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Sample records for calcareous soils

  1. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  2. [Effects of sulfur on chemical properties of calcareous soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Ai; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Yue-Chun

    2007-07-01

    A pot trial with two continuous crops of rape was conducted to study the effects of sulfur on the chemical properties of calcareous soil. The results indicated that sulfur could decrease soil pH, while increase the electrical conductivity of soil solution markedly. Applying sulfur could enhance the contents of soil exchangeable Na+ and K+ and the accumulation of soil water-soluble anions, but had less effect on soil exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+, CEC, and alkalization degree. Comparing with urea, sulfur-coated urea (SCU) had less effect on soil pH and electrical conductivity, but markedly affected soil exchangeable cations and water-soluble anions. Sulfur application had no obvious yield-increasing effect, and higher application rate of sulfur could decrease the rape yield significantly.

  3. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  4. Impact of Sewage Sludge on Water Movement in Calcareous Sandy Soils

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    A.M. AI-Omran

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in soil physical properties and their effect on water movement under ponded irrigation. Sewage sludge was applied to 10 cm soil depth at rates of 0.25. 75  and 100 Mg-ha-1 to two disturbed soils differing in CaCO3 content. The results showed that cumulative infiltration (1 decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. Basic infiltration for slightly calcareous sandy soil was higher than that of moderately calcareous sandy soil, laboratory measurements showed an exponential decrease in saturated hydraulic conductivity and an increase in available water capacity with an increase in sewage sludge rates. For both soils, water diffusivity (D(Q decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. The (oral values of slightly calcareous sandy soils were higher than those of moderately calcareous sandy soils.

  5. Measuring and modeling ammonium adsorption by calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was assessment of ammonium (NH 4(+) ) adsorption isotherms in some agricultural calcareous soils and modeling of that by using the mechanistic exchange model. Ten surface soils (0-30 cm) were collected from areas covered with different land uses in Hamedan, western Iran. Isotherm experiments were carried out by concentrations of NH 4(+) prepared from NH4Cl salt (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, and 150 mg NH 4(+)  l(-1)) in presence of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution. The empirical models including simple adsorption isotherm and Freundlich equations were fitted well to the experimental data. The average amounts of adsorbed NH 4(+) in studied soils varied from 8.95 to 35.23 %. Adsorption percentage indicated positive correlation with pH, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate, and clay content and had negative correlation with sand content. In order to predict and model NH 4(+) adsorption, cation-exchange model in PHREEQC program was used. The model could simulate the NH 4(+) adsorption very well in all studied soils. The values of CEC played the major role in modeling of NH 4(+) adsorption in this study indicating that cation-exchange process was the major mechanism controlling NH 4(+) adsorption in studied soils.

  6. Risk assessment of irrigated lacustrine & calcareous soils by treated wastewater

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    Ibrahim H. Elsokkary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore the effect of irrigation by treated wastewater (TWW on some chemical characteristics of cultivated lacustrine and calcareous soils, the growth and macronutrients contents of soybean, corn, faba bean and wheat; and the chemical composition and quality of drainage waters from these soils. For this, greenhouse experiments, using PVC tank of 50 kg soil capacity were carried out. The soils were irrigated by FW, TWW or 1:1 FW/TWW. The results suggest that tested plants can be irrigated with reused water since visual damage is minimal, which seems to be related to the plant's low accumulation of saline ions. The dilution of TWW with FW reduced the negative effects observed. The results have also shown a significant increase in the concentration of EC and in the counts of TC and FC in soils of the upper layer (0–20 cm than in those of the lower layer (20–40 cm.

  7. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Wandruszka, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P) species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone...

  8. Production and diversity of volatile terpenes from plants on calcareous and siliceous soils: effect of soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, Elena; Baldy, Virginie; Ballini, Christine; Fernandez, Catherine

    2008-09-01

    Fertilizer effects on terpene production have been noted in numerous reports. In contrast, only a few studies have studied the response of leaf terpene content to naturally different soil fertility levels. Terpene content, as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector, and growth of Pinus halepensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus albidus were studied on calcareous and siliceous soils under field conditions. The effect of nitrogen (N) and extractable phosphorus (P(E)) from these soils on terpenes was also investigated since calcareous soils mainly differ from siliceous soils in their higher nutrient loadings. Rich terpene mixtures were detected. Twenty-one terpenes appeared in leaf extracts of R. officinalis and C. albidus and 20 in P. halepensis. Growth of all species was enhanced on calcareous soils, while terpene content showed a species-specific response to soil type. The total monoterpene content of P. halepensis and that of some major compounds (e.g., delta-terpinene) were higher on calcareous than on siliceous soils. A significant and positive relationship was found between concentration of N and P(E) and leaf terpene content of this species. These findings suggest that P. halepensis may respond to an environment characterized by increasing soil deposition, by allocating carbon resources to the synthesis of terpene defense metabolites without growth reduction. Results obtained for R. officinalis showed high concentrations of numerous major monoterpenes (e.g., myrcene, camphor) in plants growing on calcareous soils, while alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, and the total sesquiterpene content were higher on siliceous soils. Finally, only alloaromadendrene and delta-cadinene of C. albidus showed higher concentrations on siliceous soils. Unlike P. halepensis, soil nutrients were not involved in terpene variation in calcareous and siliceous soils of these two shrub species. Possible ecological explanations on the effect of

  9. Retention of silver nano-particles and silver ions in calcareous soils: Influence of soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatpour, Samaneh; Shirvani, Mehran; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad R; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2017-05-15

    The rapid production and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have led to significant release of AgNPs into the terrestrial environments. Once released into the soil, AgNPs could enter into different interactions with soil particles which play key roles in controlling the fate and transport of these nanoparticles. In spite of that, experimental studies on the retention of AgNPs in soils are very scarce. Hence, the key objective of this research was to find out the retention behavior of AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in a range of calcareous soils. A second objective was to determine the extent to which the physico-chemical properties of the soils influence the Ag retention parameters. To this end, isothermal batch experiments were used to determine the retention of Poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-capped AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and Ag(I) ions by nine calcareous soils with a diversity of physico-chemical properties. The results revealed that the retention data for both PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions were well described by the classical Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal equations. The retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions was positively correlated to clay and organic carbon (OC) contents as well as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils. Due to multicolinearity among the soil properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the soil properties which affect the retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions. Accordingly, we identified two groups of soil properties controlling retention of PVP-AgNPs and Ag(I) ions in the calcareous soils. The first group comprised soil solid phase parameters like clay, OC, and CEC, which generally control hetero-aggregation and adsorption reactions and the second group included soil solution variables such as EC and pH as well as Cl - and Ca 2+ concentrations, which are supposed to mainly affect homo-aggregation and precipitation reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  11. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the Lacustrine
    Plain, has highly calcareous

  12. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  13. Sorption of Nickel(II) on a Calcareous Aridisol Soil, China: Batch, XPS, and EXAFS Spectroscopic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirong Qiang; Bin Han; Xiaolan Zhao; Yunbo Yang; Dadong Shao; Ping Li; Jianjun Liang; Qiaohui Fan

    2017-01-01

    The sorption of Ni(II) on a calcareous aridisol (CA) soil, one of the major soil types in northwestern China, was investigated using batch and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) approaches...

  14. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  15. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Laboratory assays were conducted to produce phosphorus (P) biofertilizers from rock phosphate (RP), applying sulphur at different rates of 10, 15 and 20% and inoculated with Thiobacillus. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the biofertilizers in a calcareous soil with low.

  16. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  17. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

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    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variety of soil reactions govern the distribution of metal micronutrients that includes complexation with organic and inorganic ligands, ion exchange, adsorption and desorption processes, precipitation and dissolution of solids and acid-based equilibria. The relative importance of these reactions depends on many factors such as soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and the nature of metal ions. Environmental factors such as climate, physiographic position, and soil development may affect variability of some soil properties and thereby nutrient availability. The present research was conducted to find relationships between Iron, manganese, zinc, and copper availability and some major soil properties, physiographic condition and soil development. Materials and Methods: Golpayegan region is located in northwest of Isfahan province in central Iran. The mean elevation of the studied area is 1790 above sea level. Annual precipitation was about 244mm and mean monthly temperature ranges from -6 in January to 34°C in August. The soils were developed on different physiographic conditions including piedmont plains, alluvial-fan, plateaus, and flood plains belonging to Entisols and Aridisols. Soil samples (0–60 cm were collected from 98 grid points with 2000m distance in the agricultural area of Golpayegan. Particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, available potassium and phosphorus of the soils were measured by SWRI standard methods. Available Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined by addition of 10 g soil to 20mL 0.005M diethylentriaminepentacetic‏. The solutions were shaken for 2 h at 25°C, centrifuged, filtered, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Discussion: Studied soils were developed on calcareous material and about 60% of samples have more than 20% of calcium carbonate. Available Fe ranged from 1.4 to 6.5 mg kg-1 (mean 15.8 mg kg-1

  18. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inorganic Phosphorus Fractions and Their Relationships with Soil Characteristics of Selected Calcareous Soils of Fars Province

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    abolfazl azadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P is the second limiting nutrient in soils for crop production after nitrogen. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient in crop production. Determination of forms of soil phosphorus is important in the evaluation of soil phosphorus status. Various sequential P fractionation procedures have been used to identify the forms of P and to determine the distribution of P fractions in soils (Chang and Jackson, 1957, Williams et al., 1967; Hedley et al., 1982, but are not particularly sensitive to the various P compounds that may exist in calcareous soils. A Sequential fractionation scheme has been suggested for calcareous soils by which three types of Ca-phosphates i.e. dicalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate, and apatite could be identified (Jiang and Gu, 1989. These types of Ca-phosphates were described as Ca2-P (NaHCO3-extractable P, Ca8-P (NH4AC-extractable P and Ca10-P (apatite type, respectively. In this study, the amount and distribution of soil inorganic phosphorus fractions were examined in 49 soil samples of Fars province according to the method described by Jiang and Gu (1989. Materials and Methods: Based on the previous soil survey maps of Fars province and According to Soil Moisture and Temperature Regime Map of Iran (Banaei, 1998, three regions (abadeh, eghlid and noorabad with different Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes were selected. The soils were comprised Aridic, xeric, and ustic moisture regimes along with mesic, and hyperthemic temperature regimes. 49 representative samples were selected. The soil samples were air-dried and were passed through a 2-mm sieve before analysis. Particle size distribution was determined by hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder 1996. Also, Cation exchange capacity (CEC; Sumner and Miller 1996, calcium carbonate equivalent (Loeppert and Suarez 1996, organic matter content (Nelson and Sommers 1996, and pH by saturated paste method (Thomas 1996 were determined . Inorganic phosphorus

  20. Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

    2004-04-19

    Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

  1. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Intrinsic Problems In Determination Of Soil Texture In Calcareous Soils Of Arid Zones

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    Mozna A. Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at studying the effect of removal of CaCO3 on the texture of the soil profile and that of the control section in some Aridisols of the Sudan. Sixty soil profiles were sampled from Shendi area latitude1636 and longitude 33 48 River Nile State Sudan. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and 20 of these profiles were found to be of relatively appreciable calcareousness and were therefore selected for this study. The following three weighted soil textures were determined 1 before any removal of the CaCO3 Texture1 2 after the removal of CaCO3 Texture2 3 after amending the texture by adding the clay sized CaCO3 to the silt fraction Texture 3. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among soil separates in the three textures except between clay of T2 and clay of T3 and among sand fractions in the three textures. That was not unexpected because the first texture included both mineral separates plus their equivalent size of CaCO3 the second texture included only the mineral separates in complete absence of CaCO3 while texture 3 was an amended texture. The change in the textural class amounted to 72 of the profiles. Statistical analysis in the weighted texture of the control section revealed that this texture was not affected except in two profiles. That could be attributed to the fact that the clay content of the soils of the study area did not fall at or near the boundary between any two major textural classes used in the Soil Taxonomy. The size of the CaCO3 was found in the order of clay size silt size sand size.

  3. Assessment risk of phosphorus leaching from calcareous soils using soil test phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Jalali, Mahdi

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of phosphorus (P) leaching is important because excess P may reduce surface and ground water quality. Little attention has been paid to estimate P leaching from soil tests in calcareous soils. The relation between different soil tests P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) and leaching of P were examined for assessing the risk of P loss from calcareous soils. Columns leaching repacked with native soils were leached with either distilled water or 10 mM CaCl 2 solutions, separately. Four leaching events were performed at four days, and 28.7 mm of distilled water or 10 mM CaCl 2 solutions was applied at each leaching events. Compared with distilled water, CaCl 2 had a small ability to solubilize P from soils. Concentration of P in leachate in both leaching solutions was exceeding 0.1 mg l -1 associated with eutrophication. Cumulative P leached P was ranged from 0.17 to 18.59 mg P kg -1 and 0.21-8.16 mg P kg -1 , when distilled water and 10 mM CaCl 2 solutions were applied, respectively and it was higher in sandy clay loam soils compared with clay soils. Among evaluated environmental soil P tests, P CaCl2-3h (P extracted by 10 mM CaCl 2 for 3 h), P CaCl2-1h (P extracted by 10 mM CaCl 2 for 1 h) were more accurate than other soil P tests for predicting P concentration in the leachates in both leaching solutions and accounting for 83% and 72% of variation of P concentration, respectively. The water extractable P (WEP) (r = 0.771) and Olsen-P (P Ols )(r = 0.739) were significantly related to the leached P concentration using distilled water solution in a split line model, with a change point of 27.4 mg P kg -1 and 61.5 mg P kg -1 , respectively. Various DPS were calculated and related to the leached P concentration. Based on P extracted by Mehlich-3 (P M3 ) and HCl (P HCl ) and PSI, the change point of the relationship between leached P concentration and DPS M3-3 (P M3 (P M3 +PSI)×100) and DPS HCl-2 (P

  4. Enhancing phosphorus uptake and yield of wheat with phosphoric acid application in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Zafar Ul Haq; Khan, Muhammad Jamal; Akhtar, Muhammad; Sarwar, Tahir; Khan, Mohammad Jamal

    2017-04-01

    Low phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reasons for lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils. Phosphoric acid (PA) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), applied through conventional and modified methods, were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under laboratory conditions, pre-incubated soil with 70 mg P kg(-1) soil as PA and DAP was assessed for solution P (Cp ) for 4 weeks. Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using the Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from the solution system in control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantities (19.6%) of P for PA-treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution, i.e. 0.2 mg P L(-1) . The greenhouse study involved (32) P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of the greenhouse study. The PA placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency, whereas the lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP broadcast treatment. PA proved to be a better P source than DAP for improving P content and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M.; Beja, P.; Correia, P. J.; Varennes, Amarilis de; Faria, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia late’ grafted on Citrange Troyer) established on a calcareous soil in the south of Portugal, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to predict fruit quality. In April 1996, during full bloom, flowers were collected from 20 trees. In March 1997 the fruits were harvested and their quality evaluated. This procedure was repeated every year during three years. Principal Compon...

  6. Availability and Release Kinetics of Nonexchangeable Potassium in Some Calcareous Soils of Fars Province

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    S. Abdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sum of exchangeable and solution forms of soil potassium is widely used to determine potassium availability for plants. Reliability of these methods is not enough in soils that contain 2:1 phyllosilicates. Additional to exchangeable potassium, nonexchamgeable potassium also has an important role in plant nutrition. Limited information about availability and release kinetics of nonexchangeable potassium in calcareous soils of Fars province is available. For this purpose, some extractants including ammonium acetate, boiling nitric acid, 0.1M nitric acid, 2M sodium chloride and water were evaluated to prediction of potassium availability for corn in 10 calcareous soils of Fars province. Release kinetics of nonexchangeable potassium was studied using 15 successive 15-min extraction with 0.01M calcium chloride. Kinetics models describing nonexchangeable potassium release rate including zero order, first order, second order, third order, parabolic diffusion, power function and ellovich were evaluated. Results showed that 1M neutral amonium acetate, 0.1M aitric acid, water and 2M sodium chloride extractants had high correlation with corn potassium uptake. Amount of potassium released among studied soils was vary in the range of 243 to 814 mg kg-1. According to R2 and SE, kinetics of nonexchangeable potassium release was described with power function, parabolic diffusion and ellovich equations satisfactorily. According to this fact that constant rate of parabolic diffusion and ellovich models had significant correlations with corn potassium uptake, it is recommended that these two models are suitable for use in these studied soils.

  7. Validation of water sorption-based clay prediction models for calcareous soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle size distribution (PSD), particularly the active clay fraction, mediates soil engineering, agronomic and environmental functions. The tedious and costly nature of traditional methods of determining PSD prompted the development of water sorption-based models for determining the clay...... fraction. The applicability of such models to semi-arid soils with significant amounts of calcium carbonate and/or gypsum is unknown. The objective of this study was to validate three water sorption-based clay prediction models for 30 calcareous soils from Iran and identify the effect of CaCO3...... on prediction accuracy. The soils had clay content ranging from 9 to 61% and CaCO3 from 24 to 97%. The three water sorption models considered showed a reasonably fair prediction of the clay content from water sorption at 28% relative humidity (RMSE and ME values ranging from 10.6 to 12.1 and −8.1 to −4...

  8. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of three Mediterranean species through calcareous and siliceous soils in natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, E.; Fernandez, C.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Greff, S.; Morin, E.; Robles, C.; Vila, B.; Bonin, G.

    Little is known about terpene emissions released by plants in response to abiotic factors, except for climate-related factors. Standard emissions ( ES) of monoterpenes ( ESM) and sesquiterpenes ( ESS) of Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis and Cistus albidus in siliceous and calcareous sites were examined. Their dependency on some nutrients in these soils was also analyzed. The study was carried out in the south of France at the end of March, when C. albidus exhibited a leaf growth state, while the other two species exhibited a pre-budbreak state. The results revealed that ES of all major monoterpenes released by R. officinalis and ES of α-pinene and α-humulene of P. halepensis were higher in plants growing in calcareous soils. In contrast, for C. albidus, ESM and ES of β-bourbonene and α-humulene were higher in siliceous soils. ESM of all species was mainly correlated with nitrogen ( N) and available phosphorous (P A), while dependency on Ca 2+ or K + was variable. None of these nutrients was significantly correlated with ESS, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis pathway requires different nutrient supplies. While higher soil nutrient content stimulated ESM of R. officinalis and P. halepensis, it had a negative effect on ESM of C. albidus, probably because C. albidus exhibited a different phenological state. Considering the soil nature, and particularly N and P A as inputs in plant terpene inventories could hence contribute to obtain more accurate terpene estimates.

  9. Spatial Variability and Geostatistical Prediction of Some Soil Hydraulic Coefficients of a Calcareous Soil

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    Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the other hydraulic properties of soils are essential vital soil attributes that play role in the modeling of hydrological phenomena, designing irrigation-drainage systems, transportation of salts and chemical and biological pollutants within the soil. Measurement of these hydraulic properties needs some special instruments, expert technician, and are time consuming and expensive and due to their high temporal and spatial variability, a large number of measurements are needed. Nowadays, prediction of these attributes using the readily available soil data using pedotransfer functions or using the limited measurement with applying the geostatistical approaches has been receiving high attention. The study aimed to determine the spatial variability and prediction of saturated (Ks and near saturated (Kfs hydraulic conductivity, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of a calcareous soil. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on the soil series of Daneshkadeh located in the Bajgah Agricultural Experimental Station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (1852 m above the mean sea level. This soil series with about 745 ha is a deep yellowish brow calcareous soil with textural classes of loam to clay. In the studied soil series 50 sampling locations with the sampling distances of 16, 8 , and 4 m were selected on the relatively regular sampling design. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, near saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of the aforementioned sampling locations was determined using the Single Ring and Droplet methods. After, initial statistical processing, including a normality test of data, trend and stationary analysis of data, the semivariograms of each studied hydraulic attributes were

  10. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  11. Physiological Responses of Some Iranian Grape Cultivars to Iron Chelate Application in Calcareous Soil

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    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V. Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil. The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll

  12. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

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    von Wandruszka Ray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone. The principal products of these reactions are dicalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, which may interconvert after formation. The role of calcium carbonate in P retention by calcareous soils is, however, significant only at relatively high P concentrations – non-carbonate clays play a more important part at lower concentrations. In the presence of iron oxide particles, occlusion of P frequently occurs in these bodies, especially with forms of the element that are pedogenic in origin. Progressive mineralization and immobilization, often biological in nature, are generally observed when P is added as a fertilizer. Manure serves both as a source of subsurface P and an effective mobilizing agent. Blockage of P sorption sites by organic acids, as well as complexation of exchangeable Al and Fe in the soil, are potential causes of this mobilization. Swine and chicken manure are especially rich P sources, largely due the practice of adding the element to the feed of nonruminants. Humic materials, both native and added, appear to increase recovery of Olsen P. In the presence of metal cations, strong complexes between inorganic P and humates are formed. The influence of humic soil amendments on P mobility warrants further investigation.

  13. Effect of phosphate fertilization on the bioavailability of iron in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is the most important nutritional problem in sensitive plant species cultivated in calcareous soils, its main symptoms being interveinal yellowing in the younger leaves due to lack of chlorophyll and reduced growth. Fe chlorosis has been related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil. The effect of other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), is, however, a matter of debate. In this work we examined whether fertilization with P alters the availability of Fe to sensitive plants growing in two different Fe chlorosis-inducing calcareous soils. Phosphate at rates of 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P kg-1 soil was applied to pots where six-months-old olive trees cv. Arbequina were grown. The experiment lasted three years and took place in a shaded house. Chlorophyll concentration in the young leaves was estimated with the SPAD value (using a Minolta apparatus) three-four times per year. Furthermore, shoot length, dry weight of annual pruning and mineral element concentration were measured at the end of each year. In one of the soils, SPAD and leaf Fe concentration decreased with increasing P dose. However in the other soil, SPAD was not correlated with the rate of applied P. In both soils, potassium and zinc concentrations in plants fertilized with P were lower than those in the control plants. This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Projects: AGL 2005-06691-C02-01 and AGL 2008-05053-C02-02, and the European Regional Development Funds. ARSR acknowledges the finnancial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education as a fellow of the program "Training of University Teachers" (Formación del Profesorado Universitario, AP2008-04716)

  14. The Role of Organic Acids on the Release of Phosphorus and Zinc in a Calcareous Soil

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    Sareh Nezami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn fixation by soil minerals and their precipitation is one of the major constraints for crop production in calcareous soils. Recent Studies show that root exudates are effective for the extraction of the large amounts of nutrients in calcareous soils. A part of the root exudations are Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids (LMWOAs. LMWOAs are involved in the nutrients availability and uptake by plants, nutrients detoxification, minerals weathering and microbial proliferation in the soil. At nutrients deficiency conditions citric and oxalic acids are released by plants root in large quantities and increase nutrient solubility like P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in the rhizosphere. These components are the large portion of the carbon source in the soil after exudations are mineralized by microorganisms, quickly. In addition, soil surface sorption can affect their half-life and other behaviors in the soil. In order to study the effect of oxalic and citric organic acids on the extraction of phosphorus and zinc from a calcareous soil, an experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods: Studied soil was calcareous and had P and Zn deficiency. Soil sample was collected from A horizon (0-30 cm of Damavand region. 3 g of dried soil sample was extracted with 30 ml of oxalic and citric acids extraction solutions at different concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 mM and different time periods (10, 60, 180 and 360 minutes on an orbital shaker at 200 rev min-1.The soil extracts then centrifuged for 10 minutes (16000g. After filtering, the pH of the extractions was recorded and then phosphorus, calcium and zinc amounts were determined. Soil extraction with distilled water was used as control. Each treatment was performed in 3 replications. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni method significant level adjustments due to multiple comparisons. Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis showed

  15. [Effects of different tillage methods on phospholipid fatty acids and enzyme activities in calcareous cinnamon soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xue-Xia; Dang, Jian-You; Zhang, Ding-Yi; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    In order to study changes of physical and chemical characteristics and microbial activities in soil under different tillage methods, effects of four tillage methods, rotary tillage (RT), subsoil tillage (ST), conventional tillage (CT) with corn straw returned to soil, and rotary tillage with no corn straw returned to soil (CK), on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) characteristics and hydrolase enzymes activities in calcareous cinnamon soil were investigated. The results showed that soil hydrolase enzymes activities, nutrient contents, microbial diversity varied greatly with the different tillage methods. Returning corn straw to soil increased the kinds, amount of soil total PLFAs, bacteria PLFAs and actonomycetes PLFAs, while decreased the fungi PLFAs, indicating that fungi was more adaptable than bacteria to an infertile environment. ST and CT resulted in higher amounts of total PLFAs, which were 74.7% and 53.3% higher than that of CK, indicating they were more beneficial to the growth of plants. They could also improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase alk-phosphatase, protease and urease activities, which would provide a favorable soil condition for high and stable crop yields.

  16. Bacteria transport and retention in intact calcareous soil columns under saturated flow conditions

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    Farrokhian Firouzi Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.

  17. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

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    Narges Milani

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP and urea using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS. Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO42.2H2O and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4PO4 species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be

  18. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  19. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

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    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  20. Phosphorus status and sorption characteristics of some calcareous soils of Hamadan, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen

    2007-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) application in excess of plant requirement may result in contamination of drinking water and eutrophication of surface water bodies. The phosphorous buffer capacity (PBC) of soil is important in plant nutrition and is an important soil property in the determination of the P release potential of soils. Phosphorus sorption greatly affects both plant nutrition and environmental pollution. For better and accurate P fertilizer recommendations, it is necessary to quantify P sorption. This study was conducted to investigate available P and P sorption by calcareous soils in a semi-arid region of Hamadan, western Iran. The soil samples were mainly from cultivated land. Olsen’s biocarbonate extractable P (Olsen P) varied among soils and ranged from 10 to 80 mg kg-1 with a mean of 36 mg kg-1. Half of the soils had an Olsen P > 40 mg kg-1 and >70% of them had a concentration >20 mg kg-1, whereas the critical concentration for most crops is farming (24 mg kg-1), pasture (30 mg kg-1), and wheat (24 mg P kg-1) fields. A marked increase in fertilizer P rates applied to agricultural soils has caused P to be accumulated in the surface soil. Phosphate sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich equation. The standard P requirement (SPR) of soils, defined as the amount of P sorbed at an equilibrium concentration of 0.2 mg l-1 ranged from 4 to 102 mg kg-1. Phosphorus buffer capacity was relatively high and varied from 16 to 123 l kg-1 with an average of 58 l kg-1. In areas of intensive crop production, continual P applications as P fertilizer and farmyard manure have been used at levels exceeding crop requirements. Surface soil accumulations of P are high enough that loss of P in surface runoff and a high risk for P transfer into groundwater have become priority management concerns.

  1. A preliminary spatial-temporal study of some soil characteristics in the calcareous massif of Sicó, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Odete; Neves, Maria Manuela

    2016-04-18

    The mountainous massif of Sicó, in the centre of Portugal, is an extensive area composed of calcareous Jurassic formations. Hillside calcareous soils, with high pH, present chemical restrictions to support plant growth and are subjected to important erosion processes leading to their degradation if not protected by vegetation. In a first year of study some soil physicochemical characteristics have been measured in some geo-referenced locations of a larger design experiment and an exploratory spatial analysis has been performed. The objective of this study was to present some suggestions in order to give sustainable phosphorus fertiliser recommendations aiming to establish pastures in these soils and thus support traditional livestock activity. Ten years apart, those soil characteristics have been measured again in the same locations and comparisions have been made. The objective was to understand the variability of the soil properties under study in order to better adequate the fertiliser soil management regarding the area restoration.

  2. Natural Enrichment of Trace Elements in Surface Horizons of Calcareous Soils (La Mancha, Spain

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    Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five soil profiles developed on carbonatic sediments of Tertiary Miocene origin has been carried out. The topography of the area was basically flat and the traditional uses of the soils are the cultivation of dry cereals and grapevine. The geochemical characterization of the aforementioned profiles involves a study of the contents of major and trace elements among other pedologic aspects (texture, pH, organic matter, etc.. The results of this study also indicate a superficial enrichment of trace elements due to the leaching of Ca and moderate biological and anthropic activity. We can consider strontium, Sr, as the trace element that characterizes these limy soils (435 mg/kg average content in total soil and 708 mg/kg in the original rock. These contents are similar to the average value in Castilla-La Mancha of 380 mg/kg and are higher than the average in world soils of about 200 mg/kg. High levels of dangerous or pollutant elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, or Ni were not detected. The majority of trace element anomalies are related to calcareous material and the leaching of calcium carbonate (Ca, while the influence of the anthropogenic factor is secondary. Soil quality does not indicate toxicity although surficial enrichment suggests a weak threat from consuming crops.

  3. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil.

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    Yanlong Chen

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc, which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1 and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1 were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50% after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120-165 and 180-210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered.

  5. Improving phosphorus uptake and wheat productivity by phosphoric acid application in alkaline calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad; Yaqub, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hernandez, Vicente Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Low phosphorus (P) efficiency from existing granular fertilisers necessitates searching for efficient alternatives to improve wheat productivity in calcareous soil. Multi-location trials have shown that phosphoric acid (PA) produced 16% higher wheat grain over commercial P fertilisers, i.e. diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). Methods of P application significantly influenced grain yield and the efficiency of methods was observed in the order: PA placement below seed > PA, DAP or TSP fertigation > DAP or TSP broadcast. The sub-surface application of PA produced highest grain yields (mean of all rates), i.e. 4669, 4158 and 3910 kg ha(-1) in Bagh, Bhalwal and Shahpur soil series, respectively. Phosphoric acid at 66 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) was found more effective in increasing gain yield over that of control. Trend in grain P uptake was found similar to that observed for grain yield. Maximum P uptake by grain was recorded at the highest P rate and the lowest at zero P. The significant increase in P uptake with P rates was generally related to the increase in yield rather than its concentration in grain. Phosphorus agronomic efficiency (PAE) and phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE) were found higher at lower P rate (44 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) ) and decreased with P application. However, PA applied by the either method resulted in higher PAE and PRE compared to DAP and TSP. Phosphoric acid is suggested as an efficient alternative to commercial granular P fertilisers for wheat production in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Zinc and Copper Release Kinetics in a Calcareous Soil amended with Manure and Vermicompost

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    hamid reza motaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost in agricultural soils with low organic matter content is almost considered as a one way for adding nutrients in these soils. However, application of these fertilizers may affect micronutrient release characteristics. Micronutrient release Kinetics in soils especially in amended soils give information about potential of amended soils to release these elements into solution. Although it is important to study kinetics of micronutrient release from soils to identify soil micronutrients buffering capacity, little attention has been paid to micronutrients desorption rate studies especially in amended soils. The rate of release micronutrients from soil solid phase by considering micronutrients as adsorbed ions or in mineral forms is an important parameter in nutrition of plants by microelements and a dynamic factor that regulates its continuous supply to growing plants; nonetheless, little attention has been paid to micronutrients kinetics inrelease studies. Material and Methods: In this study, kinetics of zinc (Zn and copper (Cu were compared in one calcareous soil amended with 0, 0.5, and 1% (w/w of manure and vermicompost in a completely randomized design and then amended and un-amended soils were incubated at field capacity, for 30 days. After incubation period, amended and un-amended soils were air-dried and were prepared to kinetics study. Kinetics of Zn and Cu release were studied by successive extraction with DTPA-TEA solution. Two grams of the amended and un-amended soils, in triplicate, suspended in 20 ml DTPA-TEA solution were equilibrated at 25±10C for 1, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 336 and 504 h by shaking for 15 min. before incubation and 15 min. before the suspensions were centrifuged. Seven drops of toluene were added to each 1000 ml of extractant to inhibit microbial activity. Zinc and copper desorption with time was fitted by using different equations (Zero

  7. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazif, W. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E.R. [Division of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, North Sinai 45516 (Egypt); Perveen, S. [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Crout, N.M.J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with {sup 70}Zn{sup 2+}; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO{sub 3} and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na{sub 2}-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO{sub 3}. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (PCO{sub 2} controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO{sub 3}. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn{sup 2+}) data, although the apparent value of log{sub 10} Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility

  8. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  9. Sustainable Management of Calcareous Saline-Sodic Soil in Arid Environments: The Leaching Process in the Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufeed Batarseh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A leaching experiment of calcareous saline-sodic soil was conducted in Jordan Valley and aimed to reduce the soil salinity ≤ 4.0 dS m−1. The quantification of salt removal from the effective root zone was done using three treatment scenarios. Treatment A contained soil amended with gypsum leaching with fresh water (EC = 1.1 dS m−1. Treatments B and C contained nonamended soil, but B was leached with fresh water only while treatment C’s soil was washed with saline agricultural drainage water (EC = 8 dS m−1 at the start of the experiment and continued with fresh water to reach the desired soil salinity. All treatments were able to reduce the soil salinity to the desired level at the end of the experiment; however, there were clear differences in the salt removal efficiencies among the treatments which were attributed to the presence of direct source of calcium ion. The soil amended with gypsum caused a substantial decline in soil salinity and drainage water’s electrical conductivity and drained the water twice as fast as the nonamended soil. It was found that utilizing agricultural drainage water and gypsum as a soil amendment for calcareous saline-sodic soil reclamation can beneficially contribute to sustainable agricultural management in the Jordan Valley.

  10. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  12. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Nadal, Paloma; Lucena, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, and EDDHAm) or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, and IDHA) and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate). The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  13. Soil formation on reddish-brown calcareous till under herbaceous vegetation during forty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reintam, Loit

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A special experiment was established in 1963 and initiated in 1964 at Eerika, Tartu County, Estonia (58°22¢ N, 26°36¢ E to study pedogenesis and its continuous development under grass-herbaceous vegetation on reddish-brown calcareous till which was practically free from organic carbon (0.6 g kg–1 and nitrogen (0.2 g kg–1. The results of the study of three earlier decades have been discussed earlier. This paper deals with the processes of synchronous production and soil formation as well as with pedogenetic activity during the fourth decade of the experiment and during the total period of 40 years. An intensive humus-accumulative process, wavy and cyclic in intensity, has continued, accompanied by the breakdown of skeletal carbonates, partial leaching of products, formation and accumulation of amorphous and crystalline nonsiliceous products of weathering, progress of argillization in situ, and slight lessivage of fine silt and clay within the thin top of enriched humus solum. Net accumulation of organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained by nearly equivalent amounts of humifiable issues of the production process. As these are temporally dynamic, the temporal periodicity of mineralization and humification relationships is also characteristic of synchronous pedogenesis. The low C : N ratio indicates an excellent quality of the humus formed since the beginning of primary soil formation. Against the background of the decadewise dynamic fulvicity of the humus and evident decrease in its total solubility, the transformation of Ca-humates into humins and the formation of R2O3-humic-fulvic complexes at the expense of RO-humic-fulvic complexes already during the third decade were ascertained. Intensification of the bonds of the humic-fulvic complexes with inactive sesquioxides and clay minerals and decrease in the amount of fulvic acids in the interlayeral structure of clay progressed during the fourth decade. Due to the weathering of sand fractions

  14. The effect of chemical and organic amendments on sodium exchange equilibria in a calcareous sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Faranak; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the reclamation of a calcareous sodic soil with the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) value of 26.6% was investigated using the cheap and readily available chemical and organic materials including natural bentonite and zeolite saturated with calcium (Ca2+), waste calcite, three metal oxide nanoparticles functionalized with an acidic extract of potato residues, and potato residues. Chemical amendments were added to the soil at a rate of 2%, while potato residues were applied at the rates of 2 and 4% by weight. The ESP in the amended soils was reduced in the range of 0.9-4.9% compared to the control soil, and the smallest and the largest decline was respectively observed in treatments containing waste calcite and 4% of potato residues. Despite the reduction in ESP, the values of this parameter were not below 15% at the end of a 40-day incubation period. So, the effect of solutions of varying sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 on sodium (Na+) exchange equilibria was evaluated in batch systems. The empirical models (simple linear, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) fitted well to experimental data. The relations of quantity to intensity (Q/I) revealed that the potential buffering capacity for Na+ (PBCNa) varied from 0.275 to 0.337 ((cmolc kg(-1)) (mmol L(-1))(-1/2)) in the control soil and amended soils. The relationship between exchangeable sodium ratio (ESR) and SAR was individually determined for the control soil and amended soils. The values of Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG) of Na+ differed from the value suggested by U.S. Salinity Laboratory (USSL). The PHREEQC, a geochemical computer program, was applied to simulate Na+ exchange isotherms by using the mechanistic cation exchange model (CEM) along with Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficients. The simulation results indicated that Na+ exchange isotherms and Q/I and ESR-SAR relations were influenced by the type of counter anions. The values of K G increased in

  15. Determination of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in calcareous soils: geographical distribution on the Island of Majorca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E.; Garcias, F.; Casas, M.; Cerda, V. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    In this work radioactive concentrations of the man-made radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr have been studied in calcareous soil of the island of Majorca (Spain), by analysing the top 5 cm of the surface layer. The activity of {sup 137}Cs was determined by {gamma}-ray spectrometry and ranged from about 10 to 60 Bq/kg. The possibility of carrying out extraction of Sr from calcareous soils was evaluated by using three different methods previously used in other samples with a high calcium content Only the method based on precipitation in a fuming HNO{sub 3} medium gave rise to successful results with a yield of around 75%. The activity of {sup 90}Sr was determined using a low-background {alpha}-{beta} proportional counter. Results varied between about 2 and 8 Bq/kg. The activity of {sup 89}Sr was below the lower limit of detection. (author).

  16. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Bart, E-mail: bart.vandecasteele@ilvo.vlaanderen.b [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tack, Filip M.G. [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO{sub 4}. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. - Some soil amendments resulted in higher metal uptake by earthworms and willows than when the polluted soil was not amended but submersion of the polluted soil resulted in reduced Cd and Zn uptake in Salix cinerea.

  17. Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil sodicity and nutrient leaching in calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, M.; Merikhpour, H.; Kaledhonkar, M.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil column studies were conducted with two soils to assess the effects of irrigation with wastewater on soil and groundwater quality. Upon the application of wastewater, exchange occurred between solution sodium (Na+) and exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+), whereby these cations were released

  18. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  19. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  20. INTEGRATED NITROGEN AND BORON FERTILIZATION IMPROVES THE PRODUCTIVITY AND OIL QUALITY OF SUNFLOWER GROWN IN A CALCAREOUS SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHZAD, Muhammad Asif; MAQSOOD, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Among biotic and abiotic factors, imbalanced plant nutrition is more indispensable for low sunflower productivity. To assess the interaction behavior of nitrogen with boron on sunflower growth, yield and its oil quality in alkaline-calcareous soils, a field experiment was conducted for two consecutive growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. Sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus ‘Hysun-33’) was grown on sandy clay loam soil that was amended with diverse boron rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 kg ha-1 under vari...

  1. Are phenolic compounds released from the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus responsible for changes in N cycling in siliceous and calcareous soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Castells; Josep Peñuelas; David W. Valentine

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of Cistus albidus leaf leachates on nitrogen-cycling processes in two siliceous soils (granite and schist) and one calcareous soil. We compared those effects with gross N-transformation rates in soils sampled underneath Cistus. Our results show that although phenolic compounds leached from green foliage...

  2. Phytoextraction potential of poplar (Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge) from calcareous agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Ning; Luo, Huanzhang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytoextraction potential of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for cadmium (Cd) contaminated calcareous soils, a concentration gradient experiment and a field sampling experiment (involving poplars of different ages) were conducted. The translocation factors for all experiments and treatments were greater than 1. The bioconcentration factor decreased from 2.37 to 0.25 with increasing soil Cd concentration in the concentration gradient experiment and generally decreased with stand age under field conditions. The Cd concentrations in P. pyramidalis organs decreased in the order of leaves > stems > roots. The shoot biomass production in the concentration gradient experiment was not significantly reduced with soil Cd concentrations up to or slightly over 50 mg kg(-1). The results show that the phytoextraction efficiency of P. pyramidalis depends on both the soil Cd concentration and the tree age. Populus pyramidalis is most suitable for remediation of slightly Cd contaminated calcareous soils through the combined harvest of stems and leaves under actual field conditions.

  3. Calcite dissolution by Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06: A futuristic approach for the reclamation of calcareous sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvi S.M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the ability of soil microorganisms to dissolute poorly soluble native calcite to supply Ca2+ is a new area to be explored in reclaiming sodic soils by supplying adequate Ca2+ and reducing the recurrent sodicity. Hence, the present study aimed to isolate a calcite dissolving bacteria (CDB from calcareous sodic soils and to understand the mechanism of calcite dissolution. Of the thirty three CDB isolates recovered from the calcareous sodic soils of Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore, Ramnad and Trichy, eleven isolates were screened for calcite dissolution based on titratable acidity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the three best isolates viz., SORI09, SOTI05 and SOTI06 revealed 99 % similarity to Bacillus aryabhattai, 100 % to B. megaterium and 93 % to Brevibacterium sp., respectively. Among them, Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06 released more Ca2+ (3.6 g.l-1 by dissolving 18.6 % of the native calcite. The spectral data of FTIR also showed reduction in the intensity of calcite (55.36 to 41.27 by the isolate at a wave number of 1636 cm-1 which confirmed the dissolution. Besides producing organic acids (gluconic acid and acetic acid, Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06 also produced siderophore (91.6 % and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, 13.3 µg. ml-1 which might have enhanced the calcite dissolution.

  4. Calcite Dissolution by Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06: A Futuristic Approach for the Reclamation of Calcareous Sodic Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilselvi, S M; Thiyagarajan, Chitdeshwari; Uthandi, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the ability of soil microorganisms to dissolute poorly soluble native calcite to supply Ca2+ is a new area to be explored in reclaiming sodic soils by supplying adequate Ca2+ and reducing the recurrent sodicity. Hence, the present study aimed to isolate a calcite dissolving bacteria (CDB) from calcareous sodic soils and to understand the mechanism of calcite dissolution. Of the 33 CDB isolates recovered from the calcareous sodic soils of Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore, Ramnad, and Trichy), 11 isolates were screened for calcite dissolution based on titratable acidity. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the three best isolates viz., SORI09, SOTI05, and SOTI06 revealed 99% similarity to Bacillus aryabhattai, 100% to B. megaterium, and 93% to Brevibacterium sp., respectively. Among them, Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06 released more Ca2+ (3.6 g.l-1) by dissolving 18.6% of the native calcite. The spectral data of FTIR also showed reduction in the intensity of calcite (55.36-41.27) by the isolate at a wave number of 1636 cm-1 which confirmed the dissolution. Besides producing organic acids (gluconic acid and acetic acid), Brevibacterium sp. SOTI06 also produced siderophore (91.6%) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, 13.3 μg. ml-1) which might have enhanced the calcite dissolution.

  5. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms ( were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1 were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with . Moreover, at all the levels of , P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  6. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  7. Biological activity of soddy-calcareous soils and cultural layers in Alanian settlements of the Kislovodsk basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, E. V.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Korobov, D. S.; Borisov, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Microbiological investigations of cultural layers were performed in a settlement of the Alanian culture—Podkumskoe-2 (the 2nd-4th centuries AD). The present-day soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) used for different purposes were also studied near this settlement. The most significant changes in the initial characteristics of the soil microbial communities occurred under the residential influence more than 1500 years ago; these changes have been preserved until the present time. In the areas subjected to the anthropogenic impact, the total microbial biomass (the weighted average of 3720 μg C/g soil) was lower than that in the background soil. The minimal values of the microbial biomass were found in the soil of the pasture—2.5 times less than in the background soil. The urease activity of the cultural layer was higher than that of the soils nearby the settlement. Elevated values of the cellulose activity were also recorded only in the cultural layers. The current plowing has led to a significant decrease in the mycelium biomass of the microscopic fungi. In the soil of the fallow, the weighted average value of the fungal hyphae biomass along the profile was twice lower than that in the background soil and cultural layers of the settlement. The pasture first affected the active microbial biomass and, to a lesser extent, the amount of microscopic fungi.

