐涛; 危伊萍; 甄敏; 王翠


    目的:采用临床直接测量、平行投照根尖片和锥形束CT(cone-beam computed tomography,CBCT)评价存在骨缺损的磨牙拔牙同期位点保存6个月后牙槽骨的变化,并分析不同方法的测量效果。方法:纳入20名患者共23颗因牙周病变拔除的磨牙,牙齿拔除后应用去骨蛋白牛骨基质(deproteinized boving bone mineral,DBBM,Bio-Oss)和可吸收膜(bioabsorbable collagen membrane,Bio-Gide)进行拔牙位点保存术,术中临床直接测量,术后即刻及术后6个月拍摄平行投照根尖片和CBCT,通过上述3种方法测量分析术后6个月牙槽骨高度和宽度的变化并比较测量效果的异同。结果:比较23个拔牙位点的牙槽骨高度在拔牙位点中央、远中中央、颊侧远中3个观察点的术中临床测量与CBCT测量的结果,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),其他观察点的高度及宽度测量结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后6个月接受翻瓣再进入实施种植的10名患者中,拔牙位点中央相应观察点的牙槽骨高度显著增加,临床直接测量和CBCT测量分别增加(6.15±1.73)mm和(6.59±2.53)mm,牙槽骨宽度测量值分别为(8.45±1.18)mm和(8.52±1.27)mm,两种方法测量结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用平行投照根尖片观察术前和术后6个月拔牙位点中央的牙槽骨高度变化为增加(5.84±4.28)mm,测量数值与另两种方法接近。结论:存在骨缺损的磨牙应用Bio-Oss与Bio-Gide进行拔牙位点保存后,临床直接测量和CBCT测量两种方法对牙槽嵴顶骨高度和宽度变化的评价基本一致。%Objective:To investigate the changes of the vertical height and width of the alveolar bone six months after the alveolar ridge preservation in periodontal compromised molar sites of severe alveolar bone defects with clinical direct measurement

  5. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  6. Food Preservation beyond the Season. (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis


    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  7. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot


    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  8. 保骨量截骨全髋关节置换术治疗发育性髋关节发育不良%Treatment for adult developmental dysplasia of hip by total hip arthroplasty using bone-preserving femur osteotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太明; 刘祥; 高先亭; 许兴柏; 孔祥如; 朱爱祥; 杨光辉; 陈浩; 王博; 钱玉


    Objective To explore the operation method and therapeutic effect on adult developmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH) combining osteoarthritis by total hip arthroplasty ( THA) using the technique of bone-preserving femur osteotomy .Methods From March 2008 to April 2014, 10 cases of 10 female patients with Crowe type Ⅳ of DDH combining osteoarthritis were treated in Department of Orthopaedic , the People's Hospital of Su Qian , Drum Tower Hospital Group of Nanjing , aged 41-55 (46 ±8) years.DDH Crowe type Ⅳ associated with osteoarthritis and greater trochanter the varus was a necessary enrolling creteria .Sliding osteotomy on greater trochanter without removing the top was used to correct varus .Subtrochanteric rotational shortening osteotomy was applied to treat limb lengthening and large femoral neck anteversion .The domestic S-R hip prosthesis was implanted .Inserts of the muscles were preserved on the osteomized bone to ensure that blood supply would be intact .The osteotomy gap was grafted with cancellous bones from proximal femur , femoral head and acetabulum reamers to promote healing.The femoral bone stock was preserved to the greatest extent .All the cases were followed up for (39 ±12)months (range, six months to six years).Results There was no limb discrepancy .No vascular or neural symptoms was found .The osteotomy gaps completely recovered with an average healing time of (7.5 ±1.5) weeks, ranged from six to eight weeks.The average preoperative modified Harris score was 44.5, which increased to 90.6 at the last follow-up.Conclusion The technique of THA using S-R implants and bi-osteotomy on proximal femur in treating adult DDH Crowe type Ⅳ associated with osteoarthritis might solve several problems during the surgery and preserve the femoral bone stock at the same time.%目的:探讨成人Crowe Ⅳ型发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)合并骨关节炎全髋关节置换的手术方式及骨量保存。方法选择2008年3月至2014年4月

  9. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;


    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  10. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David


    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  11. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C


    in Genova (Italy) to participate in a workshop on the topic of "cancer and fertility preservation". A total of ten controversial issues were discussed at the conference. Experts were asked to present an up-to-date review of the literature published on these topics and the presentation of own unpublished...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  12. Epiphyseal preservation and reconstruction with inactivated bone in distal femur for metaphyseal osteosarcoma in children%保留骨骺灭活再植术治疗儿童股骨远端骨肉瘤及术后肢体功能恢复特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀淳; 刘晓平; 周银; 付志厚; 宋若先; 孙海宁; 徐明


    和肢体长度的保持.%BACKGROUND: Limb salvage operations with preservation of the epiphysis (LSPPE) had been used clinically in order to overcome discrepancy of affected limb and poorer limb function, but more post-operation complications existed, including infection, grafting bone resorption, fracture and internal fixation cinch.OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical related matters of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis in children limb salvage with osteosarcoma.DESIGN: Clinical observation regularly.SETTING: General Hospital of Jinan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Eleven patients corresponded selected standard and accepted treatment from January 1999 to January distal metastasis was found with lung X-ray check and CT scanning, the patient would be excluded this study. There were 5 males, 6 females, and the mean age of (8±2) years old (4-11 years). The disease history was 1-6 months.FO) were adopted. After 2 weeks of chemotherapy, the operations of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis were performed. The operation was performed under epidural or general anesthesia. The patient lied on operating table. The knee anteriomedialis incision was adopted. Firstly, femur periosteum was opened beyond proximal end 2-3 cm from tumor, subperiosteum stripping was done to the proximal femur, descend femur with wire saw, separated and disconnected aboral periosteum, blunt dissecting femur aboral blood vessel and nerves to the popliteal fossa,deligating blood vessel around the tumor. Attachment of gastroenemius was cut off. Epiphyseal plate was identified carefully. According to pre-operation MR, the distal femur descend level was determined and the femur was descend with electro-saw. It was determined with cytology that no tumor cell existed in descend level, and reconstruction of bone de-fect with inactivated tumor-bone shell with 95% alcohol and bone cement containing ADR (20 g bone cement: 10 mg ADR), the diaphysis was fixed by intramedullary

  13. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries. (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula


    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  14. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching


    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  15. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore. (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond


    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  16. Paints and Preservatives. (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  17. Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million-year-old dinosaur specimens. (United States)

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Maidment, Susannah C R; Kallepitis, Charalambos; Fearn, Sarah; Stevens, Molly M; Xie, Hai-nan


    Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ∼ 67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals.

  18. Early diagenesis and recrystallization of bone (United States)

    Keenan, Sarah W.; Engel, Annette Summers


    One of the most challenging problems in paleobiology is determining how bone transforms from a living tissue into a fossil. The geologic record is replete with vertebrate fossils preserved from a range of depositional environments, including wetland systems. However, thermodynamic models suggest that bone (modeled as hydroxylapatite) is generally unstable in a range of varying geochemical conditions and should readily dissolve if it does not alter to a more thermodynamically stable phase, such as a fluorine-enriched apatite. Here, we assess diagenesis of alligator bone from fleshed, articulated skeletons buried in wetland soils and from de-fleshed bones in experimental mesocosms with and without microbial colonization. When microbial colonization of bone was inhibited, bioapatite recrystallization to a more stable apatite phase occurred after one month of burial. Ca-Fe-phosphate phases in bone developed after several months to years due to ion substitutions from the protonation of the hydroxyl ion. These rapid changes demonstrate a continuum of structural and bonding transformations to bone that have not been observed previously. When bones were directly in contact with sediment and microbial cells, rapid bioerosion and compositional alteration occurred after one week, but slowed after one month because biofilms reduced exposed surfaces and subsequent bioapatite lattice substitutions. Microbial contributions are likely essential in forming stable apatite phases during early diagenesis and for enabling bone preservation and fossilization.

  19. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.


    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  20. Bone cutting. (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P


    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  1. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit


    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  2. Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO 2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tiainen


    Full Text Available Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

  3. Reconstrucción craneofacial compleja: malla de titanio, hueso autólogo preservado en óxido de etileno y reconstrucciones tridimensionales en polimetilmetacrilato (HTR-PMI Complex craneofacial reconstruction: titanium mesh, autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and tridimensional polimetilmetacrilate implants (HTR-PMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Lima


    Full Text Available La evolución de la Cirugía Craneofacial se inicio con Jean Paul Tessier, quien en 1967 preconizó el uso de injertos autólogos de hueso fresco en gran cantidad para cubrir extensas brechas óseas en la corrección de disóstosis craneofacial. Recientemente, diferentes tipos de reconstrucción utilizando hueso autólogo preservado en oxido de etileno y materiales como el polimetilmetacrilato poroso confeccionado a medida, han permitido también la corrección de grandes defectos óseos craneofaciales. Presentamos nuestra experiencia inicial en el uso de estas técnicas a través de un análisis retrospectivo sobre 21 pacientes operados por un equipo multidisciplinario entre Enero del 2007 y Marzo del 2009 en el Hospital Militar, Centro Panamericano de Ojos y Hospital de Diagnóstico de El Salvador, en los que se utilizaron formas alternativas pera reconstrucción de calota craneana, piso de órbita, fosa craneal anterior, área órbito-cigomática y maxilar superior. No registramos casos de infección o retirada de material de osteosíntesis aloplástico o de los injertos autólogos, ni hubo fístulas. Si se presentó una úlcera postraumática en una zona de unión de tejido desvitalizado, que se resolvió con tratamiento conservador. Los resultados estéticos obtenidos fueron de aceptables a buenos. Como conclusión, el equipo multidisciplinario, la combinación de técnicas quirúrgicas y el uso de material protésico para la reconstrucción craneofacial compleja ha dado como resultado avances significativos desde el punto de vista funcional y estético ante lesiones que involucran esta compleja área anatómica.The evolution of craniofacial surgery began with Jean Paul Tessier, who in 1967 supported the use of fresh autologous bone to cover bone defects in the craniofacial area. Recently different types of reconstructions using autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and advanced custom-made polimetacrilate implants that have allowed

  4. 两种骨替代材料复合用于上颌前牙拔牙位点即刻保存的可行性%Feasibility of site preservation techniques in maxillary anterior with two kinds of composite bone substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 李淑慧; 尼加提·吐尔逊; 张晓倩; 吴佩玲


    Objective To discuss the repair effect of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) composite on instant site preservation techniques in anterior extraction sockets. Methods 6 healthy beagle dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups as experimental subject. PRF/ CHA composite was immediately implanted into group A once the extraction of both the maxillary incisors was completed. CHA was implanted into group B and group C were left to heal naturally. All experimental animals were sacrificed after 4 and 12 weeks to prepare tissue samples and by morphological measurements, histological observation and photographs of CBCT to evaluate the healing of extraction socket. Results Vernier caliper observation:After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, the labial-lingual alveolar ridge width difference of the three groups obvious differences, the labial-lingual width difference was smaller in the experimental group(group A); General observation: At 4 weeks and 12 weeks, extraction area bone reabsorption Abone in group A, was significantly denser and superior in health to that of B and C. At 12 weeks new bone structure in group A, was superior in quality to that of B and C, bone regeneration was more significant than that of B and C. Conclusion PRF+CHA composite can reduce the absorption of the alveolar ridge in maxillary anterior with the promotion of new bone formation, and preservation of the socket site.%目的:探讨富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)复合羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷(coralline hydroxyapatite,CHA)对上颌前牙拔牙位点保存的修复效果。方法 Beagle犬6只,随机分成三组,拔除上颌左右第二切牙后,A组植入PRF+CHA


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  6. Bone x-ray (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  7. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation. (United States)

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S


    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  8. The Pontic-Shield: Partial Extraction Therapy for Ridge Preservation and Pontic Site Development. (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice


    Augmentive ridge preservation techniques aim to manage the postextraction ridge. The partial extraction of teeth may better preserve the ridge form by maintaining the bundle bone-periodontal ligament apparatus. Root submergence has been demonstrated to retain the periodontal tissues and preserve the ridge beneath dentures or fixed prostheses. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results contributory to esthetic implant treatment. A retrospective 10-patient case series treating 14 partial extraction sites demonstrates how a modification of the socket-shield technique can successfully develop pontic sites and preserve the ridge.

  9. Preserving reptiles for research (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth


    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  10. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  11. Bone graft (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  12. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  13. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. Seismic fault preserving diffusion (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  15. Antarctic science preserve polluted (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  17. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D


    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  18. Establishing a temporal bone laboratory: considerations for ENT specialist training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G


    Cadaveric temporal bone dissection in a temporal bone laboratory is a vital component in training safe, competent otorhinolaryngologists. Recent controversies pertaining to organ retention have resulted in a more limited supply of temporal bones. Consequently, current trainees are dissecting far fewer bones than their consultants. We discuss the establishment of a temporal bone laboratory in the Department of Anatomy in the University College Cork, from the timely preparation and preservation of the tissue to its disposal. Comparisons are drawn between our experience and that of the United States training schemes. The temporal bone laboratory in Cork is the only one in existence in Ireland. The exposure and experience obtained by registrars rotating through Cork, has resulted in noticeable improvements in their operative abilities. The temporal bone laboratory remains a core component to training. It is hoped that this article may facilitate other units overcoming obstacles to establish a temporal bone laboratory.