  8. Soil pH management by calcareous and siliceous minerals: effect on N2O yield in nitrification and denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Amelioration of soil pH by liming is necessary and common practice in vast areas of crop production. It is well known that pH is one of the most pervasive factors controlling rates and product stoichiometries in microbially mediated N transformations, including N2O emissions. While liming of acid soils appears to increase N2O reductase activity in denitrification (resulting in less N2O relative to N2), sudden pH raise may boost nitrification and hence N2O emission from ammonia oxidation. Thus, the net effect of liming on N2O emissions is not straightforward, which probably explains why soil pH management has not been embraced as a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions so far. Here we report laboratory incubations in which we determined potential rates and N2O yields in soils from an ongoing field experiment, comparing traditional calcareous limes (calcite, dolomite) with mafic minerals (olivine, different types of plagioclase). The experiment is in its second year, and shows strong pH increase (0.7-1.5, units) in plots with calcareous limes, a weak pH increase (~ 0.2 unit) in the olivine treatment and no measurable pH increase with the plagioclases. Potential nitrification rates correlated positively with effective soil pH as did the N2O yield, measured as N2O accumulation rate over NO2- + NO3- accumulation rate. The N2O yield increased in the order, control robot (using fast box technique) in the same liming experiment.

  9. Soil water repellency patterns following long-term irrigation with waste water in a sandy calcareous soil, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; García-Irles, L.; Morugán, A.; Doerr, S. H.; García-Orenes, F.; Atanassova, I.; Navarro, M. A.; Ayguadé, H.

    2009-04-01

    One of the consequences of long-term irrigation with waste water can be the development of soil water repellency (WR). Its emergence can affect soil-water balance, irrigation efficiency and crop yield. Water repellency development has been suggested to be controlled by parameters such as organic matter quantity and type present in the waste water, soil properties (particularly the texture), and the overall time period of irrigation. Here we examine the effect of long-term (~20 years) irrigation with low quality waste-water on soil wettability under a Populus alba tree stand used as a "green filter". The plot exhibited considerable micro-topography (ridges and furrows) and consisted of sandy calcareous soil (Xerofluvent). Water repellency and organic carbon content (OC) were studied in 160 samples taken from the plot and from an adjacent area used as control (no irrigated). From the control area 40 samples were taken from the first 5 cm of mineral soil (C samples). From the irrigated plot a total of 120 samples were collected. To account for the micro-topography of the terrain, 40 samples each were taken from ridges (R samples; 0-5 cm depth), furrows (F samples; 0-5 cm depth), and from furrows at depth (FD samples, 5-10 cm depth). Soil WR was assessed in the laboratory for all air dry samples using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT Test). Samples with WDPT ? 5 seconds were classified as non-repellent. Organic carbon content (OC) was analyzed in all samples by potassium dichromate oxidation method. We also carried out a detailed chemical characterisation of the organic matter in two furrow samples that exhibited contrasting wettability, but no major difference in OC content (F10: WDPT 9960s, OC 6.7%; F31: WDPT 10s, OC 7.5%). Following accelerated solvent extraction with Dichloro-methane/MeOH (95:5), the extract was analysed by GC-MS. All samples from the control area (C) were wettable (mean WDPT=1s). In the irrigated plot, water repellency was present for 48

  10. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

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    Urbain Fifi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb, copper (Cu and Cadmium (Cd during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti. Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax, the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  11. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-04

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  12. Effects of organic amendments and irrigation waters on the physical and chemical properties of two calcareous soils in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, E; Grieve, I C; Madany, I M

    1994-04-01

    The present investigation studies the effects of cow and chicken manure and sewage sludge at different rates of addition and with two irrigation waters of different salinities on two major calcareous soils in Bahrain. The aim was to quantify potential improvements in soil quality, the accumulation of trace metals, and quality of leachates.From the pot experiments it was found that soil waterholding capacity did not change significantly after addition of organic amendments, except in the case of sewage sludge. Total organic carbon and total Kjeldhal nitrogen content increased in the 0-5 cm layer. Low salinity water and sewage applications improved aggregate stability. Extractable phosphorus was enhanced by the chicken manure treatment more than others. Addition of different organic amendments did not affect exchangeable cations. pH values did not show appreciable changes and soils were neutral. Trace metals studied were present at non-toxic levels in the 0-5 cm layer. Zinc and copper were the only metal showing a tendency to leach to the lower soil layer. In all cases metal levels in the surface layer were proportional to the quantities added in the amendments and their levels in the leachate were very low.

  13. Enumeration, Isolation and Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterial Strains at Seedling Stage in Rhizosphere of Rice Grown in Non-Calcareous Grey Flood Plain Soil of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Md. Harunor Rashid; Md.,Mohiuddin; M, Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Non-symbiotic diazotrophic systems for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in agriculture are most promising but the possibility for the extension of nitrogen fixation by rice is still speculative. Accordingly, the present study was conducted for the Enumeration, isolation and identification of nitrogen fixing bacterial strains at seedling stage (30 days after seed sowing) in rhizosphere of rice (BR 10, Oryza sativa L.) grown in Non-Calcareous Grey Flood Plain soil of Bangladesh. The soil is c...

  14. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

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    Bo Li

    Full Text Available To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  15. Bio-chemical properties of sandy calcareous soil treated with rice straw-based hydrogels

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    Houssni El-Saied

    2016-06-01

    The results obtained show that, application of the investigated hydrogels positively affects bio-chemical properties of the soil. These effects are assembled in the following: (a slightly decreasing soil pH, (b increasing cation exchange capacity (CEC of the soil indicating improvement in activating chemical reactions in the soil, (c increasing organic matter (OM, organic carbon, total nitrogen percent in the soil. Because the increase in organic nitrogen surpassed that in organic carbon, a narrower CN ratio of treated soils was obtained. This indicated the mineralization of nitrogen compounds and hence the possibility to save and provide available forms of N to growing plants, (d increasing available N, P and K in treated soil, and (e improving biological activity of the soil expressed as total count of bacteria and counts of Azotobacter sp., phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB, fungi and actinomycetes/g soil as well as the activity of both dehydrogenase and phosphatase.

  16. The influences of selected soil properties on Pb availability and its transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a polluted calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Yaser; Delavar, Mohammad-Amir; Zhang, Chaosheng; Esfandiarpour-Boroujeni, Isa; Owliaie, Hamid-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Accumulated anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface layer of agricultural soils may be transferred through the food chain via plant uptake processes. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in the soils and wheat plants and to determine the soil properties which may affect the Pb transferring from soil to wheat plants in Zanjan Zinc Town area, northwestern Iran. A total of 110 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were systematically collected from an agricultural area near a large metallurgical factory for the analyses of physico-chemical properties and total and bioavailable Pb concentrations. Furthermore, a total of 65 wheat samples collected at the same soil sampling locations were analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts. The results showed that elevated Pb concentrations were mostly found in soils located surrounding the industrial source of pollution. The bioavailable Pb concentration in the studied soils was up to 128.4 mg kg(-1), which was relatively high considering the observed soil alkalinity. 24.6% of the wheat grain samples exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum permitted concentration of Pb in wheat grain (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Correlation analyses revealed that soil organic matter, soil pH, and clay content showed insignificant correlation with Pb concentration in the soil and wheat grains, whereas calcium carbonate content showed significantly negative correlations with both total and bioavailable Pb in the soil, and Pb content in wheat grains, demonstrating the strong influences of calcium carbonate on Pb bioavailability in the polluted calcareous soils.

  17. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration and nitrification are key processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. An exact measurement of these two processes is a prerequisite for understanding the release of trace gases from soils. During the last decades the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) method has become a widely used method to measure the turnover rates of these two processes. Its application, however, is currently limited to acidic to slightly acidic soils. In calcareous soils huge amounts of CO2 from soil respiration are dissolved in the soil solution, and the application of the BaPS method is hampered by the exact quantification of this flux. Small errors in this flux may result in huge errors in the calculation of the nitrification and respiration rates. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to extend the applicability of the method to a wider range of soils (especially agricultural soils) we developed a new adaptive method, the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which aims to determine the CO2 dissolution flux (CO2,aq) experimentally. Therefore, an additional measuring step is introduced in which a sterilized soil subsample is incubated in the BaPS apparatus and known amounts of a pure CO2 gas are injected into the system while CO2 partial pressure is monitored. After each injection peak CO2 partial pressure decreases until a new stable equilibrium concentration is reached. This behavior is used to compute the amount of CO2 transferred to the soil solution applying simple mass balance calculation. The paired information about CO2 and CO2,aq is used to derive a regression equation, which gives CO2,aq as a function of the CO2 partial pressure. This relation is further used within the standard BaPS method. Results of the SCI-BaPS method for gross nitrification rates will be presented and compared to data measured by the 15N pool dilution method (Kirkham and Bartholomew, 1954). Results were obtained with calcareous and acidic agricultural soil samples. It turned

  18. Modeling the effect of flow homogeneity on the fate of Cd, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Spadini, Lorenzo; Delolme, Cécile; Galvez, Rosa; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    The fate of pollutants in the vadose zone depends on flow pathways. It is generally assumed that homogeneous flow will allow pollutants to reach most of the sorption sites, whereas preferential flow will transport pollutants through restricted zones and prohibit pollutants to reach sorption sites in more stagnant water (e.g. Lassabatere et al., 2004). However, this hypothesis has so far not been validated nor experimentally nor numerically. Experimental validation would require, in a unique soil, to establish heterogeneous and homogeneous flow conditions for the similar hydric (water content) and hydraulic (flow rate) conditions, which is almost impossible to achieve. Eventually, variations in flow heterogeneity may be obtained by varying hydric and hydraulic conditions. But straightforward conclusions on flow heterogeneity cannot be expected from such multi-variable experimental assets. This study investigates numerically the effect of flow heterogeneity on the fate of three heavy metals in calcareous environments. The solute transport code considers MIM model (mobile-immobile model) for describing flow heterogeneity. Water is divided into mobile water and immobile water fractions. Solutes are transported by convection and dispersion in mobile water and diffuse at the interfaces between mobile and immobile water fractions. The speciation code considers metal dissolution/precipitation of carbonates, and complexation on calcite surfaces and cationic exchange on Fe-oxyhydroxides particles (clay). The numerical code is applied to the experimental results obtained for a calcareous soil in contact with three trace elemental cations (Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) under both static (batch experiments) and dynamic conditions (column experiments) (Lassabatere et al., 2007). The model reconstructs accurately the experimental results and then simulates varying contact times (in batches), injection flow rates (in columns), and concentration conditions. Then, the model is used to

  19. Impact of treated sewage sludge application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpur, Alireza; Pashamokhtari, Hamed

    2008-09-01

    Treated sewage sludge contains significant amount of phosphorus and is widely used in agriculture. Kinetics of P release in soils is a subject of importance in soil and environmental sciences. There are few studies about P release kinetics in treated sewage sludge amended soils. For this purpose, sludge was mixed with ten soils at a rate equivalent to 100 Mg sludge ha-1, and P desorption was determined by successive extraction using 0.01 M CaCl2 over a period of 65 days at 25 ± 1°C. Phosphorus release rate was rapid at first (until about first 360 h) and then became slower until equilibrium was approached. Average of P released within 360 h for the unamended and amended soils was about 65 and 73% of the total desorbed P, respectively. Zero-order, first-order, second-order, power function, simplified Elovich and parabolic diffusion law kinetics models were used to describe P release. First-order, Elovich, power function and parabolic diffusion models could well describe P release in the unamended and amended soils. Correlation coefficients between P release rate parameters and selected soil properties showed that in the control soils, calcium carbonate equivalent and Olsen-extractable P; and in the amended soils, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and Olsen-extractable P were significantly correlated with P release parameters. The results of this study showed that application of sewage sludge can change P release characteristics of soils and increase P in runoff.

  20. Effect of freeze-thawing on aggregate stability in a calcareous Mediterranean soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; Temporal, Beatriz; Oltra, Ángel; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2013-04-01

    Soil freezing has been reported as both beneficial and detrimental for soil structure depending on various factors (Dagesse, 2011), but the subsequent thawing process has not been adequately investigated as a factor in determining the net effect of freezing and thawing. In this study changes in soil aggregate stability (AS) were studied under different moisture and speed of thawing conditions in a laboratory experiment. Conditions favoring sublimation and commonly experienced during the winter include bare soil surfaces and synoptic meteorological conditions of clear skies, low humidity, and moderate winds. Aggregate stability measured may therefore reflect the effects of drying of the soil aggregates via the freezing process and the resulting water content distribution following thawing. The soil used is from an agricultural area located in Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, E Spain). Soil samples were collected in February 2012 from the first 2.5 cm depth of A horizon. We also studied the effect of a mulch cover in buffering soil temperature during 2 months under field conditions using thermocouples and data-loggers. Soil samples at two initial water contents (10% and 40%) were subjected to different treatments, including not frozen (control), freeze-thaw (freezing at -4 °C for 3 h and thawing at room temperature for 24 h) and freeze-drying (freezing at -4 for 3h and thawing at 60 °C for 3 h in a forced air oven). We measured the possible soil disruption of soil aggregates quantifying the soil mass in the fractions 2-0.25 mm and

  1. Salinity management using an anionic polymer in a pecan field with calcareous-sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K; Sheng, Zhuping; Braun, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity have long been recognized as the major concerns for irrigated agriculture in the Trans-Pecos Basin, where fields are being flood irrigated with Rio Grande River water that has elevated salinity. Reclamation of these salt-affected lands is difficult due to fine-texture, high shrink-swell soils with low permeability. Conventional practice of subsoiling to improve soil permeability is expensive and has had limited success on the irrigated soils that have appreciable amounts of readily weatherable Ca minerals. If these native Ca sources can be effectively used to counter sodicity, it can improve soil permeability and reduce amelioration costs. This study evaluated the effects of 3 yr of polyacrylamide (PAM) application at 10 mg L concentration during the first irrigation of the season to evaluate soil permeability, in situ Ca mineral dissolution, and leaching of salts from the effective root zone in a pecan field of El Paso County, TX. Results indicated that PAM application improved water movement throughout the effective root zone that resulted in Na leaching. Polymer application significantly decreased CaCO (estimated based on inorganic C analysis) concentrations in the top 45 cm compared with baseline levels, indicating solubilization and redistribution of calcite. The PAM application also reduced soil electrical conductivity (EC) in the top 60 cm (4.64-2.76 dS m) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) from 13.1 to 5.7 mmol L in the top 75-cm depths. As evidence of improved soil conditions, pecan nut yields increased by 34% in PAM-treated fields over the control. Results suggested that PAM application helped in effective use of native Ca sources present in soils of the study site and reduced Na by improving soil permeability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Metal contamination disturbs biochemical and microbial properties of calcareous agricultural soils of the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Cheviron, Natalie; Quintana, Jose R; González, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Mougin, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate characteristics and carbonate are key factors governing soil heavy-metal accumulation, and low organic matter (OM) content could limit the ability of microbial populations to cope with resulting stress. We studied the effects of metal contamination on a combination of biological parameters in soils having these characteristics. With this aim, soils were spiked with a mixture of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, at the two limit values proposed by current European legislation, and incubated for ≤12 months. Then we measured biochemical (phosphatase, urease, β-galactosidase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase activities) and microbial (fungal and bacterial DNA concentration by quantitative polymerase chain reaction) parameters. All of the enzyme activities were strongly affected by metal contamination and showed the following inhibition sequence: phosphatase (30-64 %) < arylsulfatase (38-97 %) ≤ urease (1-100 %) ≤ β-galactosidase (30-100 %) < dehydrogenase (69-100 %). The high variability among soils was attributed to the different proportion of fine mineral fraction, OM, crystalline iron oxides, and divalent cations in soil solution. The decrease of fungal DNA concentration in metal-spiked soils was negligible, whereas the decrease of bacterial DNA was ~1-54 % at the lowest level and 2-69 % at the highest level of contamination. The lowest bacterial DNA decrease occurred in soils with the highest OM, clay, and carbonate contents. Finally, regarding the strong inhibition of the biological parameters measured and the alteration of the fungal/bacterial DNA ratio, we provide strong evidence that disturbance on the system, even within the limiting values of contamination proposed by the current European Directive, could alter key soil processes. These limiting values should be established according to soil characteristics and/or revised when contamination is produced by a mixture of heavy metals.

  3. RESPONSE OF SOYBEANS AND WHEAT TO PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION ON CALCAREOUS ALLUVIAL SOIL OF SAVA VALLEY AREA IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurica JOVIC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The stationary field experiment of increasing rates of phosphorus (P fertilization started in spring 2011 on calcareous alluvial soil of Posavian Canton in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The level of plant available P was found to be low by previous soil tests carried on with ammonium-lactate-method (7.06 pH in 1 M KCl; 4.17% organic matter; 3.79% CaCO3; 5.4 mg P2O5 in 100 g of soil. Five rates of P fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate: 13% N + 53 % P2O5 were applied as follows (kg P2O5 ha-1: a = 75 (basic fertilization, b = 225, c = 375, d = 525 and e = 975. The experiment was conducted in four replicates (basic plot 60 m2. Only basic fertilization was applied in the following years. Crop rotation was as follows: soybean (2011 - winter wheat (2012 + 2013. Soybean yield increased for 20% (2.11 and 2.53 t ha-1, respectively with P fertilization from 75 to 375 kg P2O5 ha-1, whereas further increase of P rates resulted with lower yield compared to the control level. In both years significant differences of wheat yields were found only between basic and each rate of the increased P fertilization. Wheat yields of the control group were 6.21 and 6.44 t ha-1, for the harvest of 2012 and 2013, respectively. P fertilization led to an increase in wheat yields up to 13% in 2012 and 15% in 2013. Mean values of wheat yields of four P treatments (b+c+d+e were 6.92 and 7.21 t ha-1 for 2012 and 2013, respectively.

  4. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was

  5. Phosphorus Accumulation and Sorption in Calcareous Soil under Long-Term Fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Application of phosphorus (P fertilizers to P-deficient soils can also result in P accumulation. In this study, soil P status and P uptake by apple trees were investigated in 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old orchards in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China, and subset soils with different soil P statuses (14-90 Olsen-P mg kg(-1 were selected to evaluate the characteristic P adsorption. Due to the low P-use efficiency (4-6%, total soil P increased from 540 mg kg(-1 to 904 mg kg(-1, Olsen-P ranged from 3.4 mg kg(-1 to 30.7 mg kg(-1, and CaCl2-P increased from less than 0.1 mg kg(-1 to 0.66 mg kg(-1 under continuous P fertilization. The P sorption isotherms for each apple orchard were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.91-0.98. K (binding energy and Qm (P sorption maximum decreased, whereas DPS (degree of phosphorus sorption increased with increasing P concentration. CaCl2-P increased significantly with the increase of Olsen-P, especially above the change point of 46.1 mg kg(-1. Application of surplus P could result in P enrichment in P-deficient soil which has high P fixation capacity, thus posing a significant environmental risk.

  6. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  7. Ammonium Oxidation Kinetics in the Presence of Nitrification Inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD in some Calcareous Soils of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roza kazemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrification inhibitors (NIs are compounds that retard the biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrite by depressing the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria in the soil. Many popular NIs such as nitrapyrine (NP, dicyandiamide (DCD and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP are produced and used in agricultural soils. Dicyandiamide is a very popular NI in some of the world countries. It delays nitrification process in the soil through its bacterial static property. It is easy to blend with commercial fertilizers such as urea, due to its low volatile nature. Application of urea in combination with nitrification inhibitor DCD lengthens nitrogen presence in soil as ammonium form. It has several beneficial effects for agriculture and enhances environmental protection. Studying the ammonium oxidation kinetics in the presence of nitrification inhibitor DCD can provide the experts in agriculture with very useful information regarding the ammoniumdurability in different soils. This research has been done to study the effect of using NI dicyandiamide on the kinetics of ammoniumloss in some calcareous soils of Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as factorial using completely randomized design with two factors of nitrogen fertilizer type and soil type with three replications at laboratory conditions. In this experiment, nitrogen fertilizer type included 2 levels of: 1- urea 2- urea plus nitrification inhibitor DCD (3.2%. A no added nitrogen fertilizer was considered as control treatment.The soil factor also consisted of 5different soils with a wide variation in soil physical and chemical characteristics. Five selected soils were non-saline (EC1:2=0.14-0.76 dS m-1 and alkaline (pH1:2=7.5-8.2. Organic carbon and cation exchange capacity (CEC ranged from 0.48 to 2.34% and 10 to 30 cmolc kg-1, respectively. The dose of applied nitrogen in all experimental treatments was 50 mg kg-1 N as urea

  8. Effect of Organic Acids and Vermicompost on Potassium Transformations in Calcareous Soils of Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Sadri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potassium is an essential element for plant growth and exists as four forms in soils: soluble, exchangeable, non-exchangeable, and mineral. Soluble and exchangeable K are considered as readily available and non-exchangeable K as slowly available. Organic matters and acids play an important role in increasing the bioavailability of nutrients especially potassium in the soils. Organic acids are low-molecular weight CHO containing compounds which are found in all organisms and which are characterized by the possession of one or more carboxyl groups. Depending on the dissociation properties and number of these carboxylic groups, organic acids can carry varying negative charge, thereby allowing the complexation of metal cations in solution and the displacement of anions from the soil matrix.The ability of an organic acid to release K from soils depends on some factors such as: diffusion rate of the organic acid in soil, the diffusion capability of organic acid-element complexes, the contact time of the organic acid on a mineral surface, the ionization of the organic acid, the functional group of the organic acid and its position, and the chemical affinity between the organic acid and the mineral elements. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of organic acids and vermicompost on transformation of K in some selected soils of Fars Province, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, nine soils with enough diversity were selected from different parts of Fars Province. The experiment was done as a completely randomized design with three replications, consisting of three incubation times (5, 15 and 60 days and four organic compounds (including 2% vermicompost, three acids of citric, malic and oxalic acid eachat a concentration of 250 mmolkg-1and one control. The samples were incubated at 50% of saturation moisture at 22°C. Routine physicochemical analyses and clay mineralogy were performed on soil samples. Soil

  9. Earthworm Effects on Nitrification Rate and Arginine Amonification in a Calcareous Soil Amended with Urban Sewage Sludge

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    Hanye Jafari Vafa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earthworms are among the most important organisms in soil and their activities can be an indicator of soil quality. These organisms may be influenced by organic wastes application such as sewage sludge and subsequently affect soil quality. One of the quick and easy methods for soil quality monitoring is the use of biological indicators such as microbial activity. It is due to their quick response to changes in the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of earthworms on nitrification rate and arginine ammonification as microbial activity in a calcareous soil amended with urban sewage sludge. Materials and Methods: The studied soil was sampled from Shahrekord University land and sewage sludge belonged to the refinery sludge ponds of shahrekord. Based on dry weight, this organic waste had carbon and nitrogen, approximately 67 and 110 times more than tested soil, respectively. The organic waste in terms of quality and heavy metal concentrations was in class A. Experimental treatments were sewage sludge (without and with 1.5% sewage sludge and earthworm (no earthworm, Eiseniafoetida from epigeic group, Allolobophracaliginosa from endogeic group and a mixture of the two species as 2×4 full factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. After applying sewage sludge, the pots were irrigated three months to achieve a balance in the soil. An adult earthworm per kg of soil was added and in the mixed treatments comparison species were 1:1. To prevent the exit of earthworms, the pots was closed with a thin lace. At the end of the experiment, soil was completely mixed. Part of it was stored in the refrigerator to measure the microbiological parameters. Chemical properties were measured by the air-dried soil. The effectiveness of a factor in the observed changes is shown by partial effect size (Tabachnick and Fidell 2012. So, partial effect size (Eta2p for each source of

  10. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  11. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline sodic soil using Atriplex halimus and by-product gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, M A; Eltaif, N I; Albalasmeh, A A

    2011-10-01

    The removal of sodium salts from saline soils by salt tolerant crops, as alternative for costly chemical amendments, has emerged as an efficient low cost technology. Lysimeter experiments were carried out on a highly saline sodic soil (ECe = 65.3 dS m(-1), ESP = 27.4, CEC = 47.9 cmole+ kg(-1), and pH = 7.7) and irrigated with canal water (EC = 2.2 dSm(-1), SAR = 4.8) to investigate reclamation efficiency under four different treatments: control (no crop and no gypsum application) (C), gypsum application equivalent to 100% gypsum requirement (G100), planting sea orach (Atriplex halimus) as phytoremediation crop (Cr), planting sea orach with gypsum application equivalent to 50% gypsum requirement (CrG50). Soil salinity (ECe) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were significantly reduced compared to the control. Average ESP and ECe (dS m(-1)) in the top layer were 9.1, 5.8 (control), 4.8, 3.7 (Cr), 3.3, 3.9 (CrG50), and 3.8, 3.1 (G100), respectively. Atriplex halimus can be recommended as phytoremediation crop to reclaim highly saline sodic clay loam soils.

  12. Controls over N2O, NOx and CO2 fluxes in a calcareous mountain forest soil

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    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured nitrogen oxides (N2O and NOx, dinitrogen (N2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The site received 10.6–11.9 kg N ha−1 y−1 nitrogen as bulk deposition. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis over a two year period. Daily N2O emissions were obtained by a semi-automatic gas measuring system. In order to cover spatial variability biweekly manual measurements of N2O and CO2 emissions were carried out in addition. For acquiring information on the effects of soil and meteorological conditions and of N-deposition on N-emissions we chose the auto-regression procedure (time-series analysis as our means of investigation. Hence, we could exclude the data's autocorrelation in the course of the time. We found that soil temperature, soil moisture and bulk N-deposition followed by air temperature and precipitation were the most powerful influencing parameters effecting N-emissions. With these variables, up to 89% of observed temporal variations of N-emissions could be explained. During the two-year investigation period between 2.5 and 3.5% of deposited N was reemitted in form of N2O whereas only 0.2% were emitted as NO. At our mountain forest site the main end-product of microbial activity processes was N2 and trace gases (N2O and NO were only of minor importance.

  13. Controls over N2O, NOx and CO2 fluxes in a calcareous mountain forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzler, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Holtermann, C.; Skiba, U.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-08-01

    We measured nitrogen oxides (N2O and NOx), dinitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The site received 10.6-11.9 kg N ha-1 y-1 nitrogen as bulk deposition. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis over a two year period. Daily N2O emissions were obtained by a semi-automatic gas measuring system. In order to cover spatial variability biweekly manual measurements of N2O and CO2 emissions were carried out in addition. For acquiring information on the effects of soil and meteorological conditions and of N-deposition on N-emissions we chose the auto-regression procedure (time-series analysis) as our means of investigation. Hence, we could exclude the data's autocorrelation in the course of the time. We found that soil temperature, soil moisture and bulk N-deposition followed by air temperature and precipitation were the most powerful influencing parameters effecting N-emissions. With these variables, up to 89% of observed temporal variations of N-emissions could be explained. During the two-year investigation period between 2.5 and 3.5% of deposited N was reemitted in form of N2O whereas only 0.2% were emitted as NO. At our mountain forest site the main end-product of microbial activity processes was N2 and trace gases (N2O and NO) were only of minor importance.

  14. The effects of irrigation water salinity, potassium nitrate fertilization, proline spraying and leaching fraction on the growth and chemical composition of corn grown in calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    M.G, Nessim; Hussein, Magda A.; Moussa, A.A

    2009-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of irrigation with saline water in relation to KNO3 fertilization, proline spraying and leaching fraction on the growth and Na+, K+, Cl-, NO3 - and proline contents of corn (Zea mays L.) plant grown on a nonsaline calcareous soil. The treatments included irrigation waters of different salinity (0.54, 3.36, 5.88 or 7.95 dS/m), three rates of KNO3 (0, 4 and 8 g/pot) fertilizer and foliar application with three rates of prolin...

  15. Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazy, Abdul-Aziz R; Al-Oud, Saud S; Al-Barakah, Fahad N; Usman, Adel Ra

    2017-08-01

    Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg -1 ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg -1 ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated. Applying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots. Applying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics in an Austrian Alpine Forest Ecosystem on Calcareous Soils: A Scenario-Based Risk Assessment under Changing Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedl Herman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the behavior of an Austrian alpine forest ecosystem on calcareous soils under changing climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition scenarios. The change of nitrate leaching, emission rates of nitrogen compounds, and forest productivity were calculated using four process-oriented models for the periods 1998–2002 and 2048–2052. Each model reflects with high detail a segment of the ecosystem: PnET-N-DNDC (photosynthesis-evapotranspiration-nitrification-denitrification-decomposition; shortterm nitrogen cycling, BROOK90 (water balance for small and homogenous forest watersheds, HYDRUS (water flux in complex and heterogenous soils, and PICUS v1.3 (forest productivity. The nitrogen balance model (NBM combines the individual results into a comprehensive picture and extends the specific values beyond the limits of the individual models. The evaluation of the findings was outlined with TRACE, a model enabling a long-term prognosis of nitrogen cycling in annual time steps.

  17. Phases and rates of iron and magnetism changes during paddy soil development on calcareous marine sediment and acid Quaternary red-clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiming; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Chen, Liumei; Han, Guangzhong; Zhang, Ganlin

    2018-01-11

    Dynamic changes in Fe oxides and magnetic properties during natural pedogenesis are well documented, but variations and controls of Fe and magnetism changes during anthropedogenesis of paddy soils strongly affected by human activities remain poorly understood. We investigated temporal changes in different Fe pools and magnetic parameters in soil profiles from two contrasting paddy soil chronosequences developed on calcareous marine sediment and acid Quaternary red clay in Southern China to understand the directions, phases and rates of Fe and magnetism evolution in Anthrosols. Results showed that paddy soil evolution under the influence of artificial submergence and drainage caused changes in soil moisture regimes and redox conditions with both time and depth that controlled Fe transport and redistribution, leading to increasing profile differentiation of Fe oxides, rapid decrease of magnetic parameters, and formation of diagnostic horizons and features, irrespective of the different parent materials. However, the initial parent material characteristics (pH, Fe content and composition, weathering degree and landscape positions) exerted a strong influence on the rates and trajectories of Fe oxides evolution as well as the phases and rates of magnetism changes. This influence diminished with time as prolonged rice cultivation drove paddy soil evolving to common pedogenic features.

  18. Simulation of Zinc Release Affected by Microbial Inoculation and Salinity Levels in a non-sterile Calcareous Soil Using kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza boostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc (Zn is an important nutrient element for humans and plants that controls many biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. Zinc deficiency is common in high pH, low organic matter, carbonatic, saline and sodic soils. Salinity is a major abiotic environmental stresses that limits growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Bioavailability of Zn is low in calcareous and saline soils having high levels of pH and calcium. Desorption of Zinc (Zn from soil as influenced by biological activities is one of the important factors that control Zn bioavailability. Few reports on the effects of salinity on the availability and desorption kinetics of Zn are available. Rupa et al. (2000 reported that increasing the salt concentration led to increase Zn desorption from soil due to ion competition on soil exchangeable sites. Different kinetic equations have been used to describe the release kinetics of nutrients. Reyhanitabar and Gilkes (2010 found that the power function model was the best equation to describe the release of Zn from some calcareous soil of Iran, whereas Baranimotlagh and Gholami (2013 stated that the best model for describing Zn desorption from 15 calcareous soils of Iran was the first-order equation.less attention has been paid to kinetics of Zn release by DTPA extractant over time by inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae fungi in comination with soil salinity.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhizae fungi (MF inoculation on release kinetic of Zn in a calcareous soil at different salinity levels after in cornplantation Materials and Methods: A composite sample of bulk soil from the surface horizon (0-30 cm of a calcareous soil from southern part of Iran was collected, air dried, passed through 2 mm sieve, and thoroughly mixed. Routine soil analysis was performed to determine some

  19. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  20. Metal extractability patterns to evaluate (potentially) mobile fractions in periurban calcareous agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area-analytical and mineralogical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana, Jose R; Vázquez, Antonio; Lafuente, Antonio L; González-Huecas, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    A set of periurban calcareous agricultural Mediterranean soils was spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at two levels within the limit values proposed by current European legislation, incubated for up to 12 months, and subjected to various one-step extraction procedures to estimate mobile (neutral salts) and potentially mobile metal fractions (complexing and acidic extraction methods). The results obtained were used to study metal extractability patterns according to the soil characteristics. The analytical data were coupled with mineralogical investigations and speciation modelling using the Visual Minteq model. The formation of soluble metal-complexes in the complexing extracts (predicted by the Visual Minteq calculations) led to the highest extraction efficiency with complexing extractants. Metal extractability patterns were related to both content and composition of carbonate, organic matter, Fe oxide and clay fractions. Potentially mobile metal fractions were mainly affected by the finest soil fractions (recalcitrant organic matter, active lime and clay minerals). In the case of Pb, scarce correlations between extractable Pb and soil constituents were obtained which was attributed to high Pb retention due to the formation of 4PbCO3·3PbO (corroborated by X-ray diffraction). In summary, the high metal proportion extracted with complexing agents highlighted the high but finite capacity to store potentially mobilizable metals and the possible vulnerability of these soils against environmental impact from metal accumulation.

  1. Total Phosphate Influences the Rate of Hydrocarbon Degradation but Phosphate Mineralogy Shapes Microbial Community Composition in Cold-Region Calcareous Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Chen, Tingting; Phillips, Courtney; Hamilton, Jordan; Hilger, David; Chartrand, Blaine; Grosskleg, Jay; Bradshaw, Kris; Carlson, Trevor; Peak, Derek

    2016-05-17

    Managing phosphorus bioaccessibility is critical for the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in calcareous soils. This paper explores how soil mineralogy interacts with a novel biostimulatory solution to both control phosphorus bioavailability and influence bioremediation. Two large bore infiltrators (1 m diameter) were installed at a PHC contaminated site and continuously supplied with a solution containing nutrients and an electron acceptor. Soils from eight contaminated sites were prepared and pretreated, analyzed pretrial, spiked with diesel, placed into nylon bags into the infiltrators, and removed after 3 months. From XAS, we learned that three principal phosphate phases had formed: adsorbed phosphate, brushite, and newberyite. All measures of biodegradation in the samples (in situ degradation estimates, mineralization assays, culturable bacteria, catabolic genes) varied depending upon the soil's phosphate speciation. Notably, adsorbed phosphate increased anaerobic phenanthrene degradation and bzdN catabolic gene prevalence. The dominant mineralogical constraints on community composition were the relative amounts of adsorbed phosphate, brushite, and newberyite. Overall, this study finds that total phosphate influences microbial community phenotypes whereas relative percentages of phosphate minerals influences microbial community genotype composition.

  2. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A {sup 15}N tracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn; Gao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2007-03-15

    {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO{sub 3} {sup -}N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate from K{sup 15}NO{sub 3} injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundw0010at.

  3. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha-1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  4. Processes and factors controlling N{sub 2}O production in an intensively managed low carbon calcareous soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju Xiaotang; Lu Xing [Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao Zhiling [College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001 (China); Chen Xinping; Su Fang [Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193 (China); Kogge, Martin; Roemheld, Volker [Institute for Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599 (Germany); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, BelfastBT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Fusuo, E-mail: zhangfs@cau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2011-04-15

    An automated system for continuous measurement of N{sub 2}O fluxes on an hourly basis was employed to study N{sub 2}O emissions in an intensively managed low carbon calcareous soil under sub-humid temperate monsoon conditions. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred mainly within two weeks of application of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-based fertilizer and total N{sub 2}O emissions in wheat (average 0.35 or 0.21 kg N ha{sup -1} season{sup -1}) and maize (average 1.47 or 0.49 kg N ha{sup -1} season{sup -1}) under conventional and optimum N fertilization (300 and 50-122 kg N ha{sup -1}, respectively) were lower than previously reported from low frequency measurements. Results from closed static chamber showed that N{sub 2}O was produced mainly from nitrification of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-based fertilizer, with little denitrification occurring due to limited readily oxidizable carbon and low soil moisture despite consistently high soil nitrate-N concentrations. Significant reductions in N{sub 2}O emissions can be achieved by optimizing fertilizer N rates, using nitrification inhibitors, or changing from NH{sub 4}{sup +}- to NO{sub 3}{sup -}-based fertilizers. - Research highlights: > N{sub 2}O was produced mainly from nitrification of NH{sub 4}{sup +} based fertilizers. > Denitrification played minor role on N{sub 2}O emission due to C and soil moisture limitation. > Using NO{sub 3}{sup -} base fertilizer or NI is an effective way to reduce N{sub 2}O emission. - Nitrification of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-based fertilizer is the main N{sub 2}O production process with little denitrification due to limited readily oxidizable carbon and low soil moisture.

  5. Desodification from calcareous saline sodic soil through phytoremediation with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. and gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Saeed Akhter; Otho, Aijaz Ali; Bughio, Farooque A; Sahito, Oan Mohammad; Jamali, Abdul Rauf; Mahar, Amanullah

    2017-05-22

    The reclamation of saline sodic soils requires sodium removal and the phytoremediation is one of the proven low-cost, low-risk technologies for reclaiming such soils. However, the role of P. australis in reclaiming saline sodic soil has not been evaluated extensively. The comparative reclaiming role of P. australis and gypsum was evaluated in a column experiment on a sandy clay saline sodic soil with ECe 74.7 dS m(-1), SAR 63.2, Na(+) 361 g kg(-1) and pH 8.46. The gypsum at 100% soil requirement, planting common reed (P. australis) alone, P. australis + gypsum at 50% soil gypsum requirements and leaching (control without plant and gypsum) were four treatments applied. After 11 weeks of incubation, the results showed that all treatments including control significantly reduced pH, EC, exchangeable Na(+) and SAR from the initial values but the control being with least results. The gypsum and P. australis + gypsum were highly effective in salinity (ECe) reduction while, sodicity (SAR) and Na(+) reductions were significantly higher in P. australis + gypsum treatment. The reclamation efficiency in terms of Na(+) (83.4%) and SAR (86.8%) reduction was highest in P. australis + gypsum. It is concluded that phytoremediation is an effective tool to reclaim saline sodic soil.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2018-01-15

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N 2 O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N 2 O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N 2 O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO 3 - , NH 4 + , water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N 2 O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO 3 - . Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N 2 O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Qing [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hu Qinhong [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Khan, Sardan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar (Pakistan); Wang Zijian [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lin Aijun [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Du Xin [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn

    2007-09-05

    The toxicity of two toxic elements, arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd cannot explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  8. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  9. The Effect of Vermicompost on Reducing the Adverse Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Chemical Composition of Corn in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila zare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vermicompost is one of the important bio-fertilizer which is the product of the process of composting different organic wastes such as manures and crop residues using different earthworms. Vermicomposts, especially those are derived from animal wastes,contain the large amounts of nutrients compaired with the composts prepared from crop residues. Vermicomposts contain plant available form of nutrients such as nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable phosphorus and potassium, calcium and magnesium. Nowadays, the use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture to improve the growth and quality of fruits and crops is very common. Drought occurs when the amount of moisture in soil and water resources and rainfall is less than what plants need for normal growth and function. Two thirds of farm lands in Iran have been located in arid and semi-arid regions with annual rainfall less than150 mm that has been distributed irregularly and unpredictable during growth season imposing water stress in most crops. It indicates the importance of water management and proposing different strategies for mitigating detrimental effect of water stress in croplands. Due to the fact that crops nutrient management under drought and water stress using organic fertilizers is an effective method in reaching to high yields in sustainable agriculture, the objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of vermicompost application on reducing the adverse effects of water stress on the growth and chemical composition of corn in a calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: In order to study the influence of water stress and application of vermicompost on corn dry matter yield and nutrients concentration of corn shoot, a greenhouse factorial experiment (4×3 in completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in college of agriculture, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran. The factors consisted of four vermicompost levels (0, 10, 20 and30g kg-1soil

  10. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  11. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  12. Chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in the north-central united states: Influence of sulfate, nitrate, ammonia and calcareous soil particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, James William

    The supply of alkaline soil dust and gaseous NH 3 available to neutralize anthropogenic acids in the atmosphere controls the acidity of precipitation in the north-central United States. Major ions and trace metals were determined in precipitation-event and snow-core samples from sites along a 600 km transect from the North Dakota prairie to the forests of northeastern Minnesota, collected during the period April 1978-June 1979. Acidity increased 4-fold from west to east as the effect of alkaline dust and NH 3 decreased with increasing distance from the cultivated prairie; calcium and Mg 2+ decreased 2 to 3-fold across the transect. However, minimum concentrations of NH 4+ and SO 42- were observed at Itasca, the central site. Natural emissions of these elements were important in the west, while anthropogenic emissions were responsible for the higher concentrations in the east. Wet deposition of H + decreased 8-fold and deposition of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased 1.5 to 2-fold from Hovland in the east to Tewaukon in the west. Wet deposition of the metal cations increased from Hovland to Tewaukon. Dry deposition followed a similar trend. Winter snow cover and freezing temperatures, which decreased airborne soil dust and the evolution of NH 3 from the prairie soils, led to an increase in precipitation acidity at all sites. The acid increase was accompanied by a decrease in alkaline metal cations, especially Ca 2+, and in NH 4+. At Hovland SO 42- and NO 3- also increased during the winter. The occurrence of snow events at Tewaukon that were appreciably more acid than the snowpack accumulated there indicates that snow was neutralized after it fell by alkaline dust entrained in resuspended snow, or deposited separately. Winter inputs of acid are especially important because they are released during a short period in the spring. Over half of the acid input at Hovland occurred during the winter. Precipitation inputs of P and N probably benefit nutrient-poor ecosystems in the

  13. Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of using humic acid with irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield traits of sugar beet grown on calcareous soils in Esfaraen, located in the North-East of Iran. Treatments consisted of three levels of humic acid concentration (zero or control, 2.5 and 5 L ha-1 and the number of applications (once 45 days after planting; twice, 45 and 75 days after planting; three times, respectively 45, 75 and 105 days after planting. The effect of the two experimental factors on sugar beet yield traits such as the content of sucrose, refined sugar, molasses forming substances, root yield and refined sugar yield were evaluated. The results proved the existence of a significant interaction between humic acid concentration and the number of applications on all parameters under study. The application of humic acid caused a significant increase of sucrose, refined sugar, root yield and refined sugar yield and a reduction in molasses forming substances content, compared to the control. The increased amount of sucrose and refined sugar content in all applications in concentration of 2.5 L ha-1 humic acid was more than with 5 L ha-1. Similarly, the content of molasses forming substances showed more reduction in 2.5 L ha-1 than in 5 L ha-1 treatment. However, the results revealed that the highest root yield and refined sugar yield, as the main qualitative and quantitative parameters of sugar beet yield, were achieved by three times application of 5 L ha-1 that had 24 and 37% increase compared to control.

  14. Nitrification inhibitor's effect on mitigating N2O emissions was weakened by urease inhibitor in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichao; Wu, Di; Bol, Roland; Shi, Yuefeng; Guo, Yanbin; Meng, Fanqiao; Wu, Wenliang

    2017-10-01

    The application of nitrification or urease inhibitors together with nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been proposed to reduce N losses, including nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, from agricultural soils. We measured N2O fluxes, crop yield and plant N content over 3 years (2012-2015) to evaluate the long-term effects of nitrification and/or urease inhibitors on N2O emissions, crop production and N use efficiency (NUE) in an intensively farmed wheat-maize system in northern China. The experiment consisted of the following five treatments: 1) CK, no N fertilizer; 2) U, urea; 3) NI, urea with 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP); 4) UI, urea with N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT); and 5) NIUI, urea with combined DMPP and NBPT. Compared with the U treatment, the NI, NIUI and UI treatments mitigated cumulative N2O emissions by 55%, 40% and 21% in the maize season, respectively, and 47%, 40% and 33% in the wheat season, respectively. The annual direct emission factors of N2O for the U, NI, UI and NIUI treatments were 0.4%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. The NIUI, NI and UI treatments increased the annual crop yield (7%, 6% and 4%) and the NUE (15%, 10% and 7%) relative to the U treatment. The NI treatment showed the best effect on mitigating N2O emissions, but its efficacy was reduced when applied together with UI. This indicates that more studies are required focusing on the performances and mechanisms of these two inhibitors in alkaline and low organic carbon soils.