  19. Low Bone Density (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  20. Papilla Preservation Flap as Aesthetic Consideration in Periodontal Flap Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Olivia


    Full Text Available Flap surgery is treatment for periodontal disease with alveolar bone destruction. Surgical periodontal flap with conventional incision will result in gingival recession and loss of interdental papillae after treatment. Dilemma arises in areas required high aesthetic value or regions with a fixed denture. It is challenging to perform periodontal flap with good aesthetic results and minimal gingival recession. This case report aimed to inform and to explain the work procedures, clinical and radiographic outcomes of surgical papilla preservation flap in the area that requires aesthetic. Case 1 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the anterior region of teeth 11 and 12, with a full veneer crown on tooth 12. Case 2 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the posterior region of tooth 46 with inlay restoration. Evaluation for both cases were obtained by incision papilla preservation of primary closure was perfect, good aesthetic results, minimal gingival recession and the interdental papillae can be maintained properly. In conclusion, periodontal flap surgery on the anterior region or regions that require high aesthetic value could be addressed with papilla preservation incision. Incision papilla preservation should be the primary consideration in periodontal flap surgery if possible.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.144

  1. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes


    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR...... for different digital material with different requirements for bit integrity and confidentiality. This case shows that the methodology, including the tools used, is useful for this purpose....

  2. Bone marrow transplant (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  3. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  4. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)


    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  5. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.


    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  6. [Bone transplant]. (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A


    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  7. Preservation Methods for Digital Library (United States)

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.


    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  8. User Experience and Heritage Preservation (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan


    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  9. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives. (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella


    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  10. Bone biopsy (image) (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  11. Bone lesion biopsy (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  12. Facts about Broken Bones (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  13. Calcium and bones (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  14. Broken Bones (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  15. Microspectroscopic evidence of cretaceous bone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindgren

    Full Text Available Low concentrations of the structural protein collagen have recently been reported in dinosaur fossils based primarily on mass spectrometric analyses of whole bone extracts. However, direct spectroscopic characterization of isolated fibrous bone tissues, a crucial test of hypotheses of biomolecular preservation over deep time, has not been performed. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous proteinaceous molecules are retained in a humerus from a Late Cretaceous mosasaur (an extinct giant marine lizard. In situ immunofluorescence of demineralized bone extracts shows reactivity to antibodies raised against type I collagen, and amino acid analyses of soluble proteins extracted from the bone exhibit a composition indicative of structural proteins or their breakdown products. These data are corroborated by synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopic studies demonstrating that amino acid containing matter is located in bone matrix fibrils that express imprints of the characteristic 67 nm D-periodicity typical of collagen. Moreover, the fibrils differ significantly in spectral signature from those of potential modern bacterial contaminants, such as biofilms and collagen-like proteins. Thus, the preservation of primary soft tissues and biomolecules is not limited to large-sized bones buried in fluvial sandstone environments, but also occurs in relatively small-sized skeletal elements deposited in marine sediments.

  16. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A


    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...

  17. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal


    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  18. Surgical technique of alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation in management of malignant bone tumor around knee%保留关节的瘤段切除酒精灭活再植术在膝关节周围恶性骨肿瘤治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宋锋; 于秀淳; 徐明; 刘晓平; 宋若先; 付志厚


    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation in management of malignant bone tumor around knee, and explain the surgical technique. Methods Seven patients were treated with alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation from January 2010 to November 2011, including six males and one female, with the median age of 21 years (16 to 23 years). Five neoplasms were located in left distal femur, one in right distal femur, and one in left proximal fibula involving tibia. According to Enneking tumor staging, six patients were identified as stage ⅡB,one as stage Ⅲ. Six patients were diagnosed as osteosarcoma and one as non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma. The postoperative results were evaluated by MSTS limb function score system and ISOLS composite graft evaluation method. Combining the operation process, surgical technique and perioperative key points were explained. Results All seven patients achieved primary healing. With the mean follow-up time of 17 months (8 to 24 months), there was no infection, recurrence, loosening or limb length inequality. The mean ISOLS graft score was 31 (87% ) (range 30 -34). The mean MSTS function score was 25 (84%) (range 22-25 ). Conclusions These results suggest that alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation could improve the short-term limb function, avoiding complications of prosthesis. With strict indications, good surgical technique and perioperative managements, fine clinical outcome could be achieved. It is relatively economic- applicable for patients and could be an option among surgical treatments. The clinical outcomes in long-term still need to be investigated.%目的 探讨保留关节的酒精灭活骨再植术在膝关节周围恶性骨肿瘤治疗中的应用,并阐述其手术技术要点.方法 2010年1月至2011年5月采用保留关节的瘤段切除酒精灭活再植术治疗

  19. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus


    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of bone grafts stored by cryogenic freezing at –24°C from a canine (Canis familiaris bone bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline França dos Santos


    Full Text Available The scientific basis of bone transplantation was established during the mid-nineteenth century, when the osteogenic properties of the bone and periosteum, beneficial influence of cold preservation of bones, and first conventional attempt to store bones for elective use, were described. A bone bank has several advantages, such as the immediate availability of grafts in large quantities, and different shapes and sizes, and maintenance of osteoinductive activity in grafts. In addition, it reduces patient blood loss, surgical time, and quantity of anesthetics required. Clinical applications include the correction of comminuted fractures, treatment of non-union bones, and replacement of bone loss due to infections or malignancies. The success of these procedures depends on the preservation and integrity of the graft. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of maintaining a canine bone bank (Canis familiaris by quantifying the bacterial contamination of bone grafts preserved at –24°C. The samples were evaluated through a monthly assessment of bacteriological cultures over a period of 6 months. The harvest method was efficient and sterile, reducing the risk of contamination. We conclude that the techniques chosen for the implementation of a bone bank were effective and feasible (use of a common freezer reaching a temperature below –24°C. The viability of the bones was attested during a 6-month period, and the samples demonstrated a 100% sterility rate.

  1. Frontal sinus osteoma removal with the ultrasonic bone aspirator. (United States)

    Ehieli, Eric; Chu, Jaemi; Gordin, Eli; Pribitkin, Edmund A


    Osteomas, the most common skull tumors, are typically excised through either an open or endoscopic ostectomy using a high-speed drill, a technically challenging procedure that can result in injury to adjacent soft tissue structures. Osteoma removal through ultrasonic bone emulsification and aspiration (UBA) offers the advantages of decreased blood loss, preservation of adjacent soft tissue structures, and precise bone removal. UBA was used to successfully remove a forehead osteoma without injury to adjacent nerves and with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We describe skull osteoma removal with an ultrasonic bone aspirator, which offers potential advantages over conventional bone removal techniques.

  2. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  3. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  5. A Black Hole Life Preserver

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J R; Freedman, Deborah L.


    Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

  6. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ormerod


    Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  7. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens


    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  8. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.


    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  9. Long bone histology of the subterranean rodent Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae): ontogenetic pattern of cortical bone thickening. (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Chinsamy, Anusuya


    Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood. This study comprehensively examines the bone microstructure of an extant population of Cape dune molerats, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae), the largest subterranean mammal endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate the postnatal bone growth of B. suillus using undecalcified histological sections (n = 197) of the femur, humerus, tibia-fibula, ulna and radius, including males and females belonging to different ontogenetic and reproductive stages (n = 42). Qualitative histological features demonstrate a wide histodiversity with thickening of the cortex mainly resulting from endosteal and periosteal bone depositions, whilst there is scarce endosteal resorption and remodeling throughout ontogeny. This imbalanced bone modeling allows the tissues deposited during ontogeny to remain relatively intact, thus preserving an excellent record of growth. The distribution of the different bone tissues observed in the cortex depends on ontogenetic status, anatomical features (e.g. muscle attachment structures) and location on the bone (e.g. anterior or lateral). The type of bone microstructure and modeling is discussed in relation to digging behavior, reproduction and physiology of this species. This study is the first histological assessment describing the process of cortical thickening in long bones of a fossorial mammal.

  10. In vitro osteoinduction of demineralized bone. (United States)

    Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Giardino, R


    Among numerous available materials for osseous repair and reconstruction, those presenting osteoinductive characteristics and promoting bone regeneration are preferable. Fresh autologous bone is one of the most effective, but it has some disadvantages and risks. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is considered to be a valid alternative, because it seems to show osteogenic potential, ascribed to the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins. In addition it can be prepared without difficulty and preserved without losing osteoinductive properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the osteoinductive ability of xenogenic DBM, by testing DBM powder obtained from rabbit long bones, in cell culture of murine fibroblasts, alone or associated with electromagnetic field (EMF), that are known to exhibit biologic effects on cells: in particular they are used in orthopedics to improve bone formation. At the end of experiment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium levels and cell proliferation and morphology were evaluated. A statistically significant stimulation of ALP activity and cell proliferation and a morphological change of fibroblasts were found. The results obtained show how DBM and EMF have different effects on cells, and that together they have synergic action toward bone induction.

  11. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome. (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel


    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  12. Burden of metastatic bone disease from genitourinary malignancies. (United States)

    Mulders, Peter F; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Bukowski, Ronald M


    Bone metastases are common among patients with stage IV genitourinary cancers. Most patients with bone metastases develop at least one debilitating and potentially life-limiting skeletal-related event. These events are associated with increased medical expenses and decreased quality of life. Current guidelines recommend screening for bone metastases in men with high-risk prostate cancer, but guidance for screening and treatment of bone metastases from genitourinary cancers varies by country and setting. Several bisphosphonates have been evaluated in the advanced genitourinary cancer setting. Zoledronic acid has demonstrated efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from a broad range of solid tumors including prostate, renal and bladder cancers, and is recommended for preserving bone health.

  13. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation. (United States)

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C


    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  14. Smoking and Bone Health (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  15. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  16. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  17. Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Glocker


    Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

  18. Implementing Metadata that Guide Digital Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use these metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  19. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam. (United States)

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  20. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives. (United States)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  1. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model. (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki


    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  2. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.


    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... lambs were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at birth. During the first 14 days of life AKG was administered orally to the experimental group (n=12) at the dosage of 0.1 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (n=11) received an equal dose of the vehicle. Lambs were slaughtered...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  3. A Comparison of Limb-Socket Kinematics of Bone-Bridging and Non-Bone-Bridging Wartime Transtibial Amputations (United States)


    This flap was a full thickness periosteal flap with small pieces of cortical bone adherent to the flap. A tibial bevel was created to reshape the...technique, the tibial perios teum was preserved to help build a reconstructive bone bridge across the distal parts of the tibia and fibula. The periosteum...the fibula and the tibia. The tibial osteoperiosteal flap was then sutured in place with absorbable suture. Meticulous attention was paid to the

  4. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.


    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  5. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  6. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  7. Advancing Treatment for Metastatic Bone Cancer: Consensus Recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Guise, Theresa A.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Berenson, James R.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boyce, Brendan F.; Calvi, Laura M.; Hadji, Peyman; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.; Taichman, Russell S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.


    Purpose Summarize current knowledge, critical gaps in knowledge, and recommendations to advance the field of metastatic bone cancer. Experimental Design A multidisciplinary consensus conference was convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess critical gaps in current knowledge, and prioritize recommendations to advance research in the next 5 years. The program addressed three principal topics: biology of metastasis, preserving normal bone health, and optimizing bone-targeted therapies. Results A variety of specific recommendations were identified as important to advance research and clinical care over the next 5 years. Conclusions Priorities for research in bone biology include characterizing components of the stem cell niche in bone, developing oncogenic immunocompetent animal models of bone metastasis, and investigating the unique contribution of the bone microenvironment to tumor growth and dormancy. Priorities for research in preserving normal bone health include developing methods to measure and characterize disseminating tumor cells, assessing outcomes from the major prevention trials currently in progress, and improving methodologies to assess risks and benefits of treatment. Priorities for optimizing bone-targeted therapies include advancing studies of serum proteomics and genomics to reliably identify patients who will develop bone metastases, enhancing imaging for early detection of bone metastases and early response evaluation, and developing new tests to evaluate response to bone-directed treatments. PMID:18927277


    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  9. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  10. Preservation Planning in the OAIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The OAIS model has gained widespread acceptance as the fundamental design reference model for an archival system by the digital library community.One of its core entities is Preservation Planning,for which central functional entities are given yet without every detail breaking down into activities requirements.The Planets Preservation Planning approach addresses this by providing a way to make informed and accountable decisions on which preservation strategy to implement in order to most suitably preserve digital objects for a given preservation context.It allows the explicit definition of requirements and goals and offers a systematic way to evaluate preservation strategies.This paper shows the implementation of the Develop Preservation Strategies and Standards function of the OAIS model through the Planets Preservation Planning approach.Moreover,the paper examines the information flows within the OAIS Preservation Planning entity and with other functional entities with respect to the Planets model.

  11. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina


    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  12. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  13. Bone Marrow Diseases (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  14. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim;


    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  15. Bone Health and Osteoporosis. (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl


    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  17. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L


    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  18. The Preservation of Adobe Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian


    Full Text Available Whether built in the 17th or in the 20th centuries, adobe buildings share common problems of maintenance and deterioration. These types of buildings represent today in Romania a traditional house for country people. It also makes recommendations for preserving adobe buildings. By its composition, adobe construction is inclined to deteriorate; however, the buildings can be made durable and renewable when properly maintained.



    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M


    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  20. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.


    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei


    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  2. Preservation Is Not a Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Abrams


    Full Text Available Normal 0 The Digital Preservation Program of the California Digital Library (CDL is engaged in a process of reinvention involving significant transformations of its outlook, effort, and infrastructure. This includes a re-articulation of its mission in terms of digital curation, rather than preservation; encouraging a programmatic, rather than a project-oriented approach to curation activities; and a renewed emphasis on services, rather than systems. This last shift was motivated by a desire to deprecate the centrality of the repository as place. Having the repository as the locus for curation activity has resulted in the deployment of a somewhat cumbersome monolithic system that falls short of desired goals for responsiveness to rapidly changing user needs and operational and administrative sustainability. The Program is pursuing a path towards a new curation environment based on the principle of devolving curation function to a set of small, simple, loosely coupled services. In considering this new infrastructure, the Program is relying upon a highly deliberative process starting from first principles drawn from library and archival science. This is followed by a stagewise progression of identifying core preservable values, devising strategies promoting those values, defining abstract services embodying those strategies, and, finally, developing systems that instantiate those services. This paper presents a snapshot of the Program's transformative efforts in its early phase.

  3. Power Preservation Friendly Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittipong Khemapech


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an important area with a major technological impact. Power preservation is one of the important issues in communication protocol development for WSNs. This article presents a review of Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport (ESRT which is specifically developed for an event-based WSNs application. Five characteristic regions and corresponding algorithms have been proposed in ESRT. At the end of each cycle, the reliability is observed and the data reporting rate is adjusted accordingly. Two main contributions of this study include an evaluation of the algorithms proposed by ESRT on their capabilities of power preservation and convergence to the optimal state where a sink receives a desired number of received packets and there is no congestion. According to the results, all of the algorithms demonstrate profound reporting rate adjustments. Moreover, both transmitting and receiving powers can be significantly preserved in the case when the sources generated more packets than required and the network is congested. Therefore, the proposed algorithms unlikely require any enhancements. Moreover, ESRT is analysed how well it can fit in some of the existing WSNs applications. The application category which may deploy ESRT is the event detection and tracking where complete reliability is not required.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Bone (United States)


    DISEASE Both age and disease can affect the structure of bone, the effects of which are often similar. The most common bone disease is osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is a disease that results in reduced bone mass and density. This reduction of bone mass and density has a greater impact on trabecular...Bone loss in females is linked to a decrease in estrogen ; the decrease of estrogen associated with menopause increases osteoclast activity [89]. This

  5. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst. (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K


    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  6. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos


    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  7. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.


    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.


    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  9. Digital preservation technology for cultural heritage

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke


    ""Digital Preservation Technology for Cultural Heritage"" discusses the technology and processes in digital preservation of cultural heritage. It covers topics in five major areas: Digitization of cultural heritage; Digital management in the cultural heritage preservation; Restoration techniques for rigid solid relics; Restoration techniques for paintings; Digital museum. It also includes application examples for digital preservation of cultural heritage. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Graphics and Image Processing as well as Cu

  10. Regulation of Bone Metabolism. (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  11. Regulation of Bone Metabolism (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  12. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Cruz A, L. C. [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, Toluca 50130, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez R, M. A., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro de Especialidades Odontologicas, Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon esquina Felipe Angeles s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  13. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E


    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  14. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals. (United States)

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  15. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open...

  16. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, 27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)


    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  17. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.


    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  18. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone. (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine


    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  20. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik;


    on the existing InSPECT framework and improving its capabilities of working with complex/compound objects like blogs. The modifications enable a more thorough analysis of object structures, accentuate the differences and similarities between the framework’s two streams of analysis (i.e. Object and Stakeholder...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...... of blogs. It concludes by discussing the limitations of the approach and suggesting directions for future research....

  1. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding


    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  2. Digital preservation for libraries, archives, and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Corrado, Edward M


    Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums is designed for all types of information professionals who are interested in digital preservation. This is not a how-to book giving step-by-step processes for certain materials in a given kind of system. Instead, it addresses a broad group of resources that could be housed in any number of digital preservation systems. Finally, this book is about "Things (not technology; not how-to; not theory) I wish I had known before I got started." It is divided into four parts based on the Digital Preservation Triad: Situating Digital Preservation, I

  3. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang


    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. [New frontiers in myocardial preservation]. (United States)

    Juffe Stein, A


    The high hospital mortality due to primary graft failure, together with the ever more frequent use of "Suboptimum" donors because of the scarcity of organs has, in the recent years, caused renewed interest in perfectioning techniques of cardiac preservation. The numerous studies supporting the benefits of a period of controlled warm reperfusion after global ischemia, and the growth of the continuous warm blood cardioplegia, led us to the evolution of our own technique for myocardial protection during transplantation. Dr John Wallwork introduced the concept of donor "resuscitation" in the attempt to improve the hemodynamic state of the donor, by preload and afterload manipulation and pharmacological treatment of the unstable or "marginal" donor. The Juan Canalejo Hospital introduced the concept "Resuscitation during the implantation" using continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Maintenance of normothermia during heart transplantation produces what is referred to as "cell repair" or "resuscitation during the implantation" and avoid the reperfusion damage. From january 1992 to april 1995, 91 orthotopic heart transplantation were performed at our institution. By harvesting we have employed the conventional preservation technique. We performed a controlled continuous anterograde/retrograde warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion of the graft, before and during the implantation in 53 patients. Since january 1994 we performed in 38 cases the same controlled continuous warm blood reperfusion, but only anterograde. Continuous warm blood cardioplegia in heart transplantation is a safety myocardial protection method. Trasplant programs require the optimal use of the available donors.

  5. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.


    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  6. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan


    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  7. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex


    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  8. A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmidt


    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing a service-oriented environment for the definition and evaluation of preservation strategies for human-centric data. It focuses on the question of logically preserving digital materials, as opposed to the physical preservation of content bit-streams. This includes the development of preservation tools for the automated characterisation, migration, and comparison of different types of Digital Objects as well as the emulation of their original runtime environment in order to ensure long-time access and interpretability. The Planets integrated environment provides a number of end-user applications that allow data curators to execute and scientifically evaluate preservation experiments based on composable preservation services. In this paper, we focus on the middleware and programming model and show how it can be utilised in order to create complex preservation workflows.

  9. What Is Bone Cancer? (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  10. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor) (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  11. What causes bone loss? (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  12. Bone mineral density test (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  13. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation). (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Kana [Faculty of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate {sup 14}C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on {sup 14}C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values, and {sup 14}C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin Trade-Mark-Sign 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older {sup 14}C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that {sup 14}C ages of unfiltered

  15. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Gui-feng; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiu-mei; Tang, Zhi-hui


    Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

  16. Androgens and bone. (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes


    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  17. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  18. The Digital Astronaut Project Computational Bone Remodeling Model (Beta Version) Bone Summit Summary Report (United States)

    Pennline, James; Mulugeta, Lealem


    prescriptions on preserving bone. More specifically, the model will accept loading history due to muscle and joint force on bone and produce quantified remodeling within the bone region under influence of the applied stress. Furthermore, because they tend to respond differently, the bone remodeling model includes both trabecular bone and cortical bone.

  19. AMS radiocarbon age for fossil bone by XAD-2 chromatography method (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio


    The XAD-2 chromatography method was examined for its ability to efficiently eliminate exogenous organic matter from fossil bones and to improve the accuracy of radiocarbon ( 14C) dating and stable isotope determinations on bone proteins. The fossil bones used in the experiment were animal fossil bones collected from the Awazu submarine archaeological site, Shiga, Japan. For comparison, the gelatin-extraction method was also applied to the same samples. It was found that the gelatin-extraction method is sufficient for 14C dating on well-preserved bones, but insufficient on poorly preserved bones, containing less than 1% extractable gelatin. The XAD-2 resin is useful for the clean up of proteins especially from poorly preserved bones. The carbon stable isotope fractionation of around 1‰ by XAD-2 treatment on modern collagen standards was larger than reported previously. The isotopic variation by sequential extraction of bones probably originates from changes in the amino acid composition and seems to be less sensitive to the indication of the removal of organic contamination.

  20. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.


    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  1. Beyond the Scope of Preservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikke, Stenbro,; Riesto, Svava


    Why are some parts of the built environment protected as national heritage and others not? Listing is the most restrictive tool of Norwegian and Danish preservation in the built environment and creates a specific version of the past told through buildings and sites. The heritage authorities in both...... countries present listing as an instrument to protect a representative sample of all the country’s built structures and environments (in theory for eternity). The article examines the role of mass housing complexes, a significant product of the welfare states from the 1950s and onwards, in the practice...... established in architectural history and other mechanisms effect contemporary decisions about whether to list mass housing areas. In conclusion, we question the role of the official criteria for listing and instead call for a more open discussion about why and how listing creates national history....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda


    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  3. Oxytocin and bone (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta


    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR−/− mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  4. Effect of socket preservation therapies following tooth extraction in non-molar regions in humans: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Heggeler, J.M.A.G.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.


    Objective: To assess, based on the existing literature, the benefit of socket preservation therapies in patients with a tooth extraction in the anterior or premolar region as compared with no additional treatment with respect to bone level. Material and methods: MEDLINE-PubMed and the Cochrane Centr

  5. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D. (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma


    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

  6. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology


    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  7. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  8. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn


    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  9. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik


    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  10. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options. (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder


    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  11. Bone scintiscanning updated. (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I


    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto


    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  13. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation


    Robert R. Gaines; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  14. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review


    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen imperme...

  15. Science Data Infrastructure for Preservation - Earth Science


    Albani, Mirko; Marelli, Fulvio; Giaretta, David; Shaon, Arif


    The proper preservation of both current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDI...

  16. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone


    Starup-Linde, Jakob


    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  17. The ZEUS long term data preservation project

    CERN Document Server



    The ZEUS data preservation (ZEUS DP) project assures continued access to the data and documentation related to the experiment. It aims to provide the ability to continue the generation of valuable scientific results from these data in the future. This talk presents analysis opportunities within the ZEUS DP project and its benefits for the physics community. The implications of the preserved data are discussed in the context of current data analyses, verification of contemporary and future theoretical models and the planning of future experiments and analyses. The detailed documentation on the data preservation effort can serve as an example for the data preservation efforts in current and future experiments.

  18. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite...

  19. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. (United States)

    Holland, Steven M


    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  20. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K.; Parker, Valorie A.; Matthews, Ryan R.; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J.; Kang, Kyung S.; Carson, James A.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Robling, Alexander G.; Couch, Marion E.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.


    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and ApcMin/+. The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia. PMID:28123369

  1. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the assessment of bone strength in most of bone affecting conditions in developmental age: a review. (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Cavalli, Loredana; Cavalli, Tiziana; de Martino, Maurizio; Brandi, Maria Luisa


    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography provides an automatical scan analysis of trabecular and cortical bone compartments, calculating not only their bone mineral density (BMD), but also bone geometrical parameters, such as marrow and cortical Cross-Sectional Area (CSA), Cortical Thickness (CoTh), both periosteal and endosteal circumference, as well as biomechanical parameters like Cross-Sectional Moment of Inertia (CSMI), a measure of bending, polar moment of inertia, indicating bone strength in torsion, and Strength Strain Index (SSI). Also CSA of muscle and fat can be extracted. Muscles, which are thought to stimulate bones to adapt their geometry and mineral content, are determinant to preserve or increase bone strength; thus, pQCT provides an evaluation of the functional 'muscle-bone unit', defined as BMC/muscle CSA ratio. This functional approach to bone densitometry can establish if bone strength is normally adapted to the muscle force, and if muscle force is adequate for body size, providing more detailed insights to targeted strategies for the prevention and treatment of bone fragility. The present paper offers an extensive review of technical features of pQCT and its possible clinical application in the diagnostic of bone status as well as in the monitoring of the skeleton's health follow-up.

  2. A model of trabecular bone and an application to osteoporosis (United States)

    Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Mohanty, Kishore K.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.


    Large bones consists of an outer compact shaft and an inner porous segment, known as the trabecular architecture (TA). The TA is the principal load carrier in bones from older adults, and the aim of therapeutic interventions is to preserve their strength. It is argued that forms for broad-based diagnostic tools for osteoporosis can be identified through an analysis of simple model systems. A model based on elastic networks is introduced, and shows that weak networks can only utilize a small fraction of themselves for stress transmission. This observation is used to argue that the ratio of linear response of a network to DC and AC strain can be used as a surrogate for bone strength. We discuss the possibility of using this measure to identify osteoporotic bone and to monitor the efficacy of therapy.

  3. Disruption of bone and skeletal muscle in severe burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon L Klein


    Severe burn injury triggers the body’s nonspecific adaptive responses to acute insult, including the systemic inflammatory and stress responses, as well as the sympathetic response to immobilization. These responses trigger inflammatory bone resorption followed by glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and probably osteocytes. Because these patients are catabolic, they suffer concomitant muscle wasting and negative nitrogen balance. The use of anabolic agents such as recombinant human growth hormone and oxandrolone results in improved bone mineral content and muscle strength after approximately 1 year. Use of bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of a severe burn completely blocks the resorptive bone loss and has the added advantage of appearing to preserve muscle protein from excessive breakdown. The mechanism for the protective effect on muscle is not currently known. However, if the effect of bisphosphonates on muscle can be confirmed, it raises the possibility that bone communicates with muscle.

  4. Material Properties of the Mandibular Trabecular Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Lakatos


    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical simulation aided, experimental method for the measurement of Young’s modulus of the trabecular substance in the human mandible. Compression tests were performed on fresh cadaveric samples containing trabecular bone covered with cortical layer, thus avoiding the destruction caused by the sterilization, preservation, and storage and the underestimation of the stiffness resulting from the individual failure of the trabeculae cut on the surfaces. The elastic modulus of the spongiosa was determined by the numerical simulation of each compression test using a specimen specific finite element model of each sample. The received mandibular trabecular bone Young’s modulus values ranged from 6.9 to 199.5 MPa.

  5. Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Remnant Preservation Using Outside-In Technique. (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Ill; Kwon, Sai-Won; Choi, Hyung-Suk; Chun, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Byoung-Min


    This report describes a modified anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique using the FlipCutter guide pin (Arthrex, Naples, FL) as a retrograde drill and a cortical suspensory fixation device (TightRope; Arthrex) with an adjustable graft loop length. Preservation of the ACL remnant as a biological sleeve for the graft is an important issue from the viewpoints of acceleration of revascularization and ligamentization, preservation of the proprioceptive nerve fibers, enhancement of the biological environment for healing, and maintenance of the anchor point at the native tibial attachment, in addition to yielding a lower incidence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement. The goal of our technique is to obtain some advantages of the remnant-preserving technique through an anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, which is performed to minimize damage to the ACL tibial remnant.