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  16. Effects of soil amendments at a heavy loading rate associated with cover crops as green manures on the leaching of nutrients and heavy metals from a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (USA). Center of Tropical Research & Education

    2003-07-01

    The potential risk of groundwater contamination by the excessive leaching of N, P and heavy metals from soils amended at heavy loading rates of biosolids, coal ash, N-viro soil (1:1 mixture of coal ash and biosolids), yard waste compost and co-compost (3:7 mixture of biosolids to yard wastes), and by soil incorporation of green manures of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolorXS. bicolor var. sudanense) was studied by collecting and analyzing leachates from pots of Krome gravelly loam soil subjected to these treatments. A subtropical vegetable crop, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), was grown after the soil amendments or cover crops had been incorporated into the soil. The results showed that the concentration of NO{sub 3}-N in leachate from biosolids was significantly higher than in leachate from other treatments. The levels of heavy metals found in the leachates from all amended soils were so low, as to suggest these amendments may be used without risk of leaching dangerous amounts of these toxic elements. Nevertheless the level of heavy metals in leachate from coal ash amended soil was substantially greater than in leachates from the other treatments.

  17. Effects of soil amendments at a heavy loading rate associated with cover crops as green manures on the leaching of nutrients and heavy metals from a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Li, Yun-Cong; Klassen, Waldemar

    2003-11-01

    The potential risk of groundwater contamination by the excessive leaching of N, P and heavy metals from soils amended at heavy loading rates of biosolids, coal ash, N-viro soil (1:1 mixture of coal ash and biosolids), yard waste compost and co-compost (3:7 mixture of biosolids to yard wastes), and by soil incorporation of green manures of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) was studied by collecting and analyzing leachates from pots of Krome very gravelly loam soil subjected to these treatments. The control consisted of Krome soil without any amendment. The loading rate was 205 g pot(-1) for each amendment (equivalent to 50 t ha(-1) of the dry weight), and the amounts of the cover crops incorporated into the soil in the pot were those that had been grown in it. A subtropical vegetable crop, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), was grown after the soil amendments or cover crops had been incorporated into the soil. The results showed that the concentration of NO3-N in leachate from biosolids was significantly higher than in leachate from other treatments. The levels of heavy metals found in the leachates from all amended soils were so low, as to suggest these amendments may be used without risk of leaching dangerous amounts of these toxic elements. Nevertheless the level of heavy metals in leachate from coal ash amended soil was substantially greater than in leachates from the other treatments. The leguminous cover crop, sunn hemp, returned into the soil, increased the leachate NO3-N and inorganic P concentration significantly compared with the non-legume, sorghum sudangrass. The results suggest that at heavy loading rates of soil amendments, leaching of NO3- could be a significant concern by application of biosolids. Leaching of inorganic P can be increased significantly by both co-compost and biosolids, but decreased by coal ash and N-viro soil by virtue of improved adsorption. The leguminous cover crop

  18. Fractionation and Distribution of Copper and Zinc in Calcareous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to fractionate Cu and Zn into the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe- Mn Oxide, organic and residual fractions within 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm soil depths of calcareous soils of Igarra. The results obtained indicated that mean concentration of copper was highest in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (3.68 ...

  19. Calcareous fens in Southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H. McClellan; Terry Brock; James F. Baichtal

    2003-01-01

    Calcareous fens have not been identified previously in southeast Alaska. A limited survey in southeast Alaska identified several wetlands that appear to be calcareous fens. These sites were located in low-elevation discharge zones that are below recharge zones in carbonate highlands and talus foot-slopes. Two of six surveyed sites partly met the Minnesota Department of...

  20. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  1. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EDTA shuttle effect vs lignosulfonate direct effect providing Zn to navy bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L ‘Negro Polo’ in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Cieschi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Lignosulfonates (LS fertilizers are used as an eco-friendly alternative to chelate formulations. The mechanisms of Zn release in the rhizosphere by both types of products are compared. The ability to provide Zn to Phaseolus vulgaris L of non-modified and chemically modified ZnLS and ZnEDTA is compared in a hydroponic assay. Stable isotope 67Zn was used to study Zn source (fertilizer, ZnFer, or native, ZnNat uptake and distribution in plants in two soil pot experiments. ZnEDTA was the best treatment to provide both ZnFer and ZnNat to navy bean plants. A shuttle effect mechanism and an isotopic exchange may occur. ZnLS from eucalyptus (ZnLSE provides more Zn to the plant than LS from spruce (ZnLSS. Chemical modifications of ZnLSE does not improve its efficiency. A double dose of ZnLSE provides similar ZnFer in leaves and similar soluble ZnFer content in soil than ZnEDTA. A model for the Zn fertilizers behaviour in the soil and plant system is presented, showing the shuttle effect for the synthetic chelate and the direct delivery in the rhizosphere for the Zn-LS complex.

  3. The influence of wine-distillery waste compost on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and uptake by a melon crop in a shallow calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the large quantity of organic wastes generated by the winery industry constitutes a serious environmental concern, due to its low pH and high content of phenolic compounds. This is accompanied by a seasonal production that makes their management difficult. Winery wastes are characterized by high organic matter contents, low electrical conductivity values and notable contents in macronutrients, so their use as organic amendments is a good management option for improving soil fertility. However, a composting treatment is necessary to convert these organic wastes into more stable, hygienic and humic-rich materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of exhausted grape marc compost (composed of dealcoholized pulp, skins and stems) as fertilizer in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). This experiment was carried out from May to September 2011 in Ciudad Real (Spain). This area was designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 7.9), poor in organic matter (0.20%), rich in potassium (407 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (19.4 ppm). The experiment had a randomised complete block design, with four treatments consisted of four compost doses: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3), in order to determine the optimum dose to ensure nutrient demand, maximizing yield and minimizing nutrient losses. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  4. The Influence of Mineral Fertilizer Combined With a Nitrification Inhibitor on Microbial Populations and Activities in Calcareous Uzbekistanian Soil Under Cotton Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of fertilizers combined with nitrification inhibitors affects soil microbial biomass and activity. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of fertilizer application combined with the nitrification inhibitor potassium oxalate (PO on soil microbial population and activities in nitrogen-poor soil under cotton cultivation in Uzbekistan. Fertilizer treatments were N as urea, P as ammophos, and K as potassium chloride. The nitrification inhibitor PO was added to urea and ammophos at the rate of 2%. Three treatments—N200P140K60 (T1, N200 P140 POK60 (T2, and N200 P140 POK60 (T3 mg kg-1 soil—were applied for this study. The control (C was without fertilizer and PO. The populations of oligotrophic bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, mineral assimilating bacteria, oligonitrophilic bacteria, and bacteria group Azotobacter were determined by the most probable number method. The treatments T2 and T3 increased the number of oligonitrophilic bacteria and utilization mineral forms of nitrogen on the background of reducing number of ammonifying bacteria. T2 and T3 also decreased the number of nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and net nitrification. In conclusion, our experiments showed that PO combined with mineral fertilizer is one of the most promising compounds for inhibiting nitrification rate, which was reflected in the increased availability and efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen to the cotton plants. PO combined with mineral fertilizer has no negative effects on nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter and oligo-nitrophilic bacteria.

  5. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    shahrzad karami; mehdi zarei; jafar yasrebi; najafali karimian; s.Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted fr...

  6. The Fractionation of Some Heavy Metals in Calcareous Soils Affected by Land Uses of Central Area of Zanjan Provine (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are found to be one of the major environmental hazardous contaminants, for human health, animal life, air quality and other components of environment. They can affect geochemical cycles and accumulate in animal tissues since physical processes are not able to remove them, so they are consistent in long term. The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals in soil may provide information about soils enrichment but in general, it is widely used to determine the potential mobility of heavy metals in environmental behavior under chemical forms of metals in soils. Heavy metals existat several phases including water-soluble, exchangeable, bounded to organic matter, bounded to carbonates, bounded to Fe-Mn oxides, secondary clay minerals and residual fraction within primary minerals network. There is a dynamic equilibrium between different fractions of elements in soil. The main objectives of the present study were a The analysis of the total concentration of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu and b The fractionations of heavy metals and identification of controlling factors to distribution and behavior of heavy metals in soils at different land uses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at central area of Zanjan province (Iran. The study area was over 2000 km2 in coordinates 20´ 36° to 41´ 36° E and 19´ 48° to 53´ 48° N. The average altitudes were over 1500 meters above sea level. The major land uses of the study area included agriculture (AG, rangeland (RA and urban (UR. Sample collection was done based on the random grid method in August 2011. Surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth were taken from grid centers included 137, 77 and 27 samples from AG, RA and UR land uses, respectively. The samples were digested in Nitric acid 5 normal (Sposito et al., 1982 and total concentration of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Fe and Co were measured by Perkin-Elmer: AA 200 atomic absorption

  7. ENDOMYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF DASIPHORA FLORIBUNDA, A NATIVE PLANT OF CALCAREOUS WETLANDS IN EASTERN NEW YORK STATE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of endomycorrhizal colonization of Dasiphora floribunda was measured in 8 calcareous wetlands in eastern New York State, USA. Environmental parameters (pH, conductivity, water-table depth, soil moisture, soil organic matter, soil NH4 , soil available P, and porewater ...

  8. Effect of Elemental Sulfur as Fertilizer Ingredient on the Mobilization of Iron from the Iron Pools of a Calcareous Soil Cultivated with Durum Wheat and the Crop’s Iron and Sulfur Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris L. Bouranis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The granules of conventional fertilizers have been enriched recently with 2% elemental sulfur (S0 via a binding material of organic nature and such fertilizers are suitable for large scale agriculture. In a previous work, we demonstrated that a durum wheat crop that received the enriched fertilization scheme (FBS0-crop accumulated a higher amount of Fe compared to the durum wheat crop fertilized by the corresponding conventional fertilization scheme (F-crop. In this study, we investigated the effect of S0 on the contingent mobilization of iron from the iron pools of the calcareous field that affiliated the durum wheat crop and the corresponding effect on the crop’s iron nutrition and sulfur nutrition. A sequential extraction of Fe from root zone soil (rhizosoil was applied and the fluctuations of these fractions during crop development were monitored. The fertilization with FBS0 at sowing affected the iron fractions of the rhizosoil towards iron mobilization, thus providing more iron to the crop, which apart from the iron nutrition fortified the crop’s sulfur nutrition, too. No iron was found as iron attached to carbonates of the rhizosoil. Fluctuations of the iron pool, bound or adsorbed to the organic matter, were exactly the opposite to those of the iron pool associated with the clay particles in both treatments, suggesting iron exchange between the two pools. Replenishment of the F-crop’s Fe content and a deficit in the FBS0-crop’s Fe content in the rhizosoil were found at the end of the cultivation period. Furthermore, the initiation of the fast stem elongation stage (day 125 constituted a turning point. Before day 125, the use of FBS0 increased the iron concentration in the main stems and this was an early fortification effect, followed by an increase in the organic S concentration. Following day 125, the FBS0-crop consisted of plants with higher main stems and less tillers. A late fortification effect was observed in the iron

  9. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinn, Olev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological similarities indicate that Palaeozoic problematic tubeworms, e.g. tentaculitids, cornulitids, microconchids, trypanoporids, Anticalyptraea, and Tymbochoos, form a monophyletic group. This group may also include hederelloids. Members of this group share affinities with lophophorates and their evolution could have partly been driven by predation. The extinction of Palaeozoic tubeworms in the Middle Jurassic was possibly at least partly caused by the ecological pressure by serpulid and sabellid polychaetes. The input of Palaeozoic tubeworms to the general ocean biocalcification system may have been smaller in the Ordovician to Jurassic than that of calcareous polychaetes in the Late Triassic to Recent. There seems to have been some correlation between the aragonite–calcite seas and the skeletal mineralogy of Triassic–Recent polychaete tubeworms.

  10. Evolutionary-based approaches for determining the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Habib; Tutunchian, Mohammad A.; Rezvani, Reza; Valizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Many hydrocarbon reservoirs are located near oceans which are covered by calcareous deposits. These sediments consist mainly of the remains of marine plants or animals, so calcareous soils can have a wide variety of engineering properties. Due to their local expansion and considerable differences from terrigenous soils, the evaluation of engineering behaviors of calcareous sediments has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in recent years. Deviatoric stress is one of the most important parameters directly affecting important shearing characteristics of soils. In this study, a dataset of experimental triaxial tests was gathered from two sources. First, the data of previous experimental studies from the literature were gathered. Then, a series of triaxial tests was performed on calcareous sands of the Persian Gulf to develop the dataset. This work resulted in a large database of experimental results on the maximum deviatoric stress of different calcareous sands. To demonstrate the capabilities of evolutionary-based approaches in modeling the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands, two promising variants of genetic programming (GP), multigene genetic programming (MGP) and gene expression programming (GEP), were applied to propose new predictive models. The models' input parameters were the physical and in-situ condition properties of soil and the output was the maximum deviatoric stress (i.e., the axial-deviator stress). The results of statistical analyses indicated the robustness of these models, and a parametric study was also conducted for further verification of the models, in which the resulting trends were consistent with the results of the experimental study. Finally, the proposed models were further simplified by applying a practical geotechnical correlation.

  11. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  12. Calcareous sponges of the Netherlands (Porifera, Calcarea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolwijk, van Th.

    1982-01-01

    The taxonomy of calcareous sponges occurring in the Netherlands is reviewed, using field observations of live individuals, microscopical examination of individual skeletons and study of the breeding cycle. This led to the conclusion that a new species had to be erected and other species

  13. Distribution of calcareous nannoplankton in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of calcareous nannoplankton in surface sediments along the northern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The coccolith assemblages from seafloor sediments over the inner shelf in the northern region of the KwaZulu- Natal Bight on the east coast of South Africa were ...

  14. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria in glacier forefields on siliceous and calcareous bedrock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global methane (CH4 cycle is largely driven by methanogenic archaea and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB, but little is known about their activity and diversity in pioneer ecosystems. We conducted a field survey in forefields of 13 receding Swiss glaciers on both siliceous and calcareous bedrock to investigate and quantify CH4 turnover based on soil-gas CH4 concentration profiles, and to characterize the MOB community by sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of pmoA. Methane turnover was fundamentally different in the two bedrock categories. Of the 36 CH4 concentration profiles from siliceous locations, 11 showed atmospheric CH4 consumption at concentrations of ~1–2 μL L−1 with soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes of –0.14 to –1.1 mg m−2 d−1. Another 11 profiles showed no apparent activity, while the remaining 14 exhibited slightly increased CH4 concentrations of ~2–10 μL L−1 , most likely due to microsite methanogenesis. In contrast, all profiles from calcareous sites suggested a substantial, yet unknown CH4 source below our sampling zone, with soil-gas CH4 concentrations reaching up to 1400 μL L−1. Remarkably, most soils oxidized ~90 % of the deep-soil CH4, resulting in soil-atmosphere fluxes of 0.12 to 31 mg m−2 d−1. MOB showed limited diversity in both siliceous and calcareous forefields: all identified pmoA sequences formed only 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the species level and, with one exception, could be assigned to either Methylocystis or the as-yet-uncultivated Upland Soil Cluster γ (USCγ. The latter dominated T-RFLP patterns of all siliceous and most calcareous samples, while Methylocystis dominated in 4 calcareous samples. Members of Upland Soil

  15. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. AE Test of Calcareous Sands with Particle Rushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Fengyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The particle of calcareous sands was forced to crush, then the energy from the crushing was released by the form of sound waves. Therefore the AE technique was used to detect the calcareous sands AE signal when it crushed. by to study the AE characteristics, the mechanics of calcareous sands was studied. Study showed that: (1 there was the AE activities on the low confining pressure condition at the beginnig of test, (2 there was more and more AE activities with the continuing of test until to the end, (3 the calcareous sands’ AE activities was on the whole testing, (4 the calcareous sands’ particle crushing and mutual friction played different roles for its AE activities. Then the AE model based on the calcarous sands’ particle crushing was discussed.

  17. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  18. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil; Etude theorique et experimentale du comportement biogeochimique de l'americium-241 en conditions rhizospheriques simplifiees. Application dans un sol agricole calcaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, T

    2004-06-01

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of {sup 241}Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. {sup 241}Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with {sup 241}Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fe{sub tot}, organic acids, {sup 241}Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that {sup 241}Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10{sup -4} M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of {sup 241}Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (K{sub d}) of about 10{sup 5} L.kg{sup -1}. A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the {sup 241}Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations ({>=} 10{sup -2} M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of {sup 241}Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal

  19. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-Díaz, Silvia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Segura-Fernández, José Manuel; Del Campillo, María Del Carmen; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i) to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria) would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite) and (ii) to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying) on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release) than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation) as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most persistent, and

  1. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raya-Díaz

    Full Text Available Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite and (ii to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most

  2. The sterols of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Andrea; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2008-11-01

    Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and Calcaronea were analysed for their sterol content. Two major pseudohomologous series were found, accompanied by some additional sterols. The first series encompassing conventional C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,22) sterols represented the major sterols, with ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol, C(28)Delta(5,7,22)) being most prominent in many species. The second series consisted of unusual C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,9(11),22) sterols. Cholesterol occurred sporadically, mostly in trace amounts. The sterol patterns did not resolve intraclass phylogenetic relationships, namely the distinction between the subclasses, Calcinea and Calcaronea. This pointed towards major calcarean lipid traits being established prior to the separation of subclasses. Furthermore, calcarean sterol patterns clearly differ from those found in Hexactinellida, whereas partial overlap occurred with some Demospongiae. Hence, sterols only partly reflect the phylogenetic separation of Calcarea from both of the other poriferan classes that was proposed by recent molecular work and fatty acid analyses.

  3. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  4. Secondary metabolites and metal content dynamics in Teucrium montanum L. and Teucrium chamaedrys L. from habitats with serpentine and calcareous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Nenad M; Stanković, Milan S; Simić, Zoran S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this comparative analysis is the determination of the total quantity of metals (Mg, Ca, K, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb) in soil samples, above ground plant parts and tea made of plants Teucrium montanum and T. chamaedrys from different serpentine and calcareous habitats as well as of the total quantity of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The obtained results showed that the quantities of certain metals (Mg, Fe, Ni and Mn) in the soil from the serpentine habitats were greater in comparison with other metals (Ca, Zn and Pb) which were more frequently found in the soil from the calcareous habitats. The results demonstrated that the analysed plant samples from the serpentine habitats contained higher quantity of Fe, Ni and Cr as opposed to the plant samples from the calcareous habitats which contained greater quantity of Ca and Zn. Although the studied species accumulate analysed metals in different quantities, depending on the substrate type, they are not hyperaccumulators of these metals. The use of these species from serpentine habitats for tea preparation is safe to a great extent, because in spite of the determined metal absorption by plant organs, the tea does not contain dangerous quantity of heavy metals. The results showed greater total quantity of phenolic compounds and the higher level of antioxidant activity in the plant samples from serpentine habitats in comparison with the samples from calcareous habitats, which is an indicator of one of the mechanisms of adaptation to the serpentine habitat conditions.

  5. Stocks and microbial degradability of organic matter in calcareous subsoil under agriculture in the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabi, Houda; Haithem, Bahri; Mohammed, Annabi; Damien, Raclot; Cornelia, Rumpel

    2010-05-01

    In this study we investigated the quantitative and qualitative aspects of soil organic matter (SOM) in an calcareous subsoil under agricultural use. The aim of this research was to evaluate the carbon stocks as well as the potential of SOM to be degraded by the soil microbial biomass. Soil samples were collected in the basin of "Kamech" in Tunisia from four soil profiles at five depths (0-30 cm, 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm, 70-110 cm and 110-140 cm). Samples were incubated at 28°C during 90 days and CO2 evolution was monitored throughout the incubation using NaOH (1N) traps. The soils sampled had a high clay content of more than 50 %. They were classified as Vertisols (WRB-FAO classification). The SOM content decreased from topsoils to subsoils. The carbon mineralization from top- and subsoils after 70 days ranged between 530 and 572 mg C-CO2 kg soil-1. The difference is not significant after 70 days of incubation with no significant differences between both. We conclude that The incubation indicated that there were metabolically active microbes in the subsoil which can degrade the organic matter. The significance of these phenomena with regards to the carbon stocks throughout the profile will be discussed.

  6. The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

  7. The Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Ions on the Adsorption of Cd 2+ on Clay and Sandy Loam Egyptian Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed E. EL-Hefnawy; Elmetwaly M. Selim; Faiz F. Assaad; Ali I. Ismail

    2014-01-01

      Adsorption of Cd2+ on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts...

  8. The Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Ions on the Adsorption of Cd2+on Clay and Sandy Loam Egyptian Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EL-Hefnawy, Mohamed E; Selim, Elmetwaly M; Assaad, Faiz F; Ismail, Ali I

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Cd2+ on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts...

  9. The effect of chloride and sulfate ions on the adsorption of Cd2+ on clay and sandy loam Egyptian soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Hefnawy, Mohamed E; Selim, Elmetwaly M; Assaad, Faiz F; Ismail, Ali I

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Cd(2+) on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts...

  10. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  11. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  12. Calcareous nannofossil events in the pre-evaporitic Messinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Alessandra; Lozar, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    During the Messinian (7.2 to 5.3 Ma) the Mediterranean area experienced fast and deep climatic and eustatic structural changes. The stratigraphic framework for this interval is relatively well constrained and the beginning of the Messinian salinity crisis dated at 5.97 Ma determine a duration of at least 1.2 Ma for the pre-evaporitic Messinian that is object of this study. Several sites (Faneromeni, Pissouri, Polemi Fanantello borehole, Lemme, Pollenzo, Govone, Moncalvo; Wade and Bown, 2006; Kouwenhoven et al 2006, Morigi et al 2007, Lozar et al 2010, Dela Pierre et al 2011) show similar calcareous nannofossil record behavior, with several Sphenolithus spp. peaks recognised at different quotes in each of the sections. Aim of the present work is to compare the calcareous nannofossil data achieved in the above mentioned sections: interestingly, the occurrence of strongly oligotypic assemblages related to high salinity and unstable environments, appear to correlate precisely among the investigated sites and occur immediately before the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, then offering the possibility to use them as bioevents for regional correlation. References Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Gennari, R., Irace, A., Lozar, F., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Natalicchio, M., Roveri, M., Violanti, D., 2011. The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 238-255. Kouwenhoven, T.J., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Giunta, S., Krijgsman, W., Rouchy, J.M., 2006 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Marine Micropaleontology 60, 17-44. Lozar, F., Violanti, D., Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Irace, A., Martinetto, E., Trenkwalder, S., 2010. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers herald the Messinian

  13. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Protz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean annual rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils in a subarctic climate estimated from data on two chronosequences of calcareous storm ridges, appeared to be relatively constant through time. Concentrations of dissolved calcium carbonate in the soil solution in the study sites calculated

  14. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Huiskes, H.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What is the potential of sheep to serve as seed dispersers via ingestion and defecation in calcareous grasslands? Is the presence of viable seeds from dung correlated with specific seed traits? Location: Calcareous grasslands, South Limburg, the Netherlands/Belgium. Methods: Dung samples

  15. Cylinders and seances : Elise van Calcar and the spirit of Froebel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (18221904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and

  16. Were Oceanic Plateaus Instrumental for Calcareous Nannoplankton Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, E.; Casellato, C.; Bottini, C.

    2011-12-01

    The history of calcareous nannoplankton shows a general increase in species richness through the Mesozoic. Fertility and chemistry of the oceans, climate and pCO2 seem instrumental for nannoplankton abundance, diversification and adaptation, but high-resolution chronology of paleobiological and geological events is crucial for the understanding of evolutionary processes relative to ecosystem perturbations. Natural variations in atmospheric CO2 are essentially triggered by igneous activity and the role of ocean crust production in the evolution of seawater composition, nutrient cycling, climate change and, consequently, in calcareous nannoplankton biodiversity, might be more relevant than generally thought. Indeed, two major steps in nannofloral Mesozoic evolution correlate with construction of gigantic oceanic plateaus, namely the Shatsky Rise (SR) (Tithonian/Berriasian boundary interval) and the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) (Barremian/Aptian boundary interval). During the latest Jurassic calcareous nannoplankton experienced a rapid diversification and rise in abundance of several taxa including heavily calcified nannoliths with consequent major increase in biogenic calcite production. The Tithonian origination of coccoliths and nannoliths suggests ideal paleoecological conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, presumably thriving in stable, relatively oligotrophic and cool oceans under low pCO2. Recent data indicate that this speciation and calcification episode was interrupted during magnetochron CM19r, prior to massive diversification of nannoconids. In the late Barremian-early Aptian interval, the nannoconid decline and crisis are paralleled by a major nannoplankton (mainly coccolith) speciation episode. Such calcification failure and coccolith diversification might reflect disruption of the thermocline, increased fertility and warming under excess CO2 levels. These evolutionary steps show rapid speciation, but differ because nannoliths became dominant in the late

  17. Effect of Soil Amendments on Cd accumulation by Spinach from a Cd-Mineralized Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium mineralized soils occur in many nations. When these soils are non-calcareous, crops and especially leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach accumulate levels of Cd which exceed international standards. Lockwood loam from Monterey Co., CA, has been found to cause excessive Cd in leafy veg...

  18. Soil structure and characteristics of organic matter in two orchards differing in eartworm activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Balabane, M.; Oort, van F.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2003-01-01

    By consuming plant remains and soil, earthworms incorporate organic matter (OM) into the soil and form biogenic soil structures, which can affect OM dynamics. We carried out a (micro)morphological study of soil structure development and OM distribution in two orchards (45 year) in a Dutch calcareous

  19. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jie Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx; however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P=0.008 and 0.050, resp.. Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar.

  20. Adaptive strategies of Parietaria diffusa (M.&K.) to calcareous habitat with limited iron availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; De Nisi, Patrizia; Gabotti, Damiano; Tato, Liliana; Zocchi, Graziano

    2012-06-01

    The study of native plants growing in hostile environments is useful to understand how these species respond to stress conditions. Parietaria diffusa (M.&K.) is able to survive in highly calcareous soils and extreme environments, such as house walls, without displaying any chlorotic symptoms. Here, we have investigated the existence of Strategy I complementary/alternative mechanism(s) involved in Fe solubilization and uptake and responsible for Parietaria's extraordinary efficiency. After assessing the specific traits involved in a calcicole-behaviour in the field, we have grown plants in conditions of Fe deficiency, either direct (-Fe) or induced by the presence of bicarbonate (+FeBic). Then, the growth performance, physiological and biochemical responses of the plants were investigated. The study shows that in Parietaria+FeBic, the classical responses of Strategy I plants are activated to a lower extent than in -Fe. In addition, there is a greater production of phenolics and organic acids that are both exuded and accumulated in the roots, which in turn show structures similar to 'proteoid-like roots'. We suggest that in the presence of this constraint, Parietaria undergoes some metabolic rearrangements that involve PEP-consuming reactions and an enhancement of the shikimate pathway. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Development of Potential Screens Based on Shoot Calcium and Iron Concentrations for the Evaluation of Tolerance in Egyptian Genotypes of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to Limed Soils

    OpenAIRE

    KERLEY, SIMON J.; NORGAARD, CLAUS; LEACH, JOHN E.; CHRISTIANSEN, JØERGEN L.; HUYGHE, CHRISTIAN; RÖMER, PETER

    2002-01-01

    European cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grow poorly in limed or calcareous soils. However, Egyptian genotypes are grown successfully in highly calcareous soil and show no stress symptoms. To examine their physiological responses to alkaline soil and develop potential screens for tolerance, three experiments were conducted in limed and non‐limed (neutral pH) soil. Measurements included net CO2 uptake, and the partitioning of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and soluble and insoluble Ca in stem and l...

  2. Consolidation and strength properties of calcareous sediments from Kaneohe and Kailua Bays, Hawaii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Brandes, H.G.; Khadge, N.H.; Nakayama, D.D.

    behavior of marine calcareous sediments of biogenic origin. Consolidation and drained triaxial tests indicate that mixed sediments have higher compressibilities and lower strengths compared to high-carbonate sediments. Differences in gradation among high...

  3. Calcareous plankton high resolution bio-magnetostratigraphy for the Langhian of the mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L.M.; Lirer, F.; Iaccarino, S.M.; Turco, E.; Amore, F.O.; Mazzei, R.; Morabito, S.; Salvatorini, G.; Aziz, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution quantitative and qualitative analyses of the planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil content have been carried out on three Middle Miocene sections, from the Mediterranean area. Such sections (Cretaccio section, Tremiti Islands, Southern Italy; Moria section, Marche Region,

  4. Albian-Cenomanian Zonation (Foraminifers and Calcareous Aglae) in the Northern Fars, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz P.N. Shirazi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In the middle Cretaceous of Iran, fossil calcareous algae and zonation them with foraminifers are one of the less studied compared to others invertebrate groups such as foraminiferis, mollusks and others. Several stratigraphic units were analyzed in detail and a biostratigraphic zonation of the Albian-Cenomanian rocks of the Fars basin (Sw. Iran) is proposed. Approach: All stratigraphic units were studied for the determination calcareous algae accompanying with foraminifers...

  5. Influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel with sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Jiangwei; Xu, Weichen; Duan, Jizhou; Chen, Shougang; Hou, Baorong

    2017-12-01

    Cathodic protection is a very effective method to protect metals, which can form calcareous deposits on metal surface. Research on the interrelationship between fouling organism and calcareous deposits is very important but very limited, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB is a kind of very important fouling organism that causes microbial corrosion of metals. A study of the influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel in SRB-containing culture medium was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface spectroscopy (EDS). The calcareous deposit was formed with good crystallinity and smooth surface under the gradient current density of -30 μA cm-2 in natural seawater for 72 h. Our results can help elucidate the formation of calcareous deposits and reveal the interrelationship between SRB and calcareous deposits under cathodic protection. The results indicate that the corrosion tendency of carbon steel was obviously affected by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) metabolic activity and the calcareous deposit formed on the surface of carbon steel under cathodic protection was favourable to reduce the corrosion rate. Calcareous deposits can promote bacterial adhesion before biofilm formation. The results revealed the interaction between biofouling and calcareous deposits, and the anti-corrosion ability was enhanced by a kind of inorganic and organic composite membranes formed by biofilm and calcareous deposits.

  6. cultivars to foliar and soil applied boron in boron

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar.

  7. The Role of Teak Leaves (Tectona grandis), Rhizobium, and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Improving Soil Structure and Soil Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is the largest mineral in calcareous soils. High levels of calcium carbonate lead to phosphate deposition. Nutrient deficiencies in calcareous soil (mainly Phosphate and Nitrogen) resulted only certain crops with a wide range of tolerances that can grow. Meanwhile, dynamics nutrient in calcareous soils also depend on the topography and decomposition of the litter in the growing vegetation. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of nutrient enhancement and soil-texture structures on calcareous soils after littering the teak leaves, Rhizobium and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza. The research parameters were the concentration of N, P, K; C/N ratio, humid acid content, and soil structure, which measured at days 30, 60, and 85 of soil decomposition process. The results showed that at days 30, the texture and structure of the soil tend to be stable (porosity 31.2, DMR 1.93, moisture content 0.36, sandy clay) while at days 85 has been very stable (porosity 49.8; Water content 0.28, sandy clay). While C and N organic, N and K concentration at days 30 showed low value (C organic 1.03, N 0.12, K 0.49, C / N ratio 9). This condition is almost unchanged at days 85. While the P value shows very high value (60.53) at days 30 although after 60 days the P content showed a decrease.

  8. Soil type influences crop mineral composition in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Chilimba, Allan D C; Ander, E Louise; Barlow, Thomas S; Watts, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Food supply and composition data can be combined to estimate micronutrient intakes and deficiency risks among populations. These estimates can be improved by using local crop composition data that can capture environmental influences including soil type. This study aimed to provide spatially resolved crop composition data for Malawi, where information is currently limited. Six hundred and fifty-two plant samples, representing 97 edible food items, were sampled from >150 sites in Malawi between 2011 and 2013. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS for up to 58 elements, including the essential minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Maize grain Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn concentrations were greater from plants grown on calcareous soils than those from the more widespread low-pH soils. Leafy vegetables from calcareous soils had elevated leaf Ca, Cu, Fe and Se concentrations, but lower Zn concentrations. Several foods were found to accumulate high levels of Se, including the leaves of Moringa, a crop not previously been reported in East African food composition data sets. New estimates of national dietary mineral supplies were obtained for non-calcareous and calcareous soils. High risks of Ca (100%), Se (100%) and Zn (57%) dietary deficiencies are likely on non-calcareous soils. Deficiency risks on calcareous soils are high for Ca (97%), but lower for Se (34%) and Zn (31%). Risks of Cu, Fe and Mg deficiencies appear to be low on the basis of dietary supply levels. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  10. TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS OF THE PIZZO MONDELLO SECTION: A SEM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEREO PRETO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pizzo Mondello is a ca. 500 m thick pelagic-hemipelagic succession cropping out in Sicily consisting of a nodular cherty limestone facies association of late Carnian to late Norian age. The uppermost portion was attributed to the Rhaetian and is represented by the plane-bedded Portella Gebbia Limestone. The section has been proposed as the stratotype for the base of the Norian stage. The calcareous nannofossil content of limestones was studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM in two portions of the Pizzo Mondello section, one within 'La Cava' that encompasses all the proposed horizons for the base of the Norian, and one within the Portella Gebbia Limestone in the uppermost part of the section.Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the first portion display low diversity, being constituted exclusively by calcispheres, that may constitute up to 40% of the sediment volume. Species richness increases in the upper portion. Initially, samples are dominated by Prinsiosphaera triassica, a nannolith of unknown taxonomic affinity. Rare calcareous dinocysts (Thoracosphaera cf. geometrica and coccoliths are present in few samples. Uppermost samples are still dominated by "calcispheres" comparable to Thoracosphaera, but also yield a variety of coccoliths and nannoliths.Calcareous nannofossil distribution was calibrated with conodont and radiolarian biostratigraphy. On the basis of this integrated work, specimens attributed to cf. Thoracosphaera, observed in the lower portion of the section, are late Carnian to early Norian, while samples dominated by Prinsiosphaera, with rare Thoracosphaera and coccoliths are Rhaetian. The calcareous nannofossil assemblage of the uppermost samples, along with radiolarians and the absence of conodonts, point to a Jurassic age (Pliensbachian for the uppermost Portella Gebbia Limestone at Pizzo Mondello. In conclusion, the age of the uppermost part of the Pizzo Mondello section is Jurassic, i.e., younger than previously

  11. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. [Form tendency and bio-availability dynamics of Cu and Zn in different farm soils after application of organic fertilizer of livestock and poultry manures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, He-ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Su, De-chun

    2015-01-01

    Soil incubation experiments were conducted with different sources of manures containing heavy metals to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) and their form transformation in different soils. This study may assist in developing strategies to ascertain the loads of heavy metals which entered into soils together with manures, and promote policies to evaluate the ecological risk in agriculture soils. The results showed that, during the six months of soil incubation, the pH value of acidic soil increased and the pH value of calcareous soil reduced. After adding chicken manures, the contents of available Cu in both calcareous and acid soils were significant lower than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, but there was no significant difference between the treatments in the contents of available Zn in both calcareous and acid soils. Furthermore, there were also no significant differences between pig matures and the equivalent inorganic salt treatments in the contents of available Cu and Zn in both calcareous and acid soils. The results of form tendency showed that the main forms of Cu and Zn in both calcareous and acid soils, which entered into soils together with manures, were exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, and organic. And the proportions of different heavy metals species in calcareous and acid soils were different with different manures sources. After six months of incubation, the contents of exchangeable and Fe-Mn oxides Cu, Zn were lower than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, the contents of organics Cu and Zn were higher than those in the equivalent inorganic salt treatments, and other Cu and Zn forms in soils showed no difference with inorganic salt treatments.

  13. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  14. Community structure and palaeoecological implications of calcareous encrusters on artificial substrates across a Mexican Caribbean reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, L. J.; Blanchon, P.; Murphy, G.; Cousins, L.; Perry, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    Calcareous encrusters stabilize and bind reef framework and contribute significantly to reef function and biodiversity. Their calcareous skeletons have good preservation potential which, together with well-constrained habitat preferences, makes them useful indicators of past environmental conditions. However, our knowledge of environmental tolerances and spatial distribution trends of encrusters remains limited. Here, we determine the distributional trends and environmental tolerances of calcareous encrusters and delineate the relevance of particular species/genera for palaeoecological reconstructions. Artificial microhabitats were created to mimic exposed, partially cryptic, and cryptic habitats in various orientations for periods of 1 and 2 yr. Calcareous encruster coverage was high, especially in cryptic habitats (95 %), and clear successional trends were observed over time. Total encruster carbonate production was intermediate (range 72.8-476.3 g m-2 yr-1). Encruster species and growth morphology exhibited a defined zonation in response to reef sub-environment, microhabitat, and environmental factors such as light and wave exposure. Linear regression identified three coralline algae genera, as well as Homotrema rubrum, Planorbulina spp., and cemented bivalves as those most likely to occur in particular habitats. Therefore, the presence of these species may be used with greater confidence in distinguishing palaeomicroenvironments.

  15. Sunlight-enhanced calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel in natural seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eashwar, M.; SathishKumar, P.; Ravishankar, R.; Subramanian, G.

    In replicate series of experiments in natural seawater, one in full darkness and the other in a 1:1 diurnal cycle with as little as 5 percent of natural solar illumination, sunlight promoted calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel surfaces...

  16. Coniacian-maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and carbon-isotope stratigraphy in the Zagros Basin (Iran)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmjooei, Mohammad Javad; Thibault, Nicolas; Kani, Anoshiravan

    2014-01-01

    with magnetostratigraphy in the Santonian-early Campanian interval. The δ13C correlation, supported by calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, brings insights into: (1) the position of the Coniacian/Santonian, Santonian/Campanian and Campanian/Maastrichtian boundaries with respect to carbon-isotope stratigraphy...

  17. Multivariate analysis of the response of overgrown semi-natural calcareous grasslands to restorative shrub cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccherini, S.; Marignani, M.; Castagnini, P.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of restoration management often suffers from poor sampling design and a lack of statistical rigour, seldom considering the spatial and temporal variability of habitat. We tested the effectiveness of shrub cutting on the restoration of calcareous grasslands, using a 4-year

  18. Microstructure and formation of the calcareous operculum in Pyrgopolon ctenactis and Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida, Serpulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinn, O.; ten Hove, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The calcareous operculum of Pyrgopolon ctenactis is composed of spherulitic prismatic structures. The opercular cup consists of regular spherulitic prismatic crystals; the talon has two layers, an inner with an irregular spherulitic prismatic structure (150 μm thick) and an outer with a regular

  19. Endolithic fungi from deep sea calcareous substrata: isolation and laboratory studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.; Sharma, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    substrata at 100 atm. in 25 days. This fungus was not capable of acid production on nutrient media in the presence of various carbon sources, nor did it produce proteases. The role of fungi in calcareous substrata in the sea is discussed with reference...

  20. Calcareous nannofossils from the Boreal upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Chalk of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    Boreal calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been documented from three sections in Denmark. from the Upper Campanian to Upper Maastrichtian (nannofossil zones UC16a(BP) to UC20d(BP)): the Stevns-1 borehole, next to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary section of Stevns Klint, eastern Sjaelland...

  1. Is succession in wet calcareous dune slacks affected by free sulfide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, EB; van Gemerden, H; Grootjans, AP; Adema, Erwin B.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Rapson, G.

    Consequences of sulfide toxicity on succession in wet calcareous dune slacks were investigated. Sulfide may exert an inhibitory effect on dune slack plants, but several pioneer species exhibit ROL (Radial Oxygen Loss) and thereby protect themselves against free sulfide. Under oxic conditions free

  2. Use of calcareous algae and monensin in Nellore cattle subjected to an abrupt change in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Additives are used in high concentrate diets to prevent metabolic disorders in cattle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium sources and monensin on the control of ruminal acidosis in Nellore cattle that were abruptly shifted to a high (92.3% concentrate diet. Eight cannulated steers were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4x4 Latin square. Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source, either limestone (LI or a product derived from calcareous algae (CA, to the basic diet with or without the presence of monensin. Calcareous alga (Lithothamnium calcareum is a natural and renewable product and a source of calcium carbonate. The quantity of added limestone, calcareous algae and monensin was 7.1g kg-1, 7.4g kg-1 and 30mg kg-1 DM, respectively. There was no effect of calcium source (P=0.607 or monensin (P=0.294 on feed intake or on the concentration of short chain fatty acids. Treatments with calcareous algae resulted in a higher mean ruminal pH (P=0.039, a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH under 5.2 (P<0.001 and a better control of blood pH (P=0.006. Treatments with monensin also resulted in a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH below 5.2 (P=0.023. Calcareous algae were shown to be effective in controlling adverse changes in the rumen and in blood variables for Nellore cattle that were subjected to an abrupt change to a high concentrate diet.

  3. [Effects of different soil types on the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species in karst rocky desertification area in central Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-lian; Wang, Shi-jie; Luo, Xu-qiang

    2014-09-01

    By measuring the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species grown in different soil types in Wangjiazhai catchments, a typical karst desertification area in Qingzhen City, Central Guizhou, we studied the impact of soil type and rocky desertification grade on the foliar δ13C values. The results showed that the foliar δ13C values were more negative in yellow soil area than those in black calcareous area and there was no obvious difference in foliar δ13C values between these two soil types. The distribution interval of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area was narrower than those in black calcareous area and the variation coefficient of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area were smaller than those in black calcareous area. With increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the foliar δ13C values of plant community in black calcareous area increased, whereas those in yellow soil area first increased and then decreased. The result of multiple comparison showed that the difference in foliar δ13C values of plant community among rocky desertification grade was not obvious in yellow soil area, but it was obvious in black calcareous area. Correlation analysis between the foliar δ13C values of plant species and the main environmental factors indicated that slope and soil thickness were the main factors which affected the foliar δ13C values of plants in yellow soil area and soil water contant was the main factor in black calcareous area. The impact of soil on the foliar δ13C values was realized by adjusting the soil moisture in study area.

  4. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hockmann, K.; Tandy, S.; Lenz, M.; Reiser, R.; Conesa, H.; Keller, M.; Studer, B.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions

  5. ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF COPPER CHEMICAL FORMS CONTENT IN THE ERODED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Leah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of chemical forms of copper, the features of the distribution and transformation in eroded Gray soils and Calcareous chernozems are presented. Erosion process led to increase the chemical forms associated with clay minerals, carbonates, oxides, and reducing the mobile and humus organic forms. The losses of copper in different chemical forms consist 35% from humus horizon of eroded soils.

  6. Resistance and resilience of forest soils in the Limestone Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzensteiner, K.; Darabant, A.; Gratzer, G.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decades a dramatic increase in frequency and extent of forest disturbances, in particular of bark beetle infestations after windthrows, can be observed in Austria. In protective forests of the montane and subalpine vegetation zone, forest recovery can take several decades - a period of altered micro-climatic conditions and nutrient cycles. Soils on calcareous bedrock are considered to be particularly vulnerable under these conditions. Erosion and disintegration of ecto-organic layers of folic Histosols (Tangel) and lithic and rendzic Leptosols will lead to a loss of soil functions. In a pilot study on resilience of protective forests, soil development along chronosequences of windthrows has been surveyed in three climatically different test regions. Multivariate statistics uncover the relation between micro-topography, time since disturbance, and vegetation status on the one hand and morphological characteristics, carbon and nitrogen stocks of soils on the other hand. Factors affecting resistance and resilience of soils on calcareous bedrock are discussed.