  6. A ray of hope for the hopeless: Hemisection of mandibular molar with socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K Verma


    Full Text Available Introduction: The management, treatment and long-term retention of mandibular molar teeth with furcation involvement have always been a challenge in periodontal therapy. Hemisection has been used successfully to retain teeth with furcation involvement. The term hemisection refers to the sectioning of a molar tooth, with the removal of an unrestorable root which may be affected by periodontal, endodontic, structural (cracked roots, or caries. Case Report : This case report describes a simple procedure of hemisection in a mandibular molar with socket preservation with help of an alloplastic bone graft and subsequent restoration of the tooth with fixed prothesis. Discussion: Hemisection represents a form of conservative procedure, which aims at retaining as much of the original tooth structure as possible. It may be a suitable alternative to extraction. Hemisection of the affected tooth allows the preservation of tooth structure, alveolar bone and cost savings (time and money over other treatment options. The preservation of posterior abutment teeth permits oral rehabilitation with fixed bridges instead of removable prosthesis. Conclusion: The keys to long term success appear to be thorough diagnosis followed by interdisciplinary approach with endodontic, surgical and prosthetic procedures. Preservation of a hopeless tooth is possible by selecting patients with good oral hygiene, and careful surgical and restorative management.

  7. Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD, (3R-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT. Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas


    Clustering is a very important tool in data mining and is widely used in on-line services for medical, financial and social environments. The main goal in clustering is to create sets of similar objects in a data set. The data set to be used for clustering can be owned by a single entity, or in s...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner......., or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol...

  9. Current status and future of site preservation techniques%位点保存技术的现状与未来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Alveolar bone resorption is common outcome after tooth extraction, often resulting in bone deficiency and aesthetic problem in implant and repair. Periodontal sites preservation technology is taken to reduce alveolar bone and soft tissue absorption, or increase bone formation after the tooth extraction. Filling of autogenous bone graft or bone substitute material is the most commonly used method of periodontal sites preservation technology. In the article, the preservation technology status and the properties of different bone filling material were reviewed.%牙槽骨吸收是拔牙后的常见结果,常造成后期种植植入时骨量不足,损害修复后的美学效果。牙周位点保存技术就是在拔牙即刻或者拔牙后所采取的减少牙槽嵴及软组织吸收或增加拔牙窝骨形成的干预措施。应用骨或骨替代材料填充拔牙窝来减少牙槽骨吸收是牙周位点保存技术的最常用方法。该文对位点保存技术的现状、不同骨填充材料的性能进行综述。

  10. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia


    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  11. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa


    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  12. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine. (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  13. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update


    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna


    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  14. Discretising geometry and preserving topology I

    CERN Document Server

    de Beauce, V; Beauce, Vivien de; Sen, Siddhartha


    A discretisation scheme that preserves topological features of a physical problem is extended so that differential geometric structures can be approximated while preserving topological features present. Issues of convergence and a numerical implementation are discussed. The follow-up article covers the resulting discretisation of Riemannian geometry and some applications.

  15. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  16. Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmieliński Jacek


    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.

  17. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides]. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua


    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  18. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. (United States)

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  19. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... of September 23, 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the...) Resolve complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission....

  20. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann


    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  1. The Challenge of Preserving Digital Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Stenvall


    Full Text Available This paper addresses some general matters on the preservation of different types of digital materials. The well-known technical problems are explained and also some of the usual strategies to resolve these problems. Digital maps and their preservation is considered in the light of the future legal deposit act in Finland.

  2. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas (United States)

    Conway, Paul


    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  3. Bone building with bortezomib (United States)

    Roodman, G. David


    In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. Others have reported that immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., thalidomide and lenalidomide), which are active against myeloma, also block the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These results reflect the utility of targeting endogenous MSCs for the purpose of tissue repair and suggest that combining different classes of agents that are antineoplastic and also inhibit bone destruction and increase bone formation should be very beneficial for myeloma patients suffering from severe bone disease. PMID:18219395

  4. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld


    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  5. Adrenal gland and bone. (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S


    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  6. Bone scanning in otolaryngology. (United States)

    Noyek, A M


    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  7. Preserving and documenting the Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkut


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of preservation may be described as a physical process that depends onconceptual facts. When observed from a conceptual point of view, ‘values’ cause the divergencesin the preservation process, which could be named as the pre-requisites of the construction.Values carry emotional and physical points of view. The emotional context, of course, dependson recognizing and remembering while physical context depends on direction of research. They are indicators of cultural characteristics and historical identity. ‘Cultural values’1, more over, explains the meanings attributed to the cultural property, which meanings will be preserved, and the reasons for their preservation. On behalf of this context, the preservation process may be defined as the preservation of the cultural heritage within an effective system. This effective system isaimed at attaining the total quality as a result of a synthesis of the technology, technique, and material originally deployed with those of the present. Besides, one of the most important inputin the preservation process is the priorities of the intervention to be held, as the latter will determine the decisions and types of intervention during the implementation phase of the preservation project. As a significant paradox, the most important parameter that shapes both a preservationproject and its process appears to be the risks that consist of indefinite input preventing theproject from a proper definition of its context. Since all physical problems and the social statusof the cultural property to be preserved have direct impact upon the design process of thepreservation project, these priorities and the risks should be clarified in the course of pre-assessment phase at the beginning of the preservation process.

  8. Sex Steroids and Bone Health Status in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin


    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can preserve their BMD better and thus are less prone to fracture. Observations on men with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency indicate that estrogen is equally important in the maintenance of bone health status. This had been validated in several epidemiological studies which found that the relationships between estrogen and bone health indices are significant and sometimes stronger than testosterone. Studies on the relationship between quantitative ultrasound and bone remodeling markers suggest that testosterone and estrogen may have differential effects on bone, but further evidence was needed. In conclusion, both testosterone and estrogen are important in the maintenance of bone health in men.

  9. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.


    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  10. Glutamate signalling in bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBrakspear


    Full Text Available Mechanical loading plays a key role in the physiology of bone, allowing bone to functionally adapt to its environment, however characterisation of the signalling events linking load to bone formation is incomplete. A screen for genes associated with mechanical load-induced bone formation identified the glutamate transporter GLAST, implicating the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, in the mechanoresponse. When an osteogenic load (10N, 10Hz was externally applied to the rat ulna, GLAST (EAAT1 mRNA, was significantly down-regulated in osteocytes in the loaded limb. Functional components from each stage of the glutamate signalling pathway have since been identified within bone, including proteins necessary for calcium-mediated glutamate exocytosis, receptors, transporters and signal propagation. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to regulate the phenotype of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Furthermore, glutamatergic nerves have been identified in the vicinity of bone cells expressing glutamate receptors in vivo. However, it is not yet known how a glutamate signalling event is initiated in bone or its physiological significance. This review will examine the role of the glutamate signalling pathway in bone, with emphasis on the functions of glutamate transporters in osteoblasts.

  11. Blood: bone equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, M.W.


    The conundrum of blood undersaturation with respect to bone mineralization and its supersaturation with respect to bone's homeostatic function has acquired a new equation. On the supply side, Ca/sup 2 +/ is pumped in across bone cells to provide the needed Ca/sup 2 +/ x P/sub i/ for brushite precipitation. On the demand side, blood is in equilibrium with bone fluid, which is in equilibrium with a mineral more soluble than apatite. The function of potassium in this equation is yet to be found.

  12. Olecranon bone graft: revisited. (United States)

    Mersa, Berkan; Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Kabakas, Fatih; Sacak, Bulent; Aydin, Atakan


    Autogenous bone grafts are frequently in use in the field of reconstructive upper extremity surgery. Cancellous bone grafts are applied to traumatic osseous defects, nonunions, defects after the resection of benign bone tumors, arthrodesis, and osteotomy procedures. Cancellous bone grafts do not only have benefits such as rapid revascularization, but they also have mechanical advantages. Despite the proximity to the primary surgical field, cancellous olecranon grafts have not gained the popularity they deserve in the field of reconstructive hand surgery. In this study, the properties, advantages, and technical details of harvesting cancellous olecranon grafts are discussed.

  13. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients. (United States)

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela


    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  16. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles


    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  17. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)


    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  18. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz


    for confidentiality, availability, costs, additional to the requirements of ensuring bit safety. A few examples are: • The way that digital material is represented in files and structures has an influence on whether it is possible to interpret and use the bits at a later stage. Consequentially, the way bits represent....... • There will be requirements for the availability of the bit preserved digital material in order to meet requirements on use of the digital material, e.g. libraries often need to give fast access to preserved digital material to the public, i.e. the availability of the bit preserved material must support the use...

  19. Heating or freezing bone. Effects on angiogenesis induction and growth potential in mice. (United States)

    Leunig, M; Yuan, F; Berk, D A; Gerweck, L E; Jain, R K


    We have characterized the effect of bone graft treatment by heating or freezing (with or without dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). Tissue culture and dorsal skin-fold chambers in mice were used as sites to quantify the effect on angiogenesis, growth and calcification of neonatal femora. Fresh femora increased in both length and cartilage diameter (calcification in vivo only), but cryopreservation or heating abolished the increase in femoral dimensions. In vivo, femora of all experimental groups elicited an angiogenic response from the host tissue, which was most pronounced for fresh femora, weaker for DMSO-preserved frozen bone and poor for unprotected frozen bone and boiled femora. Freezing in the presence of a cryopreservative (DMSO) was found to preserve the angiogenic potential of frozen bone, whereas unprotected heating or freezing significantly impaired angiogenesis induction and growth potential.

  20. A modified technique of four-bone fusion for advanced carpal collapse (SLAC/SNAC wrist). (United States)

    Garcia-López, A; Perez-Ubeda, M J; Marco, F; Molina, M; López-Duran, L


    This study reports the outcome of 16 patients treated with a modified four-bone fusion for symptomatic stage II and III advanced carpal collapse. The technique is based on fusion of the capitate, lunate, hamate and triquetrum using an autogenous corticocancellous bone-graft fixed with screws. The void left behind after scaphoid excision was filled with an extensor carpi radialis longus anchovy. After an average follow up of 3 years; there were 13 excellent and three good outcomes. In every patient pain relief was achieved with preservation of joint motion and grip strength. All the patients were able to return to their previous activities and jobs. Radiographic evaluation showed bone fusion in all 16 patients with a slight decrease in carpal height but a well preserved radiolunate joint space. In conclusion, this technique provides immediate stable fixation and early mobilization and assures bone fusion.

  1. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair


    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li


    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  2. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE. (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.


  3. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)


    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children with vario

  4. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.


    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  5. Osteotransductive bone cements. (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P


    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  6. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes



    The bone marrow is an invaluable source of adult pluripotent stem cells, as it gives rise to hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal cells, amongst others. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMC) transplantation (BMT) may be of assistance in achieving tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in modulating immune responses in the context of autoimmunity and transplantation. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effects of BMC to preserve functiona...

  8. Orbital Emphysema Causing SyncopeChiari Malformation with Thick Occipital Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A case of a Chiari malformation with an extraordinarily thick occipital bone is described. The thick occipital bone might make the posterior fossa narrow with consequent herniation of the cerebellar tonsils to the foramen magnum and formation of a syrinx. At dural plasty, well-developed marginal and occipital sinuses should be deliberately handled with the preservation of normal venous drainage. This case gives us the essence of the occurrence mechanisms of Chiari malformation and foramen magnum decompression.

  9. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang;


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted...... soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits......, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique...

  10. Ambient Preservation of Clinical Analytes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is in response to the In-flight Biological Sample Preservation and Analysis topic and offers a non-invasive, proven, space and cost and time...

  11. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  12. Improved Edge Awareness in Discontinuity Preserving Smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Stuart B


    Discontinuity preserving smoothing is a fundamentally important procedure that is useful in a wide variety of image processing contexts. It is directly useful for noise reduction, and frequently used as an intermediate step in higher level algorithms. For example, it can be particularly useful in edge detection and segmentation. Three well known algorithms for discontinuity preserving smoothing are nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, bilateral filtering, and mean shift filtering. Although slight differences make them each better suited to different tasks, all are designed to preserve discontinuities while smoothing. However, none of them satisfy this goal perfectly: they each have exception cases in which smoothing may occur across hard edges. The principal contribution of this paper is the identification of a property we call edge awareness that should be satisfied by any discontinuity preserving smoothing algorithm. This constraint can be incorporated into existing algorithms to improve quality, and usually ha...

  13. A Monograph on St. Vincent's Game Preserve (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the geography, history, climate, and wildlife of St. Vincent’s Game Preserve. Photographs, maps, articles, and letters are included.

  14. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  15. The CASPAR Approach to Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Giaretta


    Full Text Available A description of some of the fundamental concepts in CASPAR as well as the metrics by which CASPAR believes that it, and other projects which claim to aid the practice of digital preservation, should be judged.

  16. Epimenides: Interoperability Reasoning for Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; van Horik, M.P.M.


    This paper presents Epimenides, a system that implements a novel interoperability dependency reasoning approach for assisting digital preservation activities. A distinctive feature is that it can model also converters and emulators, and the adopted modelling approach enables the automatic reasoning

  17. Towards the Preservation of the Scientific Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Matthews


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the requirements for preserving the memory of science.  This is becoming more challenging as data volumes and rates continue to increase.  Further, to capture a full picture of the scientific memory we need to move beyond the bit preservation challenge to consider how to capture research in context, represent the meaning of the data, and how to interpret data in relation to other scientific artefacts distributed in multiple information spaces. We review the progress of scientific research into the digital preservation of science over the last decade, emphasising in particular the research and development programme of STFC. We conclude with a number of observations into the future directions of research and also the practical deployment of policy and infrastructure to effectively preserve the scientific memory.

  18. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau


    inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function...

  19. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli


    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  20. Diameter Preserving Surjection on Alternate Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping HUANG


    Let F be a field with |F| ≥ 3, Km be the set of all m × m (m ≥ 4) alternate matrices over F. The arithmetic distance of A, B ∈ Km is d(A, B) := rank(A- B). If d(A, B) = 2, then A and B are said to be adjacent. The diameter of Km is max{d(A, B) : A, B ∈ Km}. Assume that ψ : Km→ Km is a map. We prove the following are equivalent: (a) ψ is a diameter preserving surjection in both directions, (b) ψ is both an adjacency preserving surjection and a diameter preserving map, (c) ψ is a bijective map which preserves the arithmetic distance.