  7. Réparation des pieux battus dans les sables carbonatés Repair of Driven Piles in Calcareous Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauroy J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les formations carbonatées rencontrées en de nombreuses zones d'activités pétrolières en mer posent de difficiles problèmes de dimensionnement et de mise en place des pieux. Sur plusieurs sites de sable carbonaté, la capacité portante des pieux battus se révèle beaucoup plus faible que prévu et des techniques de réparation doivent être étudiées. Dans ce contexte, l'ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, groupement français d'organismes de recherche, de compagnies pétrolières et de contracteurs offshore, a expérimenté une réparation d'un pieu expérimental de 30 cm de diamètre et 23 m de long battu dans un sable carbonaté. Le frottement latéral de ce pieu mobilisé juste après battage était très faible. La réparation a consisté à injecter du coulis de ciment à partir d'un forage situé à 40 cm du pieu. Cet article décrit les procédures et les caractéristiques des injections réalisées et leurs conséquences sur la capacité portante du pieu. Le frottement entre le pieu et le terrain s'accroît avec le volume de ciment injecté; les valeurs maximales obtenues sont du même ordre de grandeur que celles observées avec un pieu foré-cimenté. The calcareous formations encountered in many zones of offshore petroleum activity raise difficult problems for designing and installing foundation piles. On several sites with calcareous sands, the bearing capacity of driven piles proves to be much less than had been planned, and repair techniques have to be examined. Within this context, ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, a french group of research organizations, oil companies and offshore contractors, has tested a repair of an experimental pile 30 cm in diameter and 23 m long driven into a calcareous sand. The skin friction of this pile, mobilized just after driving, was found to be very low. The repair-job consisted in injecting grout from a drilled borehole located at some tens

  8. Simple, simultaneous gravimetric determination of calcite and dolomite in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literature pertaining to determination of calcite and dolomite is not modern and describes slow methods that require expensive specialized apparatus. The objective of this paper was to describe a new method that requires no specialized equipment. Linear regressions and correlation coefficients for...

  9. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments were: rock phosphate (RP), biofertilizers produced in laboratory with sulphur and Thiobacillus (Biof1,Biof2 and Biof3), rock phosphate with sulphur (10, 15 and 20%) without Thiobacillus (Nbiof1, Nbiof2 and Nbiof3), Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) and a control without phosphorus. In this experiment, shoot dry ...

  10. Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpedt, A. A.; Trubnikov, Yu. N.; Zharinova, N. Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Agrogenic degradation of soils in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe was investigated. Paleocryogenic microtopography of microlows and microhighs in this area predetermined the formation of paragenetic soil series and variegated soil cover. Specific paleogeographic conditions, thin humus horizons and soil profiles, and long-term agricultural use of the land resulted in the formation of soils unstable to degradation processes and subjected to active wind and water erosion. Intensive mechanical soil disturbances during tillage and long-term incorporation of the underlying Late Pleistocene (Sartan) calcareous silty and clay loams into the upper soil horizons during tillage adversely affected the soil properties. We determined the contents of total and labile humus and easily decomposable organic matter and evaluated the degree of soil exhaustion. It was concluded that in the case of ignorance of the norms of land use and soil conservation practices, intense soil degradation would continue leading to complete destruction of the soil cover within large areas.

  11. Speciation and Distribution of Phosphorus in a Fertilized Soil: A Synchrotron-Based Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Scheckel, K.G.; Armstrong, R.D.; Forrester, S.; Cutler, J.N.; Paterson, D. (USEPA); (CSIRO/LW); (CLS); (DPI); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-09

    Phosphorus availability is often a limiting factor for crop production around the world. The efficiency of P fertilizers in calcareous soils is limited by reactions that decrease P availability; however, fluid fertilizers have recently been shown, in highly calcareous soils of southern Australia, to be more efficient for crop (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.]) P nutrition than granular products. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this differential response, an isotopic dilution technique (E value) coupled with a synchrotron-based spectroscopic investigation were used to assess the reaction products of a granular (monoammonium phosphate, MAP) and a fluid P (technical-grade monoammonium phosphate, TG-MAP) fertilizer in a highly calcareous soil. The isotopic exchangeability of P from the fluid fertilizer, measured with the E-value technique, was higher than that of the granular product. The spatially resolved spectroscopic investigation, performed using nano x-ray fluorescence and nano x-ray absorption near-edge structure (n-XANES), showed that P is heterogeneously distributed in soil and that, at least in this highly calcareous soil, it is invariably associated with Ca rather than Fe at the nanoscale. 'Bulk' XANES spectroscopy revealed that, in the soil surrounding fertilizer granules, P precipitation in the form of octacalcium phosphate and apatite-like compounds is the dominant mechanism responsible for decreases in P exchangeability. This process was less prominent when the fluid P fertilizer was applied to the soil.

  12. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOCENE TO MIDDLE EOCENE SUCCESSIONS (TERTIARY FLYSCH AUCTT. OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA CATANZARITI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate biostratigraphic study of the Paleocene-middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils was performed on the turbiditic successions that characterize the Northern Apennines Mt. Caio, Farini d’Olmo, Mt. Sporno and Mt. Penice Units, belonging to the “Tertiary Flysch Auctt.” and referable to the External Ligurides. This geologic complex accumulated in a link key area, located between the oceanic Ligure-Piedmontese domain and the Adria continental margin. The reference biostratigraphic scheme used in the study is the recently published calcareous nannofossil biozonation proposed for the Paleogene by Agnini et al. (2014. The obtained biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic data suggest that further investigation is needed to clarify the tectono-sedimentary evolution and to unravel the complex architecture of the External Ligurides.

  13. Calcareous Nannoplankton Response to Surface-Water Acidification Around Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Weissert, Helmut J.; Keller, Christina E.

    2010-07-01

    Ocean acidification induced by atmospheric CO2 may be a major threat to marine ecosystems, particularly to calcareous nannoplankton. We show that, during the Aptian (~120 million years ago) Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a, which resulted from a massive addition of volcanic CO2, the morphological features of calcareous nannofossils traced the biological response to acidified surface waters. We observe the demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes at the beginning of a pre-anoxia calcification crisis. Ephemeral coccolith dwarfism and malformation represent species-specific adjustments to survive lower pH, whereas later, abundance peaks indicate intermittent alkalinity recovery. Deepwater acidification occurred with a delay of 25,000 to 30,000 years. After the dissolution climax, nannoplankton and carbonate recovery developed over ~160,000 years under persisting global dysoxia-anoxia.

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A [Division of Marine Geology, Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH), Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Rosa, F [CIACOMAR, Algarve University, Av. 16 de Julho s/n 8700-311 Olhao (Portugal); Cachao, M; Fatela, F [Geology Center and Geology Department, FCUL, Bloco C6, 3o Piso, sala 6.3.57 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: catarina.guerreiro@hidrografico.pt

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of

  15. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmen Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw' has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M. Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4% and 3 (C-, 14.3% cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7% and 1 (C-, 4.8% cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01. Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.

  16. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Dorothy Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA. The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  17. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA). The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure. PMID:24918033

  18. Calcareous Nannoplankton From The Turonian-Maastrichtian Sequence East Of El Qusaima, Ne Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Mahamoud [محمود فارس

    1992-01-01

    On terms of calcareous nannoplankton, the Turonian-Maastrichtian sequence in the studied area is subdivided into a number of nannoplankton zones. The recorded biozones represent the Turonian, Coniacian, Campanian and Maastrichtian, while the Santonian is missing due to structural activity and/or to stratigraphic hiatus in the investigated succession. The Turonian/Coniacian boundary is defined by the first occurrence of Marthasterites furcatus, and the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary can b...

  19. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maggie Dorothy; Price, Nichole N; Smith, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA). The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  20. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-04-01

    Response to habitat fragmentation may not be generalized among species, in particular for plant communities with a variety of dispersal traits. Calcareous grasslands are one of the most species-rich habitats in Central Europe, but abandonment of traditional management has caused a dramatic decline of calcareous grassland species. In the Southern Franconian Alb in Germany, reintroduction of rotational shepherding in previously abandoned grasslands has restored species diversity, and it has been suggested that sheep support seed dispersal among grasslands. We tested the effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland specialist plants and whether the response of plant populations to shepherding was limited to species dispersed by animals (zoochory). Specifically, we tested competing dispersal models and source and focal patch properties to explain landscape connectivity with patch-occupancy data of 31 species. We fitted the same connectivity models to patch occupancy and nuclear microsatellite data for the herb Dianthus carthusianorum (Carthusian pink). For 27 species, patch connectivity was explained by dispersal by rotational shepherding regardless of adaptations to zoochory, whereas population size (16% species) and patch area (0% species) of source patches were not important predictors of patch occupancy in most species. [Correction made after online publication, February 25, 2014: Population size and patch area percentages were mistakenly inverted, and have now been fixed.] Microsite diversity of focal patches significantly increased the model variance explained by patch occupancy in 90% of the species. For D. carthusianorum, patch connectivity through rotational shepherding explained both patch occupancy and population genetic diversity. Our results suggest shepherding provides dispersal for multiple plant species regardless of their dispersal adaptations and thus offers a useful approach to restore plant

  1. INFLUENCE OF SILICEOUS AND CALCAREOUS FLY-ASHES ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monika Rutkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. Construction and building industries have the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of cement mortars – tests of compressive and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing – for normative mortars and mortars containing fly ashes – calcareous and siliceous ash – in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 32,5 R, 42,5R and natural aggregate with graining of 0–2 mm were used. Concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in six lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 2%, 5%, 10% of the cement mass or the 2%, 5%, 10% of cement was replaced by ashes. After the tests, it was stated that the siliceous fly-ash admixture increases the compressive and bending strength in comparison to the mortars with the calcareous ash admixtures.

  2. Effects of long-term cattle manure application on soil properties and soil heavy metals in corn seed production in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Xiao, Zhanwen

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of manure application on continuous maize seed production, 10-year cattle manure on soil properties, heavy metal in soil and plant were evaluated and investigated in calcareous soil. Results showed that manure application increased soil organic matter, total and available nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC), and the most massive rate caused the highest increase. Manure application led to an increase in exchangeable fraction and an increase of availability of heavy metal. Residual fraction was dominant among all metals, followed by the fraction bound to Fe and Mn oxides. Manure application involved accumulation of heavy metal on corn, but the accumulation in the stem is higher than that in the seed. Manure application led to a high deficiency of total Zn and high accumulation of total Cd in the soil of corn seed production, which should be a risk for safety seed production in calcareous soil in Northwest China.

  3. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2015-01-01

    Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success...... target. Species richness and functional diversity both increased in response to soil disturbance, and rotavation, but not ploughing, had a persistent positive effect on the occurrence of specialist species of calcareous sandy grassland. However, no type of soil disturbance caused the plant species...

  4. Evaluation of the potential impact of Cu competition on the performance of o,o-FeEDDHA in soil applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Weng, L.P.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Ferric ethylene diamine-N,N'-bis(hydroxy phenyl acetic acid) (FeEDDHA)-based iron (Fe) fertilizers are commonly applied to plants grown on calcareous soils and comprise a mixture of FeEDDHA components. Upon application to the soil, the pore water concentrations of the active ingredients racemic

  5. The Dutch programme on soil ecology of arable farming systems : farm management monitoring programme and general results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, G.; Faassen, van H.G.; Ouwerkerk, van C.; Brussaard, L.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made between conventional farm management (CONV) and integrated farm management (INT) on a calcareous silty clay loam soil, with a crop rotation of winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley and potatoes. Both types of management were started at two levels of soil organic matter, 2.2%

  6. Soil Structure and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskova, B.; Nagy, V.

    The role of soil structure on saturated hydraulic conductivity changes is studied in plough layers of texturally different soils. Three localities in western part of Slovakia in Zitny ostrov (Corn Island) were under investigation: locality Kalinkovo with light Calcaric Fluvisol (FAO 1970), Macov with medium heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol and Jurova with heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol. Soil structure was determined in dry as well as wet state and in size of macro and micro aggregates. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by the help of double ring method. During the period of ring filling the soil surface was protected against aggregates damage by falling water drops. Spatial and temporal variability of studied parameters was evaluated. Cultivated crops were ensilage maize at medium heavy and heavy soil and colza at light soil. Textural composition of soil and actual water content at the beginning of measurement are one of major factor affecting aggregate stability and consequently also saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  7. Comparison between organic and mineral fertilization for soil fertility levels, crop macronutrient concentrations and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Herencia, Juan F.; Ruiz Porras, J. C.; Melero Sánchez, Sebastiana; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Maqueda Porras, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Interest in soil organic fertilization has grown appreciably in recent years; however, few studies have been performed in greenhouses. A comparative study of organic vs. mineral fertilization in a greenhouse has been conducted for 9 yr in a calcareous loamy soil classified as Xerofluvent in the Guadalquivir River Valley, Seville, Spain. The nutrient availability in the soil, macronutrient concentration in the edible part of the plants, and yield were examined. The organic fertilizer used was ...

  8. Calcareous forest seepages acting as biodiversity hotspots and refugia for woodland snail faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Tajovská, Eva; Horsáková, Veronika

    2017-07-01

    Land-snail species richness has repeatedly been found to increase with the increasing site calcium content and humidity. These two factors, reported as the main drivers of land-snail assemblage diversity, are also among the main habitat characteristics of calcareous seepages. Here we explore local species richness and compositional variation of forest spring-fed patches (i.e. seepages), to test the hypothesis that these habitats might act as biodiversity hotspots and refugia of regional snail faunas. In contrast to treeless spring fens, only little is known about land snail faunas inhabiting forest seepages. Studying 25 isolated calcareous forest seepages, evenly distributed across the White Carpathians Protected Landscape Area (SE Czech Republic), we found that these sites, albeit spatially very limited, can harbour up to 66% of the shelled land-snail species known to occur in this well-explored protected area (in total 83 species). By comparing land snail assemblages of the studied seepages with those occurring in the woodland surroundings of each site as well as those previously sampled in 28 preserved forest sites within the study area, we found the seepages to be among the most species rich sites. Although the numbers of species did not statistically differ among these three systems, we found highly significant differences in species composition. Seepage faunas were composed of many species significantly associated with spring sites, in contrast to the assemblages of both surrounding and preserved forest sites. Our results highly support the hypothesis that calcareous forest seepages might serve as refugia and biodiversity hotspots of regional land snail faunas. Protection of these unique habitats challenges both conservation plans and forest management guidelines as they might act as sources for the recolonization and restoration of forest snail assemblages particularly in areas impoverished by harvesting and clearcutting.

  9. EARLY TO LATE OLIGOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOEVENTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (UMBRIA-MARCHE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIZIA MAIORANO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated by means of quantitative analyses in three Oligocene pelagic sections located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy. The studied sections mainly consist of marly limestones and marls belonging to the Scaglia Cinerea Formation, and include the interval between NP23 and NP25 representing a time interval of about 3.5 Ma. Biostratigraphic resolution is extremely low and only two standard bioevents are known, which are the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis and the LO of Sphenolithus distentus. The distribution patterns of poorly known or recently described calcareous nannofossils provided a valuable tool for improving the current biostratigraphic framework. The studied interval is characterized by significant changes in the calcareous nannofossil assemblages and by several extinction events. The last occurrence (LO and/or the last common occurrence (LCO here proposed are: the LO of Sphenolithus akropodus, the LO of Reticulofenestra circus, the LCO of Helicosphaera ethologa, the LCO of Helicosphaera compactathe LO of Discoaster tanii nodifer. The reversal in abundance between Sphenolithus predistentus and S. distentus provided an additional biostratigraphic constraint at the NP23-NP24 transition. In addition biometric criteria enabled the recognition of the first common occurrence (FCO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus > 12 mm as potential bioevent within NP24. The quantitative distribution of Sphenolithus distentus suggests to rely on the LCO of the species rather than on the LO, for the identification of NP24-NP25 boundary. The identified bioevents is a first step towards the improvement of the present Mediterranean biostratigraphic framework of the Oligocene geological record. A preliminary correlation of the bioevents to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale is presented.

  10. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects.

  11. The effects of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in two contaminated Mediterranean soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.J.; Clemente, Rafael; Roig, Asuncion; Bernal, M.P

    2003-04-01

    The effects of organic amendments on metal bioavailability were not always related to their degree of humification. - Two heavy metal contaminated calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Spain were studied. One soil, from the province of Murcia, was characterised by very high total levels of Pb (1572 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (2602 mg kg{sup -1}), whilst the second, from Valencia, had elevated concentrations of Cu (72 mg kg{sup -1}) and Pb (190 mg kg{sup -1}). The effects of two contrasting organic amendments (fresh manure and mature compost) and the chelate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on soil fractionation of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, their uptake by plants and plant growth were determined. For Murcia soil, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was grown first, followed by radish (Raphanus sativus L.). For Valencia soil, Beta maritima L. was followed by radish. Bioavailability of metals was expressed in terms of concentrations extractable with 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2} or diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). In the Murcia soil, heavy metal bioavailability was decreased more greatly by manure than by the highly-humified compost. EDTA (2 mmol kg{sup -1} soil) had only a limited effect on metal uptake by plants. The metal-solubilising effect of EDTA was shorter-lived in the less contaminated, more highly calcareous Valencia soil. When correlation coefficients were calculated for plant tissue and bioavailable metals, the clearest relationships were for Beta maritima and radish.

  12. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating...... purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough sampling...

  13. APTIAN TO CAMPANIAN CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE BOTTACCIONE SECTION, GUBBIO, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Aptian-Campanian biostratigraphic investigations performed on calcareous nannofossils provided a refined stratigraphic resolution  of the Scisti a Fucoidi and Scaglia Formations in the Bottaccione section (Umbria-Marche Basin, Central italy. Additional bioevents such as the Last Occurrence (LO of both Assipetra infracretacea larsonii and Rucinolithus terebrodentarius youngii and the First Occurrences (FOs of Pararhabdolithus achlyostaurion and large Biscutum constans were detected and might be used to refine the Late Aptian-Albian biostratigraphy at low latitudes.   

  14. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

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    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  15. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotopes represents a new stratigraphic reference for the Lower Jurassic series....

  16. Structure and composition of calcareous sponge spicules: a review and comparison to structurally related biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethmann, Ingo; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 19th century, the skeletons of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) with their mineralized spicules have been investigated for their morphologies, structures, and mineralogical and organic compositions. These biomineral spicules, up to about 10mm in size, with one to four rays called actines, have various specific shapes and consist mainly of magnesium-calcite: in only one case has an additional phase of stabilized amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) been discovered. The spicules are invariably covered by a thin organic sheath and display a number of intriguing properties. Despite their complex morphologies and rounded surfaces without flat crystal faces they behave largely as single crystal individuals of calcite, and to some degree crystallographic orientation is related to morphology. Despite their single-crystalline nature, most spicules show nearly isotropic fracture behaviour, not typical for calcite crystals, indicating enhanced fracture resistance. These unusual morphological and mechanical properties are the result of their mechanism of growth. Each spicule is formed by specialized cells (sclerocytes) that supply mineral ions or particles associated by organic macromolecules to extracellular cavities, where assembly and crystallization in alignment with an initial seed crystal (nucleus) takes place. As a result of discontinuous mineral deposition, cross-sections of larger spicules display concentric layering that mantles a central calcitic rod. On a smaller scale, the entire spicule displays a 'nano-cluster' structure with crystallographically aligned and putatively semicoherent crystal domains as well as a dispersed organic matrix intercalated between domain boundaries. This ultrastructure dissipates mechanical stress and deflects propagating fractures. Additionally, this nano-cluster construction, probably induced by intercalated organic substances, enables the formation of complex crystal morphologies independent of crystal faces. In this review

  17. Mechanisms of soil organic carbon accumulation from long-term fertilization strategies in two soils: Evidence from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term fertilization strategies have been proven to significantly influence soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, while the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using two long-term (>20 y) field experiments of a double-cropped maize-wheat rotation on a Calcaric Fluvisol and paddy rice on a Hyd...

  18. Micro-scale elemental composition of organo-mineral associations collected in situ from a Calcaric Gleysol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Selina; Eusterhues, Karin; Mueller, Carsten W.; Pohl, Lydia; Rennert, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating the temporal dynamics of the chemical composition and spatial distribution of organo-mineral associations is crucial for understanding their role in cycling and stabilizing soil organic matter (SOM). Especially Fe oxides and hydroxides play an important role for the stabilization of SOM due to their high reactivity. However, it is not straight forward to study the formation of organo-mineral associations in situ at intact soil structures. In groundwater-affected redoximorphic soils, precipitation of Fe oxides occurs directly at the soil-water interface of coarse pores. Therefore, these soils are particularly suitable to observe the dynamics of Fe oxides regarding interactions with dissolved organic matter and redox-induced aging of initially short-range ordered Fe oxides. We therefore chose a dyked marshland site with a Calcaric Gleysol formed from marine sediments for collecting freshly precipitated and aged Fe oxides in situ. Sampling was carried out without physical and chemical disturbance using a special rod with attached glass slides or silicon wafers. The application of slides enabled us to use a wide range of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to analyze the chemical and mineralogical composition of these precipitates. Three rods were inserted for half a year (R0.5), one year (R1) and two and a half years (R2.5). Wafers and glass slides within the Bg-Horizon (oxidizing conditions) were analyzed starting with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM) to select suitable spots for subsequent chemical mapping using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). For R0.543 spots on two glass slides were measured, for R1 39 spots on four silicon wafers and for R2.5 34 spots on four glass slides. For the NanoSIMS measurements seven masses were chosen, mainly: 16O-, 12C-, 12C14N-, 31P-, 32S-, 27Al16O-, 56Fe16O-. One plane with 10 ms per pixel (R0.5 + 2.5) and 40 planes with 1 ms per pixel (R1) were measured. For evaluating a

  19. Fragmentation, Fusion, and Genetic Homogeneity in a Calcareous Sponge (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, André; Leocorny, Pedro; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates living on hard substrata usually present strategies such as size variations, longer life spans, fragmentation and fusion to occupy and compete for space. Calcareous sponges are usually small and short-lived, and some species are known to undergo frequent fragmentation and fusion events. However, whether fusion occurs only between genetically identical individuals remains unclear. We investigated the occurrence of chimaeras in the calcareous sponge Clathrina aurea by following the dynamics of fragmentation and fusion of 66 individuals in the field for up to 18 months and determined size variations and the life span of each individual. Microsatellites were used to determine whether fusion events occur among genetically different individuals. Growth and shrinkage of individuals were frequently observed, showing that size cannot be associated with age in C. aurea. The life span of the species ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean: 4.7 months). Short life spans and variable growth rates have been observed in other species of the class Calcarea. Fragmentation and fusion events were observed, but fusion events always occurred between genetically identical individuals, as has been suggested by graft experiments in adult Demospongiae and other Calcarea. These results suggest that at least C. aurea adults may have some mechanism to avoid chimaerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evolution of Middle to Late Pleistocene Sandy Calcareous Palaeosols Underlying the Northwestern Negev Desert Dunefield (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Porat, Naomi; Zilberman, Ezra

    2014-05-01

    Calcareous palaeosols in the northwestern (NW) Negev Desert dunefield, Israel, at the eastern end of the Sinai-Negev erg were studied in relation to their overlying stabilized dunes and downwind loess deposits, using sedimentological analyses, spectroscopy, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. During the Middle to Late Pleistocene, between around MIS 7 and through MIS 3, several cycles of sand veneer (sheet) deposition, stabilization, pedogenesis, and erosion formed a spatially variable sequence of sandy calcareous palaeosols in the NW Negev. Periods of stability on the order of several thousand years to over ten thousand years, characterized by post-depositional illuviation of aeolian silts, clays, and salts, enabled the formation of diagnostic, often-indurated, calcareous, Bk horizons (stages I-III), with orthic carbonate nodules. The primary particle-size mode of the palaeosol (127 µm) is intermediate between the modes of the overlying (MIS 2) dune sand and the mode of primary northern Negev (~MIS 6 through MIS 2) loess deposits in the dunefield periphery. The sand fraction of the palaeosols is slightly finer than the dune sand, and its spatial sedimentation pattern correlates with the pattern of the subsequent dune incursions. These observations suggest that (1) Bk palaeosol horizons were resistant to (MIS 6 - MIS 3) sand veneer aeolian erosion and formed chronologically differentiated and durable surfaces; (2) these surfaces remained in equilibrium for extensive periods, being intermittently covered and preserved by shifting sand veneers; (3) the MIS 2 dune incursion episodes followed the same transport routes of the underlying palaeosol sand substrate while producing a limited amount of aeolian erosion on the Bk horizons, and; (4) the similar sedimentological and chronological framework of the palaeosols and loess deposits suggests a partial genetic connection. As for the overlying dunes, aeolian sand supply to the parent material of the

  1. Calcareous sinter from ancient aqueducts as a source of data in paleoclimate, tectonics and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelihindi, G.; Passchier, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    During the lifetime the Roman Empire (300BC-400AD), about 1200 major aqueducts were built to supply cities in the Mediterranean with drinking water. The ruins of many of these channels contain sinter (calcium carbonate), which was deposited at a rate of 0.5-5 mm/year over the life of the aqueduct, usually 50-200 but up to 1000 years. Calcareous sinter inside the ancient aqueduct channels can give important insight into paleoclimatology in the form of temperature and rainfall, reflect palaeohydrology of water, water chemistry, flow rate, bacterial activity and source area of the water. This type of data is important to build climate models and to understand earthquake and flood patterns in the Mediterranean, and can be a new, additional source of information besides speleothems, travertine and tufa deposits. In our study we focus on Mediterranean climate patterns, and selected four aqueduct sites from Southern Turkey, Greece and Italy. The calcareous sinter deposits may reflect annual or subannual lamination characterized by alternating light, dense, coarse-grained and dark, porous, microcrystalline layers which are thought to represent winter and summer conditions respectively. Moreover, abrupt changes in the sequence of lamination can be a signal of natural hazards such as earthquakes or flood events. Deposits from the aqueduct of Patara (Southern Turkey) show 40-50 laminae couples, which may be annual layers. δ18O and δ 13C stable isotope data indicate high cyclicity within the sinter samples from Patara during the Roman period. Higher δ18O values correspond with dark, porous layers and lower values with light, dense layers. Major geochemical analyses show similar seasonal changes. Electron microprobe study shows that within dark laminae, detrital Fe, Mg, K, Al and Si are enriched whereas the light layers have high Ca content. Trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS also indicate higher Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values in the dark layers, which can be interpreted in terms

  2. Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A. Glinicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement—ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash.

  3. Ocean Acidification: Investigation and Presentation of the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels on Seawater Chemistry and Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification refers to the process by which seawater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, producing aqueous carbonic acid. Acidic conditions increase the solubility of calcium carbonate, threatening corals and other calcareous organisms that depend on it for protective structures. The global nature of ocean acidification and the…

  4. Eocene-Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Hiedin area, between Hodis and Tetis (Transylvania, Romnaia: biostratigraphy and paleoecological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Eocene - Oligocene deposits from Huedin area, between the localities Hodiş and Tetiş, of the Transylvanian Basin, have been analysed. The assemblages of calcareous nannofossils are rich in the Brebi and Mera formations and relatively scarce in almost all other formations.

  5. Variation in Soil Respiration across Soil and Vegetation Types in an Alpine Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephanie; Rubin, Aurélie; Verrecchia, Eric P; Vittoz, Pascal

    Soils of mountain regions and their associated plant communities are highly diverse over short spatial scales due to the heterogeneity of geological substrates and highly dynamic geomorphic processes. The consequences of this heterogeneity for biogeochemical transfers, however, remain poorly documented. The objective of this study was to quantify the variability of soil-surface carbon dioxide efflux, known as soil respiration (Rs), across soil and vegetation types in an Alpine valley. To this aim, we measured Rs rates during the peak and late growing season (July-October) in 48 plots located in pastoral areas of a small valley of the Swiss Alps. Four herbaceous vegetation types were identified, three corresponding to different stages of primary succession (Petasition paradoxi in pioneer conditions, Seslerion in more advanced stages and Poion alpinae replacing the climactic forests), as well as one (Rumicion alpinae) corresponding to eutrophic grasslands in intensively grazed areas. Soils were developed on calcareous alluvial and colluvial fan deposits and were classified into six types including three Fluvisols grades and three Cambisols grades. Plant and soil types had a high level of co-occurrence. The strongest predictor of Rs was soil temperature, yet we detected additional explanatory power of sampling month, showing that temporal variation was not entirely reducible to variations in temperature. Vegetation and soil types were also major determinants of Rs. During the warmest month (August), Rs rates varied by over a factor three between soil and vegetation types, ranging from 2.5 μmol m-2 s-1 in pioneer environments (Petasition on Very Young Fluvisols) to 8.5 μmol m-2 s-1 in differentiated soils supporting nitrophilous species (Rumicion on Calcaric Cambisols). Overall, this study provides quantitative estimates of spatial and temporal variability in Rs in the mountain environment, and demonstrates that estimations of soil carbon efflux at the watershed

  6. Leaching of Calcareous Bornite Ore in Ammoniacal Solution Containing Ammonium Persulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-xiong; Yin, Zhou-lan; Chen, Yi-guang; Xiong, Li-zhi

    2014-12-01

    The leaching process of copper from calcareous bornite ore using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant in ammoniacal solution was investigated. The effects of stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration of ammonia and ammonium persulfate, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio on the extraction percentage of copper from bornite ore were studied. The results show that the optimum leaching conditions for bornite ore with a maximum extraction of copper 88.9 pct are temperature 313.15 K (40 °C), reaction time 4 hours, stirring speed 600 r /min, L/S ratio 7/1 cm3/g, initial concentration of ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 3.0 mol/dm3.

  7. SPRINGS WITH CALCAREOUS TUFA IN THE VALLEY OF THE JAMNE CREEK IN GORCE

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    Roksana Krause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study gives a detail characteristic of a hard water springs habitat with the communities of Cratoneurion commutati (habitat code of Nature 2000: 7220, localized within Nature 2000 protected area Ostoja Gorczańska PLH120018, in an upper part of the valley of Jamne creek. The plants are described along with the main habitat parameters, namely: altitude, exposition, slope gradient, insolation, type of bedrock, water flow regime and the spring outflow efficiency. The temperature, pH, electrical conductivity were measured in the field, the concentrations of Ca and Mg in spring water were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The investigated headwater areas are small (0.7–80 m2 and highly differentiated by the intensity of calcareous tufa precipitation and the degree of plant cover development.

  8. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  9. Spatial and seasonal reef calcification in corals and calcareous crusts in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2015-12-14

    The existence of coral reef ecosystems critically relies on the reef carbonate framework produced by scleractinian corals and calcareous crusts (i.e., crustose coralline algae). While the Red Sea harbors one of the longest connected reef systems in the world, detailed calcification data are only available from the northernmost part. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured in situ calcification rates of primary and secondary reef builders in the central Red Sea. We collected data on the major habitat-forming coral genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora and also on calcareous crusts (CC) in a spatio-seasonal framework. The scope of the study comprised sheltered and exposed sites of three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient and over four seasons of the year. Calcification of all coral genera was consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In addition, Pocillopora showed increased calcification at exposed reef sites. In contrast, CC calcification increased from nearshore, sheltered to offshore, exposed reef sites, but also varied over seasons. Comparing our data to other reef locations, calcification in the Red Sea was in the range of data collected from reefs in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific; however, Acropora calcification estimates were at the lower end of worldwide rates. Our study shows that the increasing coral cover from nearshore to offshore environments aligned with CC calcification but not coral calcification, highlighting the potentially important role of CC in structuring reef cover and habitats. While coral calcification maxima have been typically observed during summer in many reef locations worldwide, calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicate that summer temperatures exceed the optima of reef calcifiers in this region. This study provides a foundation for comparative efforts and sets a baseline to quantify impact of future environmental change in the central Red Sea.

  10. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF UPPER CALLOVIAN-LOWER BERRIASIAN SUCCESSIONS FROM THE SOUTHERN ALPS, NORTH ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA EMANUELA CASELLATO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy was investigated in uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian sections from Southern Alps, previously detected through magnetostratigraphy, in order to achieve an integrated stratigraphic framework valid at low latitudes. Nannofossil investigations were carried out on smear slides and ultra-thin sections, revealing generally scarce to common abundances and poor-moderate preservation of nannofloras. An exhaustive taxonomic revision was performed to unambiguously separate forms which are transitional between two species and better delineate rapidly evolving groups. Four new species have been described: Zeugrhabdotus fluxus, Nannoconus puer, Nannoconus erbae, Hexalithus geometricus. Particular attention was paid to taxonomical aspects of primitive nannoconids, appearing and evolving across the early-late Tithonian transition and the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary intervals; the revision was also verified at DSDP Site 534A from Atlantic Ocean. Fourty-eight nannofossil bioevents were detected and the results help to increase potential stratigraphic resolution in this interval. Thirty-seven nannofossil bioevents in the upper Kimmeridgian-lower Berriasian interval have been directly correlated to magnetostratigraphy (CM22-CM17 revealing a systematically older stratigraphic occurrence of these taxa than previously reported. A revised and partly new Tethyan calcareous nannofossil zonation scheme is here proposed for the uppermost Callovian-lower Berriasian interval. It consists of seven bio-zones and eight subzones based on thirty-one bioevents, thirteen of them related to dissolution resistant taxa assuring highest reproducibility even in sections with high diagenetic overprint. The proposed biostratigraphic scheme gives higher resolution than previous zonations, especially for the Callovian-Kimmeridgian interval, where no biozonation was available for the Tethyan Realm. 

  11. Nutrient Level Change Based on Calcareous Nannofossil Assemblages During Late Miocene in Banyumas Subbasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfasran Hendrizan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.183-194Hydrographic situation on surface waters is more challenging to be understood, related to global and regional climate change in tropical regions. In addition, records from these tropical areas are limited compared to other areas of subtropical and polar regions. The aim of this study is to reconstruct Cenozoic paleoceanography, in particular nutrient level, using outcrop samples from Kali Pasir, Banyumas, Indonesia. This study is focused on the relationships of the relative abundance of Discoaster, coccolith size of Reticulofenestra, and lithofacies characteristics. Nutrient level is reconstructed using quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil by counting calcareous nannofossils on 400 fields of View (FOV for each sample. The abundance of Discoaster and the large Reticulofenestra represent a deep thermocline and nutricline, which is a typical of oligotrophic condition. This condition also associated with the muddy facies in the early stages of Late Miocene (NN8-NN10a. Conversely, decreasing Discoaster abundance and the abundance of small Reticulofenestra indicate a shallow thermocline and nutricline, resulting strong eutrophication of surface waters in the later stage of Late Miocene (NN10b-NN11. A high nutrient content in this stage is related to classical turbidite deposits. A change in a sea surface resulted in strong eutrophication, which is in this section similar to the eastern Indian Ocean micropaleontology records during the Late Miocene (NN10. This finding shows that strong eutrophication in Kali Pasir section is probably driven by nutrient-rich terrestrial material related to the onset of Indian monsoon during the Late Miocene.

  12. What do results of common sequential fractionation and single-step extractions tell us about P binding with Fe and Al compounds in non-calcareous sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-02-01

    Correct identification of P forms together with their main Fe and Al binding partners in non-calcareous sediments is of crucial importance for evaluation of P cycling in water bodies. In this paper, we assess extraction methods frequently used for this purpose, i.e., a sequential five-step fractionation (water, bicarbonate buffered dithionite solution (BD), NaOH, HCl, nitric-perchloric acid), ascorbate extraction (pH ~7.5), and oxalate extraction (pH ~3), directly on a range of laboratory prepared Fe and Al minerals enriched with adsorbed P. Extraction selectivity and efficiency for particular P, Fe and Al forms were also verified by specific combinations of these extraction methods applied on freshwater sediment samples. In the sequential fractionation, BD was highly effective in dissolving both amorphous and crystalline Fe (hydr)oxides and the associated P, while neither FeS nor Al (hydr)oxides were dissolved. The following NaOH extraction effectively dissolved both amorphous and crystalline Al (hydr)oxides. The high solubilizing power of BD and NaOH to dissolve crystalline Fe and Al oxides that have only a small P-sorption ability prevents the use of resulting Fe/P and Al/P ratios as simple predictors of total P sorption capacity of sediments and soils. Ascorbate non-selectively extracted small proportions of FeS and amorphous Fe and Al (hydr)oxides, but significant amounts of adsorbed P, which hinders its use for the characterization of P forms in non-calcareous sediments. Similar nonselective characteristics were found for oxalate extractions. As oxalate extracts most of the adsorbed phosphate, it is not possible to use it unambiguously to determine specific Fe/P and Al/P ratios of active complexes. However, this method is convenient (and more selective than NaOH step in the sequential fractionation) for the determination of amorphous Al (hydr)oxides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron fertilization with FeEDDHA : the fate and effectiveness of FeEDDHA chelates in soil-plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis is a nutritional disorder in plants which reduces crop yields both quantitatively and qualitatively, and causes large economic losses. It occurs world-wide, predominantly in plants grown on calcareous soils, as a result of a limited bioavailability of iron related to the

  14. Use of Amynthas gracilis (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) and Bougainvillea litter for rehabilitation of overexploited soils, in Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Alonso Gongora, Erick

    2014-05-01

    Yucatan peninsula is one of the recent emerged lands in Mexico; where more of the soils have low organic matter content, and/or the organic horizon is thin (2-5cm). The industry of material extraction for construction purposes is well developed in Yucatan Peninsula, due to the fact of the calcareous material that can be obtained by the maternal rock. Therefore, the material extraction promotes the desertification of the areas, and soil erosion. Bougainvillea sp is a tropical and subtropical woody, evergreen, shrubby vine (Kobayashi et al. 2007), it has a wide range of distribution and it roots are superficial, what allows the plant to inhabit soils with a thin layer of soil organic matter. Earthworms as ecosystem engineers (Jones et al. 1994) can modify their environment, forming borrows and incorporation organic matter into the soil. The aim of this study was to rehabilitate soils without organic matter horizon by the use of earthworms and Bougainvillea litter. The study was developed at mesocosmos level in the laboratory of soils at El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Campeche, Mexico. Individual of anecic earthworms were collected and reproduced previously, anecic worms can better incorporate organic matter in to the soil than epigeics or endogeics worms, in Mexican tropical terrestrial ecosystems, anecic worms are almost absent or scarce. In this study we used the exotic earthworm Amynthas gracilis (native in Taiwan),that used to inhabit banana plantations with low technology in southeast Mexico, as exotic has a wide range of tolerance to different amounts of soil organic matter and pH. Four treatments with 4 replicas were established: a) calcareous soil without organic matter horizon+earthworms+litter, b) calcareous soil with organic matter horizon+ earthworms+litter, c) calcareous soil without organic matter horizon+litter, d) calcareous soil with organic matter horizon+litter. After 60 days of study, we observed how earthworms developed successfully in

  15. Soil-geomorphology interactions and paleoclimatic implications of an ornithogenic soil toposequence on Rata Island, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Soares; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio Pereira; Clemente, Eliane de Paula; Simas, Felipe Nogueira Bello

    2014-07-01

    The formation of highly phosphatized soils on sites of avian activity is a common feature of oceanic islands. We characterized a toposequence of phosphatic soils on Rata Island, to evaluate the soil genesis based on local topographic variations. For this purpose, four soils ranging from the upper hill down to the lowest landscape position on the island, representing a range of parent materials (basalt and calcareous sands), were analyzed. In the lowest landscape position a shallow Regosol was identified, strongly influenced by birds and marine sprays, developed on “karstified” Pleistocene calcarenites; the three other soils in the upper part of the toposequence are Ornithogenic Cambisols, ranging from a deep Cambisol profile on Basalt lava to intermediate Cambisols on mixed colluvial sediments of the basalt/calcareous. The lowermost Regosol is associated with a rugged landscape with strong calcarenite dissolution and karstification. The soil phosphatization is clearly an inherited process of the Late Quaternary age, when climate conditions were different. Initial weathering took place in the last interglacial period, under wetter conditions during which the Tertiary basalts were strongly weathered, leaving corestones in a saprolitic, oxidized mass. In the late Pleistocene, a gentle surface distributed these weathering products along the pediment slopes as colluvial materials, whereas in the coastal areas aeolian processes formed large sand dunes composed of reworked calcareous sands from marine sources during a time of very low sea level. During this time, widespread bird activity accounted for secondary apatite formation on the surface of calcareous oolites. Finally, the Holocene warming was accompanied by increasing sea level, enhanced tropical weathering, Fe and Al mobility and variscite formation superimposed on degraded Ca-phosphates, forming two phase phosphatic aggregates.

  16. Calcareous nannofossil paleofluxes as proxy for pCO2 during the Aptian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Tiraboschi, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The Aptian (~121 to ~113 Ma) has been characterized by super-greenhouse climate and profound environmental perturbations, including the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 1) a, an episode of widespread organic matter burial in oxygen-depleted oceans. The OAE 1a is thought to be related to the emplacement of the Ontong Java Plateau which probably introduced in the atmosphere a large amount of CO2 with consequent impact on biota, climate and ocean chemistry. The major perturbation of the carbon cycle is mirrored by the carbon isotopic record which shows a negative shift at the beginning of OAE 1a followed by a positive excursion which persisted also after the event. The aim of this study is to reconstruct variations in biogenic carbonate production of calcareous nannofossils through the Aptian in order to detect if and how it has been affected by high pCO2. Calcareous nannoplankton is an excellent proxy for reconstructing present and paste surface water conditions, being extremely sensitive to changes in physical and chemical conditions of the oceans (pH). Calcareous nannoplankton act both as biological and carbonate pump, thus changes in nannoplankton assemblages affect the organic and inorganic carbon cycles. This makes coccolithophores key-organisms for understanding the biological pump and adsorption of atmospheric CO2 into the oceans. Experiments on living coccolithophores indicates that coccolith type, abundance and degree of mineralization depend on chemical-physical-trophic conditions as well as on pCO2. Production of dwarf/malformed coccoliths has been documented in the geological record through OAE 1a. Here we present quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite in thin sections, reconstructing nannofossil absolute abundances and calcite paleofluxes in three drill sites: the Cismon core (Northern Italy), Piobbico core (Central Italy) and DSDP Site 463 in the mid-Pacific Mountains. In these sites, nannofossil absolute abundances and paleofluxes show a

  17. On the nature of the calcareous substrate of a ferromanganese crust from the Vityaz Fracture Zone, Central Indian Ridge: Inferences on palaeoceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Banerjee, R.; Mergulhao, L.

    Pliocene age has been assigned to the calcareous substrate. Among the nannoplankton, discoasters outnumber coccoliths and show signs of dissolution. The presence of certain species of benthic Foraminifera such as Uvigerina, Lenticulina, Bulimina...

  18. Two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) from the deep Antarctic Eckström Shelf and a revised list of species found in Antarctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Göcke, Christian; Tendal, Ole Secher

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Antarctic Weddell Sea, Clathrina brandtae sp. nov. and Leucetta delicata sp. nov., collected at 600 m depth during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. The new species are described based...... on a combination of morphological and molecular data. With these new additions the number of species of calcareous sponges reported from south of 50 degrees S (similar to south of the Polar Front) reaches 50 species. We report an exceptionally high degree of endemism within the group, and as many as 44 out...... of the 50 species of calcareous sponges are solely confined to Antarctic waters. An updated list of species of calcareous sponges from the area is provided....

  19. Two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) from the deep Antarctic Eckstrom Shelf and a revised list of species found in Antarctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Göcke, Christian; Tendal, Ole Secher

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Antarctic Weddell Sea, Clathrina brandtae sp. nov. and Leucetta delicata sp. nov., collected at 600 m depth during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. The new species are described based...... on a combination of morphological and molecular data. With these new additions the number of species of calcareous sponges reported from south of 50 degrees S (similar to south of the Polar Front) reaches 50 species. We report an exceptionally high degree of endemism within the group, and as many as 44 out...... of the 50 species of calcareous sponges are solely confined to Antarctic waters. An updated list of species of calcareous sponges from the area is provided....

  20. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia; Ahmed, Sayed M.

    2017-04-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties.

  1. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  2. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and turnover dynamics in the late Campanian-Maastrichtian of the tropical South Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2016-01-01

    changes in sea-surface temperatures whereas the sixth event is likely the expression of a global decrease in primary productivity in the late Maastrichtian. Surprisingly, the turnover dynamics in calcareous nannoplankton appears completely unrelated to that observed in planktic foraminifera which shows......The complete late Campanian-Maastrichtian succession of the South Atlantic reference DSDP Site 525A has been investigated to establish a detailed record of calcareous nannofossil biohorizons. A complete holostratigraphy of the core is presented for this interval and allows for global correlations...... only 4 major events with different timings. The two groups thus seem to have responded either very differently to similar environmental constraints or to different direct environmental constraints in the photic zone, although caused by the same global changes in climate....

  3. Biomechanical effects of calcar screws and bone block augmentation on medial support in locked plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katthagen, Jan Christoph; Schwarze, Michael; Meyer-Kobbe, Josefin; Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Lill, Helmut

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of medial fracture gap augmentation in locked plating of an unstable 2-part proximal humeral fracture with calcar screws and insertion of a corticocancellous bone block. Furthermore the mechanical behavior of dynamic locking screws in the non-parallel arrangement of a proximal humeral plate was of interest. Thirty-two fresh frozen humeri were randomized in four equal groups. An unstable 2-part fracture was fixed by locked plating in all specimens. The basic screw setup was supplemented by additional calcar screws in one group. Humeral head screws were replaced by dynamic locking screws in a second group. The third group featured an additional corticocancellous femoral head allograft. Assessment of stiffness was followed by cyclic loading and load to failure tests. Resulting stiffness, fracture gap deflection and ultimate load were compared utilizing Bonferroni corrected t-test for independent samples. The mechanical effect of additional calcar screws was non-significant as compared to the basic screw configuration whereas bone block insertion significantly increased construct stiffness and failure load. The use of dynamic locking screws did not significantly reduce construct stiffness when compared to conventional locking screws. Additional calcar screws alone did not improve the initial biomechanical properties of an unstable 2-part proximal humeral fracture model. However bone block augmentation appeared to be a reliable alternative of additional bony support by raising stiffness and failure load. Dynamic locking screws did not show their expected dynamic component when used in a non-parallel arrangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  5. Upper Cenomanian – Lower Turonian (Cretaceous calcareous algae from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: taxonomy and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Bucur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An assemblage of calcareous algae (dasycladaleans and halimedaceans is described from the Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian of the Galala and Maghra el Hadida formations (Wadi Araba, northern Eastern Desert, Egypt. The following taxa have been identified: Dissocladella sp., Neomeris mokragorensis RADOIČIĆ & SCHLAGINTWEIT 2007, Salpingoporella milovanovici RADOIČIĆ 1978, Trinocladus divnae RADOIČIĆ 2006, Trinocladus cf. radoicicae ELLIOTT 1968, and Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT, 1977. Most of the species are recorded from the first time from Egypt. Three of the identified algae (T. divnae, S. milovanovici and H. elliotti also occur in Cenomanian limestones of the Mirdita zone, Serbia, suggesting a trans-Tethyan distribution of these taxa during the early Late Cretaceous. The abundance and preservation of the algae suggest an autochthonous occurrence which can be used for the characterization of the depositional environment. The recorded calcareous as well as the sedimentologic and palaeontologic context of the Galala Formation support an open-lagoonal (non-restricted, warm-water setting. The Maghra el Hadida Formation was mainly deposited in a somewhat deeper, open shelf setting. Calcareous algae (Halimeda cf. elliotti CONARD & RIOULT are restricted to one level in the uppermost Lower Turonian which indicates a brief return to shallow-water deposition after a significant deepening with maximum flooding during the early Early Turonian.

  6. NEW DATA ON MIDDLE TO LATE MIOCENE CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MARIA FORESI

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic foraminifera from one Atlantic Ocean (Site 397 and five Mediterranean sequences of middle to late Miocene age were investigated. The aim of the research was to refine the biostratigraphy of the Serravallian to early Tortonian interval and, since the recent literature provides no general consensus, to check the range of Neogloboquadrina acostaensis (Blow and Paragloborotalia siakensis (Le Roy. Examination of planktonic foraminifera identified a succession of events which is, in part, new in the Mediterranean area, and documented an overlap in the distribution of N. acostaensis and P.lia siakensis. Based on the new data, the zonal scheme for the Serravallian to early Tortonian interval proposed by Iaccarino and Salvatorini (1982 and Iaccarino (1985 was emended. In particular, it was ascertained that the first occurrence (FO of N. acostaensis falls in the upper part of the Serravallian, well before the last occurrence (LO of P.lia siakensis. The new zonation was calibrated with the calcareous nannofossil zonation and the geomagnetic polarity time scale. In light of these new data, the events closest to the base of the Rio Castellania-Rio Mazzapiedi-Tortonian type-section are interpreted to be the LO of P.lia siakensis, the first common occurrence (FCO of N. acostaensis, and the FO of Discoaster hamatus.. Therefore, the use of these events in selecting the GSSP of the Serravalian/Tortonian boundary is recommended. 

  7. Structure and evolution of a rocksalt-mudrock-tectonite: The haselgebirge in the Northern Calcareous Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Christoph; Neubauer, Franz; Urai, János L.; Schoenherr, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are part of the Eastern Alps in Austria and Germany. The Mesozoic units of this fold-and-thrust belt were detached, thrusted and stacked along the evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation. Exposed in salt mines, rocksalt and mudrock form a two component tectonite: The rock type “haselgebirge” consists of 10–70 wt % halite with silt- to gravel- or block-sized components within a halite matrix, and the “kerngebirge” with >70 wt % halite. All rock types studied are fault rocks. By use of a temperature-independent subgrain size piezometer, the paleo-differential stress of halite was calculated at ca. 2.5 MPa in Altaussee and ca. 4.5 MPa in Berchtesgaden. Including data from a grain-size piezometer, temperatures were estimated at ca. 150 ± 20 °C and 110 ± 10 °C. This implies very high strain rates, which are about 10−10–10−9 s−1. During the tectonic movement, the halite deformed, recrystallized, and crystallized as veins in mudrock fractures. We interpret high overpressure of the pore fluid to have significantly contributed to fracturing of the mudrock. PMID:26523077

  8. Chromatographic method for diaminopimelic acid detection in calcareous rocks. Presence of a bacterial biomarker in stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruat, G; Roten, C A; Marchant, R; Fay, L B; Karamata, D

    2001-07-13

    The presence in the environment of diaminopimelic acid (DAP), a specific eubacterial marker, can be attributed to that of bacteria. We report a reliable and highly sensitive method for the quantification of DAP in calcareous rocks. It consists of acid hydrolysis of rock powder, purification of DAP by chromatography on Dowex 50W and Spherogel AA-NA+ columns, and quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Addition of tritiated DAP, the internal standard, allows one to follow the relevant fractions throughout the purification procedure and to determine their yield. The analytical step consists in pre-column derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde of purified samples, and separation through a reversed-phase C18 column. Chemical controls, i.e., oxidation of samples to rule out the presence of co-eluting lanthionine and cystathionine, as well as mass spectrometry, confirm the presence of DAP in analyzed samples. Our method allows the separation of meso- from L- and/or D-stereoisomers of DAP, and reveals their presence in the examined rocks, two stromatolites of different age and geographic origin.

  9. Life-cycle traits of Paraleucilla magna, a calcareous sponge invasive in a coastal Mediterranean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Longo

    Full Text Available The calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna, originally observed along the Brazilian coast (Atlantic Ocean, is the only allochthonous invasive species of Porifera reported in the Mediterranean Sea. A 1-year investigation of the population dynamics and life-cycle of this exotic species in the Mar Piccolo di Taranto (southern Italy, central Mediterranean Sea has provided a good opportunity to test how environmental variations can influence its life-cycle and to ascertain what strategy can be adopted to successfully colonize a new environment. In the Mar Piccolo di Taranto, P. magna exhibits marked temporal changes in biomass. The studied specimens reproduce almost all year round, showing a seasonal pattern that peaks during warm months. This prolonged sexual activity allows P. magna to continuously produce young specimens, with repeated recruitment events taking place throughout the year, thus offsetting the seasonal mortality of adult specimens. This r-strategy enables the non-indigenous sponge to achieve a high degree of maintenance over relatively long periods (ten years at least.

  10. Dilatant shear band formation and diagenesis in calcareous, arkosic sandstones, Vienna Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Marco; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines deformation bands in calcareous arkosic sands. The investigated units can be considered as an equivalent to the Matzen field in the Vienna Basin (Austria), which is one of the most productive oil reservoirs in central Europe. The outcrop exposes carbonate-free and carbonatic sediments of Badenian age separated by a normal fault. Carbonatic sediments in the hanging wall of the normal fault develop dilation bands with minor shear displacements (< 2 mm), whereas carbonate-free sediments in the footwall develop cataclastic shear bands with up to 70 cm displacement. The cataclastic shear bands show a permeability reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude and strong baffling effects in the vadose zone. Carbonatic dilation bands show a permeability reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude and no baffling structures. We distinguished two types of deformation bands in the carbonatic units, which differ in deformation mechanisms, distribution and composition. Full-cemented bands form as dilation bands with an intense syn-kinematic calcite cementation, whereas the younger loose-cemented bands are dilatant shear bands cemented by patchy calcite and clay minerals. All analyzed bands are characterized by a porosity and permeability reduction caused by grain fracturing and cementation. The changed petrophysical properties and especially the porosity evolution are closely related to diagenetic processes driven by varying pore fluids in different diagenetic environments. The deformation band evolution and sealing capacity is controlled by the initial host rock composition. PMID:26300577

  11. Structural complexity at and around the Triassic-Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotai, M.; Pálfy, J.; Sasvári, Á.

    2017-10-01

    One of the key requirements for a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is the absence of tectonic disturbance. The GSSP for the Triassic-Jurassic system boundary was recently defined at Kuhjoch, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. New field observations in the area of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary GSSP site demonstrate that the overturned, tight, and almost upright Karwendel syncline was formed at semibrittle deformation conditions, confirmed by axial planar foliation. Tight to isoclinal folds at various scales were related to a tectonic transport to the north. Brittle faulting occurred before and after folding as confirmed by tilt tests (the rotation of structural data by the average bedding). Foliation is ubiquitous in the incompetent units, including the Kendlbach Formation at the GSSP. A reverse fault (inferred to be formed as a normal fault before folding) crosscuts the GSSP sections, results in the partial tectonic omission of the Schattwald Beds, and thus makes it impossible to measure a complete and continuous stratigraphic section across the whole Kendlbach Formation. Based on these observations, the Kuhjoch sections do not fulfil the specific requirement for a GSSP regarding the absence of tectonic disturbances near boundary level.

  12. The use of point load test for Dubai weak calcareous sandstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact rock is typically described according to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS. The UCS is needed in the design of geotechnical engineering problems including stability of rock slopes and design of shallow and deep foundations resting on and/or in rocks. Accordingly, a correct measurement/evaluation of the UCS is essential to a safe and economic design. Typically, the UCS is measured using the unconfined compression tests performed on cylindrical intact specimens with a minimum length to width ratio of 2. In several cases, especially for weak and very weak rocks, it is not possible to extract intact specimens with the needed minimum dimensions. Thus, alternative tests (e.g. point load test, Schmidt hammer are used to measure rock strength. The UCS is computed based on the results of these tests through empirical correlations. The literature includes a plethora of these correlations that vary widely in estimating rock strength. Thus, it is paramount to validate these correlations to check their suitability for estimating rock strength for a specific location and geology. A review of the available correlations used to estimate the UCS from the point load test results is performed and summarized herein. Results of UCS, point load strength index and Young's modulus are gathered for calcareous sandstone specimens extracted from the Dubai area. A correlation for estimating the UCS from the point load strength index is proposed. Furthermore, the Young's modulus is correlated to the UCS.

  13. Root development of winter wheat in erosion-affected soils depending on the position in a hummocky ground moraine soil landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrich, Marcus; Gerke, Horst H.; Sommer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The soil water uptake by crops is a key process in the hydrological cycle of agricultural ecosystems. In the arable hummocky ground moraines soil landscapes, an erosion-induced spatial differentiation of soil types has been established due to water and tillage erosion. Crop development may reflect soil landscape patterns and erosion-induced soil profile modifications, respectively, by increased or reduced plant and root growth. The objective was analyze field data of the root density and the root lengths of winter wheat for a non-eroded reference soil at the plateau (Albic Luvisol), an extremely eroded soil at steep midslope (Calcaric Regosol), and depositional soil at the footslope (Colluvic Regosol) using the minirhizotron technique. From 9/14 to 8/15 results indicate that root density values were highest for the Colluvic Regosol, followed by the Albic Luvisol and lowest for the Calcaric Regosol. In turn, the lowest maximum root penetration depth was found in the Colluvic Regosol because of the relatively high and fluctuating water table at this landscape position. The analyzed field root data revealed positive relations to above-ground plant parameters and corroborated the hypothesis that the crop root system was reflecting erosion-induced soil profile modifications. When accounting for the position-specific root development, the simulation of water and solute movement suggested differences in the balances as compared to assuming a spatially uniform development.

  14. Derivation of Soil Ecological Criteria for Copper in Chinese Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Considerable information on copper (Cu) ecotoxicity as affected by biological species and abiotic properties of soils has been collected from the last decade in the present study. The information on bioavailability/ecotoxicity, species sensitivity and differences in laboratory and field ecotoxicity of Cu in different soils was collated and integrated to derive soil ecological criteria for Cu in Chinese soils, which were expressed as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). First, all ecotoxicity data of Cu from bioassays based on Chinese soils were collected and screened with given criteria to compile a database. Second, the compiled data were corrected with leaching and aging factors to minimize the differences between laboratory and field conditions. Before Cu ecotoxicity data were entered into a species sensitivity distribution (SSD), they were normalized with Cu ecotoxicity predictive models to modify the effects of soil properties on Cu ecotoxicity. The PNEC value was set equal to the hazardous concentration for x% of the species (HCx), which could be calculated from the SSD curves, without an additional assessment factor. Finally, predictive models for HCx based on soil properties were developed. The soil properties had a significant effect on the magnitude of HCx, with HC5 varying from 13.1 mg/kg in acidic soils to 51.9 mg/kg in alkaline non-calcareous soils. The two-factor predictive models based on soil pH and cation exchange capacity could predict HCx with determination coefficients (R2) of 0.82-0.91. The three-factor predictive models--that took into account the effect of soil organic carbon--were more accurate than two-factor models, with R2 of 0.85-0.99. The predictive models obtained here could be used to calculate soil-specific criteria. All results obtained here could provide a scientific basis for revision of current Chinese soil environmental quality standards, and the approach adopted in this study could be used as a pragmatic framework for

  15. The effectiveness of soil-applied FeEDDHA treatments in preventing iron chlorosis in soybean as a function of the 0,0-FeEDDHA content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Dijcker, R.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The application of FeEDDHA products is the most common practice to prevent or to remedy Fe chlorosis in crops grown on calcareous soils. These products consist of a mixture of EDDHA components chelated to Fe. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) components: racemic

  16. The status of phosphorus in Thai soils and P evaluation using EDTA-NaF extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Matoh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the available P extracted by Bray II method in tropical soil is low, most of tropical plants can grow well. The objective of this study was to study P status and to evaluate the available P extracted by EDTA-NaF method. Top soil and sub soil of 10 dominant soil series in Thailand were analyzed for some chemical properties and characterization of the forms of phosphorus using EDTA-NaF extraction and successive phosphorus extraction by the modified Sekiya method. The soil total P concentration was 38-1137 mg P2O5 kg-1. The available Bray II-P was very low to high (1-76 mg P2O5 kg-1, and it approximated 0.17-12% of the total P. Iron and aluminum phosphates were the main fraction of inorganic P in acid soil, whereas Ca phosphates were in calcareous soils. Organic P content accounted for 33-67% and most of them were bound with Fe and Al in acid soils and Ca in calcareous soils. P extracted by EDTA-NaF reagent was obviously larger than that of Bray II reagent. The EDTA-NaF extracted P [high molecular weight organic P (HMWP+ inorganic P (EDTA ext Pi] was 7-46% and 1-6% of total P in acid soils and calcareous soils respectively. The EDTA ext Pi tended to be larger than HMWP except in Tk soil. The total amount of extracted P correlated well with Al-Pi and Fe-Pi which were the main fraction of inorganic P. It also correlated with HMWP, but HMWP did not correlate with organic P determine by ignition method and Ca-Po, Fe-Po and Al-Po. The EDTA-NaF method may be suitable for P evaluation in the soils which have high amounts of Fe-Pi, Al -Pi and organic P widely distributed in Thailand.

  17. Effect of land use change on soil properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Kõlli, Raimo; Köster, Tiina; Rannik, Kaire; Szajdak, Lech; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    For good base of sustainable land management and ecologically sound protection of soils are researches on soil properties and functioning. Ecosystem approach to soil properties and functioning is equally important in both natural and cultivated land use conditions. Comparative analysis of natural and agro-ecosystems formed on similar soil types enables to elucidate principal changes caused by land use change (LUC) and to elaborate the best land use practices for local pedo-ecological conditions. Taken for actual analysis mineral soils' catena - rendzina → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols - represent ca 1/3 of total area of Estonian normal mineral soils. All soils of this catena differ substantially each from other by calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, fabric and humus cover type. This catena (representative to Estonian pedo-ecological conditions) starts with drought-prone calcareous soils. Brown (distributed in northern and central Estonia) and pseudopodzolic soils (in southern Estonia) are the most broadly acknowledged for agricultural use medium-textured high-quality automorphic soils. Dispersedly distributed gley-podzols are permanently wet and strongly acid, low-productivity sandy soils. In presentation four complex functions of soils are treated: (1) being a suitable soil environment for plant cover productivity (expressed by annual increment, Mg ha-1 yr-1); (2) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of fresh falling litter (characterized by humus cover type); (3) deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (4) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. Capacity of soil cover as depositor (3) depends on it thickness, texture, calcareousness and moisture conditions. Biological activity of soil (4) is determined by fresh organic matter influx, quality and quantity of biochemical substances and humus

  18. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  19. Permafrost detection in the headwalls of receding glaciers at the Dachstein Massif, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Matthias; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Schnepfleitner, Harald; Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps cover a large area of the Austrian Alps forming a boundary zone between the Alpine Foreland to the north and the crystalline Central Alps to the south. Generally, climate in this area is more maritime compared to the mountain ranges further south. Few small glaciers are to be found mostly on north-facing slopes. The Northern Calcareous Alps reach maximum elevations of about 3000 m asl. Some of highest summits are to be found are located in the Dachstein Massif reaching 2995 m asl (47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E). Occurrence, thickness and thermal regime of permafrost at this mountain massif are widely unknown and knowledge is based on simulations only. In contrast, the glaciation changes at this mountain massif (e.g. Schladminger and Hallstätter glaciers) have been well documented for decades. Within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS - dealing with frost weathering and rockfall in alpine regions - knowledge of permafrost distribution in the headwalls surrounding the receding glaciers is substantial to understand rock decay. For this reason, several techniques have been applied in order to detect bedrock permafrost. During the winter of 2012 22 i-buttons (temperature sensors) were attached to rock walls with different orientations but at similar elevations (2600-2700 m asl). Most of these sites were later covered by an insulating winter snow cover therefore allowing the calculation of the base temperature of the winter snow cover (BTS). These BTS data have been used as a first indicator of permafrost presence. In selected rock walls of several mountains in the massif - Koppenkarstein (2863 m asl), Dirndln (2829 m asl) and Gjaidstein (2794 m asl) - additional 2D-geoelectric surveys (five ERT profiles with a length of 100 m and 2 m electrode spacing) were measured in summer 2013. The high resistivities (> 50.000 ohm.m) at about 1.5 m depth and deeper strongly suggest permafrost existence inside the bedrock at all

  20. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  1. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  2. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  3. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Xu

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  4. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S

    2002-12-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [{sup 239}Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}], Pu-citrate [{sup 239}Pu(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}){sup +}], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [{sup 239}Pu-C{sub 14}H{sub 23}O{sub 10}N{sub 3}]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g{sup -1} as Pu-nitrate, Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less

  5. Physicochemical conditions of skarn formation in contact of the Alvand batholith with the meta-calcareous rocks, Hamedan, western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Saki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cheshin meta-calcareous rocks (Permo Triassic in southeast Hamedan outcrop in association with a variety of pelitic schists and hornfels rocks. The intrusion of the Alvand Batholith (Jurassic age into pelitic and calcareous host rocks has produced metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area (Cheshin village. On the basis of the dominance of calcite/dolomite, silicate and ore minerals, the calcareous rocks can be divided into two groups: a marbles and calc-silicates; b skarn rocks. The ore bodies occur in a contact zone between sillimanite-hornfels and calc-silicate rocks and formed the skarn rocks. Based on mineralogy, skarn rocks in the studied area consist mainly of diopside, garnet, tremolite, vesuvianite, epidote and ore minerals (magnetite and hematite. The skarnification processes occurred at two stages: (1 prograde metamorphism; and (2 retrograde metamorphism. The first stage involved prograde metasomatism and anhydrous minerals such as garnet and pyroxene formed. Second stage of retrograde skarn development is also recognized. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Fe, along with volatile components were added to the skarn system. Consequently, considerable amounts of hydrous minerals, oxides and carbonates replaced the anhydrous minerals in the host rocks and hydrous minerals such as epidote+chlorite+amphibole formed. Using multiple equilibria by THERMOCALC® program, temperature (~630 ºC, pressure (~4 kbar, and fluid composition (XCO2 as low as 0.17 have been calculated for the formation of the calc-silicate rocks. Skarn mineralogy shows good agreement with these calculations.

  6. PRIMARY CEMENTED BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY WITH TROCHANTERIC AND CALCAR RECONSTRUCTION IN UNSTABLE INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES IN ELDERLY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Ranga Vital

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : To avoid the complications and morbidity associated with attempted Osteosynthesis of the so called Unstable inter - trochanteric fractures in the elderly population, Primary Cemented Bipolar hemiarthroplasty been around for over three decades now. But, hardly any emphasis been given over the technical aspects to i mprove the functional outcome. Present study is one such, following reconstructive attempts ( O f primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with trochanter and calcar reconstruction in the elderly population to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 20 cases of elderly patients with mean age of 73.5 years (Age range 66 to 82 yr who sustained multifragmentary/communited inter - trochanteric femur fracture treated with Primary cemented bipolar hemiar throplasty with trochanteric and calcar reconstruction to emphasize the importance of restoration soft tissue tension to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. Essential Technical steps include Figure of eight / multiple wire loop technique of recons truction ( with or without K ‘wires of greater trochanter/ abductor mechanism and calcar reconstruction either by wiring Lesser trochanteric fragment and or insertion of cortical piece of bone graft (medially under the collar of the prosthesis harvested f rom head and neck fragment. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Harris Hip Score (HHS. RESULTS: The mean HHS score was 85 (range 69 to 91 at the end of one year. The main clini cal measures were early post - operative full weight bearing, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, the rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better in cemented bipolar arthro plasty group. CONCLUSION: The authors strongly believe that primary cemented bipolar

  7. Evidence for enhanced debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps since the 1980s (Plansee, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A.; Krautblatter, M.

    2017-06-01

    Debris flows are among the most important natural hazards. The Northern Calcareous Alps with their susceptible lithology are especially affected by a double digit number of major hazard events per year. It is hypothesised that debris-flow intensity has increased significantly in the last decades in the Northern Calcareous Alps coincident to increased rainstorm frequencies, but yet there is only limited evidence. The Plansee catchment exposes extreme debris-flow activity due to the intensely jointed Upper Triassic Hauptdolomit lithology, being responsible for most of the debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps. The debris flows feed into a closed sediment system, the Plansee Lake, where Holocene/Lateglacial sedimentation rates, rates since the late 1940s and recent rates can be inferred accurately. Using aerial photos and field mapping, the temporal and spatial development of eight active debris-flow fans is reconstructed in six time intervals from 1947, 1952, 1971, 1979, 1987, 2000 and 2010 and mean annual debris-flow volumes are calculated. These are compared with mean Holocene/Lateglacial debris-flow volumes derived from the most prominent cone whose contact with the underlying till is revealed by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Debris-flow activity there increased by a factor of 10 from 1947-1952 (0.23 ± 0.07 · 103 m3/yr) to 1987-2000 (2.41 ± 0.66 · 103 m3/yr). Mean post-1980 rates from all eight fans exceed pre-1980 rates by a factor of more than three coinciding with enhanced rainstorm activity recorded at meteorological stations in the Northern Calcareous Alps. The frequency of rain storms (def. 35 mm/d) has increased in the study area on average by 10% per decade and has nearly doubled since 1921. Recent debris-flow activity is also 2-3 times higher than mean Holocene/Lateglacial rates. The strong correlation between the non-vegetated catchment area and the annual debris-flow volume might indicate a decadal positive feedback between

  8. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0......–86%) and 440–590 mg Cr kg−1 (removals: 35–51%), being within the 500 mg kg−1 limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential...

  9. Geochemical processes in a calcareous sandstone aquifer during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Russak, Amos; Siebner, Hagar; Bernstein, Anat; Katz, Yoram; Guttman, Jospeh; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In the last three years we monitor Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) of post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. The PTDES are stabilized with CaCO3 during post-treatment in the desalination plant and their chemical composition differs from those of any other water recharged to the aquifer and of the natural groundwater. We use suction cups in the unsaturated zone, shallow observation wells within the pond and production wells that encircles the MAR Menashe site, to study the geochemical processes during MAR with PTDES. Ion-enrichment (remineralization) of the recharged water was observed in both unsaturated zone and shallow observation wells samples. Enrichment occurs mainly in the first few meters below the pond surface by ion-exchange processes. Mg2+ enrichment is most prominent due to its deficiency in the PTDES. It is explained by ion-exchange with Ca2+, as the PTDES (enriched with Ca2+) infiltrates through a calcareous-sandstone aquifer with various amount of adsorbed Mg2+ (3-27 meq/kg). Hence, the higher concentration of Ca+2 in the PTDES together with its higher affinity to the sediments promotes the release of Mg2+ ions to the recharged water. Water isotopes analysis of the production wells were used to estimate residence time and mixing with local groundwater. At the end of 2016, it was found that the percentage of PTDES in adjacent down-gradient production wells was around 10%, while more distant or up-gradient wells show no mixing with PTDES. The distinct isotope contrast between the recharged desalinated seawater (δ2H=+11.2±0.2‰) and the local groundwater (δ2H ranged from -22.7 to -16.7‰) is a promising tool to evaluate future mixing processes at the Menshae MAR site. Using the Menashe MAR system for remineralization could be beneficial as a primary or complementary post-treatment technique. However, the sustainability of this process is

  10. Post-Late Glacial calcareous tufas from the Kurai fault zone (Southeastern Gorny Altai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Svetlana N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Deev, Evgeny V.; Ryapolova, Yuliya M.; Rusanov, Gennady G.; Tomilenko, Anatoliy A.; Bul'bak, Taras A.

    2017-06-01

    Calcareous tufa deposits have been discovered in the Chibitka River valley near Lake Cheybek-Kohl, at the junction of the Kurai and Teletsk-Kurai large active faults in the southeastern Gorny Altai, Russia, at an altitude of 1800-2000 m. Fossil tufa is composed of calcite and cements Holocene grey colluvium and glacial till deposited by the Late Glacial Chibitka Glacier. Current tufa precipitation has been observed from a low-flow spring with cold (10 °C) HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg water, pH = 6.86. The stable isotope composition of spring water is - 5.8‰ VPDB δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon and - 14.5‰ VSMOW δ18O. Modern tufa consists of thin laminated Mg-calcite and Sr-aragonite crusts, with abundant algae and biofilms on their surfaces. Both modern and fossil tufas are depleted in REE (a total of 0.40-16.4 ppm and 0.40-3.80 ppm, respectively) and share similar PAAS-normalised REE + Y spectra with HREE enrichment and slight progressive LREE depletion. The modern tufas show positive δ13C values of 0.1‰ to 0.9‰ VPDB while the fossil ones have an isotopically lighter composition of δ13C = - 4.1‰ to - 1.9‰ VPDB; the δ18O range is very narrow (- 13.0 to - 13.8‰ VPDB). Both stable isotope and trace-element signatures (including REE patterns) of the tufas indicate precipitation from cold groundwaters subjected to prolonged interaction with a carbonate aquifer (the Baratal Group of limestone and dolostone) in a cold continental climate similar to the present conditions. Tufa deposition in the Lake Cheybek-Kohl area began with the onset of post-Late Glacial global warming and permafrost degradation. Unlike the fossil tufa formation, current precipitation of freshwater carbonates has been microbially mediated. The discovered tufa deposits provide new palaeoclimatic and active tectonic proxies in the southeastern Gorny Altai.

  11. Fasciclin-calcareous corpuscle binary complex mediated protein-protein interactions in Taenia solium metacestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Bae, Young-An; Kim, Seon-Hee; Shin, Joo-Ho; Yang, Yichao; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2017-09-20

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is a serious neurological disease of global concern. Diverse bioactive molecules involved in the long-term survival of TsM might contribute to disease progression. Fasciclin (Fas) is an extracellular protein that mediates adhesion, migration and differentiation of cells by interacting with other molecules. We hypothesized that TsMFas might bind to calcareous corpuscle (CC) through its adhesive property and participate in crucial protein-protein interactions, thus contributing to the creation of a symbiotic interactome network. Two paralogous TsMFas (TsMFas1 and TsMFas2) were isolated, and their molecular properties were characterized. The co-localization pattern of TsMFas1 and TsMFas2 with CC was determined. CC-TsMFas binary complex was generated by incubating CC with recombinant proteins (rTsMFas1 and 2). In vitro binding assay of CC-rTsMFas1 or CC-rTsMFas2 binary complex with TsM cellular proteins extracted from scolex and neck was conducted. Their binding partners were identified through proteomic analysis. Integrated protein-protein interaction networks were established. TsMFas1 (6072 bp long) was composed of 15 exons (841 amino acid polypeptide) interrupted by 14 introns. TsMFas2 (5201 bp long) comprised of 11 exons (597 amino acids) and 10 intervening introns. These proteins displayed 22% amino acid sequence identity to each other, but tightly conserved Fas-related domains. Several isoforms of Fas1 and Fas2 proteins might have been expressed through post-translational modifications. They showed adhesion activity with other cells. TsMFas proteins were largely distributed in parenchymal regions of the scolex and bladder wall. These molecules were co-localized with CC, a unique organelle found in platyhelminths. Subsequent proteome analysis of CC-Fas binary complex mediated protein-protein interactions revealed seven protein ligands in the TsM cellular proteins. Their functions were mainly

  12. CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND AGE OF THE MIDDLE MIOCENE DEPOSITS OF LONGANO FORMATION (EASTERN MATESE MOUNTAINS, SOUTHERN APENNINES

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    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated calcareous plankton biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils and an accurate fieldwork, allowed us the reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Longano Formation (Orbulina Marls. In particular the correlation between the bioevents recognised in the Orbulina Marls sequence and those recorded in astronomically calibrated Middle Miocene sections, offered the possibility to date the passage from the shallow-water Cusano Formation to the deep-water deposits of the Longano Formation at about 13.21 Ma and the successive onset of terrigenous deposits of the Pietraroia Formation at 10.54 Ma. In addition, an high resolution study of the terrigenous sequence, showed that this sedimentary event is not abrupt but it is characterised by a progressive increase, bed by bed, of the siliciclastic fraction up to the deposition of the sandstones. The recognition in all the studied sections of the base of the first Acme (AB1 of Paragloborotalia siakensis dated at 13.21 Ma, just above the phosphate-rich interval (this interval marks the transition between Cusano and Longano Formations, proved that the transgression which led to the deposition of the Orbulina Marls was synchronous in all the south-eastern Matese Mountains. 

  13. Behaviour of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers. Effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    We studied the behaviour of oxyfluorfen herbicide at a rate of 4 l ha(-1) on biological properties of a Calcaric Regosol amended with two edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (SS, derived from sewage sludge; and CF, derived from chicken feathers). Oxyfluorfen was surface broadcast on 11 March 2013. Two days after application of oxyfluorfen to soil, both biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) were also applied to the soil. An unamended soil without oxyfluorfen was used as control. For 2, 4, 7, 9, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, the soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured. For 2, 7, 30 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, soil microbial community was determined. The application of both BS to soil without the herbicide increased the enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity, mainly at 7 days of beginning the experiment. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with SS than for CF. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly, the low-molecular-weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms is responsible for less inhibition of these soil biological properties.

  14. Early-middle Eocene transition in calcareous nannofossil assemblages at IODP Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, NW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlotta; Agnini, Claudia; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2017-04-01

    The early-middle Eocene interval documents the shift from the warmest greenhouse conditions occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 52-50 Ma) to the beginning of the cooling phase which led to the Oligocene icehouse regime. This important transition is well expressed as a reversal in the global oxygen and carbonate isotope trends (Zachos et al., 2001). Moreover, this interval was a time of remarkable transformation in the marine biosphere. Communities of calcareous nannoplankton, marine calcifying algae at the base of the oceans food chain, experienced transient and permanent profound changes. Calcareous nannofossil are regarded as remarkable tools both in biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with several taxa that show different responses to changes in physical parameters of surface waters. Here, we aim to document calcareous nannoplankton assemblage changes across the early-middle Eocene transition, in order to upset the biostratigraphic framework and to increase comprehension of how phytoplankton communities responded to paleoenvironmental changes at that time. The sedimentary successions recovered at IODP Site U1410 (Exp. 342; 41˚ 19.6987'N; 49˚ 10.1995'W, Norris et al., 2012) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (NW Atlantic) offer an expanded record of the early-middle Eocene interval that is marked by an increase in accumulation rate related to sedimentation of clay-rich nannofossil oozes. Quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages was conducted, encompassing calcareous nannofossil Zones NP12 -NP15 or CNE4-CNE10 (Martini, 1971; Agnini et al., 2014). The study interval records the appearance and proliferation of Noelaerhabdaceae family (i.e, Reticulofenestra/Dictyococcites group), which can be considered one of the most significant shifts in the assemblage structure of the Paleogene. This change was probably favored by modifications in surface water chemistry. The middle Eocene clay-rich sediments contain well preserved

  15. Effect of secular variation in oceanic Mg/Ca on calcareous biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Stanley, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    The polymorph mineralogy of simple, hypercalcifying marine organisms has generally varied in synchroneity with the polymorph mineralogy of abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. This synchroneity is caused by secular variation in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (SW; mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca brines and river water, driven by the global rate of ocean crust production. Here, we present experiments evaluating the effect of seawater Mg/Ca on the biomineralization and growth of extant representatives of hypercalcifying taxa that have been subjected to fluctuations in oceanic Mg/Ca in the past. Codiacean algae (arag), scleractinian corals (arag), coccolithophores (low-high Mg-calc), coralline algae (high Mg-calc), various reef-dwelling animals (echinoids, crabs, shrimp, calcareous serpulid worms; high Mg- calc), and calcifying microbial mats (arag + high-Mg calc) were grown in artificial SW formulated over the range of mMg/Ca (1.0 to 5.2) that occurred throughout each taxon's history. Codiacean algae and scleractinian corals exhibited higher rates of calcification and growth in artificial SW favoring their aragonite mineralogy and, significantly, produced a portion of their CaCO3 as calcite in the artificial calcite SW. Coccolithophores (low-high Mg calc.) showed higher calcification and growth rates and produced low-Mg calcite in the calcite SW. Likewise, coralline algae and the reef-dwelling animals (high-Mg calc) varied skeletal Mg/Ca with seawater Mg/Ca. The calcifying microbial mats grew equally well in the calcite and aragonite SW and varied their mineral polymorph commensurate with the SW (mMg/Ca2 = arag + high-Mg calc), suggesting a nearly abiotic mode of calcification. The precipitation of low-Mg calcite + aragonite by codiacean algae and scleractinian corals (arag in modern seas), and of low-Mg calcite by the coccolithophores and reef-dwelling animals (high-Mg calc in modern seas), in the calcite SW

  16. Using Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy to Improve the Identification of the Albian-Cenomanian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Shamar; Watkins, David

    2017-04-01

    Identifying the Albian-Cenomanian boundary has proven to be difficult due to taxonomic discrepancies associated with the foraminifera used to mark this boundary. Thalmaninella globotruncanoides and foraminifera that co-exist at this stratigraphic level are difficult to distinguish due to the presence of transitional forms. As a result, it is important to find other microfossil markers to aid in identifying this boundary. The first appearance datum (FAD) of Calculites anfractus is the secondary calcareous nannofossil marker for the basal Cenomanian; however, C. anfractus is not a reliable marker as it is rare. In addition, holococcoliths do not occur in all oceanic settings because they are more susceptible to dissolution than heterococcoliths. Currently, the last appearance datum (LAD) of Hayesites albiensis and the FAD of Corollithion kennedyi are used to estimate the Albian-Cenomanian boundary. Although these markers are reliable, it is necessary to refine the nannofossil biostratigraphic resolution in this part of the column to improve the accuracy of placing the boundary. Seventy-three smear slides were analyzed from DSDP Sites 137 and 547. Approximately 500 specimens were counted and two additional traverses were scanned for rare species. The data were then analyzed using a probabilistic biostratigraphic method known as RAnking and SCaling (RASC). Lithraphidites eccentricum was previously believed to have an FAD in the middle Cenomanian because it was assigned an age based on its co-occurrence with planktonic foraminifera from the Rotalipora cushmani Zone and Rotalipora appenninica Subzone; however, a taxonomic review later showed that the FAD of L. eccentricum co-occurs with foraminifer Hedbergella libyca, which went extinct shortly after the Albian-Cenomanian boundary. This study corroborates this finding as the FAD of L. eccentricum is observed below the FAD of C. kennedyi (100.45 Ma). The LAD of Gartnerago stenostaurion is another event that was placed in

  17. The phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles on wheat varies with soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean-Luc; Fang, Tommy; Dimkpa, Christian O; Britt, David W; McLean, Joan E; Jacobson, Astrid; Anderson, Anne J

    2015-02-01

    Zn is an essential element for plants yet some soils are Zn-deficient and/or have low Zn-bioavailability. This paper addresses the feasibility of using ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) as soil amendments to improve Zn levels in the plant. The effects of soil properties on phytotoxicity and Zn bioavailability from the NPs were studied by using an acidic and a calcareous alkaline soil. In the acid soil, the ZnO NPs caused dose-dependent phytotoxicity, observed as inhibition of elongation of roots of wheat, Triticum aestivum. Phytotoxicity was mitigated in the calcareous alkaline soil although uptake of Zn from the ZnO NPs occurred doubling the Zn level compared to control plants. This increase occurred with a low level of Zn in the soil solution as expected from the interactions of Zn with the soil components at the alkaline pH. Soluble Zn in the acid soil was 200-fold higher and shoot levels were tenfold higher than from the alkaline soil correlating with phytotoxicity. Mitigation of toxicity was not observed in plants grown in sand amended with a commercial preparation of humic acid: growth, shoot uptake and solubility of Zn from the NPs was not altered by the humic acid. Thus, variation in humic acid between soils may not be a major factor influencing plant responses to the NPs. These findings illustrate that formulations of ZnO NPs to be used as a soil amendment would need to be tuned to soil properties to avoid phytotoxicity yet provide increased Zn accumulations in the plant.

  18. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Tithonian - Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Daria K.; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2017-08-01

    The Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Andean region show an excellent record of different calcareous microfossils, among which calcareous dinoflagellate cysts stand out. Detailed micropaleontological studies of Vaca Muerta Formation (Early Tithonian - Early Valanginian) in the southern Mendoza Neuquén Basin from three sections are conducted with the aim of establishing a major presence of microfossil representatives from different microfossil groups. The analysis of several thin sections from the outcrops reveals a relatively rich micropaleontological assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, as well as levels with poor preserved calpionellids and benthic foraminifera. Particularly, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst includes 24 known species (two of them with two subspecies). Some species with biostratigraphic value of the Tethyan region have been identified also in the Andean region: 1) Committosphaera pulla (Borza) and Parastomiosphaera malmica (Borza) are species known only from Lower Tithonian; 2) Colomisphaera tenuis (Nagy) appears in the latest Early Tithonian; 3) Colomisphaera fortis Řehánek and Stomiosphaerina proxima Řehánek are important markers for the latest Late Tithonian - middle Late Berriasian interval; 4) Stomiosphaera wanneri Borza appears in the middle Late Berriasian; 5) Colomisphaera conferta Řehánek and Colomisphaera vogleri (Borza) appear in the Late Berriasian and marked the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary interval; 6) Carpistomiosphaera valanginiana Borza is a marker for the Lower/Upper Valanginian. More detailed studies of these groups will allow their correlation with Tethyan biozones, and contribute to improve biostratigraphic schemes in the Neuquén Basin.

  19. How a Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog changed into a calcareous fen : the unique Holocene history of a Slovak spring-fed mire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajkova, Petra; Grootjans, A. B.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Rybnickova, Eliska; Madaras, Mikulas; Opravilova, Vera; Michaelis, Dierk; Hajek, Michal; Joosten, Hans; Wolejko, Leslaw; Rybníčková, Eliška; Madaras, Mikuláš; Opravilová, Věra; Wołejko, Lesław; Hajkova, T.

    In general, mires develop by autogenic succession from more groundwater-fed to more rainwater-fed. This study from a calcareous mire in the West Carpathians (Slovakia) describes a similar development in the Early Holocene, followed by a reverse development in the Middle and Late Holocene. Pollen,

  20. Laboratory studies on the consolidation and protection of calcareous materials in the Cathedral of Oviedo. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbert, Rosa M.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a series of accelerated artificial ageing tests to study the evolution of the silico-organic treatment products applied to calcareous materials of the Catedral of Oviedo. Test valoration has been made both by visual examination and weight loss measuring. We conclude by comparing different behaviours of treated stones with diverse products in the tests monitored.

    Se han realizado una serie de ensayos de envejecimiento artificial acelerado para estudiar la evolución de los productos de tratamiento silico-orgánicos aplicados a los materiales calcáreos de la Catedral de Oviedo. La valoración de los resultados se ha realizado mediante observación visual y medidas de pérdida de peso. Se concluye comparando los distintos comportamientos de las piedras tratadas con diferentes productos frente a estos ensayos.

  1. Influence of solar activity on the development of calcareous nannofossils from a Middle Holocene costal paleo-ria (SW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armand; Cachão, Mário; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Conceição Freitas, M.