  1. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives. (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others


    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  2. Digitisation for access to preserved documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlis Bremer-Laamanen


    Full Text Available Today the digitisation of our collections is a goal for libraries all over Europe. The choices we make in digitisation and preservation now will have a significant impact on the future. Do we only emphasise access? How do we enable access and preserve our originals in a qualitative and productive way? What will actually be left of our cultural heritage in the next millennium? In this paper I am going to look at promoting access to preserved originals mirrored by the experience at the Helsinki University Library, the National Library of Finland: · Preservation activities as platform for digitisation and OCR · Processing access to collections · The future - looking ahead

  3. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.


    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  4. Linear Maps Preserving Idempotence on Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lian CUI; Jin Chuan HOU


    In this paper, we discuss the rank-1-preserving linear maps on nest algebras of Hilbertspace operators. We obtain several characterizations of such linear maps and apply them to show that a weakly continuous linear bijection on an atomic nest algebra is idempotent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism, and in turn, if and only if it is an automorphism or an anti-automorphism.

  5. Shape preserving rational bi-cubic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Zawwar Hussain


    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the development of shape preserving interpolation scheme for monotone and convex data. A rational bi-cubic function with parameters is used for interpolation. To preserve the shape of monotone and convex data, the simple data dependent constraints are developed on these parameters in each rectangular patch. The developed scheme of this paper is confined, cheap to run and produce smooth surfaces.

  6. How far we plan to preserve


    Krishnamurthy, M.; Sajana,, C.


    International audience; PurposeDigital content is a strategic asset that has observed an exponential growth in recent years. Like the physical universe, the digital universe is large. It is doubling in size every two years, and by 2020 the digital universe i.e. all the data we create and copy is tend reach 44 trillion gigabytes. Digital data is useful if it is suitably organized, tagged and preserved. So, to better understand current research trends in Digital Preservation and create awarenes...

  7. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Farquhar


    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  8. Privacy Preserving Recommendation System Based on Groups


    Shang, Shang; Hui, Yuk; Hui, Pan; Cuff, Paul; Kulkarni, Sanjeev


    Recommendation systems have received considerable attention in the recent decades. Yet with the development of information technology and social media, the risk in revealing private data to service providers has been a growing concern to more and more users. Trade-offs between quality and privacy in recommendation systems naturally arise. In this paper, we present a privacy preserving recommendation framework based on groups. The main idea is to use groups as a natural middleware to preserve ...

  9. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.


    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens...... sampled from the cemetery of Santa Lucia alle Malve, Matera, Italy. This site is of exceptional interest, because the samples have been assayed for IS measures of biochemical and physical preservation, and it is the only one identified in a study of more than 107 animal and 154 human bones from 43 sites...... across Europe, where a significant number of human bones was well preserved. The findings demonstrate several important issues: (a) although teeth are more resilient to contamination than bone, both are readily contaminated (presumably through handling or washing), and (b) once contaminated in this way...

  10. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Lundgren, G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.


    Thirteen rabbits were given cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70/sup 0/C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4/sup 0/C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidney from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation. (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M


    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  12. Innovations in food preservation in pastoral zones. (United States)

    Jans, C; Mulwa Kaindi, D W; Meile, L


    Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste. However, modern preservation procedures are difficult to adapt to the lifestyles of pastoralists and so are rarely implemented or accepted. Innovations should therefore focus on improving existing accepted procedures by promoting synergistic combinations to compensate for the disadvantages of these traditional techniques and ensure the quality of the raw material right up until consumption. Drying and spontaneous fermentation are key preservation techniques among pastoralists that serve as opportunities for innovation and can be shared across pastoral communities. Further potential for innovation lies in the unique, largely uncharacterised, microflora biodiversity of fermented products. The characterisation, safety assessment and conservation of these microorganisms are needed to develop locally adapted starter cultures that retain or improve on the desired characteristics of the finished product. Careful sensitisation of stakeholders, the study of social acceptance and capacitybuilding at all levels are required to achieve the sustainable implementation of such innovations, which will contribute to enhanced food security and safety.

  13. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip


    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  14. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN


    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  15. A critical damping approach for assessing the role of marrow fat on the mechanical strength of trabecular bone. (United States)

    Braidotti, P; Stagni, L


    Several clinical findings revealed that post-menopausal osteoporosis and age-related osteopenia are accompanied by trabecular bone marrow fat (BMF) increase. To help understand this phenomenon, a vibrating string model is proposed, based on the hypothesis that, when bone marrow properties change, the trabecular bone structure remodels itself to preserve its critical damping state. It is found that an inverse relationship holds between trabecular average length and marrow damping coefficient. Such a result leads us to hypothesize the following bone-weakening mechanism. Since fat-rich bone marrow is a worse damper, a BMF increment causes an increase of trabecular average length, which is accomplished by the absorption of horizontal trabeculae (structurally less important than vertical trabeculae). The resulting bone patterns are in excellent agreement with clinical observations of osteoporotic bone. A definitive confirmation of the proposed mechanism will support a therapeutical approach to widespread osteopenic diseases aimed at avoiding, or limiting, BMF increase.

  16. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives. (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F


    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  17. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.


    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  18. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi


    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  19. [Human remains in museums: research, preservation and communication. The experience of Turin University Museum of Anthropology and Etnography]. (United States)

    Boano, Rosa; Grilletto, Renato; Rabino Massa, Emma


    The creation of large scientific collections has been an important development for anthropological and paleopathological research. Indeed the biological collections are irreplaceable reference systems for the biological reconstruction of past population. They also assume the important role of anthropological archives and, in the global description of man, permit the integration of historical data with those from bio-anthropolgical research. Thinking about the role of mummies and bones as scientific resources, best practice of preservation of ancient specimens should be of high priority for institution and researchers. By way of example, the authors mention their experience regarding ancient human remains preserved in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography at the University of Turin.

  20. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Storm, D; Eslin, R; Porter, E S; Musgrave, K; Vereault, D; Patton, C; Kessenich, C; Mohan, S; Chen, T; Holick, M F; Rosen, C J


    Elderly women are at increased risk for bone loss and fractures. In previous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of women residing in northern latitudes, bone loss was most pronounced during winter months and in those consuming less than 1 g calcium per day. In this study we sought to test the hypothesis that calcium supplementation by either calcium carbonate or dietary means would prevent seasonal bone loss and preserve bone mass. Sixty older postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were randomized to one of three treatment arms: Dietary milk supplementation (D-4 glasses of milk/day), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3-1000 mg/day in two divided doses), or placebo (P). After 2 yr, placebo-treated women consumed a mean of 683 mg/day of calcium and lost 3.0% of their greater trochanteric (GT) bone mineral density (BMD) (P intake of 1028 mg/day and sustained minimal loss from the GT (-1.5%; P = 0.30), whereas CaCO3-treated women (total Ca intake, 1633 mg/day) suffered no bone loss from the GT and showed a significant increase in spinal and femoral neck BMD (P vitamin D declined by more than 20% (P intake was the strongest predictor of bone loss from the hip. Urinary N-telopeptide also closely correlated with GT BMD but only during winter (P = 0.003). We conclude that calcium supplementation prevents bone loss in elderly women by suppressing bone turnover during the winter when serum 25-OH vitamin D declines and serum PTH increases. The precise amount of calcium necessary to preserve BMD in elderly women requires further studies, although in this study, at least 1000 mg/day of supplemental calcium was adequate prophylaxis against femoral bone loss.

  1. Acidosis, hypoxia and bone. (United States)

    Arnett, Timothy R


    Bone homeostasis is profoundly affected by local pH and oxygen tension. It has long been recognised that the skeleton contains a large reserve of alkaline mineral (hydroxyapatite), which is ultimately available to neutralise metabolic H(+) if acid-base balance is not maintained within narrow limits. Bone cells are extremely sensitive to the direct effects of pH: acidosis inhibits mineral deposition by osteoblasts but it activates osteoclasts to resorb bone and other mineralised tissues. These reciprocal responses act to maximise the availability of OH(-) ions from hydroxyapatite in solution, where they can buffer excess H(+). The mechanisms by which bone cells sense small pH changes are likely to be complex, involving ion channels and receptors in the cell membrane, as well as direct intracellular effects. The importance of oxygen tension in the skeleton has also long been known. Recent work shows that hypoxia blocks the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts (and thus bone formation), whilst strongly stimulating osteoclast formation (and thus bone resorption). Surprisingly, the resorptive function of osteoclasts is unimpaired in hypoxia. In vivo, tissue hypoxia is usually accompanied by acidosis due to reduced vascular perfusion and increased glycolytic metabolism. Thus, disruption of the blood supply can engender a multiple negative impact on bone via the direct actions of reduced pO(2) and pH on bone cells. These observations may contribute to our understanding of the bone disturbances that occur in numerous settings, including ageing, inflammation, fractures, tumours, anaemias, kidney disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and smoking.

  2. Chromosome aberrations, micronucleus and sperm head abnormalities in mice treated with natamycin, [corrected] a food preservative. (United States)

    Rasgele, Pinar Goc; Kaymak, Fisun


    Natamycin [corrected] is used as preservative in foods. The genotoxic effects of the food preservative natamycin [corrected] were evaluated using chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assays in mice. Blood samples were taken from mice and levels of total testosterone in serum were also determined. Natamycin [corrected] was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Natamycin [corrected] did not induce chromosome aberrations but significantly increased the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and sperm head abnormalities at all concentrations and treatment periods. It also decreased MI at all concentrations for 6, 12 and 24h treatment periods. Natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio at all concentrations for 48h in female mice, for 24 and 48h treatment periods in male mice. At the 800 mg/kg concentration, natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio for 24 and 72h in female mice. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentage of sperm head abnormalities. The levels of serum testosterone decreased dose-dependently. The obtained results indicate that natamycin [corrected] is not clastogenic, but it is aneugenic in mice bone marrow and it is a potential germ cell mutagen in sperm cells.

  3. A modified CZ-1 preserving solution for organ transplantation:comparative study with UW preserving solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-hua; MIN Zhi-lian; LI Yu-li; ZHU You-hua; YE Ting-jun; LI Jian-qiu; PAN Tie-wen; DING Guo-shan; WANG Meng-long


    Background The University of Wisconsin colloid based preserving solution (UW solution) is the most efficient preserving solution for multiorgan transplantation. Unfortunately, unavailability of delayed organ preserving solutions hindered further progression of cardinal organ transplantation in China. In this study, we validated an organ preserving Changzheng Organ Preserving Solution (CZ-1 solution) and compared it with UW solution.Methods A series of studies were conducted on how and how long CZ-1 solution could preserve the kidneys, livers,hearts, lungs and pancreas of New Zealand rabbits and SD rats. Morphology of transplanted organs was studied by visible microscopy and electron microscopy; biochemical and physiological functions and the survival rate of the organs during prolonged cold storage were studied.Results There was no significant difference between CZ-1 and UW solutions in preserving the kidneys, livers, hearts or lungs of rabbits; kidneys, livers, intestinal mucosa or pancreases of SD rats or five deceased donors' testicles. In some aspects, such as preserving rabbits' hearts, rats' intestinal mucosa and pancreases, the effect of CZ-1 solution was superior to UW solution. CZ-1 could safely preserve kidneys for 72 hours, livers for 24 hours, hearts for 18 hours and lungs for 8 hours for SD rats. Twelve kidneys preserved in cold CZ-1 solution for 22-31 hours were transplanted successfully and the mean renal function recovery time was (3.83±1.68) days.Conclusions CZ-1 solution is as effective as UW solution for organ preservation. The development of CZ-1 solution not only reduces costs and improves preservation of organs, but also promotes future development of organ transplantation in China.

  4. The pathogenesis of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi; Thiele, Ralf G


    The characteristic radiographic hallmarks of chronic gouty arthritis are the presence of macroscopic tophi and erosions with overhanging edges and relative preservation of the joint space. In recent years there has been more insight into the processes underlying the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. This review discusses the mechanical, pathological, cellular and immunological factors that may have a role in the pathogenesis of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. It highlights the evidence suggesting that monosodium urate crystal deposition is associated with the presence of underlying osteoarthritis and the important role of osteoclasts and the receptor for activation of nuclear factor κ B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANK-RANKL) pathway in the pathogenesis of gouty erosions. Gouty arthritis is primarily driven by interleukin 1β (IL-1β). IL-1β has been implicated in bone destruction and erosions in other inflammatory arthridities. Thus, future IL-1 inhibitors may prevent and treat erosion formation due to tophaceous gouty arthritis. This review discusses imaging modalities and highlights ultrasongraphic evidence suggesting a significant relationship between the presence of the gouty tophus and bone erosions as well as the frequent presence of persistent low-grade inflammation in asymptomatic chronic tophaceous gouty arthritis on high-resolution ultrasonography. It is the tophus eroding the underlying bone that is pivotal for the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis.

  5. Limb salvage after infected knee arthroplasty with bone loss and extensor mechanism deficiency using a modular segmental replacement system. (United States)

    Namdari, Surena; Milby, Andrew H; Garino, Jonathan P


    Multiple total knee arthroplasty revisions pose significant surgical challenges, such as bone loss and soft tissue compromise. For patients with bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency after total knee arthroplasty, arthrodesis is a treatment option for the avoidance of amputation. However, arthrodesis is both difficult to achieve in situations with massive bone loss and potentially undesirable due to the dramatic shortening that follows. Although intramedullary nailing for knee arthrodesis has been widely reported, this technique has traditionally relied on the achievement of bony union. We report a case of a patient with massive segmental bone loss in which a modular intercalary prosthesis was used for arthrodesis to preserve limb length without bony union.

  6. Functional assessment of endoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kiyoshi Fukumothi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the functional grade of these patients and to identify the types of complications found that influenced the average life span of endoprostheses the functions of the operated limb. METHODS: We analyzed 14 post-operative cases of endoprosthesis, patients with malignant bone tumors and aggressive benign bone tumors submitted to surgery between 2004 and 2014. The evaluation system used was proposed by Enneking, recommended by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS, in addition to the radiologic evaluation. RESULTS: Endoprosthesis are excellent choices for the treatment of bone tumors with limb preservation in relation to pain, strength, and patient's emotional acceptance. Another factor for good results is the immediate weight-bearing capacity, generating a greater independence. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that all patients classified the therapy as excellent/good, regardless of the type of prosthesis used, extent of injury, and/or type of tumor resection performed.