    2015-04-01

    A 27 m long core was recovered from a present day flat-floored small fluvial valley, tributary of the Mira River (SW Portugal) allowing to span almost the complete Holocene sedimentary sequence directly overlaying Paleozoic schists and greywackes. A high resolution study of its micropaleontological content (Alday et al. 2006) was performed and 5 sedimentary stages were established: i) a coccolith-barren lower fluvial stage; ii) a coccolith intermittent lower estuarine stage; iii) a coccolith rich marine (ria) stage; iv) a coccolith intermittent upper estuarine/lagoonal stage and v) a coccolith-barren upper fluvial stage. The usefulness of calcareous nannofossils as natural tracers of the marine sedimentation contributing with valuable information for environmental reconstructions has been thoroughly demonstrated. Here, we present a high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstruction from the interpreted marine (ria) section of the core, between 8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP using most abundant calcareous nannofossils. Factor Analysis retrieved two major factors from the coccolith assemblages. Factor 1 (24% var.) is related to oceanic affinity community (e.g. Gephyrocapsa muellerae, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera sibogae) whereas Factor 2 (23% var.) is linked to coastal neritic taxa (e.g. Ascidian spicules, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Coccolithus pelagicus braarudii, Heliscosphaera carteri and Braarudosphaera bigelowii). These scores showed the existence of two episodes (8.8k to 7.4k and 5.8k to 5.2k cal yr BP) of marine colonization inside the paleoecological succession of the Holocene paleo-ria (8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP). In order to establish the relationship between the solar activity and calcareous nannofossils sedimentation, cyclicity on the studied time series was investigated by performing spectral analysis on Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) scores. F1 score periodogram discloses three significant periodicities (460, 350 and 236-yrs) whereas F2 score

  2. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  3. Pore Size Distribution Influence on Suction Properties of Calcareous Stones in Cultural Heritage: Experimental Data and Model Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water sorptivity symbolises an important property associated with the preservation of porous construction materials. The water movement into the microstructure is responsible for deterioration of different types of materials and consequently for the indoor comfort worsening. In this context, experimental sorptivity tests are incompatible, because they require large quantities of materials in order to statistically validate the results. Owing to these reasons, the development of analytical procedure for indirect sorptivity valuation from MIP data would be highly beneficial. In this work, an Intermingled Fractal Units’ model has been proposed to evaluate sorptivity coefficient of calcareous stones, mostly used in historical buildings of Cagliari, Sardinia. The results are compared with experimental data as well as with other two models found in the literature. IFU model better fits experimental data than the other two models, and it represents an important tool for estimating service life of porous building materials.

  4. The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): Permo-Scythian evaporites in an alpine thrust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph

    1989-11-01

    Multiphase-deformed and weakly metamorphosed Permo-Scythian evaporites of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps) of Austria were deposited in an aborted rift arm of the northwest Tethys. They represent marine precipitates laid down in a basin surrounded by alluvial fans and mudflats. Mean bromide values of halite (13 ± 53 ppm) as well as S-isotope ratios of sulphate minerals ( +14 ± 0.9ℵ CDT) indicate that the contribution of non-marine waters to the marine brine composition was insignificant. The most striking feature is the Haselgebirge structure, a chaotic mélange of shales, silt and sandstones, anhydrites, carbonates and scarce magmatites (Kirchner, 1980) embedded in a clayey halite matrix. This mélange resulted from severe tectonization caused by a variety of deformational processes (halokinesis, diapirism, gravitational sliding and alpine thrust tectonics).

  5. Methodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in the Walloon Region (Belgium: calcareous grasslands in the Lesse-and-Lomme area

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    Mahy G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Walloon Region (Belgium, 239 sites have been selected to be included in the Natura 2000 network. The next step is to write designation acts in order to legally protect these 221,000 ha. In this pilot study, a designation act was elaborated for a Natura 2000 site of 2,569 ha and located in the Lesse-and-Lomme area within the Calestienne region. Although the site includes 40 ha of calcareous grasslands, characterised by an exceptional flora and fauna, this habitat is very threatened by abandonment and fragmentation.The methodology used to elaborate the designation act is presented with respect to calcareous grassland. Firstly, in spring and summer 2003, an accurate map of natural habitats was produced, with every single patch of calcareous grassland being mapped. Information was also collected in order to evaluate conservation status. Based on this information, conservation status was then assessed with respect to three different criteria: (1 integrity of the cortege species, (2 habitat structure and (3 degradations. Thirdly, the site was divided into objective zones according to the different habitats and species of Community interest found in the site. Hence, an objective zone was delineated for calcareous grasslands. This objective zone was then divided in several management units. Finally, at these different spatial levels (site, objective zone, management unit, management measures were suggested. As a result, in the draft designation act, the target is to maintain or restore 230 ha of calcareous grassland, instead of the existing 40 ha. This ambitious target requires large-scale restoration and an efficient grazing scheme. These will need important resources for their successful implementation

  6. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Falace

    Full Text Available Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.. Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Sofia; Adamski, Marcin; Bergum, Brith; Guder, Corina; Jordal, Signe; Leininger, Sven; Zwafink, Christin; Rapp, Hans Tore; Adamska, Maja

    2012-07-23

    Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to utilize models representing different sponge lineages to describe

  8. Increase in physical activity after resurfacing hip arthroplasty is associated with calcar and acetabular bone mineral density changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Davey M J M; Hannink, Gerjon; Rijnders, Ton; van Susante, Job L C

    2017-03-31

    Bone preservation is an important advantage of the resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA) concept. We hypothesised that patients' increase in physical activity level after RHA would positively relate with periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) changes and thus facilitate bone preservation. BMD-changes were prospectively recorded in 38 patients after RHA. Dual-energy absorptiometry was used to quantify BMD-changes in 6 periprosthetic regions of interest preoperatively, at 6 months, 1, 2 and 3 years postoperative. The effect estimates of patients' physical activity, according to their Harris Hip Score (HHS) and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Activity Score, on these BMD changes were assessed in linear mixed models. The UCLA (coefficient = 0.02 (95% CI, 0.010-0.034); p<0.001) and HHS (coefficient = 0.002 (95% CI, 0.001-0.003); p<0.001) were associated with the BMD in the calcar region. As for BMD changes in the femoral neck only the HHS was associated (coefficient = 0.0006 (95% CI, <0.0001-0.001); p = 0.04). Both the UCLA and the HHS were inversely associated with BMD in the medial acetabular region (UCLA: coefficient = -0.02 (95% CI, -0.038 to -0.007); p = 0.005, HHS: coefficient = -0.002 (95% CI, -0.003 to -0.001), the same accounted for the HHS to BMD-change cranial to the acetabulum (-0.001 [95% CI, -0.0018 to -0.0001]; p = 0.03). For the caudal acetabular and femoral subtrochanteric region no relation with BMD-changes was found. The increase in activity scores after RHA was indeed associated with an increase in BMD in the calcar region, however unexpectedly also with a BMD decrease on the acetabular side. Stress shielding from the implant is the most likely causative factor.

  9. Influence of organic amendments on copper distribution among particle-size and density fractions in Champagne vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, E; Chenu, C; Robert, M

    2001-01-01

    The intensive use for over 100 years of copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture) to fight against mildew in vineyard soils has led to an important, widespread accumulation of Cu (100 to 1500 mg Cu kg-1 soil). In Champagne vineyards, organic amendments are used currently to increase soil fertility and to limit soil erosion. Organic amendments may have a direct effect on the retention of Cu in the soil. To assess the influence of the organic management on the fate of Cu in calcareous Champagne vineyard soils, we studied Cu distribution (1) in the soil profile and (2) among primary soil particles, in vineyard parcels with different amendments. Amendments were oak-bark, vine-shoots and urban compost. The results were compared with the amount and the distribution of Cu in an unamended calcareous soil. Physical soil fractionations were carried out to separate soil primary particles according to their size and density. Cu has a heterogeneous distribution among soil particle fractions. Two fractions were mainly responsible for Cu retention in soils: the organic debris larger than 50 microns or coarse particulate organic matter (POM) issued from the organic amendments, and the clay-sized fraction < 2 microns. The POM contained up to 2000 mg Cu kg-1 fraction and the clay fraction contained up to 500 mg Cu kg-1 fraction. The clay-sized fraction was responsible for almost 40% of the total amount of Cu in the four parcels. POM was predominantly responsible for the differences in Cu contents between the unamended and the three amended parcels. Our results attested that methods of soil particle-size fractionation can be successfully used to assess the distribution of metal elements in soils.

  10. Responses of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and rhizobia to copper-based fungicide application in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin; Dober, Melanie; Jöchlinger, Lisa; Keiblinger, Katharina; Soja, Gerhard; Mentler, Axel; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Bruckner, Alexander; Golestani Fard, Alireza; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    For more than 120 years, salts of copper (Cu) have been used in viticulture to prevent damages by fungal diseases. Due to restrictions in the use of synthetic fungicides and mineral fertilizers, organic viticulture depends on Cu as well as on biological nitrogen fixation. Here, we conducted an eco-toxicological pot experiment with an acidic, sandy soil and a calcareous, loamy soil and incrementally increasing fungicide application rates from 0 to 5000 mg Cu kg-1 soil. Lucerne (Medicago sativa L. cultivar. Plato) was grown in the pots for 3 months under greenhouse conditions. Acetylene reduction assays performed with harvested nodules showed no response to elevated soil Cu concentrations indicating that the nitrogen fixing capacity of rhizobia was not compromised by Cu in our experiment. Nevertheless, the nodule biomass was very sensitive to Cu and strongly decreased due to reduced amounts of fine roots and less energy supply by the plant. Legumes are known to be Cu-sensitive, and our contribution also showed a decrease in harvest by 50 % (EC50) at 21 mg kg-1 plant Cu tissue concentration in the acidic soil and at 30 mg kg-1 in the calcareous soil. This corresponded to diffusional fluxes measured by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) of 202 and 368 fmol cm-2 s-1, respectively. DGT measurements showed that in the acidic soil, Cu was 2 to 10 times more available for plants, depending on the concentration applied, than in the calcareous soil. A modeling approach for estimating the effective concentration (EC) by including the DGT-estimated plant Cu content and the pH produced more accurate values (NRMSE of 21.9 to 20.1 %) than EC directly estimated from DGT.

  11. Water Consumption, Soil Temperature and Soil Respiration in Model Ecosystems of Young Oak Stands Treated by Air-warming and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Thomas; Arend, Matthias; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Schulin, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    IPCC scenarios predict a global mean annual temperature increase during the 21st century of 2 - 6 °C, as well as changes in precipitation patterns. The multidisciplinary project "Querco" addresses the question how increased air temperature and extended drought periods will influence stands of young oaks. For this purpose, mixed stands of young Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petrea (4-year-old trees from seeds of four different provenances each) were composed in the WSL open-top model-ecosystem chambers on either acid or calcareous forest soils and grown under four different climate treatments (control, air-warming, drought, air-warming & drought) from 2007 to 2009. Drought treated chambers only received about one third of water during the growing seasons from May to October as compared to the control. Further, we established longer drought periods without any irrigation. The air-warming treatment was established by keeping the side walls of the open-top chambers more closed than in the controls. Unsurprisingly, evapotranspiration from dry soils was much lower than from irrigated soils. There was significantly more evapotranspiration from the acidic than from the calcareous soil. These findings are in line with increased leaf transpiration rates and a tendency towards higher leaf biomass in oaks growing on acid as compared to calcareous soil. The higher evapotranspiration from acid soils also was in line with the fact that soil water potentials decreased more in acidic than in calcareous soils, an effect that became particularly significant during periods of high consumptive water demand by the trees. While soil water potentials were strongly decreased by the drought treatments down to 1 m depth, the air-warming treatment had almost no effect on soil water potential. Treatments, air-warming and drought, significantly increased soil temperature. In drought treated soils, this effect was related to the lower water content as compared to the control soils. As intended

  12. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  13. How do soil fauna and soil microbiota respond to beech forest growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu CHAUVAT, Andrei S. ZAITSEV, Ernst GABRIEL, Volkmar WOLTERS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and performance of soil biota during forest rotation were studied in monoculture beech stands forming a chronosequence of four different age-classes (30, 62, 111, 153 yr. Biomass was monitored in major groups of microflora, microfauna, mesofauna, and macrofauna. Resource availability (litter layer, soil organic mater, biomass of the two dominant decomposer groups (microflora, earthworms as well as the biomass of mesofauna and microfauna were found to remain quite stable during forest succession. Nevertheless, the marked increase of the biomasses of primary decomposers (fungi, saprophagous macroinvertebrates in the 62-year-old stand, followed by an increase of the biomasses of macropredators in the 111-year-old stand, indicate substantial changes of several components of edaphic communities during forest development. However, constant values of soil respiration suggest that the overall performance of the soil food web does not change during beech forest succession. Thus, the decomposer system of lowland managed beech forests on calcareous soils seems to be very stable over time. We suggest that earthworm activity might have masked impacts of forest development on other soil biota and led to an astounding stability of decomposer assemblages during beech forest rotation [Current Zoology 55 (4: 272–278, 2009].

  14. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

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    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  15. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

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    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  16. Monitorization of technosols in old mining sites treated with calcareous fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, MariLuz; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina, Jose; Martínez, Lucia B.

    2014-05-01

    A large number of soils around the world are contaminated by heavy metals due to mining activities, generating adverse effects on human health and the environment. In response to these negative effects, a variety of technologies to remediate soils affected by heavy metals have been developed. Among them, in situ immobilization by means of soil amendment is a non-intrusive and cost effective alternative, that transforms the highly mobile toxic heavy metals to physico-chemically stable forms, reducing their mobility and environmental risks. Limestone filler is a good selection for such a purpose, because of its low permeability and low solubility, due to its high degree of physical-chemical stability and because is a non-toxic material with a high finely divided calcium carbonate content. In addition, the use of this amendment could revalorize the residues, reducing the costs of the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of a immobilization technique in sediments contaminated by heavy metals as a results of mining activities. The study area was Portman bay, located close to the mining region of La Unión and subjected to mining from the time of the Roman Empire to 1991. Wastes from mining activities mainly consisted in ore materials (galena, pyrite and sphalerite), phyllosilicates, in addition to siderite, iron oxides and sometimes alteration products such as jarosite, alunite, kaolinite and greenalite. These materials have suffered a concentration process by floatation with sea water and, as a result of the discharge, the whole of the bay has filled up with wastes which also extend into the Mediterranean Sea. Two experimental areas, approximately 1 Ha each one, were selected and technosols were developed as follows: original sediments from the bay, sediments mixed with limestone filler in a 1:1 proportion, gravel to avoid capillary and natural soil to allow plant growth. After the remediation technique was applied, monitorization of

  17. EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION WITH DEPURATED LIVESTOCK EFFLUENTS ON SOILS. A CASE STUDY FROM CENTRAL ITALY

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    Rosa Francaviglia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the qualitative modifications of a Calcaric fluvisol after irrigation with fresh water and depurated pig-slurry effluents (aerobic and anaerobic treatment, and phytodepuration with a reed bed system. The accumulation of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn as total and as bio-available forms in the soil was evaluated, together with soil aggregate stability index, hydraulic conductivity of the saturated soil and the in situ infiltration rate. The experimental field was divided into three plots, and cultivated with silage maize for three years (2003-2005. Results showed that the irrigation with depurated and phytodepurated effluents produced significant changes in the soil chemical properties controlling soil permeability, and influenced the bio-available fraction of heavy metals.

  18. Impact of land-use on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture: evidence from a desertified dryland using repeated paired sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuehua; Tang, Shuangli; Cornwell, William K; Gao, Shuqin; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-03-01

    Desertification resulting from land-use affects large dryland areas around the world, accompanied by carbon loss. However it has been difficult to interpret different land-use contributions to carbon pools owing to confounding factors related to climate, topography, soil texture and other original soil properties. To avoid such confounding effects, a unique systematic and extensive repeated design of paired sampling plots of different land-use types was adopted on Ordos Plateau, N China. The sampling enabled to quantify the effects of the predominant land-use types on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture, and to define the most promising land-use choices for carbon storage, both in grassland on sandy soil and in desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results showed that (1) desertification control should be an effective measure to improve the carbon sequestration in sandy grassland, and shrub planting should be better than grass planting; (2) development of man-made grassland should be a good choice to solve the contradictions of ecology and economy in desert grassland; (3) grassland on sandy soil is more vulnerable to soil degradation than desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results may be useful for the selection of land-use types, aiming at desertification prevention in drylands. Follow-up studies should directly investigate the role of soil texture on the carbon storage dynamic caused by land-use change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodic soils reclaimed with by-product from flue gas desulfurization: corn production and soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S; Nishiyama, M; Matsumoto, S

    2001-01-01

    Interest is growing in the use of by-product from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reclaim sodic soils by controlling the pH and excessive Na+. This study evaluated the effects on corn (Zea mays) production and pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of calcareous sodic soil during four times of cultivation when the by-product was applied once at the first cultivation (Study I) and the impacts on plant and soil quality at first cultivation when the by-product was applied to the soil at 23,000 kg ha-1 (Study II). In Study I, the germination rate and corn production increased by applying the by-product (0, 5,800, 11,600, and 23,100 kg ha-1), and the greatest total amounts of corn production during the four times of cultivation was when the by-product was applied at 23,100 kg ha-1. In Study II, the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), clay dispersion and soluble Na+ in the soil decreased and soluble Mg2+ and soluble K+ in the soil increased. The soil pH was reduced from 9.0 to 7.7 by applying the by-product. However, the by-product decreased the concentrations of total N and P in corn leaves in this study. No significant difference in the concentrations of Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Al in corn leaves and the soil was observed between the by-product addition and the control except for B in the soil and Fe in corn leaves. The concentration of B in the soil was reduced from 28.7 mg kg-1 to 25.4 mg kg-1 and the concentration of Fe in corn leaves increased from 17.5 mg kg-1 to 22.6 mg kg-1 by applying the by-product in our study.

  20. Discovery of a landscape-wide drape of late-glacial aeolian silt in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): First results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Sanders, Diethard

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian deposits record palaeoenvironmental conditions and may coin soil properties. Whereas periglacial loess is extensively investigated for 200 years, the study of the intramontane wind-blown deposits of the Alps has just stuttered along. Herein, we describe a drape of polymictic siliciclastic silt interpreted as an aeolian deposit that veneers extensive areas in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), from kames terraces near valley floors up to last-glacial nunataks. The NCA - part of the Eastern Alps mountain range - consist mainly of Triassic carbonate rocks; these are overlain by deposits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and its deglacial-paraglacial aftermath (e.g., glacial tills, fluvio-lacustrine successions, alluvial fans, scree slopes) - and a regional drape of polymictic silt newly described herein. The drape is typically a few decimeters in thickness and slightly modified by soil formation; it consists mainly of well-sorted silt of quartz, feldspars, phyllosilicates (muscovite, chlorite, biotite), amphiboles and, rarely, calcite or dolomite. The drape is unrelated to the substrate: it overlies carbonate bedrock and - in lateral continuity - abandoned deposystems such as colluvial slopes of redeposited till, kames, alluvial fans, scree slopes, and rock avalanche deposits. The drape was spotted from near the present valley floors up to LGM nunataks, over a vertical range of some 2000 m; it is also present in catchments of the NCA that were not overridden by far-travelled ice streams and that lack metamorphic rock fragments. Two OSL quartz ages of the drape from two distinct locations (18.77 ± 1.55 ka; 17.81 ± 1.68 ka) fall into the early Alpine late-glacial interval shortly after the collapse of pleniglacial ice streams; this fits with geological and geomorphological evidence, respectively, that the drape should be of early late-glacial age, and that it accumulated during a specific interval of time. In the NCA, localized minor deposition of

  1. Discovery of laterally extensive drape of siliciclastic silt in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria: Late-glacial to ?early Holocene aeolian deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Sanders, Diethard

    2016-04-01

    Field surveys in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA, a nappe stack of Triassic carbonate rocks) revealed a drape, or drapes, typically 20-40 cm in thickness of siliciclastic silt over extensive landscape areas, from valley floors to LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) nunataks. The drape veneers substrates ranging from country rocks to diverse post-LGM deposits - the latter with depositional and/or erosional topographies. The drape mostly is overlain by vegetated organic material and, in turn, tops inactive/abandoned post-LGM successions of fluvial (including kame terrace), alluvial fan, scree slope, LGM basal till, and rock-avalanche origin. The drape extends over kilometers at least (limit of field investigation in specific areas), up to LGM nunatak plateaus. Deposystems (e.g., scree slopes, alluvial fans) on carbonate-rocky terrain that remained active until the Holocene are not topped by the drape; a level of siliciclastic silt, however, was spotted within a few of these successions. The possibility that several levels of silt are intercalated within or top post-glacial deposits cannot be excluded at present; the large lateral extent and the stratigraphic position, however, suggest that at least most locations pertain to a single widespread level (with that reservation, we prefer to speak in singular of the drape). Over the inspected area (~ 90 x 20 km), the drape consists mainly of silt-sized grains of quartz, feldspars, micas, and amphiboles; at a few sites, calci- or dolosilt are admixed. Most of the grains are angular to subrounded, some grains show features of corrosion. Preliminary palynological analyses of this silt - seven locations from LGM nunataks to kame terrace and alluvial fans - suggest vegetation types that, together, may be assigned to palaeoclimates ranging from the late-glacial (Younger Dryas?) to the middle Holocene. A few of the pollen spectra appear to record sparse vegetation cover allowing for enhanced aeolian deposition, but other spectra (e

  2. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  3. DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS SARACENO FORMATION (CALABRIA, ITALY: IMPLICATIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE LIGURIDE COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANO TORRICELLI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous nannofossils recovered from the turbidites of the Saraceno Formation outcropping in the type area (north-eastern Calabria, Italy are presented. They provide new information about the age of the Saraceno Formation, hence a constraint to reconstruct the timing of deformations that affected the Liguride Complex. The distribution of dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous nannofossils in the succession studied is compared with biostratigraphies available for the Upper Cretaceous. Accordingly, the age of the lowermost part of the Fiumara Saraceno section is latest Albian to Turonian, whereas the upper part of the section is dated as late Campanian-?earliest Maastrichtian. A hiatus spanning che Coniacian, che Santonian and most of che Campanian is inferred between these two successions, which are also distinguished by the presence and absence of flint respectively. Consistencies and discrepancies of che present data with biostratigraphical information previously published for che Saraceno Formation, are discussed. 

  4. Physical behaviour of calcareous nannofossil ooze and effects of clay and organic matter on pelagic sediment stability: experimental approach using laboratory flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buls, Toms

    the erosional and depositional behaviour of the produced experimental nannofossil ooze utilising laboratory flumes. These experiments observed general decrease of calcareous nannofossil ooze mobility with decreasing bed porosity and with increasing concentration of clay and organic matter within the studied bed......This thesis explores the subject of physical behaviour of ancient calcareous nannofossil ooze that eventually formed kilometre-thick Upper Cretaceous chalk succession over vast areas of NW Europe and more than 65 Ma years later forms valuable hydrocarbon and ground-water reservoirs. This thesis...... porosity range (85–60 %). A transition from simple to complex erosional behaviour has been identified mostly when bed porosity decreases below 80 %. This complex erosion required definition of multiple erosion thresholds. Typically, erosion thresholds were increasing with decreasing bed porosity...

  5. Comparison of the analgesic effect of ultrasound and low-level laser therapy in patients suffering from plantar fasciitis (calcar calcanei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri; Hronkova, Hana; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Knizek, Jiri

    2001-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the two therapeutic approaches, ultrasound and low level laser (LLLT) used in 181 patients suffering from calcar calcanei-plantar fasciitis. The effectiveness of the treatment was determined according to the evaluation of the patient using certain criteria described in the table. The complete disappearance of pain was seen in 50% of 60 patients treated with US and partial improvement in 16.6% and 69 patients were treated with LLLT from which 67% described complete pain relief, and 20% partial improvement. The results show that the LLLT is a good therapeutic approach in the treatment of pain in patients suffering from calcar calcanei-plantar fasciitis. The treatment with laser was significantly more successful then the ultrasound therapy, which is currently the most common therapy used for plantar fasciitis.

  6. Soil Formation and Taxonomy in Yeşilırmak River Terraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Durak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the soils of which parent material is alluvial and formed Yeşilırmak river terraces were investigated. For this purposes four different profiles were excavated in the study area. Then twenty-seven soil samples were taken from horizons of four profiles and their physical and chemical analyses were done for soil taxonomy research. Profile of Kumocagi and Cakil were classified in subgroup as Typic Ustipsamments, Havaalanı and Mera profiles were classified Typic Haplustolls and Typic Argiustolls subgroups respectively. The pH values of soils varied between 7.38-8.41. These soils can be classified as low and highly basic. Most of the soil series had an irregular pH distribution in the profile. The range of carbonate content of the soils was 0.8-25.4%. Although carbonate content of soils showed a very wide range, majority of them can be classified as highly calcareous. In most of soils carbonate content was distributed irregulary in the profile. Organic matter content were between 0.14-6.11% in the soils. Although organic matter contents of the soils changed in a wide range most of them had low organic matter content. Organic matter content was over 4% in the surface horizon of only two profiles. Research result showed that, alluvial parent material, particle size, topograpy and time have different effect on investigation soils.

  7. The study of mechanical behavior on the interface between calcar-defect femur and restorations by means of finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X. H.; Jiang, W.; Chen, H. Z.; Zou, W.; Wang, W. D.; Guo, Z.; Luo, J. M.; Gu, Z. W.; Zhang, X. D.

    2008-11-01

    The mechanical behaviors of calcar-defected femur and restorations under physiological load are the key factors that will greatly influence the success of femur calcar defect repairing, especially the stress distribution on the bone-restoration interface. 3D finite elements analysis (FEA) was used to analyze the mechanical characters on the interfaces between femoral calcar defects and bone cement or HA restorations. Under the load of two times of a human weight (1436.03 N) and with the increase of the defect dimension from 6 mm to 12 mm, the maximal stresses on the surface of restorations are from 7.06 MPa to 11.89 MPa for bone cement and 2.97-9 MPa for HA separately. In this condition, HA restoration will probably be broken on the bone-restoration interface when the defect diameter is beyond 8 mm. Furthermore, under the load of 1.5 times of a human weight, HA restoration would not be safe unless the defect dimension is smaller than 10 mm, because the maximal stress (4.62 MPa) on the restoration is only a little lower than compressive strength of HA, otherwise the bone fixation device should be applied to ensure the safety. It is relatively safe for all restorations under all the tested defect sizes when the load is just the weight of a human body.

  8. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Understanding of the Metazoan Skeletal System, Based on the Initial Discoveries with Siliceous and Calcareous Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate. Detailed studies of the initial mineralization steps in human bone-forming cells showed that this process is also controlled by enzymes, starting with the deposition of Ca-carbonate bio-seeds, mediated by carbonic anhydrases-II and -IX, followed by non-enzymatic transformation of the formed amorphous Ca-carbonate deposits into amorphous Ca-phosphate and finally hydroxyapatite crystals. The required phosphate is provided by enzymatic (alkaline phosphatase-mediated degradation of an inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP, which also acts as a donor for chemically useful energy in this process. These new discoveries allow the development of novel biomimetic strategies for treatment of bone diseases and defects.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and DFT-modeling of novel agents for the protection and restoration of historical calcareous stone substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiore, Laura; Aragoni, M Carla; Carcangiu, Gianfranco; Cocco, Ombretta; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Meloni, Paola; Murru, Arianna; Tuveri, Enrica; Arca, Massimiliano

    2015-06-15

    The ammonium salts of oxamate (AmOxam) and monomethyloxalate (AmMeox), structurally related to ammonium oxalate (AmOx), were synthesized and characterized as protecting agents/filler for calcareous stone substrates. Both compounds featured an improved solubility in water and alcoholic-water mixtures with respect to AmOx. While AmOxam is stable in aqueous solution and reacts with calcite to afford the corresponding insoluble calcium oxamate (CaOxam), AmMeox spontaneously undergoes hydrolysis to give ammonium monohydrogen oxalate hemihydrate (AmBiox) and calcium oxalate (CaOx). Both compounds have been tested for the restoration of naturally weathered marble and biomicritic limestone. The formation of a superficial layer of CaOxam and CaOx was observed on stone samples treated with AmOxam and AmMeox, respectively, depending on the solvent mixture. A quantum-mechanical study was carried out at DFT level in order to investigate the nature of the interactions occurring between the lithic substrate (calcite) and the passivating agents, showing how the structural modifications on oxalic acid derivatives can be exploited to fine-tune their interaction with the calcite surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory studies on the consolidation and protection of calcareous materials in the Cathedral of Oviedo. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, Carlota

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of some consolidating and protecting products, to be applied to the deteriorated calcareous stones of the Cathedral of Oviedo, is presented. A proposed procedure and methodology for evaluating that suitability is also described. The studied stones, limestones and dolomites, have been experimentally subjected in laboratory to some treatment products: ethyl silicate, oligomeric silane and silicon resin. Some physical properties of those stones were evaluated before and after the treatments with the mentioned products. Those properties (porosity, water absorption, compressive strength and deformability, mechanical microfissuration threshold, acoustic emission, etc. were selected according to the significative role they play on the process of stone alteration or in supporting the proposed conclusions.

    Se presenta una metodología de trabajo encaminada a evaluar la idoneidad de ciertos productos consolidantes y protectores aplicados a piedras monumentales deterioradas. Para ello, en esta 1.ª parte, se determinan una serie de propiedades físicas, antes y después de aplicar los tratamientos. Dichas propiedades han sido seleccionadas por su incidencia en los mecanismos de alteración. Las piedras ensayadas proceden de la Catedral de Oviedo, son rocas calcáreas: calizas y dolomías. Los productos de tratamiento empleados han sido: silicato de etilo, silano oligomérico y resina silicónica. Se concluye con la comparación de las variaciones en las propiedades determinadas, antes y después del tratamiento, según el producto empleado.

  12. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-02-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought).

  13. VARIATIONS IN SOIL PROPERTIES AS AFFECTED BY DEFORESTATION ON LOESS-DERIVED HILLSLOPES OF GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Khormali

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and shift of land use to agriculture, is of great concern in Golestan Province andhas brought hazardous problems of flooding, landslide and soil loss. Soil organic carbon, totalnitrogen content, available phosphorous and potassium, calcium carbonate content, thicknessof A horizons and some important soil properties were studied on forested soils and comparedwith the adjacent deforested and cultivated soils. The studied soils were formed on a hillslopewith parent material consisted mainly of loess deposits. Forested and deforested soils wereclassified as Calcic Hapludolls and Typic Hapludolls, respectively. The studied soils were allcalcareous with the pH value of 7-7.9. The soil texture was silty clay loam with the siltcontent of 54-60%. The results revealed that the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen contentand available potassium, were significantly lower in the deforestated soils. The thickness ofmollic horizons was also reduced after deforestation in all studied pedons. While calciumcarbonate contents of the subsurface horizon of the forested soils are significantly highercompared to the surface horizon due to the leaching processes, it is considerably high in thesurface horizons of the deforested soils and does not change significantly with depth. Thispoints to the effect of deforestation and cultivation practices which has led to soil erosion andthe subsequent exposure of the highly calcareous subsurface horizon. Available soilphosphorous did not show any significant change by deforestation.

  14. Changes in bacterial community of soil induced by long-term straw returning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Chen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Straw returning is an effective way to improve soil quality. Whether the bacterial community development has been changed by long-term straw returning in non-calcareous soil is not clear. In this study, the following five treatments were administered: soil without fertilizer (CK; wheat and corn straw returning (WC; wheat straw returning with 276 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (WN; manure, 60,000 kg ha−1 pig manure compost (M and wheat and corn straw returning with 276 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (WCN. The high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to evaluate the bacterial communities. The results showed that the community was composed mostly of two dominant groups (Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Bacterial diversity increased after the application of straw and manure. Principal component analyses revealed that the soil bacterial community differed significantly between treatments. The WCN treatment showed relatively higher total soil N, available P, available K, and organic carbon and invertase, urease, cellulase activities and yield than the WC treatment. Our results suggested that application of N fertilizer to straw returning soil had significantly higher soil fertility and enzyme activity than straw returning alone, which resulted in a different bacterial community composition, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Acinetobacter which were the dominant genera in the WC treatment while Candidatus, Koribacter and Granulicella were the dominant genera in the WCN treatment. To summarize, wheat and maize straw returning with N fertilizer would be the optimum proposal for improving soil quality and yield in the future in non-calcareous fluro-acquic-wheat and maize cultivated soils in the North China Plain in China.

  15. Vegetation-induced spatial variability of soil redox properties in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Ringer, Marianna; Balázs, Réka; Zacháry, Dóra; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Perényi, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation induced land patches may result spatial pattern of on soil Eh and pH. These spatial pattern are mainly emerged by differences of aeration and exudation of assimilates. Present paper focuses on vertical extent and temporal dynamics of these patterns in wetlands. Two study sites were selected: 1. a plain wetland on calcareous sandy parent material (Ceglédbercel, Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary); 2. headwater wetland with calcareous loamy parent material (Bátaapáti, Hungary). Two vegetation patches were studied in site 1: sedgy (dominated by Carex riparia) and reedy (dominated by Phragmites australis). Three patches were studied in site2: sedgy1 (dominated by C vulpina), sedgy 2 (C. riparia); nettle-horsetail (Urtica dioica and Equisetum arvense). Boundaries between patches were studied separately. Soil redox, pH and temperature studied by automated remote controlled instruments. Three digital sensors (Ponsell) were installed in each locations: 20cm and 40cm sensors represent the solum and 100 cm sensor monitors the subsoil). Groundwater wells were installed near to triplets for soil water sampling. Soil Eh, pH and temperature values were recorded in each 10 minutes. Soil water sampling for iron and DOC were carried out during saturated periods. Spatial pattern of soil Eh is clearly caused by vegetation. We measured significant differences between Eh values of the studied patches in the solum. We did not find this kinds horizontal differences in the subsoil. Boundaries of the patches usually had more reductive soil environment than the core areas. We have found temporal dynamics of the spatial redox pattern. Differences were not so well expressed during wintertime. These spatial patterns had influence on the DOC and iron content of porewater, as well. Highest temporal dynamics of soil redox properties and porewater iron could be found in the boundaries. These observations refer to importance patchiness of vegetation on soil chemical properties in

  16. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M. [Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Rigola, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G. [Barcelona Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  17. Effects on soil organic matter mineralization and microbiological properties of applying compost to burned and unburned soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrión, M B; Lafuente, F; Mulas, R; López, O; Ruipérez, C; Pando, V

    2012-03-01

    This study was undertaken in the context of a project of reclamation of a burned forest area applying municipal waste compost (MWC) and it consisted of an incubation experience carried out under laboratory conditions. The objectives of this research were to asses the effect of three doses of MWC added to burned and unburned calcareous soils on a) SOM mineralization and b) soil microbiological parameters. The laboratory incubation experience was carried out with three compost doses (1, 2 and 4% w/w) on a burned soil and another unburned one from an adjacent plot, besides the corresponding control samples. The mineralization kinetics of the organic matter was studied for 92 days. The kinetics data were adjusted to a double exponential model, showing two C pools of different degrees of resistance to mineralization and concentration, with half-life times of 1.9-4.9 and 34-76 days, respectively. In the unburned soil, the initial potential mineralization rate of the labile and stable C pools showed an opposed behavior, increased and decreased with the MWC dose, respectively. However in the burned soil no significant tendencies were observed. Although applying compost tended to increase the size of more labile pool with respect to total mineralizable C, however most of the soil or compost OM did not result mineralizable in the short and medium term. The compost amendment did not increase soil microbial activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Ions on the Adsorption of Cd 2+ on Clay and Sandy Loam Egyptian Soils

    OpenAIRE

    EL-Hefnawy, Mohamed E.; Selim, Elmetwaly M.; Assaad, Faiz F.; Ismail, Ali I.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Cd2+ on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts. Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were calculated at two different electrolyte concentrations: 0.05 N and 0.15 N. The adsorption was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results showed that lower concentration of the NaCl or Na2SO4 electrolytes (0....

  19. Biogeochemistry of plant-soil system in a limestone area: A case study of Mt. Kinsho-zan, Gifu prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Sugitani, K.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Limestone contains few of the nutrients essential for plant growth, such as Si, K, and P. Owing to its high concentrations of alkali earth elements and the resulting high pH, P and Fe tend to be sparingly available for plants in soils developed in limestone areas. Because of this limited availability of nutrients in calcareous soils, certain typical calcareous plants are known to occasionally dominate. On Mt. Kinsho-zan, a limestone mountain in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, however, typical calcareous plants are not seen; various non-calcareous plants appear and do not seem to be malnourished. In addition to the nutrients supplied by precipitation and eolian dusts, litter decomposition may supply nutrients, which could circulate in the plant-soil system. In this study, the soil properties (water content, loss on ignition, and pH) and the chemical compositions of soils, plant leaves (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and parental rocks (limestone) were analyzed to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of the plant-soil system on Mt. Kinsho-zan. A mountain composed of sandstone and mudstone, which lies near the main research area, was chosen for comparison. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Spectris Co., Ltd Panalytical Division Axios-N system). Ten major elements were analyzed in all samples, and 13 and 4 trace elements were analyzed for soils and plants and for limestones, respectively. In the limestone samples, the concentrations were as follows: SiO2 = 0.12-0.22wt%, Al2O3 = 0.054-0.13wt%, Fe2O3 = 0.021-0.057wt%, CaO = 55.12-55.33wt%, K2O = 40-55 ppm, TiO2 = 29-48 ppm, and Zr = 12-14 ppm. In soils developed in the limestone area, SiO2 = 43.48-55.46wt%, Al2O3 = 25.47-34.92wt%, Fe2O3 = 10.75-13.64wt%, CaO = 0.46-5.61wt%, K2O = 1.30-1.72wt%, TiO2 = 1.02-1.36wt%, and Zr = 240-319 ppm. Concentrations of Fe2O3, MnO, and P2O5 in soils from the limestone area are two times higher than those in soils from the sandstone-mudstone area; the

  20. Seasonal calcareous nannoplankton and other biogenic particle fluxes for 1990-2009: twenty-year long records from the central subarctic Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kozo; Tsutsui, Hideto

    2017-04-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed for nearly 20 years (1990-2009) at two long-term locations: Station SA (49°N, 174°W, trap depth 4,800 m, water depth 5,400 m) in the central subarctic Pacific, and Station AB (53.5°N, 177°W, trap depth 3,200 m, water depth 3,800 m) in the southern Bering Sea. Among many biogenic particles, calcareous nannoplankton represented nearly half or more of the entire calcium carbonate fluxes of the regions. Dominant taxa include Coccolithus pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi. The flux maxima of the former taxon occurred twice a year during June and October-November, whereas that of the latter taxon only occurred primarily once a year in November at both stations, indicating environmental preferences of the taxa. Among many environmental conditions, the fluxes of Emiliania huxleyi showed strong correlations with both water temperatures above 45 m depth and air temperatures (these parameters taken with one-month lag [earlier values] considering sinking time of ca. a month to the respective trap depths). Coccolithus pelagicus, on the other hand, showed lower values in the correlation with temperatures (Tsutsui et al., 2016), indicating that this taxon is somewhat more dependent on other factors such as nutrients compared to those of E. huxleyi. The timings of the seasonal flux maxima of calcareous nannoplankton are quite different from and later than those of other taxonomic groups such as diatoms and silicoflagellates. The primary seasonal flux maxima of diatoms and silicoflagellates, for example, occurred in May, a month earlier than the June maximum of C. pelagicus, and secondary seasonal flux maxima occurred in August, 2-3 months earlier than those of calcareous nannoplankton at both stations, based on 8 year flux records for diatoms (Onodera and Takahashi, 2009) and 4 year records for silicoflagellates (Onodera and Takahashi, 2012). By examining seasonal changes of nitrate and phosphate concentrations above 50 m depth from ERDDAP

  1. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels

  2. Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we

  3. The upper Bartonian to Chattian Inntal Group (nov.nom.) in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Hans; Briguglio, Antonino; Rögl, Fred

    2015-04-01

    Fugger (1907) was the first to describe Eocene limestone containing corals and oysters at the abandoned Kirchholz quarry near Bad Reichenhall (SE Germany). With a transgressional conglomerate the limestone succession rests on Upper Cretaceous Nierental Formation. Utilizing planktonic foraminifera from a single marlstone layer, Hillebrandt (1962) assigned the base of the transgressional sequence to the lower to middle Lutetian. For our study, we processed one sample of the marlstone for planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton. Both assemblages consist essentially of reworked Cretaceous and Paleogene specimens. Acarinina cuneicamerata and Igorina wartsteinensis indicate the upper Ypresian planktonic foraminifera Zone E7a in the classification scheme of Wade et al. (2010). Beside substantial admixtures of Ypresian material (e.g. common Discoaster lodoensis), calcareous nannoplankton assemblages contain species (e.g. Discoaster saipanensis, D. tanii, Nannotetrina cristata), which have their first occurrences in the Lutetian Zone NP15 in the zonation of Martini (1971). However, thin sections of the limestone display larger benthic foraminifera species not only from the Ypresian and Lutetian but also from the upper Bartonian to lower Priabonian Shallow Benthic Zones SBZ18 to SBZ 19 (e.g. Discocyclina pratti pratti, Asterocyclina stellata stellata, Orbitoclypeus varians varians). Therefore, all older specimens encountered are interpreted as reworked. The results from the Kirchholz quarry are consistent with previously published data (Risch, 1993) from the near-by Nierental. There, the transgressional base of the Eocene limestone contains Chapmanina gassinensis with a stratigraphic range from SBZ18 to SBZ20. Close to the Nierental, a small Eocene reef occurs at Eisenrichterstein. Nummulites striatus in concurrence with N. aff. ptukhiani (Darga, 1992) indicate SBZ 18. Lithostratigraphically, the upper Bartonian to lower Priabonian detrital and reefal limestone

  4. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  5. On the peritidal cycles and their diagenetic evolution in the Lower Jurassic carbonates of the Calcare Massiccio Formation (Central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandano Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the environmental changes and high-frequency cyclicity recorded by Lower Jurassic shallow-water carbonates known as the Calcare Massiccio Formation which crop out in the central Apennines of Italy. Three types of sedimentary cycle bounded by subaerial erosion have been recognized: Type I consists of a shallowing upward cycle with oncoidal floatstones to rudstones passing gradationally up into peloidal packstone alternating with cryptoalgal laminites and often bounded by desiccation cracks and pisolitic-peloidal wackestones indicating a period of subaerial exposure. Type II shows a symmetrical trend in terms of facies arrangement with peloidal packstones and cryptoalgal laminites present both at the base and in the upper portion of the cycle, separated by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones. Type III displays a shallowing upward trend with an initial erosion surface overlain by oncoidal floatstones to rudstones that, in turn, are capped by pisolitic-peloidal wackestones and desiccation sheet cracks. Sheet cracks at the top of cycles formed during the initial phase of subaerial exposure were successively enlarged by dissolution during prolonged subaerial exposure. The following sea-level fall produced dissolution cavities in subtidal facies, while the successive sea-level rise resulted in the precipitation of marine cements in dissolution cavities. Spectral analysis revealed six peaks, five of which are consistent with orbital cycles. While a tectonic control cannot be disregarded, the main signal recorded by the sedimentary succession points toward a main control related to orbital forcing. High frequency sea-level fluctuations also controlled diagenetic processes.

  6. Structure and Properties of Nanomaterials: From Inorganic Boron Nitride Nanotubes to the Calcareous Biomineralized Tubes of H. dianthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanur, Adrienne Elizabeth

    Several nanomaterials systems, both inorganic and organic in nature, have been extensively investigated by a number of characterization techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The first system consists of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) synthesized via two different methods. The first method, silica-assisted catalytic chemical vapour deposition (SA-CVD), produced boron nitride nanotubes with different morphologies depending on the synthesis temperature. The second method, growth vapour trapping chemical vapour deposition (GVT-CVD), produced multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs). The bending modulus of individual MWBNNTs was determined using an AFM three-point bending technique, and was found to be diameter-dependent due to the presence of shear effects. The second type of nanomaterial investigated is the biomineralized calcareous shell of the serpulid Hydroides dianthus. This material was found to be an inorganic-organic composite material composed of two different morphologies of CaCO3, collagen, and carboxylated and sulphated polysaccharides. The organic components were demonstrated to mediate the mineralization of CaCO3 in vitro. The final system studied is the proteinaceous cement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. The secondary structure of the protein components was investigated via FTIR, revealing the presence of beta-sheet conformation, and nanoscale rod-shaped structures within the cement were identified as beta-sheet containing amyloid fibrils via chemical staining. These rod-shaped structures exhibited a stiffer nature compared with other structures in the adhesive, as measured by AFM nanoindentation.