  7. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health (United States)

    ... need for calcium. During pregnancy, women produce more estrogen, a hormone that protects bones. Any bone mass lost during pregnancy is typically ... mass during breastfeeding because they’re producing less estrogen, which is the hormone that protects bones. The good news is that, like bone lost ...

  8. Oral Health and Bone Disease (United States)

    ... low bone mass. Research suggests a link between osteoporosis and bone loss in the jaw. The bone in the jaw supports and anchors the teeth. When the jawbone becomes less dense, tooth loss can occur, a common occurrence in older adults. Skeletal Bone Density and Dental Concerns Periodontal Disease ...

  9. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  10. The value of bone scintigraphy on the determination of the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones%核素骨显像在预测颌骨肿瘤范围中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiawei Xie; Chao Ma; Guoming Wang; Shuyao Zuo; Ningyi Li; Muyun Jia


    Objective: To prospectively investigate the value of bone scintigraphy on determining the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones and to assess the presence of metastases. Methods: This study had local ethical committee ap-proval, and all patients gave written informed consent. Thirty seven consecutive patients with primary malignant tumor in jaw bones were recruited for the study. Bone scintigraphy was performed in all patients before surgery to measure the full extent of bony involvement, which was compared with histologic findings. Results: Whole body scan revealed one case with multiple bony metastases. Resection specimens of 36 bone neoplasms were pathologically analyzed to identify type and size of each tumor. The lengths of the tumor involvement in jaw bones defined by bone scintigraphy and pathology were 5.62 ± 1.58 cm, 4.48 ± 1.57 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The tumor negative margins from removed specimens according to bone scintigraphy were pathologically confirmed. With histologic findings as the standard of reference, the accuracy of bone scintigraphy was 100% (36 of 36 patients) in determining the full extent of tumor involvement in jaw bones. Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy tends to offer specific guidelines in determining the appropriate extent of bone resection while entirely clearing the tumor cells and preserving functions whenever possible and in establishing the bony metastases.

  11. Osteopetrosis (marble bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nikolayevich Kalyagin


    Full Text Available We report the data of the history of describing osteopetrosis (marble bone disease, its clinical features, diagnosis, and possible therapy approaches. Our own clinical case is presented.

  12. Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma (United States)

    Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico


    Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912

  13. Metastatic Bone Disease (United States)

    ... begin in bone are much less common in adults older than 45 years. Other diseases, such as Paget’s sarcoma, post-radiation sarcoma, hyperparathyroidism, and fractures due to osteoporosis, are also possibilities. Additional tests will likely be ...

  14. Chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of the hamate: case report. (United States)

    Rhee, Peter C; Novais, Eduardo N; Shives, Thomas C; Shin, Alexander Y


    Chondroblastoma of the carpals is rare, can mimic other benign bone tumors, and presents a diagnostic challenge. There have been few cases of benign tumors involving the hamate, with only one reported case of chondroblastoma, which was treated with complete hamate excision. We present a case of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of the hamate treated with curettage, high-speed burring, phenol, and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. At the time of the most recent radiographic follow-up, there was full graft incorporation, preserved hamate morphology, and no evidence of recurrence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  16. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.


    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  17. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation. (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad


    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  18. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael


    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  19. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag


    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The increasing demand for high quality safe foods that are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservative. Studies confirm that food allergies due to chemical preservatives affect as much as 2.5% of the population. Recent research had suggested bacteriocins (Nisin are the ideal biological food preservative. Nisin was proteinaceous antibacterial substances produced by Lactococcus lactis, a homofermentative bacterium. Naturally nisin occurs in two different forms nisin A and nisin Z. Nisin has wide range of inhibitory mode of action on Gram negative bacteria and food borne pathogens. Food preservation is a continuous war against the microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. So, nisin is actually the only lantibiotic bacteriocins used as a food preservative. This review paper will discuss about the Lactococcal strain used for the production of nisin, different forms of nisin, the mode of action of nisin, the cost reductive methods for the production and purification of nisin. So that it can be used in large scale industry for the high yield of nisin and the wide application of nisin in food industries.

  1. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review. (United States)

    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  2. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility. (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P


    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  3. Removal of vestibular schwannoma and facial nerve preservation using small suboccipital retrosigmoid craniotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ling; CHEN Li-hua; LING Feng; LIU Yun-sheng; Madjid Samii; Amir Samii


    Background Vestibular schwannoma, the commonest form of intracranial schwannoma, arises from the Schwann cells investing the vestibular nerve. At present, the surgery for vestibular schwannoma remains one of the most complicated operations demanding for surgical skills in neurosurgery. And the trend of minimal invasion should also be the major influence on the management of patients with vestibular schwannomas. We summarized the microsurgical removal experience in a recent series of vestibular schwannomas and presented the operative technique and cranial nerve preservation in order to improve the rates of total tumor removal and facial nerve preservation.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 145 patients over a 7-year period who suffered from vestibular schwannomas that had been microsurgicaily removed by suboccipital retrosigmoid transmeatus approach with small craniotomy. CT thinner scans revealed the tumor size in the internal auditory meatus and the relationship of the posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus to the bone labyrinths preoperatively. Brain stem evoked potential was monitored intraoperatively. The posterior wall of the internal acoustic meatus was designedly drilled off. Patient records and operative reports, including data from the electrophysiological monitoring, follow-up audiometric examinations, and neuroradiological findings were analyzed.Results Total tumor resection was achieved in 140 cases (96.6%) and subtotal resection in 5 cases. The anatomical integrity of the facial nerve was preserved in 91.0% (132/145) of the cases. Intracranial end-to-end anastomosis of the facial nerve was performed in 7 cases. Functional preservation of the facial nerve was achieved in 115 patients (Grade Ⅰ and Grade Ⅱ, 79.3%). No patient died in this series. Preservation of nerves and vessels were as important as tumor removal dudng the operation. CT thinner scan could show the relationship between the posterior wall of the internal

  4. Bone Remodeling Monitor (United States)

    Foucar, Charlie; Goldberg, Leslie; Hon, Bodin; Moore, Shannon; Williams, Evan


    The impact of bone loss due to different mechanical loadings in microgravity is a major concern for astronauts upon reintroduction to gravitational forces in exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. it has been shown that astronauts not only lose bone at differing rates, with levels up to 2% per month, but each astronaut will respond to bone loss treatments differently. Pre- and post-flight imaging techniques and frozen urine samples for post-flight laboratory immunoassays To develop a novel, non-invasive, highly . sensitive, portable, intuitive, and low-powered device to measure bone resorption levels in 'real time' to provide rapid and Individualized feedback to maximize the efficacy of bone loss countermeasures 1. Collect urine specimen and analyze the level of bone resorption marker, DPD (deoxypridinoline) excreted. 2. Antibodies specific to DPD conjugated with nanoshells and mixed with specimen, the change in absorbance from agglutination is measured by an optical device. 3. The concentration of DPD is displayed and recorded on a PDA

  5. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie


    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot tha

  6. The homorphisms from order preserving transformation semigroup to order preserving partial transformation semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Jingnan


    Full Text Available Let n be a positive integer.Let On and POn denote the order-preserving transformation semigroup and the order-preserving partial transformation semigroup on Xn={1,2,…,n} under composition respectively.We describe all homorphisms from On to POn,and give the number of homorphisms from On to POn.

  7. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation. (United States)

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  8. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  9. Fibroblast growth factor-1 and-2 preserve long-term repopulating ability of hematopoietic stem cells in serum-free cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeoh, Joyce S. G.; van Os, Ronald; Weersing, Ellen; Ausema, Albertina; Dontje, Bert; Vellenga, Edo; de Haan, Gerald


    In this study, we demonstrate that extended culture of unfractionated mouse bone marrow (BM) cells, in serum-free medium, supplemented only with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, or FGF-1 + 2 preserves long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using competitive repopulation assa

  10. Biomarkers of bone and mineral metabolism following bone marrow transplantation. (United States)

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Kang, Moo Il


    The loss of bone mass often occurs after patients undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The rapid impairment of bone formation and the increase in bone resorption, as mirrored by the biochemical markers of bone turnover, might play a role in this bone loss, and especially during the immediate post-BMT period. The possible direct causes for this paradoxical uncoupling are exposure to immunosuppressants, hypogonadism, the changes of cytokines, the changes of the bone growth factors, and the damage to the osteoprogenitor cells because of myeloablative therapy. In this chapter, we discuss the general aspects of post-BMT bone loss with a peculiar focus on the remodeling imbalance of bone and its relation to the use of immunosuppressants and the changes of sex hormones, growth factors, and cytokines.

  11. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George


    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  12. BlogForever: Intelligent Blog Preservation

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    A new EU co-funded project, BlogForever, has set its sights on a developing region of the Internet: the blogosphere. With society growing ever more online-oriented, blogs have become rich repositories of cultural, scientific and social information. The BlogForever software platform is designed to manage and distribute this content and preserve it for posterity.   The BlogForever project will gather blog content into a safeguarded, online archive, turning the once temporary into a well-preserved resource. The project is scheduled for completion in 2013, with partners spread across 12 different companies, universities and research organisations, including CERN. While the CERN team is primarily involved in the technical aspect of the project – designing and implementing the repository – it will also contribute to the preservation guidelines that will be used to choose what content will be kept. “Building on the success of Invenio, the digital library software used by th...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯绳照; 侯晋川


    Let B(X) be the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators on a complcx Banach space X. Let k ≥ 2 be an integer and φ a weakly continuous linear surjective map from B(X) into itself. It is shown that φ is k-potent preserving if and only if it is k-th-power preserving, and in turn, if and only if it is either an automorphism or an antiautomorphism on B(X) multiplied by a complex number λ satisfying λk-1 = 1. Let A be avon Neumann algebra andB be a Banach algebra, it is also shown that a bounded surjective linear map from A onto B is k-potent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism multiplied by an invertible element with (k - 1)-th power I.

  14. Towards Smart Storage for Repository Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hitchcock


    Full Text Available The move to digital is being accompanied by a huge rise in volumes of (born-digital content and data. As a result the curation lifecycle has to be redrawn. Processes such as selection and evaluation for preservation have to be driven by automation. Manual processes will not scale, and the traditional signifiers and selection criteria in older formats, such as print publication, are changing. The paper will examine at a conceptual and practical level how preservation intelligence can be built into software-based digital preservation tools and services on the Web and across the network ‘cloud’ to create ‘smart’ storage for long-term, continuous data monitoring and management. Some early examples will be presented, focussing on storage management and format risk assessment.

  15. The Planets Testbed: Science for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seamus Ross


    Full Text Available The preservation of digital objects requires specific software tools or services. These can be characterisation tools that abstract the essential characteristics of a digital object from a file, migration tools that convert digital objects to different formats, or emulation tools that render digital objects in their original context on a new infrastructure. Until recently digital preservation has been characterised by practices and processes that could best be described as more art and craft than science. The Planets Testbed provides a controlled environment where preservation tools can be tested and evaluated, and where experiment results can be empirically compared. This paper presents an overview of the Testbed application, an analysis of the experiment methodology and a description of the Testbed's web service approach.

  16. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu


    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  17. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;


    on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...... inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  18. A comparison of different compressive forces on graft materials during alveolar ridge preservation (United States)


    Purpose Following tooth extraction, alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) can maintain the dimensions of ridge height and width. Although previous studies have demonstrated the effects of ARP, few if any studies have investigated the compressive force applied during grafting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different compressive forces on the graft materials during ARP. Methods After tooth extraction, sockets were filled with deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% porcine collagen and covered by a resorbable collagen membrane in a double-layered fashion. The graft materials were compressed using a force of 5 N in the test group (n=12) and a force of 30 N in the control group (n=12). A hidden X suture was performed to secure the graft without primary closure. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed immediately after grafting and 4 months later, just before implant surgery. Tissue samples were retrieved using a trephine bur from the grafted sites during implant surgery for histologic and histomorphometric evaluations. Periotest values (PTVs) were measured to assess the initial stability of the dental implants. Results Four patients dropped out from the control group and 20 patients finished the study. Both groups healed without any complications. The CBCT measurements showed that the ridge volume was comparably preserved vertically and horizontally in both groups (P>0.05). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the ratio of new bone formation was significantly greater in the test group (P0.05). Conclusions The application of a greater compressive force on biomaterials during ARP significantly enhanced new bone formation while preserving the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the alveolar ridge. Further studies are required to identity the optimal compressive force for ARP. PMID:28261524

  19. A novel prosthetic device and method for guided tissue preservation of immediate postextraction socket implants. (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J; Hochman, Mark N; Tan-Chu, Jocelyn Hui-Ping; Mieleszko, Adam J; Tarnow, Dennis P


    Preservation of the surrounding hard and soft tissues associated with an immediate postextraction socket implant to replace a nonrestorable tooth in the esthetic zone is one of the greatest challenges facing the dental team. Several studies have documented the biologic and esthetic benefits of bone graft containment with either a custom healing abutment or provisional restoration. Use of a prefabricated shell that replicates the extracted tooth at the cervical region can help achieve guided tissue preservation and sustainable esthetic outcomes in an easy, simple, consistent, and less time consuming way. The following case report of a hopeless maxillary right central incisor in a female patient possessing adjacent teeth with a thin periodontal phenotype illustrates this new treatment device, method, and concept.

  20. Evaluation of bone targeting salmon calcitonin analogues in rats developing osteoporosis and adjuvant arthritis. (United States)

    Bhandari, Krishna H; Asghar, Waheed; Newa, Madhuri; Jamali, Fakhreddin; Doschak, Michael R


    showed a trend towards increased BMD and bone volume at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Significant preservation of bone volume and BMD as evidenced by nonsignificant (Pcalcitonin compounds. Similarly, in case of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats, there was a significant increase (Pcalcitonin-bisphosphonate and calcitonin-PEG-bisphosphonate treated groups at 21 days compared to the baseline values. Improved efficacy in terms of preserving bone volume and BMD in Osteoporosis, and in rats developing adjuvant-induced arthritis, by these analogues suggests their potential as new drug candidates for further evaluation to determine their usefulness in bone diseases characterized by excessive bone resorption.

  1. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion. (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J


    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  2. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford


    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  3. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R


    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable.

  4. p38α MAPK Regulates Lineage Commitment and OPG Synthesis of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Prevent Bone Loss under Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cong


    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Skewed differentiation of BM-MSCs contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Yet how BM-MSC lineage commitment is regulated remains unclear. We show that ablation of p38α in Prx1+ BM-MSCs produced osteoporotic phenotypes, growth plate defects, and increased bone marrow fat, secondary to biased BM-MSC differentiation from osteoblast/chondrocyte to adipocyte and increased osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. p38α regulates BM-MSC osteogenic commitment through TAK1-NF-κB signaling and osteoclastogenesis through osteoprotegerin (OPG production by BM-MSCs. Estrogen activates p38α to maintain OPG expression in BM-MSCs to preserve the bone. Ablation of p38α in BM-MSCs positive for Dermo1, a later BM-MSC marker, only affected osteogenic differentiation. Thus, p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in Prx1+ BM-MSCs acts to preserve the bone by promoting osteogenic lineage commitment and sustaining OPG production. This study thus unravels previously unidentified roles for p38α MAPK in skeletal development and bone remodeling.

  5. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio


    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  6. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.


    The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

  7. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asa’ad


    Full Text Available To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration.

  8. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  9. Role of bone marrow macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches. (United States)

    Kaur, Simranpreet; Raggatt, Liza Jane; Batoon, Lena; Hume, David Arthur; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Pettit, Allison Robyn


    Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages. The role of these macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches is reviewed in detail.

  10. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y


    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing


    Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. For example, in medical data, sensitive information can be the fact that a particular patient suffers from HIV. In spatial data, sensitive information can be a specific location of an individual. In web surfing data, the information that a user browses certain websites may be considered sensitive. Consider a dataset conta

  12. Nonlinear edge: preserving smoothing by PDEs (United States)

    Ha, Yan; Liu, Jiejing


    This work introduces a new algorithm for image smoothing. Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are employed to smooth the image while preserving the edges and corners. Compared with other filters such as average filter and median filter, it is found that the effects of image denoising by the new algorithm are better than that by other filters. The experimental results show that this method can not only remove the noise but also preserve the edges and corners. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, the algorithm becomes extremely attractive.

  13. JPEG 2000 standards in digital preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Richard, E-mail: [Elysium Ltd and JPEG Honorary Webmaster Milton House, Whitehill Road, Crowborough, East Sussex TN6 1LB (United Kingdom)


    Although JPEG 2000 is now a preferred format for archival image preservation, its use still requires care and consideration. This paper addresses how some of these issues can be addressed from a pragmatic perspective, and also looks at how the technology and file formats are developing to provide a full and consistent architecture for handling and searching large visual archives. New methods of addressing perceptual quality are discussed, showing that JPEG 2000 offers the best quality compression, although the metrics indicate that lower compression rates are recommended for preservation formats than might be assumed from previous simple metrics such as PSNR.

  14. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  15. Discontinuity-preserving optical flow algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lei; Li Jinzong; Li Dongdong


    A modification of Horn and Schunk's approach is investigated, which leads to a better preservation of flow discontinuities.It improves Horn-Schunk model in three aspects: (1) It replaces the smooth weight coefficient in the energy equation by the variable weight coefficient.(2) It adopts a novel method to compute the mean velocity.The novel method also reflects the effect of the intensity difference on the image velocity diffusion.(3) It introduces a more efficient iterative method than the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the associated Euler-Lagrange equation.The experiment results validate the better effect of the improved method on preserving discontinuities.

  16. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.


    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  17. Fertility preservation in females with malignant disease-1: causes, clinical needs and indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sönmezer


    Full Text Available Cancer incidence is progressively increasing in parallel with an increase in the rate of cancer survivors with the help of advanced treatment modalities. By the year 2010, it is estimated that one in every 250 persons will have survived a childhood malignancy. The increased rates of survival bring about complications related to reproductive health. Cytotoxic treatments due to chemo- and radiotherapy or bone marrow transplantation suppress or irreversibly harm not only female ovarian reserve but also male testicular sperm production. In this review, cryopreservation of gametes and gonads with fertility preservation options and indications prior to cancer treatments are discussed.

  18. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D;


    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...... ingredient labelling on cosmetic products....

  19. Preservation of Digitised Books in a Library Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Jensen, Claus


    The focus of this paper is on which digital objects to preserve when preserving digital library materials derived from original paper materials. It will investigate preservation strategies for digital objects from digitised paper material that must both be preserved and simultaneously retain a sh...

  20. Effect of alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Avila-Ortiz, G; Elangovan, S; Kramer, K W O; Blanchette, D; Dawson, D V


    Alveolar ridge preservation strategies are indicated to minimize the loss of ridge volume that typically follows tooth extraction. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect that socket filling with a bone grafting material has on the prevention of postextraction alveolar ridge volume loss as compared with tooth extraction alone in nonmolar teeth. Five electronic databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Literature screening and article selection were conducted by 3 independent reviewers, while data extraction was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Outcome measures were mean horizontal ridge changes (buccolingual) and vertical ridge changes (midbuccal, midlingual, mesial, and distal). The influence of several variables of interest (i.e., flap elevation, membrane usage, and type of bone substitute employed) on the outcomes of ridge preservation therapy was explored via subgroup analyses. We found that alveolar ridge preservation is effective in limiting physiologic ridge reduction as compared with tooth extraction alone. The clinical magnitude of the effect was 1.89 mm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41, 2.36; p < .001) in terms of buccolingual width, 2.07 mm (95% CI: 1.03, 3.12; p < .001) for midbuccal height, 1.18 mm (95% CI: 0.17, 2.19; p = .022) for midlingual height, 0.48 mm (95% CI: 0.18, 0.79; p = .002) for mesial height, and 0.24 mm (95% CI: -0.05, 0.53; p = .102) for distal height changes. Subgroup analyses revealed that flap elevation, the usage of a membrane, and the application of a xenograft or an allograft are associated with superior outcomes, particularly on midbuccal and midlingual height preservation.

  1. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kane


    Full Text Available Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior toward the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials.

  2. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  3. Management of traumatic tibial diaphyseal bone defect by “induced-membrane technique”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Gap nonunion of long bones is a challenging problem, due to the limitation of conventional reconstructive techniques more so if associated with infection and soft tissue defect. Treatment options such as autograft with non-vascularized fibula and cancellous bone graft, vascularized bone graft, and bone transportation are highly demanding on the part of surgeons and hospital setups and have many drawbacks. This study aims to analyze the outcome of patients with wide diaphyseal bone gap treated with induced-membrane technique (Masquelet technique.Materials and Methods: This study included 9 patients (7 males and 2 females, all with tibial bone-gap. Eight of the 9 patients were infected and in 3 patients there was associated large soft tissue defect requiring flap cover. This technique is two-stage procedure. Stage I surgery included debridement, fracture stabilization, application of spacer between bone ends, and soft tissue reconstruction. Stage II surgery included removal of spacer with preservation of induced membrane formed at spacer surface and filling the bone-gap with morselized iliac crest bone-graft within the membrane sleeve. Average bone-gap of 5.2 cm was treated. The spacer was always found to be encapsulated by a thick glistening membrane which did not collapse after its removal. All patients were followed up for an average period of 21.5 months. Results: Serial Radiographs showed regular uptake of autograft and thus consolidation within themselves in the region of bone gap and also with host bone. Bone-union was documented in all patients and all patients are walking full weight-bearing without support. Conclusions: The study highlights that the technique provide effective and practical management for difficult gap nonunion. It does not require specialized equipment, investigations, and surgery. Thus, it provides a reasonable alternative to the developing infrastructures and is a reliable and reproducible technique.

  4. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation. (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor


    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed.

  5. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar


    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  6. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  7. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation. (United States)

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  8. Organ preservation solutions : clinical and pharmaceutical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger J.


    Systematic research has led to continuing improvements in the solutions and techniques of preserving donated hearts. The persistent shortage of donors means that organs of lower quality are increasingly being accepted and we are turning more and more to machine perfusion of donated hearts.

  9. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.


    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented pub

  10. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.


    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance.

  11. Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis. (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nåden, Dagfinn


    Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care.

  12. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete (United States)


    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  13. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang


    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the $<, =, >$ re

  14. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.


    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  15. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America.

  16. Hearing Preservation in Acoustic Neuroma Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dongyi; YU Limei; YANG Shiming; YU Liming


    Objective To report the authors' experiences in hearing preservation during acoustic neuroma (AN)resection procedures. Methods Two cases of AN removal via retrosigmoid approach were reviewed. Hearing preservation was attempted in the aid of endoscopic technique along with continuous monitoring of the compound action potential (CAP) and auditory brainstem response(ABR) during the surgery. Results The tumor in Case 1 was 1.5 cm in diameter. The average pure-tone hearing threshold was 30 dB HL and ABR was normal. Waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V of ABR were present following tumor removal. At 7th month follow-up, audiometric thresholds and ABR inter-peak intervals had recovered to pre-operative levels, with normal facial nerve function. The patient in Case 2 had bilateral AN. The tumors measured 4.0 cm (left) and 5.0 cm (right) on MRI scans. The AN on the right side was removed first, followed by removal of the left AN four months later. Intraoperative CAP monitoring was employed during removal of the left AN. While efforts to preserve the cochlear nerve were not successful, CAPs were still present after tumor removal. Conclusions Intraoperatively recorded CAPs are not reliable in predicting postoperative hearing outcomes. In contrast, ABRs are an indicator of function of the peripheral auditory pathway. Presence of waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V following tumor removal may represent preservation of useful hearing.

  17. Transition to chaos in area preserving maps (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero; Tessarotto, Massimo


    As is well known, area-preserving maps are a characteristic aspect of Hamiltonian systems, such as those arising from the velocity field in incompressible fluids or magnetofluids. In this connection, a fundamental issue and a popular subject of numerous investigations [see, in particular, [1-4

  18. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows (United States)

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore


    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  19. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project. (United States)

    Russell, Kelly


    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best…

  20. Digital Preservation of Ethnic Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Nonja; Marinova, Dora; van Faassen, M.; Stasiuk, Glen; Zacher, L.


    This chapter focuses on the state of the art of digitisation of cultural heritage in Australian archives and libraries in a comparative way. Globalisation and the digital age not only brings new possibilities but also entails on questions of how we perceive ourselves and how we want to preserve our

  1. Preserving History in a Digital World (United States)

    Baumann, Jim


    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  2. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hooten, Gwen [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  3. Scientific Data: Preserving, Archiving and Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianxue; YANG Congke


    Scientific data refers to the data or data sets generated from scientific research process through observations, experiments, calculations and analyses. These data are fundamental components for developing new knowledge, advancing technological progress, and creating wealth. In recent years, scientific data has been attracting more and more attention for its preserving, archiving and sharing.

  4. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma


    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  5. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Carvalho Miranda


    Full Text Available In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients.

  6. Preservation of panorama mesdag, the Haque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, van der A.E.C.; Koning, de M.


    This paper deals with the preservation of the Panorama Mesdag, a cylindrical painting, more than 14 meters high and 120 meters in circumference. The vista of the sea, the dunes and Scheveningen village was painted by one of the most famous painters of the Hague School, Hendrik Willem Mesdag. It is t

  7. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.... Rehabilitation of buildings within the Development Area, which, according to the Plan and the Historic... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  8. Preservation of generalized bathtub-shaped functions


    Savits, Thomas H.


    Block, Savits and Singh previously presented a preservation result for bathtub-shaped functions. In this paper, we strengthen and extend their results to a class of functions which allow for more than one change of monotonicity. Various applications are also considered.

  9. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel


    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  10. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function (United States)

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi


    Abstract Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear. The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP. From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires. Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37–81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250–615) min and 800 (400–5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4

  11. Bone printing: new frontiers in the treatment of bone defects. (United States)

    Arealis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Vasileios S


    Bone defects can be congenital or acquired resulting from trauma, infection, neoplasm and failed arthroplasty. The osseous reconstruction of these defects is challenging. Unfortunately, none of the current techniques for the repair of bone defects has proven to be fully satisfactory. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is the field of regenerative medicine (RM) that focuses on alternative treatment options for bone defects that will ideally address all the issues of the traditional techniques in treating large bone defects. However, current techniques of BTE is laborious and have their own shortcomings. More recently, 2D and 3D bone printing has been introduced to overcome most of the limitations of bone grafts and BTE. So far, results are extremely promising, setting new frontiers in the management of bone defects.

  12. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.


    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  13. Analysis of bone biopsies. (United States)

    Goodrich, J A; Difiore, R J; Tippens, J K


    The orthopedic surgeon is frequently confronted with the decision of when to perform a bone biopsy and whether to do a needle biopsy or an open biopsy. Frequently consultations are received from other services requesting bone biopsies with questionable indications. The indications and contraindications for performing bone biopsies are discussed as well as advantages and disadvantages of either closed or open technique. Four selective cases are discussed with illustrations. The challenge of undiagnosed osseous lesions is best met by rational evaluation of each individual case and coordinated with the team effort of the primary care physician, surgeon, pathologist, and radiologist. The decision for either an open or closed biopsy technique must be based on the experience and skills of the surgeon and pathologist.