  7. The interplay of stress and mowing disturbance for the intensity and importance of plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Marchand, Lilian; Touzard, Blaise; Michalet, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims There is still debate regarding the direction and strength of plant interactions under intermediate to high levels of stress. Furthermore, little is known on how disturbance may interact with physical stress in unproductive environments, although recent theory and models have shown that this interplay may induce a collapse of plant interactions and diversity. The few studies assessing such questions have considered the intensity of biotic interactions but not their importance, although this latter concept has been shown to be very useful for understanding the role of interactions in plant communities. The objective of this study was to assess the interplay between stress and disturbance for plant interactions in dry calcareous grasslands. Methods A field experiment was set up in the Dordogne, southern France, where the importance and intensity of biotic interactions undergone by four species were measured along a water stress gradient, and with and without mowing disturbance. Key Results The importance and intensity of interactions varied in a very similar way along treatments. Under undisturbed conditions, plant interactions switched from competition to neutral with increasing water stress for three of the four species, whereas the fourth species was not subject to any significant biotic interaction along the gradient. Responses to disturbance were more species-specific; for two species, competition disappeared with mowing in the wettest conditions, whereas for the two other species, competition switched to facilitation with mowing. Finally, there were no significant interactions for any species in the disturbed and driest conditions. Conclusions At very high levels of stress, plant performances become too weak to allow either competition or facilitation and disturbance may accelerate the collapse of interactions in dry conditions. The results suggest that the importance and direction of interactions are more likely to be positively related in

  8. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  9. Soil quality evaluation following the implementation of permanent cover crops in semi-arid vineyards. Organic matter, physical and biological soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M. J.; Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Urrutia, I.; Enrique, A.; Bescansa, P.

    2012-07-01

    Changing from conventional vineyard soil management, which includes keeping bare soil through intense tilling and herbicides, to permanent grass cover (PGC) is controversial in semi-arid land because it has agronomic and environmental advantages but it can also induce negative changes in the soil physical status. The objectives of this work were (i) gaining knowledge on the effect of PGC on the soil physical and biological quality, and (ii) identifying the most suitable soil quality indicators for vineyard calcareous soils in semi-arid land. Key soil physical, organic and biological characteristics were determined in a Cambic Calcisol with different time under PGC (1 and 5 years), and in a conventionally managed control. Correlation analysis showed a direct positive relationship between greater aggregate stability (WSA), soil-available water capacity (AWC), microbial biomass and enzymatic activity in the topsoil under PGC. Total and labile organic C concentrations (SOC and POM-C) were also correlated to microbial parameters. Factor analysis of the studied soil attributes using principal component analysis (PCA) was done to identify the most sensitive soil quality indicators. Earthworm activity, AWC, WSA, SOC and POM-C were the soil attributes with greater loadings in the two factors determined by PCA, which means that these properties can be considered adequate soil quality indicators in this agrosystem. These results indicate that both soil physical and biological attributes are different under PGC than in conventionally-managed soils, and need therefore to be evaluated when assessing the consequences of PGC on vineyard soil quality. (Author) 65 refs.

  10. Patterns and processes of phosphorus transfer from Irish grassland soils to rivers—integration of laboratory and catchment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Philip; Menary, Wayne; Daly, Karen; Kiely, Gerard; Morgan, Gerard; Byrne, Paul; Moles, Richard

    2005-03-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the patterns of phosphorus (P) transfer from fertilised soils to streams and to investigate the processes responsible for such losses. The three lowland grassland catchments involved in the study were: the Oona Water, Co. Tyrone, the Dripsey, Co. Cork and the Clarianna, Co. Tipperary. In each catchment, three or four nested sub-catchments were monitored for flow and P fraction concentrations at scales from 0.15 to 88.50 km 2. The P sorption and desorption characteristics of soil samples from each catchment were also determined. Results for 2002 indicated that the reactive P transfer, especially at the small catchment scale, could be predicted by Langmuir soil P properties, especially in the non-calcareous soils. In these soils, although iron (Fe) was an important determinant of P sorption, the sorption sites were weakly bound and binding energy only increased with increasing aluminium (Al) concentration. In calcareous soils, the Langmuir model was not applicable and P retention in these soils, which resulted in low reactive P transfer to streams, was most likely linked to P and calcium (Ca) precipitation and dissolution reactions. Particulate P transfer from all soils reflected differences in soil hydrological properties when flow was summarised as the Q5:Q95 ratio, which is a metric of runoff flashiness. Reactive and particulate P patterns changed with increasing catchment area due to changing hydrology and the cumulative influence of point source inputs. The findings of this study, therefore, implicated soil type, flow regime and scale as the important factors when linking P transfer process to catchment patterns and will be central to developing monitoring and mitigation strategies for managing P transfers to freshwater.

  11. The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štokmane, M.; Spuņģis, V.

    2016-07-01

    Calcareous fens are considered to be among the most threatened ecosystems of Europe. They are also one of the most diverse habitats as they support an incredibly rich and diverse range of plant and animal species. However, in spite of their diversity, calcareous fens are still poorly investigated, especially when referring to fen invertebrates, such as spiders. Because spiders are good bioindicators, knowledge of their ecology in rare and threatened habitats is of interest. The aim of this study was to document the composition and diversity of spider species, families and foraging guilds in the ground– and grass–layers of the Apšuciems calcareous fen, and to evaluate the influence of vegetation structure on spider community organization. In summer 2012, we collected ground–dwelling spiders using pitfall traps and grass–dwelling spiders using sweep–netting. A total of 2,937 spider individuals belonging to 19 families and 80 species was collected in the Apšuciems fen. Our results indicate that spider species and families tend to be stratified across the vertical structure of the habitat; the spider composition in the ground stratum differed from that in the grass stratum. On the contrary, however, the spider foraging guild structure between the ground–layer and the grass–layer was similar. Each of the two studied strata presented similar guilds in similar proportions. Our results also showed that spider composition differed considerably between fen parts and that much of this variability could be explained by the architectural properties of the habitat. More diverse vegetation generally supported a higher number of spider species. (Author)

  12. The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štokmane, M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous fens are considered to be among the most threatened ecosystems of Europe. They are also one of the most diverse habitats as they support an incredibly rich and diverse range of plant and animal species. However, in spite of their diversity, calcareous fens are still poorly investigated, especially when referring to fen invertebrates, such as spiders. Because spiders are good bioindicators, knowledge of their ecology in rare and threatened habitats is of interest. The aim of this study was to document the composition and diversity of spider species, families and foraging guilds in the ground– and grass–layers of the Apšuciems calcareous fen, and to evaluate the influence of vegetation structure on spider community organization. In summer 2012, we collected ground–dwelling spiders using pitfall traps and grass–dwelling spiders using sweep–netting. A total of 2,937 spider individuals belonging to 19 families and 80 species was collected in the Apšuciems fen. Our results indicate that spider species and families tend to be stratified across the vertical structure of the habitat; the spider composition in the ground stratum differed from that in the grass stratum. On the contrary, however, the spider foraging guild structure between the ground–layer and the grass–layer was similar. Each of the two studied strata presented similar guilds in similar proportions. Our results also showed that spider composition differed considerably between fen parts and that much of this variability could be explained by the architectural properties of the habitat. More diverse vegetation generally supported a higher number of spider species.

  13. Seasonal changes in salinity and sodicity of soils irrigated with treated domestic wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Marcos; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2014-05-01

    Semiarid and arid zones are characterized by short wet winters and long dry summers, when most of crop production relies on irrigation. In these areas, treated wastewater (TWW) is a valuable water resource whose use is rapidly expanding. However, the composition of TWW differs from that of freshwater, mainly due to higher salt, sodium and organic matter concentrations. Therefore, its continuous application to the soil could have an impact on soil properties, particularly soil salinity and sodicity. However, these changes could be reverted during the following rainy season, if the amount of rain infiltrating through the soil is enough to leach salts down the profile. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of long-term irrigation with secondary TWW on salinity and sodicity of two contrasting soils under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. Experiments were conducted in two grapefruit orchards, one with a non-calcareous sandy soil (Typic Haploxeralf) and the other with a calcareous clayey soil (Chromic Haploxerert). Two treatments were tested (>7 years): (i) irrigation with freshwater and (ii) irrigation with domestic, secondary TTW. During the duration of the experiment, soil profiles were sampled at regular intervals to a depth of 1.2 m two times each year: i) in spring, before the irrigation season started, and ii) in fall, after irrigation ended and before the rainy season. The results show that, in general, irrigation with TWW increased soil salinity compared with freshwater in the upper 30 cm of the soil profiles. However, leaching by rainwater resulted in similar salinity values in both treatments after the rainy season. Soil sodicity increased with the irrigation with TWW to a depth 1.2 m in the sandy soil and 0.6 m in the clay soil, but in general, these changes did not disappear during the rainy season. It can be concluded that in semiarid regions with >500 mm annual rainfall, the precipitation can be sufficient to prevent long-term salt accumulation in

  14. Foraminiferal, ostracod, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the latest Badenian - Sarmatian interval (Middle Miocene, Paratethys) from Poland, Romania and the Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriu, Simina Dumitriţa; Loghin, Sergiu; Dubicka, Zofia; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela Carmen; Paruch-Kulczycka, Jolanta; Ionesi, Viorel

    2017-10-01

    This study presents detailed foraminiferal, ostracod, and calcareous nannofossil analyses of five Middle Miocene sections located in the Central Paratethyan realm, namely in Poland, Romania and the Republic of Moldova. Based on foraminiferal distribution, five biostratigraphically important assemblages (labelled A-E) are distinguished. Foraminifera data combined with ostracoda and nannofossil evidence allowed correlation between the studied sections, and a comparison with the deposits of similar age from the Transylvanian, Vienna and Pannonian basins, as well as with the Transcarpathian regions. The micropaleontological record across the Badenian-Sarmatian boundary interval is also presented.

  15. Growth of Photosynthetic Biofilms and Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn Speciation in Unsaturated Columns with Calcareous Mine Tailings from Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. García-Meza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailing remediation aims to reduce the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation. Earlier studies showed that photosynthetic biofilms may act as a physical barrier against oxygen diffusion. Currently, a long-term assay (6 months is required to evaluate the solid phase redistribution of the Pb, Fe, Cu, and Zn originally present in historic and calcareous mine tailing samples (in our case from a semiarid region in North-Central Mexico. The presence of biofilms may provide chemical gradients and physical conditions that shift the proportion of Fe, Cu, and Zn originally associated with oxides to carbonates and organic matter/sulfide fractions.

  16. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  17. Bringing dust to good use: Quartz OSL ante-quam dating of the Strassberg rock avalanche (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) and implications for chronostratigraphic resolution of post-glacial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Sanders, Diethard

    2017-04-01

    The Mieming massif in the western part of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA, Austria) records a complex history of rapid landscape change during the deglacial to paraglacial phase (c. 19.5-17 ka) after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this succession of changes, a major event that shaped the entire catchment till today was the descend of a rock avalanche of a GIS-estimated volume of 11 Mm3. This rock avalanche: (a) clogged a pre-existing valley, (b) dammed up an intramontane basin (Strassberg basin), and (c) triggered the incision of an epigenetic bedrock gorge some 1.5 km in length (Sanders et al., 2016). Geomorphological and sedimentological indicators all suggest that the rock avalanche descended very soon after local deglaciation, but an age estimate of mass-wasting was difficult to provide. Bulk radiocarbon ages of the acid-washed, humic fraction of soil horizons intercalated into colluvium above the rock avalanche deposit indicated an oldest age of 11180-11170 a cal BP; a large scatter of radiocarbon ages (youngest: 7960 a cal BP; oldest: 11180 a cal BP; total of three ages) indicated that these well-drained soils were subject to input of younger humic substance, thus can provide only a crude proxy ante-quam date for the event. Over the past two years, in the NCA, a landscape-wide drape of polymictic siliciclastic aeolian silt was discovered that - as suggested by its geomorphic and sedimentary context - most probably was deposited during the late-glacial chron. The drape is verified over a vertical relief amplitude of more than 2000 meters, from valley floors up to LGM nunataks (Gild et al., 2016). A level of polymictic siliciclastic silt was found also directly on top of the Strassberg rock avalanche deposit. This provided an opportunity to deduce a more precise ante-quam quartz OSL age of 18.77 ± 1.55 ka for mass-wasting. The high post-glacial event age is consistent with evidence that the clearing of the older trunk valley from LGM sediments was just

  18. Accumulation of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd by various plants species on two different relocated military shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Michael W H; Hockmann, Kerstin; Pokharel, Rasesh; Jakob, Alfred; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-10-15

    Annually, more than 400 t Pb and 10 t Sb enter Swiss soils at some 2000 military shooting ranges. After the decommission of military shooting ranges, heavily contaminated soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) Pb) are landfilled or processed by soil washing, whereas for soils with less contamination, alternate strategies are sought. Although the use of military shooting ranges for grazing in Switzerland is common practice, no assessment has been done about the uptake of Sb in plants and its subsequent potential intake by grazing animals. We determined the uptake of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the aboveground biomass of nine plant species growing on a calcareous (Chur) and a weakly acidic (Losone) military shooting range soil in order to assess if grazing would be safe to employ on decommissioned military shooting ranges. The two soils did not differ in their total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sb and Cd, they differed however in the total concentration of Pb. Additionally, their physical and chemical properties were significantly different. The accumulation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the shoots of all nine plant species remained below the Swiss tolerance values for fodder plants (150 mg kg(-1) Zn, 15-35 mg kg(-1) Cu, 40 mg kg(-1) Pb, and 1 mg kg(-1) Cd DW), with the only exception of Pb in Chenopodium album shoots which reached a concentration of 62 mg kg(-1) DW. Antimony concentrations were 1.5-2.6-fold higher in plants growing on the calcareous soil than on the weakly acidic soil. Considering Cu, Zn, Pb, Sb and Cd, all plants, with the exception C. album, would be suitable for grazing on similar shooting range soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  20. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    for optimal friability. There is a strong need to get more detailed knowledge about effects of soil water content on soil friability and especially to be able to quantify the least limiting water range for soil friability and therefore soil tillage. A strong relationship between organic matter and friability...... has been found but it is not possible to identify a specific lower critical level of organic matter across soil types. Sustainable management of soil requires continuous and adequate inputs of organic matter to sustain or improve soil friability. Intensive tillage and traffic in unfavorable conditions...... threatens soil friability and may initiate a vicious cycle where increasingly higher intensity of tillage is needed to produce a proper seedbed....

  1. Influence of vermicomposting on solid wastes decomposition kinetics in soils*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The effect of vermicomposting on kinetic behavior of the products is not well recognized. An incubation study was conducted to investigate C mineralization kinetics of cow manure, sugarcane filter cake and their vermicomposts. Two different soils were treated with the four solid wastes at a rate of 0.5 g solid waste C per kg soil with three replications. Soils were incubated for 56 d. The CO2-C respired was monitored periodically and a first-order kinetic model was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of C mineralization. Results indicated that the percentage of C mineralized during the incubation period ranged from 31.9% to 41.8% and 55.9% to 73.4% in the calcareous and acidic soils, respectively. The potentially mineralizable C (C 0) of the treated soils was lower in the solid waste composts compared to their starting materials. Overall, it can be concluded that decomposable fraction of solid wastes has decreased due to vermicomposting. PMID:17910115

  2. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  3. Common genetic denominators for Ca++-based skeleton in Metazoa: role of osteoclast-stimulating factor and of carbonic anhydrase in a calcareous sponge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E G Müller

    Full Text Available Calcium-based matrices serve predominantly as inorganic, hard skeletal systems in Metazoa from calcareous sponges [phylum Porifera; class Calcarea] to proto- and deuterostomian multicellular animals. The calcareous sponges form their skeletal elements, the spicules, from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC. Treatment of spicules from Sycon raphanus with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl results in the disintegration of the ACC in those skeletal elements. Until now a distinct protein/enzyme involved in ACC metabolism could not been identified in those animals. We applied the technique of phage display combinatorial libraries to identify oligopeptides that bind to NaOCl-treated spicules: those oligopeptides allowed us to detect proteins that bind to those spicules. Two molecules have been identified, the (putative enzyme carbonic anhydrase and the (putative osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSTF, that are involved in the catabolism of ACC. The complete cDNAs were isolated and the recombinant proteins were prepared to raise antibodies. In turn, immunofluorescence staining of tissue slices and qPCR analyses have been performed. The data show that sponges, cultivated under standard condition (10 mM CaCl(2 show low levels of transcripts/proteins for carbonic anhydrase or OSTF, compared to those animals that had been cultivated under Ca(2+-depletion condition (1 mM CaCl(2. Our data identify with the carbonic anhydrase and the OSTF the first two molecules which remain conserved in cells, potentially involved in Ca-based skeletal dissolution, from sponges (sclerocytes to human (osteoclast.

  4. The effect of chloride and sulfate ions on the adsorption of Cd2+ on clay and sandy loam Egyptian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hefnawy, Mohamed E; Selim, Elmetwaly M; Assaad, Faiz F; Ismail, Ali I

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Cd(2+) on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts. Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were calculated at two different electrolyte concentrations: 0.05 N and 0.15 N. The adsorption was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results showed that lower concentration of the NaCl or Na2SO4 electrolytes (0.05 N) had higher adsorption capacity. Also, the maximum adsorption of cadmium when using sulfate counter ion is about two to three times higher than that when using chloride (544 μg/g for alluvial soil and 170 μg/g for calcareous soil when using 0.05 N). Using NaCl as matrix electrolyte, Freundlich isotherms showed bi-linear fits that probably mean a two energy level adsorption. This might be explained by either the competition of Cd(2+) with Na(+) or its complexation with Cl(-).

  5. The Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Ions on the Adsorption of Cd2+ on Clay and Sandy Loam Egyptian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. EL-Hefnawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Cd2+ on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial and sandy loam (calcareous, was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts. Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were calculated at two different electrolyte concentrations: 0.05 N and 0.15 N. The adsorption was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results showed that lower concentration of the NaCl or Na2SO4 electrolytes (0.05 N had higher adsorption capacity. Also, the maximum adsorption of cadmium when using sulfate counter ion is about two to three times higher than that when using chloride (544 μg/g for alluvial soil and 170 μg/g for calcareous soil when using 0.05 N. Using NaCl as matrix electrolyte, Freundlich isotherms showed bi-linear fits that probably mean a two energy level adsorption. This might be explained by either the competition of Cd2+ with Na+ or its complexation with Cl−.

  6. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  7. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  8. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  9. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  10. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth by Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 in a calcareous soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Sanfeng; Jiang, Hongmei; Fan, Bingquan; Shi, Fachao; Yin, Zhongwei; Roberts, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere, as the overapplication of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability...

  11. Soil pollution and soil protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  12. Is it real or apparent increased aggregate stability sometimes found in burned soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arcenegui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in soil aggregate stability observed in many cases after burning is discussed in this paper. Soil samples under pine forest from two Mediterranean areas were collected for this experiment: acid soils from El Algibe Range (Los Alcornocales Natural Park, Cádiz, Southern Spain and calcareous soils of Sierra de la Grana (Alicante, Eastern Spain. In each case, soil aggregates (2 to 0.25 mm were selected and exposed to temperatures of 200, 250, 300, 500 and 700 oC during a 20-minutes period. In both cases weight loss after volatilization of substances and a significant destruction of aggregates with increasing temperature were observed. For acid soils, where organic matter is the main cementing agent, destruction of aggregates with temperature was more intense. Water repellency induced by combustion increased between 200 and 250 oC, also the remaining aggregates remaining increased within the initial size fraction after heating, increasing its stability. For temperatures above 300 oC, water repellency disappeared, although an increase in aggregate stability was observed, possibly due to changes in the mineral soil fraction. Therefore, it is concluded that burning may destroy part of the aggregates by combustion of organic matter, so selecting stable aggregates. Water repellency and transformations of soil minerals contribute to increased stability in selected aggregates.

  13. The provenance of selected heavy metals in soils near power plant of Hamedan: A pedological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Nosratipoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine the origin of heavy metals, the effects of parent materials, soil genesis, and human activities on the content and distribution of selected metals in soils near Mofateh Martyr powerhouse, Hamedan, were assessed. Six types of parent materials including shale, schist, limestone, alluvial plain, alluvial terraces and fan deposits were identified and soil genesis were studied. Total content of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Fe were determined in soil horizons and parent materials. Concentration of the metals in four different chemical phases, including acetic acid extractable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions, was determined with four-step sequential extraction procedure. Soil development is limited in the studied region so that the discrepancy between solum and parent material in terms of heavy metal content is not great in general. Calcareous soils and limestone have the lowest amount of copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, lead and iron. Independent of soil types and parent materials, most of the heavy metals, except Mn, were present in the residual fraction. The concentration of Mn in all profiles is highest in reducible fraction. Low degree of soil development and the prevalent presence of metals in residual fraction show the influential role of parent materials in controlling metal concentration and distribution; pedogenic processes have minor effects. The role of human activities is limited for most of the selected metals; however, the tangible presence of Pb and, in some cases, Cd in acetic acid extractable fraction, reflects the impact of human activities on the concentrations of these two metals.

  14. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

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    Hristo Valchovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  15. Origin of karst conduits in calcareous sandstone and carbonate-silicate rocks: Complex role of insoluble material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiri; Balak, Frantisek; Schweigstillova, Jana; Vojtisek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate karst is best developed in high-grade limestones and majority of the studies is focused on these rocks. Features developed by dissolution of calcite cement in quartz sandstones and dissolution of various carbonate-silicate rocks are studied far less frequently. Unlike in common karst, the insoluble residuum has to be washed out after dissolution to create high-permeability conduits in these rocks. Aquifers in a Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (BCB), the most important hydrogeological basin in the Czech Republic, consist mainly of quartz and calcareous sandstones to siltstones. These rocks are intercalated by thin layers of calcite-cemented sandstone and low-grade limestone, the latter sometimes partly impregnated by a secondary silica. Results of tracer tests show a high flow velocity in some of the aquifers. Springs with flow rate up to 500 l/s and wells with yield up to 200 l/s occur in these rocks. Dissolution features in BCB were however not yet studied in detail. For identification and characterization of rocks prone to karstification, 350 cores were sampled mostly from boreholes but also from rock outcrops in several areas of BCB. Cores were taken from intervals where: (i) high carbonate content was expected, (ii) conduits and enlarged porosity was observed in rock outcrops or wells, (iii) inflows to boreholes were determined by well logging. Calcium carbonate content was determined by calcimetry in all cores. All cores were leached in hydrochloric acid to observe the degree of disintegration after removal of calcite, which was far dominating portion of total carbonate. Polished sections were prepared from selected cores and Ca, Si, Na, K, Al content was automatically mapped by microprobe to visualize the calcium, silica, feldspar and clay mineral distribution in cores. Conduits were photo documented in the field. Two types of sediments with distinct disintegration characteristics were observed: (i) In sandstone composed of quartz grains cemented by

  16. Evidence for enhanced debris flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps since the 1980s (Plansee, Austria)

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    Dietrich, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    From 1950 to 2011 almost 80.000 people lost their lives through the occurrence of debris flow events (Dowling and Santi, 2014). Debris flows occur in all alpine regions due to intensive rainstorms and mobilisable loose debris. Due to their susceptible lithology, the Northern Calcareous Alps are affected by a double digit number of major hazard events per year. Some authors hypothesised a relation between an increasing frequency of heavy rainstorms and an increasing occurrence of landslides in general (Beniston and Douglas, 1996) and debris flows in special (Pelfini and Santilli, 2008), but yet there is only limited evidence. The Plansee catchment in the Ammergauer Alps consists of intensely jointed Upper Triassic Hauptdolomit lithology and therefore shows extreme debris flow activity. To investigate this activity in the last decades, the temporal and spatial development of eight active debris flow fans is examined with GIS and field mapping. The annual rates since the late 1940s are inferred accurately by using aerial photos from 1947, 1952, 1971, 1979, 1987, 2000 and 2010. These rates are compared to the mean Holocene/Lateglacial debris flow volume derived from the most prominent cone. The contact with the underlying till is revealed by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). It shows that the mean annual debris flow volume has increased there by a factor of 10 from 1947-1952 (0.23 ± 0.07 10³m³/yr) to 1987-2000 (2.41 ± 0.66 10³m³/yr). A similar trend can be seen on all eight fans: mean post-1980 rates exceed pre-1980 rates by a factor of more than three. This increasing debris flow activity coincides with an enhanced rainstorm (def. 35 mm/d) frequency recorded at the nearest meteorological station. Since 1921 the frequency of heavy rainstorms has increased there on average by 10% per decade. Recent debris flow rates are also 2-3 times higher compared to mean Holocene/Lateglacial rates. Furthermore, we state a strong correlation between the non

  17. Liming induces carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in PSB inoculated alkaline soil supplemented with different phosphorus sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Shah, Zahir; Sharif, Muhammad; Rahman, Hidayatur

    2018-01-20

    Agricultural land is a major sink of global organic carbon (C). Its suitable management is crucial for improving C sequestration and reducing soil CO 2 emission. Incubation experiments were performed to assess the impact of phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) inoculation (inoculated and uninoculated) and soil calcification (4.78, 10, 15, and 20% crushed CaCO 3 ) with phosphorus (P) sources [single superphosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), farm yard manure (FYM), and poultry manure (PM)] in experiment 1 and with various rates of PM (4, 8, and 12 kg ha -1 ) in experiment 2 on cumulative soil respiration. These experiments were arranged in three factorial, complete randomize design (CRD) with three replications. Interactively, lime with P sources (at day 1 and 3) and lime with PSB (at day 1) significantly expedited soil respiration. Mainly, PSB inoculation, liming, PM fertilization, and its various rates significantly enhanced soil respiration with time over control/minimum in alkaline soil at all incubation periods. Higher CO 2 emission was detected in soil supplemented with organic P sources (PM and FYM) than mineral sources (SSP and RP). CO 2 emission was noted to increase with increasing PM content. Since liming intensified CO 2 discharge from soil, therefore addition of lime to an alkaline soil should be avoided; instead, integrated approaches must be adopted for P management in alkaline calcareous soils for climate-smart agriculture.

  18. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  19. Mercury in soils and microbial biomass of the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Ul'yana, Gulyaeva

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clear up the role of soil microflora in the mercury concentration by microorganisms as they are related to a problem of the soil remediation. To complete the tasks as assigned, 150 samples of both various soils formed over the ore bodies outside the ore occurrence zones and waste dumps have been taken in the areas of South Kirgizstan Some 45 soil samples (horizon A, 0-20 cm) and dumps were used for microbiological analyses [1, 2]. The soil cover as seen in the work areas is represented by Haplic Calcisols (gray) soils. All the soils are generally calcareous, in some cases salted, and have various compositions. To grow the microbial biomass in order to determine mercury content levels in there, some soil media characterized by natural concentrations, ratios and forms of the compounds of these metals were used The results showed that the mercury concentrations in soils of the sampling area varied from 0.028 to 357.3 mg/kg. The highest metal content indices (up to 357.3 mg/kg) were found for soils formed over ores, and waste dumps. The lowest mercury content (0.028 to 0.066 mg/kg) was found for soils of the control area. The data on mercury and/or antimony accumulation by the biomass of soil microorganisms grown in soil media are represented. The soil samples having various mercury levels were collected in the South Kirgizstan subregion of the biosphere. It was established that the accumulation of the metals by soil microflora depends on their content in the soil, the microorganism growth is strongly inhibited at mercury concentration of 300 mg/kg in soil. A direct and reliable correlation between the metal content level in soils and their concentration by microorganisms is found. Within the background sites a tendency of increase in mercury extraction from the soil with 1 M HCl solution, in particular from salted soils is observed. In contrast, in the conditions of an excess of mercury content in soils of ore grounds, a weak

  20. Lanthanides in soils of the Cherepovets steel mill impact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladonin, D. V.

    2017-06-01

    Contents of different lanthanide forms in soddy-calcareous soils at different distances from the Cherepovets steel mill (Vologda oblast) have been studied. Increased contents of Pr and Tb are found in soils near the pollution source. Less manifested increases in the contents of other lanthanides (from La to Gd) are also observed. Along with the increase in total content, technogenic pollution increases the content of acid-soluble lanthanides and affects their degree of extraction. The residual fraction strongly bound to aluminosilicates contains 80 to 95% of lanthanides. Soil processes result in the partial binding of lanthanides with organic matter (5-18% of their total content) and Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides (0.1-5% of the total content). The individual properties of lanthanides are clearly manifested in their interaction with these soil components. The highest share of the fraction bound to organic matter contains medium lanthanides, and the highest share of the fraction bound to Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides contains heavy lanthanides.

  1. Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pii, Youry; Penn, Alexander; Terzano, Roberto; Crecchio, Carmine; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a very important element for plants, since it is involved in many biochemical processes and, often, for the low solubility of the natural Fe sources in soil, plants suffer from Fe - deficiency, especially when grown on calcareous soils. Among the numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize the rhizosphere of agronomically important crops, Azospirillum brasilense has been shown to exert strong stimulating activities on plants, by inducing alterations of the root architecture and an improvement of mineral nutrition, which could result from an enhancement of ion uptake mechanisms as well as by increased bioavailability of nutrients. Some studies have also established that A. brasilense can act as biocontrol agent, by preventing the growth and/or virulence of phytopathogens, most likely through the production of microbial siderophores that sequester Fe from the soil. Despite microbial siderophores complexed with Fe could be an easily accessible Fe source for plants, the possible involvement of A. brasilense in improving Fe nutrition in plants suffering from the micronutrient deficiency has not been investigated yet. Within the present research, the characterization of the physiological and biochemical effects induced by Fe starvation and PGPR inoculation in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese Long) was carried out. The analyses of root exudates released by hydroponically grown plants highlighted that cucumber plants respond differently depending on the nutritional status. In addition, following the cultivation period on calcareous soil, also the root exudates found in the extracts suggested a peculiar behaviour of plants as a function of the treatment. Interestingly, the presence of the inoculum in soil allowed a faster recovery of cucumber plants from Fe-deficiency symptoms, i.e. increase in the chlorophyll content, in the biomass and in the Fe content of leaves. These observations might suggest a feasible application of

  2. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS) are two soil properties that are typically modified after burning and impose significant influence on subsequent hydrological and geomorphological dynamics. The response of AS and soil WR to fire depends upon how fire has influenced other key soil properties (e.g. soil OM, mineralogy). Meanwhile, routine thinning of trees and woody vegetation may alter soil properties (e.g. structure and porosity, wettability) by use of heavy machinery and species selection. The study area is situated along a north-facing slope of Mount Carmel national park (Israel). The selected sites are presented as a continuum of management intensity and fire histories. To date, the natural baseline of soil WR has yet to be thoroughly assessed and must be investigated alongside associated soil aggregating parameters in order to understand its overall impact. This study examines (i) the natural baseline of soil WR and physical properties compared to those of disturbed sites in the immediate (controlled burn) and long-term (10-years), and (ii) the interactions of soil properties with different control factors (management, surface cover, seasonal-temporal, burn temperature, soil organic carbon (OC) and mineralogy) in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Analysis of surface soil samples before and after destruction of WR by heating (200-600°C) was implemented using a combination of traditional methods and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Management and surface cover type conditioned the wettability, soil structure and porosity of soils in the field, although this largely did not affect the heat-induced changes observed in the lab. A positive correlation was observed along an increasing temperature gradient, with relative maxima of MWD and BD reached by most soils at the threshold of 400-500°C. Preliminary analyses of soil OC (MIR) and mineralogical composition (VIS-NIR) support existing research regarding: (i) the importance of soil OC quality and

  3. Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Obrador, Ana; González, Demetrio; Babín, Mar; Fernández, María Dolores

    2017-07-01

    The present study has investigated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) crops grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions using an acidic (soil pH5.4) and a calcareous soil (soil pH8.3). The potentially available Zn in the soils and the Zn accumulation in the leaves from NPs applied to the soil (3, 20 and 225mgZnkg -1 ) and changes in the chlorophylls, carotenoids and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at 15, 30, 60 and 90days and compared with those caused by bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . The available Zn in the soil and the leaf Zn content did not differ among the Zn chemical species, except in the acidic soil at the highest concentration of Zn applied as Zn ions, where the highest values of the two variables were found. The ZnO NPs showed comparable Zn toxicity or biostimulation to their bulk counterparts and Zn salts, irrespective of certain significant differences suggesting a higher activity of the Zn ion. The treatments altered the photosynthetic pigment concentration and induced oxidative stress in plants. ROS formation was observed at Zn plant concentrations ranging from 590 to 760mgkg -1 , but the effects on the rest of the parameters were highly dependent on the plant species, exposure time and especially soil type. In general, the effects were higher in the acidic soil than in the calcareous soil for the bean and the opposite for the tomato. The similar uptakes and toxicities of the different Zn forms suggest that the Zn ions derived from the ZnO NPs exerted a preferential toxicity in plants. However, several results obtained in soils treated with NPs at 3mgZnkg -1 soil indicated that may exist other underlying mechanisms related to the intrinsic nanoparticle properties, especially at low NP concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the addition of by-product ash of date palms on the mechanical characteristics of gypsum-calcareous materials used in road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khellou, A.; Kriker, A.; Hafssi, A.; Belbarka, K.; Baali, K.

    2016-07-01

    The gypsum-calcareous materials, also known as the crusting tuff, are used in the pavement layers of low -traffic road and considered as the materials of first choice in the Saharan region of Algeria. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical characteristics of tuff of Ouargla town that is situated in the Southeast of Algeria, by adding different percentage of ash resulted from the combustion of by-products of date palms, such as 4%, 8% and l2%, to the tuff. The results obtained have shown a remarkable improvement both in compressive strength at different ages and in the bearing index in the two cases immediate and after immersion in water. These characteristics of the mixture (tuff+ash) reach their maximum values at the 8% of ash addition.

  5. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Qaleh Jegh and Yazdan Abad sections (West of Kopet-Dagh Basin

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    Azam Gholami Fard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-    Introduction Kopet Dagh Basin is located on the northeast of Iran, extending over Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan with a west-northwest to east-southeast trend. The Iranian part of the basin is located between 61°14ˊ and 54°00ˊE and 38°15ˊ and 35°38ˊ N. It constitutes the second most important hydrocarbon province of Iran after Zagros Basin. Cretaceous sediments are well developed and extensively exposed in this basin. In order to study the Biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme and Sanganeh Formations, the calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated in two stratigraphic sections. Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Bodaghi (2000 & 2009, Dehghan (2002, Mahanipour et al. (2011a,b & 2012 and Mahanipour and Kani (2015 studied the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme or Sanganeh Formation.   2-    Material & Methods The studied sections, the Qaleh Jegh section (located at a distance of 35 km to the northeast of Bojnord, on the Baba Boland mountain; N37°47ˊ57˝ and E57°16ˊ53˝ and Yazdan Abad section (located at north of Yazdan Abad village; N37°55ˊ34˝ and E57°35ˊ10˝. Sarcheshmeh Formation conformably overlies the Tirgan Formation and is in turn overlain by the Sanganeh Formation in both sections and Atamir Formation conformably overlies the Sanganeh Formation. Sarcheshmeh Formation measures 2660 m in Qaleh Jegh section and comprises argillaceous limestone (with limestone intercalations in lower part and shale (with limestone intercalation in upper part. A  fossiliferous limestone separates the Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh. Sanganeh Formation measures 1400 m and consists of siltstones (with sandstone, shale or limestone intercalation in lower part and shale containing chert nodules (with siltstone intercalation in upper part. At Yazadn Abad section the 655 m thick succession of Sarcheshmeh Formation consists of alternating argillaceous limestone and limestone in lower part and

  6. On the way of Friuli "yellow villages": the use of a calcareous-dolomitic sandstone in the surroundings of the quarrying area through the centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The role of local stone building material in cultural and technological heritage is based on the definition of the area of use, as related to ancient transportation networks, allowing the movement of heavy blocks from the quarries to the building sites. It is the case of the result of several surveys carried out for the detection of the architectural elements, dating from Middle Age to 20th century, made of a yellowish calcareous-dolomitic sandstone, which have been found, hidden among renovated buildings and new construction, in Friuli region (NE Italy). on the way between the quarrying piedmont western area and the towns of Udine and Spilimbergo. Starting from the definition of the quarrying area, the contribution give notice of such architectural elements (frames, columns, …), both in vernacular architecture and in relevant buildings, putting in evidence the period of their realisation and their technological features.

  7. SARSTEINIA BABAI N. GEN., N. SP., A NEW PROBLEMATIC SPONGE (INOZOA? FROM THE LATE JURASSIC OF THE NORTHERN CALCAREOUS ALPS, AUSTRIA

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    FELIX SCHLAGINTWEIT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The new problematic sponge Sarsteinia babai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Plassen and Lärchberg Formations of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. The type-locality is the Sarsteinalm north of Mount Hoher Sarstein in the Austrian Salzkammergut, other findings come from Mount Sandling, Mount Jainzen, Mount Trisselwand and the Litzlkogel-Gerhardstein-complex west of Lofer. Most findings can be attributed to a fore-reef to upper slope facies or slope-of-toe breccias, small fragments can occasionally also be found in the back-reef facies. The suprageneric systematic position of the new sponge is unknown so far since it shows morphological characteristics known from Inozoa but also from "stromatoporoids".

  8. Effects of anthropogenic particles on the chemical and geophysical properties of urban soils, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicki, Katharine M.

    There is a great need in many cities for a better quality of urban soil maps. This is due to the increasing interest in repurposing vacant land for urban redevelopment, agriculture, and green infrastructure. Mapping vacant urban land in Detroit can be very difficult because anthropogenic soils were often highly variable and frequently contained demolition debris (such as brick), making it difficult to use a hand auger. This study was undertaken in Detroit, MI to create a more efficient way to map urban soils based on their geophysical and chemical properties. This will make the mapping process faster, less labor intensive, and therefore more cost effective. Optical and chemical criteria for the identification and classification of microartifacts (MAs) were made from a set of reference artifacts of a known origin. These MAs were then observed and tested in urban topsoil samples from sites in Detroit, Michigan that represent three different land use types (residential demolition, fly ash-impacted, and industrial). Optical analyses, SEM, EDAX, and XRD showed that reference MAs may be classified into five basic compositional types (carbonaceous, calcareous, siliceous, ferruginous and miscellaneous). Reference MAs were generally distinguishable using optical microscopy by color, luster, fracture and microtexture. MAs that were more difficult to classify were further differentiable when using SEM, EDAX, and XRD. MAs were found in all of the anthropogenic soils studied, but were highly variable. All three study sites had concentrations coal-related wastes were the most common types of MAs observed and often included coal, ash (microspheres, microagglomerate), cinders, and burnt shale. MAs derived from waste building materials such as brick, mortar, and glass, were typically found on residential demolition sites. Manufacturing waste MAs, which included iron-making slag and coked coal were commonly observed on industrial sites. Fly ash-impacted sites were composed of only

  9. Root iron uptake efficiency of Ulmus laevis and U. minor and their distribution in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martin eVenturas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcifuge and calcicole character of wild plants has been related to nutrient availability shortages, including iron (Fe-deficiency. Surprisingly, just a few studies examined the relation between root Fe uptake and plant distribution in different soil types. We assessed the root Fe acquisition efficiency of two Ulmus species with calcareous (U. minor and siliceous (U. laevis soil distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula. Seedlings of both elm species were grown hydroponically with different Fe concentrations during six weeks. Plant physiological responses to Fe-limiting conditions were evaluated as were the ferric reductase activity and proton (H+ extrusion capacity of the roots. Iron deprived elm seedlings of both species were stunted and suffered severe Fe-chlorosis symptoms. After Fe re-supply leaf chlorophyll concentrations rose according to species-dependent patterns. While U. minor leaves and seedlings re-greened evenly, U. laevis did so along the nerves of new growing leaves. Ulmus minor had a higher root ferric reductase activity and H+-extrusion capability than U. laevis and maintained a better nutrient balance when grown under Fe-limiting conditions. The two elm species were found to have different iron acquisition efficiencies which may be related to their natural distribution in calcareous and siliceous soils of the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. CaCO3 Precipitation in Multilayered Cyanobacterial Mats: Clues to Explain the Alternation of Micrite and Sparite Layers in Calcareous Stromatolites

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    Józef Kaźmierczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine cyanobacterial mats were cultured on coastal sediments (Nivå Bay, Øresund, Denmark for over three years in a closed system. Carbonate particles formed in two different modes in the mat: (i through precipitation of submicrometer-sized grains of Mg calcite within the mucilage near the base of living cyanobacterial layers, and (ii through precipitation of a variety of mixed Mg calcite/aragonite morphs in layers of degraded cyanobacteria dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. The d13C values were about 2‰ heavier in carbonates from the living cyanobacterial zones as compared to those generated in the purple bacterial zones. Saturation indices calculated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite inside the mats showed extremely high values across the mat profile. Such high values were caused by high pH and high carbonate alkalinity generated within the mats in conjunction with increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium that were presumably stored in sheaths and extracellular polymer substances (EPS of the living cyanobacteria and liberated during their post-mortem degradation. The generated CaCO3 morphs were highly similar to morphs reported from heterotrophic bacterial cultures, and from bacterially decomposed cyanobacterial biomass emplaced in Ca-rich media. They are also similar to CaCO3 morphs precipitated from purely inorganic solutions. No metabolically (enzymatically controlled formation of particular CaCO3 morphs by heterotrophic bacteria was observed in the studied mats. The apparent alternation of in vivo and post-mortem generated calcareous layers in the studied cyanobacterial mats may explain the alternation of fine-grained (micritic and coarse-grained (sparitic laminae observed in modern and fossil calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites as the result of a probably similar multilayered mat organization.

  11. CaCO3 Precipitation in Multilayered Cyanobacterial Mats: Clues to Explain the Alternation of Micrite and Sparite Layers in Calcareous Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Józef; Fenchel, Tom; Kühl, Michael; Kempe, Stephan; Kremer, Barbara; Łącka, Bożena; Małkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Marine cyanobacterial mats were cultured on coastal sediments (Nivå Bay, Øresund, Denmark) for over three years in a closed system. Carbonate particles formed in two different modes in the mat: (i) through precipitation of submicrometer-sized grains of Mg calcite within the mucilage near the base of living cyanobacterial layers, and (ii) through precipitation of a variety of mixed Mg calcite/aragonite morphs in layers of degraded cyanobacteria dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. The δ13C values were about 2‰ heavier in carbonates from the living cyanobacterial zones as compared to those generated in the purple bacterial zones. Saturation indices calculated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite inside the mats showed extremely high values across the mat profile. Such high values were caused by high pH and high carbonate alkalinity generated within the mats in conjunction with increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium that were presumably stored in sheaths and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) of the living cyanobacteria and liberated during their post-mortem degradation. The generated CaCO3 morphs were highly similar to morphs reported from heterotrophic bacterial cultures, and from bacterially decomposed cyanobacterial biomass emplaced in Ca-rich media. They are also similar to CaCO3 morphs precipitated from purely inorganic solutions. No metabolically (enzymatically) controlled formation of particular CaCO3 morphs by heterotrophic bacteria was observed in the studied mats. The apparent alternation of in vivo and post-mortem generated calcareous layers in the studied cyanobacterial mats may explain the alternation of fine-grained (micritic) and coarse-grained (sparitic) laminae observed in modern and fossil calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites as the result of a probably similar multilayered mat organization. PMID:25761263

  12. CaCO3 precipitation in multilayered cyanobacterial mats: clues to explain the alternation of micrite and sparite layers in calcareous stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Józef; Fenchel, Tom; Kühl, Michael; Kempe, Stephan; Kremer, Barbara; Łącka, Bożena; Małkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-03-09

    Marine cyanobacterial mats were cultured on coastal sediments (Nivå Bay, Øresund, Denmark) for over three years in a closed system. Carbonate particles formed in two different modes in the mat: (i) through precipitation of submicrometer-sized grains of Mg calcite within the mucilage near the base of living cyanobacterial layers, and (ii) through precipitation of a variety of mixed Mg calcite/aragonite morphs in layers of degraded cyanobacteria dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. The d13C values were about 2‰ heavier in carbonates from the living cyanobacterial zones as compared to those generated in the purple bacterial zones. Saturation indices calculated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite inside the mats showed extremely high values across the mat profile. Such high values were caused by high pH and high carbonate alkalinity generated within the mats in conjunction with increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium that were presumably stored in sheaths and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) of the living cyanobacteria and liberated during their post-mortem degradation. The generated CaCO3 morphs were highly similar to morphs reported from heterotrophic bacterial cultures, and from bacterially decomposed cyanobacterial biomass emplaced in Ca-rich media. They are also similar to CaCO3 morphs precipitated from purely inorganic solutions. No metabolically (enzymatically) controlled formation of particular CaCO3 morphs by heterotrophic bacteria was observed in the studied mats. The apparent alternation of in vivo and post-mortem generated calcareous layers in the studied cyanobacterial mats may explain the alternation of fine-grained (micritic) and coarse-grained (sparitic) laminae observed in modern and fossil calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites as the result of a probably similar multilayered mat organization.