  14. Bone healing in 2016 (United States)

    Buza, John A.; Einhorn, Thomas


    Summary Delayed fracture healing and nonunion occurs in up to 5–10% of all fractures, and can present a challenging clinical scenario for the treating physician. Methods for the enhancement of skeletal repair may benefit patients that are at risk of, or have experienced, delayed healing or nonunion. These methods can be categorized into either physical stimulation therapies or biological therapies. Physical stimulation therapies include electrical stimulation, low-intensity pulsed ultrasonography, or extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Biological therapies can be further classified into local or systemic therapy based on the method of delivery. Local methods include autologous bone marrow, autologous bone graft, fibroblast growth factor-2, platelet-rich plasma, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Systemic therapies include parathyroid hormone and bisphosphonates. This article reviews the current applications and supporting evidence for the use of these therapies in the enhancement of fracture healing. PMID:27920804

  15. Alveolar bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jan


    Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

  16. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  17. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin


    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  18. Sex steroids and bone. (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L


    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that

  19. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;


    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  20. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu


    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  1. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health (United States)

    ... in Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  2. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome. (United States)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H


    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with KS. Thirty-one patients with KS confirmed by lymphocyte chromosome karyotyping aged 35.8 ± 8.2 years were recruited consecutively from a KS outpatient clinic and matched with respect to age and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy. In weight-adjusted models, HR-pQCT revealed a significantly lower cortical area (p < 0.01), total and trabecular vBMD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04), trabecular bone volume fraction (p = 0.04), trabecular number (p = 0.05), and estimates of bone strength, whereas trabecular spacing was higher (p = 0.03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of bone structure, estimated bone strength, or bone biomarkers in KS patients with and without testosterone therapy. This study showed that KS patients had lower total vBMD and a compromised trabecular compartment with a reduced trabecular density and bone volume fraction at the tibia. The compromised trabecular network integrity attributable to a lower trabecular number with relative preservation of trabecular thickness is similar to the picture found in women with aging. KS patients also displayed a reduced cortical area and thickness at the tibia, which in

  3. PTH1-34 Alleviates Radiotherapy-induced Local Bone Loss by Improving Osteoblast and Osteocyte Survival (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Tribble, Mary Beth; Zhu, Ji; Altman, Allison R.; Tseng, Weiju; Zhang, Yejia; Akintoye, Sunday O.; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling


    Cancer radiotherapy is often complicated by a spectrum of changes in the neighboring bone from mild osteopenia to osteoradionecrosis. We previously reported that parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1–34), an anabolic agent for osteoporosis, reversed bone structural deterioration caused by multiple microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans in adolescent rats. To simulate clinical radiotherapy for cancer patients and to search for remedies, we focally irradiated the tibial metaphyseal region of adult rats with a newly available small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) and treated these rats with intermittent injections of PTH1–34. Using a unique 3D image registration method that we recently developed, we traced the local changes of the same trabecular bone before and after treatments, and observed that, while radiation caused a loss of small trabecular elements leading to significant decreases in bone mass and strength, PTH1–34 preserved all trabecular elements in irradiated bone with remarkable increases in bone mass and strength. Histomorphometry demonstrated that SARRP radiation severely reduced osteoblast number and activity, which were impressively reversed by PTH treatment. In contrast, suppressing bone resorption by alendronate failed to rescue radiation-induced bone loss and to block the rescue effect of PTH1–34. Furthermore, histological analyses revealed that PTH1–34 protected osteoblasts and osteocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis and attenuated radiation-induced bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, our data strongly support a robust radioprotective effect of PTH on trabecular bone integrity through preserving bone formation and shed light on further investigations of an anabolic therapy for radiation-induced bone damage. PMID:24998454

  4. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  5. Eldercare at Home: Bone Weakness (United States)

    ... of the hormones that keep bones strong. Without estrogen, bones may become softer, weaker, and more likely to ... should take progesterone (another hormone) as well as estrogen to protect against this. However, recent studies have shown that ...

  6. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health (United States)

    ... page: Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  8. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation (United States)

    ... waiting for a stem cell transplant. Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  9. Vitamin A and Bone Health (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  11. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang


    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for,pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness oi possible alternatives for chloroform in three-oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a mi

  14. Preserving the Context of Science Data (United States)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.


    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  15. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  16. Submergence of Roots for Alveolar Bone Preservation. I. Endodontically Treated Roots. (United States)


    CARLOS E. del RIO , B.S. , D.D.S. MAJ , DC Periodontic Resident , US Army Inst itute of Denta l Research , Walter Reed Army Medica l Center, Washington... Medica l Center , Washington , DC 20012 ***~COL , DC Chief , Division of Clin ical Research; Director , Endodontic Residency , US Army Institute of...del RIO Di rec tor , Endodontic Residency Chief , Division of Clinica l Research Walter Reed Army Medical Center, = Washington , DC 20012 I

  17. Long-term hormone replacement therapy preserves bone mineral density in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Hjerrild, Britta E; Lauridsen, Anna L;


    at baseline and follow-up (5.9+/-0.7 years). SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-four women with TS (43.0+/-9.95 years). Interventions Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Main outcome measures BMD (g/cm(2)) measured at lumbar spine, hip, and the non.......010+/-0.144, PTestosterone, IGF1, and maximal oxygen uptake was significantly reduced in TS. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in BMD in TS were slight. BMD can be maintained at most sites in well...

  18. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P;


    ) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were risk of fracture) and T-scores were ... females). Total hip Z-scores were lumbar spine BMD was affected by degenerative disease. These preliminary data suggest that there may be an advantage in terms of BMD in using bicalutamide monotherapy compared...

  19. Differential anuran bone preservation in a taphocenoti sample of Barn owl pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sanchiz


    Full Text Available Los restos procedentes de la depredación de rapaces nocturnas son el componente tafocenótico más importante de los anfibios recuperados en yacimientos del Cuaternario europeo. En este trabajo se analiza un depósito actual de egagrópilas de Lechuza común (Tyto alba, próximo a su destrucción tafocenótica, procedente de Campos y Salave (Asturias. Se han recuperado 4973 huesos de anuros, pertenecientes a 140 individuos. Para dos de las especies presentes (Discoglossus galganoi y Rana temporaria, se calcula el grado de conservación, capacidad de identificacion y variaciones en la diferencia del Número Mínimo de individuos de cada uno de los elementos principales del esqueleto. No hay diferencias significativas de conservación entre elementos bilaterales, ni de proporción de elementos entre especies, detectándose en cambio grandes variaciones en resistencia estructural de cada hueso, y por ende en su facilidad para ser recuperados. El ílion se confirma como elemento individual que presenta la mayor capacidad de conservarse y ser recuperado, siendo una base firme para la identificacion taxonómica.

  20. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats (United States)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji


    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite–collagen composite) –alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union–related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  1. Bone Micro-CT Assessments in an Orchidectomised Rat Model Supplemented with Eurycoma longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaliza Ramli


    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. Forty-eight-aged (10–12 months old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM, orchidectomised control (ORX, orchidectomised + 7 mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30 mg/kg (EL30, orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60 mg/kg (EL60, orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90 mg/kg (EL90. Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60 mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90 mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90 mg/kg may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes.

  2. Investigating the Potential of Amnion-Based Scaffolds as a Barrier Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration. (United States)

    Li, Wuwei; Ma, Guowu; Brazile, Bryn; Li, Nan; Dai, Wei; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew A; Wertheim, Jason A; Liao, Jun; Wang, Bo


    Guided bone regeneration is a new concept of large bone defect therapy, which employs a barrier membrane to afford a protected room for osteogenesis and prevent the invasion of fibroblasts. In this study, we developed a novel barrier membrane made from lyophilized multilayered acellular human amnion membranes (AHAM). After decellularization, the AHAM preserved the structural and biomechanical integrity of the amnion extracellular matrix (ECM). The AHAM also showed minimal toxic effects when cocultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as evidenced by high cell density, good cell viability, and efficient osteogenic differentiation after 21-day culturing. The effectiveness of the multilayered AHAM in guiding bone regeneration was evaluated using an in vivo rat tibia defect model. After 6 weeks of surgery, the multilayered AHAM showed great efficiency in acting as a shield to avoid the invasion of the fibrous tissues, stabilizing the bone grafts and inducing the massive bone growth. We hence concluded that the advantages of the lyophilized multilayered AHAM barrier membrane are as follows: preservation of the structural and mechanical properties of the amnion ECM, easiness for preparation and handling, flexibility in adjusting the thickness and mechanical properties to suit the application, and efficiency in inducing bone growth and avoiding fibrous tissues invasion.

  3. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth


    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  4. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.


    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with /sup 99m/TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout.

  5. Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, L.R.; Everts, V.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.


    Bone has the capacity to regenerate in response to injury. During distraction osteogenesis, the renewal of bone is enhanced by gradual stretching of the soft connec- tive tissues in the gap area between two separated bone segments. This procedure has received much clinical atten- tion as a way to co

  6. Healthy Bones at Every Age (United States)

    .org Healthy Bones at Every Age Page ( 1 ) Bone health is important at every age and stage of life. The skeleton is our body’s storage bank for ... are many things we can do at every age to keep our bones strong and healthy. Peak ...

  7. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  8. Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture? (United States)

    Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.


    Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9μm. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

  9. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology


    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  10. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.


    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  11. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.


    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  12. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.


    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  13. Performing a bone gammagraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Corbacho Martín


    Full Text Available In the Nuclear Medicine service multitude of diagnostic tests are performed, being one of them the bone gammagraphy that acquires a very important role both by the high demand for this test, because of its simplicity and in the realization by its high sensitivity.The bone gammagraphy as opposed to conventional radiological techniques not only provides an anatomical view, but also adds a functional imaging that provides information on bone metabolism. Addition is not restricted to malignant bone disease (primary or metastatic tumors, but it is very useful for most benign osteoarticular processes. It would be interesting to bring to the nursing knowledge of this test for a proper implementation of it, because it is a very defendant but unknown to many nurses, thus going to unify the standards of performance. The need for nursing professionals during the performance of this technique because the patient remains in these units for quite some time, being responsible for the care while they remain in the unit, taking their physical, psychological and social. We also have a key role in providing information and reassurance when the patient arrives at the unit and it is therefore necessary to have information and training necessary to answer these key questions.

  14. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.


    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...... was negative on both high and low salt diets....

  15. Food and Your Bones (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz Please share why you eat ... never tried prunes View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  16. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  17. Bone Marrow Matters (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma


    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  18. Bones of the Earth (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel


    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  19. Are Bones Alive? (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta


    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  20. Surgery for Bone Cancer (United States)

    ... be amputated mid-thigh, the lower leg and foot can be rotated and attached to the thigh bone. The old ankle joint becomes the new knee joint. This surgery is called rotationplasty (roh-TAY-shun-PLAS-tee). A prosthesis is used to make the new leg the ...

  1. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. (United States)

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J


    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  2. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.


    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  3. Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight


    Full Text Available The reference model for the Open Archival Information System (OAIS is well established in the research community as a method of modelling the functions of a digital repository and as a basis in which to frame digital curation and preservation issues. In reference to the 5th anniversary review of the OAIS, it is timely to consider how it may be interpreted by an institutional repository. The paper examines methods of sharing essential functions and requirements of an OAIS between two or more institutions, outlining the practical considerations of outsourcing. It also details the approach taken by the SHERPA DP Project to introduce a disaggregated service model for institutional repositories that wish to implement preservation services.

  4. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.


    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug} [ORNL


    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  6. Techniques and results for open hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLevy


    Full Text Available While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg-Calve ́-Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/ or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy.

  7. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia


    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  8. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels (United States)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.


    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  9. Economics of Historic Preservation: Dollars and Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D. ALLEN


    Full Text Available The built environment expresses diversity, identity, individuality, and differentiation. In economics, it is the differentiated product that commands a monetary premium. Historic preservation protects our diverse building stock while creating more construction jobs, returning under-utilized buildings to the tax rolls, attracting heritage tourists, and maximizing the use of existing infrastructure. It has been said that the greenest building is the one that is already built. Four out of five existing buildings will be renovated over the next generation while two new buildings are added. With an overwhelming vastness of existing building stock, this becomes the elephant in the room. We cannot build our way to sustainability but must conserve our way to it. Economically, this makes good sense. Historic preservation, sustainability and conservation go hand in hand to protect our built environment while providing healthy, aesthetically pleasing buildings in which to live, work, and play, thus growing the local economy.

  10. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data (United States)


    2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on December 18, 2009 at 13:53 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. MALTZ et al.: STRUCTURE PRESERVING ANONYMIZATION OF ROUTER CONFIGURATION DATA 351 1 hostname 2 ! 3... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 352 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 lines 14 and 30 (

  11. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples (United States)

    Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Kurt, Bulent; Ozcan, Omer; Topal, Turgut; Kilic, Abdullah; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Acikel, Cengizhan; Sener, Kenan; Sahiner, Fatih; Yigit, Nuri; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alay, Semih; Ekinci, Safak


    Context: Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80°C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO) solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours. PMID:26019417

  12. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gulcan Kurt


    Full Text Available Context : Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80 o C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours.

  13. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  14. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation (United States)


    Cielenski PR, de Pablo JJ (2000) Stabilization and preservation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in saccharide matrices. Cryobiology 41(1):17–24 Corcoran BM... Lactobacillus paracasei F19 was characterized by drying process in the presence of trehalose (Foerst et al. 2012). The D-value of the stored bac- teria...Trehalose E. coli NCIB 9484, unprotected/protected 25 3.3/36.3 days (Welsh and Herbert 1999) Trehalose Lactobacillus Paracasei Unprotected/protected 37 6.6

  15. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  16. Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Kalm

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we review literature on socioemotional wealth. We explain how the concept of socioemotional wealth builds on previous family firm research showing that family-owners derive utility from the nonfinancial aspects of their firm. We also discuss how family firms' need for socioemotional wealth preservation explains behavioral differences between family and nonfamily firms in managerial decision making. Finally, we discuss the current state of socioemotional wealth research and propose potential directions for future research.

  17. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM-TBHQ (0.02% combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their

  18. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review


    Abdel E. Ghaly; Dave, D; Budge, S; M. S. Brooks


    Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish hav...

  19. David’s Deer Natural Preserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China is the ground for championing the survival of David’s deer. In ten years, the number of the endangered deer has increased six times, creating three world records of the number for David’s deer living in the wild, the species’ fertility rate and survival Located in Dafeng County, Jiangsu Province. David’s Deer Natural Preserve covers 1.000 hectares of land Established in 1986 under the sponsorship of the World Nature Fund and he

  20. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation. (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly


    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.