  13. THE EARLY PLIOCENE MAMMAL ASSEMBLAGE OF VAL DI PUGNA (TUSCANY, ITALY IN THE LIGHT OF CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL DATA AND PALEOECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphy of clayey and sandy beds outcropping in Val di Pugna locality near Siena (Tuscany, Italy celebrated for the past finds of fossil mammalian remains, is studied here. The research is aimed to date and define the depositional environment of the sediments that yielded fossil bones of known provenance.  Two sequences have been studied in detail; they are located near the hamlets of Ruffolo and Case il Poggio, where both marine and land mammal remains had been found. The integrated biostratigraphic analysis of the planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton indicates that the deposits straddle the transition from the Zone MPL3 to MPL4 of the planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphic scale, which is correlated with the Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus Zone (MNN14-15 Zone of the calcareous nannoplankton scale. The sedimentary characters and the faunal content are suggestive of a progressively deepening marine environment, with a transition from upper shoreface deposits to lower shoreface-offshore deposits. The vertebrates include a cetacean (Tusciziphis crispus and a sirenid (Metaxyterium gervaisi amongst the marine mammals, while the land mammals are represented by a rhino (Stephanorhinus jeanvireti and a bovid (Alephis lyrix. The sirenid remains are likely the only autochthonous elements because of their ecologic consistency with the depositional environment of the embedding sediments. The other fossil specimens are interpreted here as parts of decaying and floating carcasses that deposited their bones as they drifted away, inflated by decomposition gasses.The biostratigraphy of the sites permits to date the fossil bones. Noteworthy occurrences are those of Stephanorhinus jeanvireti and Alephis lyrix in levels correlated with Zone MN14, since they are usually reported in Zone MN16 and Zone MN15 assemblages, respectively.   

  14. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  15. Recent losses of base cations from soils of Fagus sylvatica L. stands in northeastern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimonier, Anne [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Dupouey, Jean-Luc [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique Nancy, Champenoux (France). Forest Ecophysiology Research Unit; Le Tacon, Francois [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique Nancy, Champenoux (France). Forest Ecosystems Research Unit

    2000-09-01

    In 1991, in order to assess changes in soil acidity, we resampled the mineral soil from 95 plots in beech forests distributed throughout northeastern France, ca 20 years after a first sampling in 1970-1973. Changes between the two sampling dates were more conspicuous for acidic soils than for mesotrophic or calcareous soils. We observed a significant decrease in base saturation, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the whole profile of the acidic soils. Median cation losses calculated for these soils down to a depth of 80 cm were 18.7 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for calcium, 2.7 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for magnesium, and 2.4 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for potassium. This loss was not reflected by changes in soil pH (measured in water extracts). The intensity of the cation losses and the analysis of the pollution climate over the last 20 years suggest that atmospheric deposition could have contributed to the observed changes.

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS, AGGREGATE STABILITY AND AGGREGATE ASSOCIATED-C: A MECHANISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Guidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the identification of C pools involved in soil aggregation, a physically-based aggregate fractionation was proposed, and  additional pretreatments were used in the measurement of the 1-2 mm aggregate stability in order to elucidate the relevance of the role of soil microorganisms with respect to the different aggregate breakdown mechanisms. The study was carried out on three clay loam Regosols, developed on calcareous shales, known history of organic cultivation.Our results showed that the soil C pool controlling the process of stabilisation of aggregates was related to the microbial community. We identified the resistance to fast wetting as the major mechanism of aggregate stability driven by microorganims. The plausible hypothesis is that organic farming promotes fungi growth, improving water repellency of soil aggregates by fungal hydrophobic substances. By contrast, we failed in the identification of C pools controlling the formation of aggregates, probably because of the disturbance of mechanical tillage which contributes to the breakdown of soil aggregates.The physically-based aggregate fractionation proposed in this study resulted useful in the  mechanistically understanding of the role of microorganisms in soil aggregation and it might be suggested for studying the impact of management on C pools, aggregates properties and their relationships in agricultural soils.

  17. Which Factors Determine Metal Accumulation in Agricultural Soils in the Severely Human-Coupled Ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types. Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing.

  18. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  19. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  20. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  1. Agricultural use of soil, consequences in soil organic matter and hydraulic conductivity compared with natural vegetation in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Verónica; Carral, Pilar; Alvarez, Ana Maria; Marques, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    When ecosystems are under pressure due to high temperatures and water scarcity, the use of land for agriculture can be a handicap for soil and water conservation. The interactions between plants and soils are site-specific. This study provides information about the influence of the preence vs. The absence of vegetation on soil in a semi-arid area of the sout-east of Madrid (Spain, in the Tagus River basin. In this area soil materials are developed over a calcareous-evaporitic lithology. Soils can be classified as Calcisols, having horizons of accumulation with powdered limestone and irregular nodules of calcium carbonate. They can be defined as Haplic Cambisols and Leptic Calcisols (WRB 2006-FAO). The area is mainly used for rainfed agriculture, olive groves, vineyards and cereals. There are some patches of bushes (Quercus sp.) and grasses (Stipa tenacissima L.) although only found on the top of the hills. This study analyses the differences found in soils having three different covers: Quercus coccifera, Stipa tenacissima and lack of vegetation. This last condition was found in the areas between cultivated olive trees. Soil organic matter, porosity and hydraulic conductivity are key properties of soil to understand its ability to adapt to climate or land use changes. In order to measure the influence of different soil covers, four replicates of soil were sampled in each condition at two soil depth, (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Hydraulic conductivity was measured in each soil condition and replicate using a Mini-disk® infiltrometer. There were no differences between the two depths sampled. Similarly, there were no changes in electric conductivity (average 0.1±0.03 dS m-1); pH (8.7±0.2) or calcium carbonate content (43±20 %). Nevertheless, significant differences (p>0.001) were found in soil organic matter. The maximum was found in soils under Quercus (4.7±0.5 %), followed by Stipa (2.2±1.1 %). The soil without vegetation in the areas between olive trees had only 0

  2. Soil Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verruijt, A.

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the

  3. Soil investigation in cities of West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, A.; Szżcs, P.; Horváth, A.; Kámán, O.; Németh, E.

    2012-04-01

    are determined fundamentally by the parent material, but in the city center the acidity of soils were alkaline (by the greatest number of point). The cause of this is the calcareous deposited debris. The particle size distribution of soils showed various appearances, but there was not possible to discover the tendencies. In most cases there was a high value of organic substance in the downtown area, partly due to frequent grass fertilisation and soil spreading. We detected the amount of easily solvent nutrients and we established, that the value of nutriment element did not show significant differences in connection with usage. Our work will be continued and we are currently measuring heavy metal content of soil, and searching for the connection between the urban area and condition of soils. These investigations have been carried out with the sponsorships of TÁMOP-4.2.1.B-09/1/KONV-2010-0006 and TÁMOP-4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018.

  4. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  5. Changes in soil properties and soil cover structure due to intensive erosion and accumulation processes in loess soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorova, Tereza; Penizek, Vit; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka; Jirku, Veronika; Fer, Miroslav

    2010-05-01

    Intensive water and tillage erosion and consequent accumulation are the most important processes affecting the agroecosystems in loess regions and changing soil properties, e.g. organic carbon content, carbonate content or structure stability, and general distribution of soil units in the landscape. South Moravian loess belt, formerly covered mostly by Haplic Chernozem, is now formed by a highly diversified soil mosaic. At a morphologically heterogenous study plot (6 ha), a study on relationship between soil properties and terrain characteristics was held. DTM analysis, detailed terrain survey and laboratory analysis were the main methods adopted in the study. Three main soil units were identified: Haplic Chernozem, calcareous Regosol and Colluvial soil. The distribution of each soil unit correlates with different terrain attributes. Regosols are significatly connected to the steep slope, while their correlation with the curvature or hydrological indexes is lower. On the contrary, the Colluvial soils distribution depends mainly on values of curvature and topographical wetness index and is independent on the slope. Chernozem is related to a specific terrain position more than to any of the terrain attributes. Soil depth and humus horizon thickness vary extremelly - from 0.2 m at the erosionally exposed slopes to more than 2.5 m at the concave parts and the toeslope. Soil depth is significantly correlated with all of the tested terrain attributes except of the slope - the strongest correlation was proved in case of mean curvature, topographical wetness index and catchment area. Different degree of changes in particular soil properties results from the specificity of both erosion process and parent material character. Organic carbon content in the topsoil varies significantly. Humus is practically absent in the steepest parts of the slope where the loess is exposed. High amounts of Corg were identified in the undisturbed A horizons of the Chernozem unit. In the

  6. Study of hydro-saline characteristics of soils a palm grove in basin of Ouargla (Northern Algerian Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezagui, D.; Bouhoun, M. Daddi; Boutoutaou, D.; Djaghoubi, A.

    2016-07-01

    Saharan soils are often faced with several problems of development, taking account the hydro-edaphic constraints, mainly of hydric types by water table, mechanical by gypso-calcareous crusts and saline by irrigation waters and upwelling of water table. Our work consists in doing a soil characterization of a palm grove in Ouargla in order to study the constraints hydro-halomorphes. The results show that irrigation water by two plies of Senonian and Mioplcène had a high salinity with a value of 2.83 and 5.10 dS.m-1 respectively. The conduct of irrigation is traditional random of submersion type. The palm grove has a poor drainage with a level of water table 156.67±15.71 cm and salinity of 31.37±34.04 dS.m-1. The drains are open type and their maintenance is not regular. This situation of management of irrigation-drainage promotes the upwelling of water table and the waterlogging in soils. The study of soil profiles shows the existence of mechanical obstruction of gypso-calcareous crusts which limit the entrenchment of the date palms and the leaching of salts. Soil salinity is excessive in profiles with a range of 8.98 ± 4.58 dS.m-1. This accumulation of salts is due to the dynamic ascending and descending of salts respectively under the effect of upwelling of water table and leaching by irrigation. The salinization, the upwelling of water table and the presence of gypso-calcareous crusts recorded in Ouargla testify to a degradation hydro-halomorphe and mechanic of soil which constitute the major constraints in the management of system irrigation-drainage and sustainable agricultural development of the palm groves of the basin of Ouargla. Some hydro-agricultural planning are necessary to apply in the oasis to improve the hydro-mechanical properties of soils in order to reduce their degradation.

  7. Case study on the strategy and application of enhancement solutions to improve remediation of soils contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn by means of electrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2005-01-01

    /desorption processes of the heavy metals. The present study gives some examples where it is necessary to use an enhancement solution to aid desorption of Cu, Zn and Pb during electrodialytic treatment. Dependent on the composition of the pollution, different choices can be made. In the case of a Cu-polluted calcareous......Numerous studies have been conducted with electrochemical removal of heavy metals from spiked kaolinite. Meanwhile, when moving from kaolinite to real soils, new factors must be taken into account-factors influencing, e.g., the buffering capacity of the soil against acidification and the adsorption...... for electrochemical treatment of an actual industrially polluted soil, this scheme must be chosen on basis of characterization of soil and pollution combination....

  8. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  10. Water regime and growth of young oak stands subjected to air-warming and drought on two different forest soils in a model ecosystem experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Bleuler, P; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Schulin, R

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to increase annual temperatures and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known of how forests respond to the interaction of these climate factors and if their responses depend on soil conditions. In a 3-year lysimeter experiment, we investigated the growth response of young mixed oak stands, on either acidic or calcareous soil, to soil water regime, air-warming and drought treatments corresponding to an intermediate climate change scenario. The air-warming and drought treatments were applied separately as well as in combination. The air-warming treatment had no effect on soil water availability, evapotranspiration or stand biomass. Decreased evapotranspiration from the drought-exposed stands led to significantly higher air and soil temperatures, which were attributed to impaired transpirational cooling. Water limitation significantly reduced the stand foliage, shoot and root biomass as droughts were severe, as shown in low leaf water potentials. Additional air warming did not enhance the drought effects on evapotranspiration and biomass, although more negative leaf water potentials were observed. After re-watering, evapotranspiration increased within a few days to pre-drought levels. Stands not subjected to the drought treatment produced significantly less biomass on the calcareous soil than on the acidic soil, probably due to P or Mn limitation. There was no difference in biomass and water regime between the two soils under drought conditions, indicating that nutrient availability was governed by water availability under these conditions. The results demonstrate that young oak stands can cope with severe drought and therefore can be considered for future forestry. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  13. [Study of the effect of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the speciation of heavy metals in soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharmali, A; Rada, A; El Meray, M; Nejmeddine, A

    2002-07-01

    Evaluation of the effect of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the speciation of copper and cadmium was carried out on two types of soils with a high metallic contamination due to municipal wastes spreading. The concentrations of total dissolved metals were higher in the soil containing earthworms. This increase was larger for the soil submitted to disturbance by earthworms for a long time (3 months). The main chemical species in the lixiviates of all type of soils including controls, were labile forms of cadmium with 52 to 87% and stable forms of copper which represents 67 to 95% of total concentration of dissolved metal. In the solid phase, there was a slight transfer of cadmium and copper from the oxidizable fraction into the exchangeable and acid soluble fractions. This suggests that soil disturbance by earthworms increases the mobility of these metals particularly cadmium. On the contrary copper appears in lixiviates as non labile organic complexes. Analysis of the whole results showed differences between soils as regards the mobility of the metals studied, which reflected the role of the mains physico-chemical characteristics (pH, C.E.C. and total calcareous content).

  14. Lead pollution. Fate of lead in the soil and its effects on Pinus halepensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, G.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analysis of samples of needles of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), humus and mineral soil collected in the vicinity of the Pb-smelter in Lavrion, Attica, showed that an area of about 2 km around the smelter is heavily polluted primarily with Pb and also with Zn, S and F . Most of the Pb was found accumulated in the humus and the top layer of the mineral soil. Humus samples treated with up to 1500 ppm Pb or Pb-polluted humus samples collected from points leeward of the smelter had no adverse effects on the germination of Aleppo pine seeds. When the germination experiment was conducted on Pb-polluted humus samples from points windward of the smelter, where a temporary pine needle death had been observed, the percentage of seed germination, for two years, was found reduced and negatively correlated to the distance of the humus sampling point from the Pb-smelter. In nursery experiments Pb concentrations of up to 2000 ppm, added to calcareous soil, had no adverse effect on height increase of Aleppo pine seedlings. Very little Pb was transported from the roots to the needles after seven months growth of the seedlings on either Pb-amended soil or on Pb-polluted soil from Lavrion. Concentrations of Pb in the roots of the seedlings, however, were found high in both cases and almost proportional to concentrations of Pb in the soil. 28 references, 2 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Biochar application reduce ammonia volatilization in a soil-plant system: A closed chamber experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sanchita; Donner, Erica; Smith, Euan; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is considered as one of the major mechanisms responsible for the loss of nitrogen (N) from soil-plant systems worldwide. About 10-30% of N can be lost as NH3 volatilization, which constitutes a significant economic loss. In recent years carbon-based materials such as biochar have created a great research interest because of their ability to increase soil fertility by reducing nutrient loss and pollutants bioavailability in soil. Most of the studies so far have investigated how biochar addition can reduce NH3 volatilization from soils but less information is available for soil-plant systems. In this research, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, variety: Calingiri) were grown in a calcareous soil (pH 8, calcarosol) inside a closed chamber system to assess both ammonia volatilization and plant N uptake. In this specialized glass chamber air was passed through an inlet where the flow rate was maintained using an air pump (3.5 L min-1). The air outlet was passed through a sulphuric acid trap which was used to capture the volatilized NH3 from the chamber. Plants were watered using the inlet to maintain 50% field capacity throughout the incubation. Two different biochar samples were used in this study: a poultry manure biochar (PM-BC) and a green waste compost biochar (GW-BC) produced at 250 ˚C. Five different application rates were tested (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%). The soil was mixed with biochar samples, water, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S for one week before sowing. After one week of germination, plants were transferred to the chamber for further three weeks incubation for NH3 volatilization measurement. The study identified that biochar application reduced the NH3 volatilization and increase the plant biomass. Biochar application at 0.5 and 2% decreased the NH3 volatilization by 36 and 48% respectively. The N uptake of the plants also increased from 2.9 to 28% at 0.5 and 2% application rates respectively. The dry biomass of the plant also increased

  16. Phytoremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Artificially Polluted Using Plant-Associated-Endophytic Bacteria and Dactylis glomerata as the Bioremediation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka, Ann; Gałązka, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of soil microorganisms to the contamination of soil artificially polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in pot experiments. The plant used in the tests was cock's foot (Dactylis glomerata). Three different soils artificially contaminated with PAHs were applied in the studies. Three selected PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were used at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil and diesel fuel at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil. For evaluation of the synergistic effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria, the following strains were selected: associative Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas stutzerii. Additionally, in the bioremediation process, the inoculation of plants with a mixture of the bacterial strains in the amount of 1 ml suspension per 500 g of soil was used. Chamber pot-tests were carried out in controlled conditions during four weeks of plant growth period. The basic physical, microbiological and biochemical properties in contaminated soils were determined. The obtained results showed a statistically important increase in the physical properties of soils polluted with PAHs and diesel fuel compared with the control and also an important decrease in the content of PAHs and heavy metals in soils inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and P. stutzeri after cock's foot grass growth. The bioremediation processes were especially intensive in calcareous rendzina soil artificially polluted with PAHs.

  17. Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian stable isotopes and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecology in the Boreal Realm (Stevns-1 well, Danish Basin Chalks) : implications for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, N.; Schovsbo, N.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Stevns-1 borehole, drilled in eastern Denmark close to the famous K-Pg boundary section of Stevns Klint, recovered 456 m of upper Campanian to basal Danian chalks with ~100% recovery. A nearly complete nannofossil biozonation was documented for this core (Sheldon, 2008). Stevns-1 represents the first complete section throughout the uppermost Cretaceous chalk of NW Europe and the most expanded Maastrichtian section worldwide. Because these chalks lack extensive burial diagenetic overprinting and are composed of more of 70% of calcareous nannofossils in volume, they likely reflect conditions of past sea-surface waters, thus making this site highly suitable for the study of past environments and climates of the Boreal realm in the uppermost Cretaceous. Here, we present the results obtained on the long-term evolution of calcareous nannofossil assemblages and bulk carbon- and oxygen-stable isotopes on this site. In the nannofossil assemblage, the main significant changes are observed within the distribution of Watznaueria barnesiae (considered in the Boreal realm as a warm-water index), of the cool-water taxa and of the fertility indices. The neat opposition between the relative abundance of the sum of cool-water taxa and that of Watznaueria barnesiae allowed us to build a nannofossil temperature index (NTI). The NTI and the bulk ^18O show the same evolution and have a high coefficient of correlation (R2=0.73), thus suggesting that oxygen stable isotopes could be used here to estimate past variations of sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the Boreal realm. These two proxies suggest the following climate evolution : SST were quite stable and warm in the upper Campanian, and are estimated at around 19 °C. A 4 °C cooling is recorded between the uppermost Campanian and the lowermost Maastrichtian. An expanded mid-Maastrichtian warming episode of 1.5 °C is recorded and followed by a second cooling event of 1.5 °C in the upper Maastrichtian. The end of the Maastrichtian

  18. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  19. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the

  20. Spatial variability of cv Tempranillo phenology within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) related to soil type and plot characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria C.; Jones, Gregory V.; Yuste, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Vineyards in the Ribera del Duero area (Spain) date back to the roman time, with significant fluctuations throughout the centuries, reaching consolidation and stable production in the 10th and 11th centuries. The present Ribera del Duero Designation of Origen (DO) started in 1980 and has increased from less than 6,000 ha planted to more than 21,000 ha planted by 2010 and becoming one the top regions for wine production in Spain with success in the global wine market. Vineyards of Ribera del Duero are found along 115 km of the Duero River. Within this distance, differences in elevation and topography produce differences in climate, which provide the means by which a zonification for vineyard management can be assessed. In this work, the differences in phenological growth characteristics for the Tempranillo variety were analyzed within the Ribera del Duero DO and related to soil and plot characteristics. Phenology dates, referenced to different Baggiolini classification stages, were evaluated in 20 control plots distributed throughout the Ribera del Duero DO during the period 2004-2012. These years presented different climatic characteristics, which were analyzed from daily temperature and precipitation series recorded from 1980 to 2012 at five stations located along the Duero River. Most vineyards were cultivated under rainfed conditions. In order to evaluate the spatial variability in phenology, climate and soils, the plots were classified using a hierarchical cluster multivariate analysis. Parameters such as the elevation, the distance to river and the soil type were taken into account in the classification. According to the WRB classification (2006) the main soil types in the area are Calcaric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Calcic Luvisol, Calcaric fluvisols, Eutric fluvisols and in less proportion Lithic Leptosols and Calcaric Rogosols. Four different groups were observed, with differences in elevation, distance to the Duero River and the soil type. The

  1. Genesis and characteristics of the soil in A-R stage in forest ecosystems of NP 'Tara'

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    Knežević Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of soil in A-R stage formed on limestone and serpentinite in forest ecosystems in NP 'Tara' were researched. Based on the specific effect of limestone on the soil genesis and evolution, two types of calcareous limestone bedrocks were distinguished: dense limestones, and soft, marly limestones. Three subtypes of black earth were studied on dense limestones. They are: organogenic, organo-mineral and brownised soils. One soil type was researched on soft, marly limestones: rendzina, the leached variety. One soil type was researched on serpentinites, within the A-R stage: humus-siliceous soil (ranker, subtype eutric ranker. This paper also presents the evaluation of ecological and productive characteristics of the study soils. If the soil is observed separately, regardless of the tree species growing on it, the soils in A-R stage in NP 'Tara' cannot be evaluated as highly productive. However, in all plant communities on the soils in A-R stage on limestone, the values of average volume, current volume increment, and basal area were high. The unfavourable physical characteristics of the soil in the area of NP 'Tara' are compensated by the effect of humid climate. On the study eutric humus siliceous soils in the area of NP 'Tara', in the natural and artificially established stands of Scots pine and Austrian pine, the ecological and productive value is conditioned by numerous factors and it is mainly limited by unfavourable physical characteristics. Regardless of the unfavourable ecological and productive characteristics of the soil, the natural and artificially established stands of Scots pine and Austrian pine are in the coeno-ecological optimum.

  2. Synthesis, Photocatalytic, and Antifungal Properties of MgO, ZnO and Zn/Mg Oxide Nanoparticles for the Protection of Calcareous Stone Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Fernandez, A; De la Rosa-García, S C; Gomez-Villalba, L S; Gómez-Cornelio, S; Rabanal, M E; Fort, R; Quintana, P

    2017-07-26

    More recently, the biological colonization of stone heritage and consequently its biodeterioration has become the focus of numerous studies. Among all microorganisms, fungi are considered to be one of the most important colonizers and biodegraders on stone materials. This is why the development of new antifungal materials requires immediate action. ZnMgO nanoparticles (NPs) have several exciting applications in different areas, highlighting as an efficient antimicrobial agent for medical application. In this research, the application of Zn-doped MgO (Mg1-xZnxO, x = 0.096) NPs obtained by sol-gel method as antifungal coatings on dolomitic and calcitic stones has been explored as a means to develop effective protective coatings for stone heritage. Moreover, the photocatalytic and antifungal activity of Mg1-xZnxO NPs were comparatively studied with single ZnO and MgO NPs. Thus, compared to the MgO and ZnO nanomaterials, the Mg1-xZnxO NPs exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity. After UV irradiation for 60 min, 87% methylene blue was degraded over Zn-doped MgO NPs, whereas only 58% and 38% of MB was degraded over ZnO and MgO NPs, respectively. These nanoparticles also displayed a better antifungal activity than that of single pure MgO or ZnO NPs, inhibiting the growth of fungi Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum, Paraconiothyrium sp., and Pestalotiopsis maculans, which are especially active in the bioweathering of stone. The improved photocatalytic and antifungal properties detected in the Mg1-xZnxO NPs was attributed to the formation of crystal defects by the incorporation of Zn into MgO. The application of the MgO- and Zn-doped MgO NPs as protective coatings on calcareous stones showed important antifungal properties, inhibiting successfully the epilithic and endolithic colonization of A. niger and P. oxalicum in both lithotypes, and indicating a greater antifungal effectiveness on Zn-doped MgO NPs. The use of Zn-doped MgO NPs may thus represent a highly

  3. Variability in surface water properties of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean related to the Miocene Cooling Events, evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent major climatic shifts to colder global temperatures. These periods of cooling (Mi-Events) were characterized by oxygen isotopic shifts that have been related to size changes of the Antarctic and Arctic ice-sheets (e.g. Miller et al., 1991, St. John, 2008). The start and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during this time-interval is of major interest, as it changed the atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern which led to the initiation of upwelling off the south western African coast (Paulsen et al., 2007). However, the complex interaction between the initiation and development of the upwelling in the western South Atlantic and its interaction with the evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as well as the built-up of the Antarctic ice-sheet is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst associations. Within this study 53 samples were taken from sediment core ODP 175 1085A off the coast of Namibia and investigated by defining the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblage. The general cooling trend during the middle- and upper Miocene is clearly reflected in the dinocyst record by the decrease of species adapted to warm water conditions (Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Thoracosphaera heimii) and the appearance and increase of Caracomia arctica after ~ 11.1 Ma. C. arctica is a cold water species which today is only present south of the polar front. The concentration of C. arctica varies with a cyclicity of about 200-400 kyrs which reflects an eccentricity signal. We assume that observed changes in association such as the appearance of C. arctica can either be related to the initiation of the upwelling activity in the region, which is suggested to occur at ~11.6 Ma (Paulsen & Bickert 2007), or might be the

  4. Physiographic soil map delineation for the Nile alluvium and desert outskirts in middle Egypt using remote sensing data of EgyptSat-1

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    A.A. Afify

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce a physiographic soil map with correlated attributes to be a base for extra modifiers within the land information system. This integrated data will serve the purposes of land use planning, precision farming practices and to be applied in other areas using the extrapolation approach. The Satellite data of EgyptSat-1 were projected on an area of Middle Egypt that represents unique physiographic features over portions of Beni Suef, El Fayoum, Helwan, and October Provinces. The spectral signatures of the land patterns were delineated by the visual interpretation using the physiographic approach, while soil taxa were categorized according to the key of Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010, resulting in two landscape categories. The first category includes older and developed parent materials, covering the following units: (a Pediplains of residual soils over limestone parent rock, having soils of Lithic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (b Terraced old alluvial plains represent the formerly deposited alluvium that preceded the recent one of the River Nile alluvium. They includes soils of Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal and old alluvial plain but are currently managed under cultivation. The soils are dominated by Typic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (c Wadis that were shaped by the paleodrainage erosion, are currently subjected to the seasonal flush flooding and are sparsely vegetated including soils of Typic Torrifluvents, lamy skeletal (calcareous; Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal, and Typic Torriorthents, sandy. (d Aeolian plain “partly cultivated” includes soils of Typic Torripsamments (calcareous. The second category is a recent River Nile alluvium that formed the following units: (a Terraced recent alluvial plain “cultivated” includes soils of Entic Calcitorrerts, fine and Typic Haplotorrerts fine. (b Recent flat alluvial plain includes soils of Typic Haplotorrerts, fine. (c Meandering belt is aligning

  5. Is geology or soil which produces the terroir effect? An experimental study in representative Chianti Classico terroirs during three contrasting vintages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Valboa, Giuseppe; Pellegrini, Sergio; Mocali, Stefano; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of terroir on the style of wine obtained an international acknowledgement in the context of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) in 2010. Although it is known that geology, morphology and microclimate influence and diversify the wine characters, it is not studied in detail the real effect of soil features, namely soil hydrology, limiting horizons, secondary precipitation of salts and carbonates, etc. Aim of this work was to demonstrate and quantify the effect of geology-morphology-climate (macro-terroirs) and of the soil features (Basic Terroir Units, BTUs) on wine quality. The study was conducted during three different vintages (2012, '13 and '14) in vineyards belonging to one of the biggest farm of Chianti Classico and characterized by four different macro-terroirs, which are representative of the most common viticultural environments of the Chianti Classico wine district. In particular, the macro-terroirs were : - Agresto: developed on clayey-calcareous rocks situated in slopes between 400 and 450 m a.s.l. and characterized by clay-loamy, calcareous, and stony soils. - Fattoio: developed on feldspathic sandstone, situated at elevated altitude for vineyard (430-500 m a.s.l.). The soil was characterized by sandy or loamy-sandy texture, high stoniness and very low content of calcium carbonate (LSD test showed several significant differences among the wines produced in the different BTUs. In particular, Agresto and Ceni terroir provided wines with stronger colour intensity, whereas the wines produced in Fattoio terroir showed higher flavour intensity and lower acidity. Summers with high precipitation, like 2014, tend to hide the soil effect on wine features, whereas drier summer highlight the soil effect.

  6. Soils Diversity in the Southwest of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José; Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Loures, Luís

    2017-04-01

    Back in 1960 the Seventh International Congress of Soil Science has proposed to develop a World Soil Mapping at a scale of 1: 1000000, with a purpose of getting a systematic inventory of soils, and also to allow a transfer of experiences between different countries and institutions. The mapping process has been coordinated by the European Soil Bureau (ESBN) and the European Commission, along with the participation of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), based on the classification proposed by the "World Reference Base for Soil Resource" (WRB, FAO, 1998). Throughout this mapping and helped by the European Soil Database (v2.0), a mapping of soils and their diversity, in the area under analysis on the present paper - EUROACE (Alentejo-Centro-Extremadura) in the Southwest of Iberian Peninsula - has been developed and assessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and algorithms of diversity. The obtained results have shown that in this particularly territory it is possible to identify 12 Reference Soil Groups (RSG) at first level, and 26 at second level, predominating Regosols and Dystrict Regosols respectively, whereas in the Mediterranean Region (Biogeographical Regions of Europe, BGRE) are 22 and 71 correspondingly with predominant for Cambisols and Calcaric Cambisols. By the analysis and assessment of soil diversity, the Shannon Index (H') is lower in EUROACE (1,67 vs 2,42 and 2,52 vs 3,35 to first and second levels); the evenness (E) shows a more equal distribution in RSG at first level in the Mediterranean Region (0,70 vs 0,67) and lower at the second level (0,67 vs 0,77 in EUROACE). These results will enable the development of a more complete pedodiversity inventory in several other regions, and also as tools to the study of soil susceptibility which will allow not only to protect a very important part of European natural heritage, but also to take specific measures to increase a better

  7. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hu

    Full Text Available Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous. Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.

  8. Abundance and size changes in the calcareous nannofossil Schizosphaerella - relation to sea-level and palaeoenvironmental change across the Sinemurian to earliest Toarcian of the Paris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The nannolith Schizosphaerella spp. was predominant in Early Jurassic calcareous nannofossil assemblages. Previous studies have shown a significant drop in abundance and mean size of Schizosphaerella during the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event which has been interpreted by some authors either as a calcification crisis due to increased pCO2, or as a response to increased nutrient availability, and/or greenhouse warming. Abundance and size changes in Schizosphaerella have here been thoroughly investigated throughout the upper Sinemurian to lowermost Toarcian (Early Jurassic) of the Sancerre-Couy core (Paris Basin) based on 116 samples. Our results show a stepwise rise in abundance of Schizosphaerella in the lower part of the investigated section and a rise in abundance of coccoliths during the major transgression of the Sinemurian, confirming that Schizosphaerella was better adapted to proximal areas than coccoliths. Mixture analysis of the biometric measurements show the existence of three populations of Schizosphaerella, interpreted as different morphotypes with different ecological affinities. Proximal, cool environmental conditions of the upper Sinemurian are associated with a dominance of the large population of Schizosphaerella. A dominance of the medium population, corresponds to cool surface waters and more distal conditions. Warm episodes are systematically linked to a dominance of the small population. Therefore we propose that the size response of Schizosphaerella throughout the Early Jurassic was rather a change in abundance of different ecophenotypes or (sub-) species of Schizosphaerella, with distinct affinities to temperature and proximal/distal environmental conditions.

  9. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcová, Katarína

    2017-06-01

    The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene) were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys). Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence) or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains).

  10. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holcová Katarína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys. Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains.

  11. Speciation of Cu in a Contaminated Agricultural Soil Measured By XAFS, Mu-XAFS, And Mu-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, D.G.; Baker, L.L.

    2009-05-26

    Contamination of agricultural soils with Cu as a result of fungicide application and spills threatens environmental quality and reduces soil quality for crop growth. In this paper advanced spectroscopic and microscopic methods were used to elucidate the Cu speciation in a calcareous soil contaminated since the 1940s. Microscopically focused synchrotron-based XRF ({mu}-SXRF) was used to map the elemental distribution in the soils. Results indicated that most of the Cu was not associated with metal oxides, silicates, phosphates, or carbonates. Bulk and microscopically focused X-absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra indicated that the Cu in the soil was predominantly Cu adsorbed on soil organic matter (SOM). Interpretation of the fitting results suggests that the Cu is complexed to SOM via bidentate inner-sphere coordination with carboxyl or amine ligands. Results presented in this paper provide detailed information on the molecular coordination of Cu in a contaminated soil. Such information is critical for understanding the long-term fate and best management practices for Cu in the environment.

  12. Comparative study of interpolation methods for mapping soil pH in the apple orchards of Murree, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humair Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH is considered as a core indicator for nutrient bioavailability. Prevailing alkaline pH due to calcareousness in Pakistan is considered as one of the limiting factor for nutrient availability to plants. Exploring the spatial variability of soil variables serves as scientific basis for the generation of soil management strategies. Selection of best interpolation method to predict the soil properties at un-sampled locations is an important issue in the site specific investigations. This article evaluates Inverse distance weighting, global and local polynomial interpolation, radial basis function and kriging to determine the optimal interpolation method for mapping soil pH. Performance of the interpolation methods was analyzed using soil test (pH data from 180 surface soil samples collected from 30 representative orchards grown in tehsil Murree. For inverse distance weighting, powers of 1, 2 and 3 were used and the number of neighbors for all methods ranged from 15 to 25. The conclusion of our study suggested that increased power of inverse distance weighting resulted in an increase in the prediction accuracy. Local polynomial interpolation method was more suitable as compared to global polynomial interpolation. Radial basis function with regularized and spline tension gave equivalent prediction accuracy. Higher errors (mean and mean absolute errors were observed in case of ordinary kriging as compared to other interpolation methods. Digital maps generated by the higher powers of inverse distance weighting, local polynomial interpolation, and radial basis function were of higher accuracy.

  13. Assessing the Effect of Cement Dust Emission on the Physicochemical Nature of Soil around Messebo area, Tigray, North Ethopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMUEL ESTIFANOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six soil samples were collected around the vicinity of Messebo cement factory in Mekelle, Ethiopia from 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths and determined their physicochemical properties and heavy metals contents. The results indicated that the soils are calcareous having sandy loam to loamy sand texture. The top and lower parts of the soil are found to be alkaline with mean pH 8.97 and 8.93; EC 223.06 and 88.22 µS/cm respectively. The cation exchange capacity of the top soil (0-5cm range from 9 to 27 mmolc kg-1, while the exchangeable Ca and Mg range from 6.4 to 16 and 2.2 to 5.0 mmolc kg- 1 respectively. The average Ca concentration values for the upper and lower soil depths are 418ppm and 404.36ppm respectively. Water extractable analysis results verify the degree of leaching of the metals from anthropogenic source. Geoaccumulation index confirms that the two soil depths are similarly categorized as very heavily contaminated with (As, Cr, Co and Ni and moderately to heavily contaminated with (Cu, Pb and Mo whereas the top part is moderately contaminated with Zn. Based on Enrichment Factor (EF, both soil depths have moderate enrichment with Pb ( 2 EF >20, very high enrichment with Cr (2040. The severe contamination is evident to the east western direction towards which the wind blow predominantly.

  14. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  15. Short-term effect of vermicompost application on biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content from Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils.

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  17. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  18. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  19. Competition for Ammonium between Nitrifying and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Continuously Percolated Soil Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, F J; Duyts, H; Laanbroek, H J

    1992-10-01

    Although the absence of nitrate formation in grassland soils rich in organic matter has often been reported, low numbers of nitrifying bacteria are still found in these soils. To obtain more insight into these observations, we studied the competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species Nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species Arthrobacter globiformis in the presence of Nitrobacter winogradskyi with soil columns containing calcareous sandy soil. The soil columns were percolated continuously at a dilution rate of 0.007 h, based on liquid volumes, with medium containing 5 mM ammonium and different amounts of glucose ranging from 0 to 12 mM.A. globiformis was the most competitive organism for limiting amounts of ammonium. The numbers of N. europaea and N. winogradskyi cells were lower at higher glucose concentrations, and the potential ammonium-oxidizing activities in the uppermost 3 cm of the soil columns were nonexistent when at least 10 mM glucose was present in the reservoir, although 10 nitrifying cells per g of dry soil were still present. This result demonstrated that there was no correlation between the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and their activities. The numbers and activities of N. winogradskyi cells decreased less than those of N. europaea cells in all layers of the soil columns, probably because of heterotrophic growth of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria on organic substrates excreted by the heterotrophic bacteria or because of nitrate reduction at reduced oxygen concentrations by the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Our conclusion was that the nitrifying bacteria were less competitive than the heterotrophic bacteria for ammonium in soil columns but that they survived as viable inactive cells. Inactive nitrifying bacteria may also be found in the rhizosphere of grassland plants, which is rich in organic carbon. They are possibly reactivated during periods of net mineralization.

  20. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1 and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1 soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn; Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil. The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk.

  1. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  2. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Development of Potential Screens Based on Shoot Calcium and Iron Concentrations for the Evaluation of Tolerance in Egyptian Genotypes of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to Limed Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERLEY, SIMON J.; NORGAARD, CLAUS; LEACH, JOHN E.; CHRISTIANSEN, JØERGEN L.; HUYGHE, CHRISTIAN; RÖMER, PETER

    2002-01-01

    European cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grow poorly in limed or calcareous soils. However, Egyptian genotypes are grown successfully in highly calcareous soil and show no stress symptoms. To examine their physiological responses to alkaline soil and develop potential screens for tolerance, three experiments were conducted in limed and non‐limed (neutral pH) soil. Measurements included net CO2 uptake, and the partitioning of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and soluble and insoluble Ca in stem and leaf tissue. Intolerant plants showed clear symptoms of stress, whereas stress in the Egyptian genotypes and in L. pilosus Murr. (a tolerant species) was less marked. Only the intolerant plants became chlorotic and this contributed to their reduced net CO2 uptake in the limed soil. In contrast, Egyptian genotypes and L. pilosus showed no change in net CO2 uptake between the soils. The partitioning of Ca and Fe either resulted from the stress responses, or was itself a stress response. L. pilosus and some Egyptian genotypes differed in soluble Ca concentrations compared with the intolerant cultivars, although no significant difference was apparent in the Ca partitioning of the Egyptian genotype Giza1. In a limed soil, Giza1 maintained its stem Fe3+ concentration at a level comparable with that of plants grown in non‐limed soil, whereas stem [Fe3+] of an intolerant genotype increased. Giza1 increased the percentage of plant Fe that was Fe2+ in its leaf tissue under these conditions; that of the intolerant genotype was reduced. The potential tolerance of the Egyptian genotypes through these mechanisms and the possibility of nutritional‐based screens are discussed. PMID:12096746

  4. The development of potential screens based on shoot calcium and iron concentrations for the evaluation of tolerance in Egyptian genotypes of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to limed soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Simon J; Norgaard, Claus; Leach, John E; Christiansen, Jøergen L; Huyghe, Christian; Römer, Peter

    2002-03-01

    European cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grow poorly in limed or calcareous soils. However, Egyptian genotypes are grown successfully in highly calcareous soil and show no stress symptoms. To examine their physiological responses to alkaline soil and develop potential screens for tolerance, three experiments were conducted in limed and non-limed (neutral pH) soil. Measurements included net CO2 uptake, and the partitioning of Fe2+ and Fe3+ and soluble and insoluble Ca in stem and leaf tissue. Intolerant plants showed clear symptoms of stress, whereas stress in the Egyptian genotypes and in L pilosus Murr. (a tolerant species) was less marked. Only the intolerant plants became chlorotic and this contributed to their reduced net CO2 uptake in the limed soil. In contrast, Egyptian genotypes and L pilosus showed no change in net CO2 uptake between the soils. The partitioning of Ca and Fe either resulted from the stress responses, or was itself a stress response. L pilosus and some Egyptian genotypes differed in soluble Ca concentrations compared with the intolerant cultivars, although no significant difference was apparent in the Ca partitioning of the Egyptian genotype Giza 1. In a limed soil, Giza 1 maintained its stem Fe3+ concentration at a level comparable with that of plants grown in non-limed soil, whereas stem [Fe3+] of an intolerant genotype increased. Gizal increased the percentage of plant Fe that was Fe2+ in its leaf tissue under these conditions; that of the intolerant genotype was reduced. The potential tolerance of the Egyptian genotypes through these mechanisms and the possibility of nutritional-based screens are discussed.

  5. The use of olive-mill waste compost to promote the plant vegetation cover in a trace-element-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of a mature compost as a soil amendment to promote the growth of native species for the phytorestoration of a mine-affected soil from a semi-arid area (SE Spain), contaminated with trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn), was evaluated in a 2-year field experiment. The effects of an inorganic fertiliser were also determined for comparison. Bituminaria bituminosa was the selected native plant since it is a leguminous species adapted to the particular local pedoclimatic conditions. Compost addition increased total organic-C concentrations in soil with respect to the control and fertiliser treatments, maintained elevated available P concentrations throughout the duration of the experiment and stimulated soil microbial biomass, while trace elements extractability in the soil was rather low due to the calcareous nature of the soil and almost unaltered in the different treatments. Tissue concentrations of P and K in B. bituminosa increased after the addition of compost, associated with growth stimulation. Leaf Cu concentration was also increased by the amendments, although overall the trace elements concentrations can be considered non-toxic. In addition, the spontaneous colonisation of the plots by a total of 29 species of 15 different families at the end of the experiment produced a greater vegetation cover, especially in plots amended with compost. Therefore, the use of compost as a soil amendment appears to be useful for the promotion of a vegetation cover and the phytostabilisation of moderately contaminated soils under semi-arid conditions.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen uptake of calcareous benthic foraminifera along a depth-related oxygen gradient in the OMZ of the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Julie Enge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera are an important faunal element of the benthos in oxygen-depleted settings such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs where they can play a relevant role in the processing of phytodetritus. We investigated the uptake of phytodetritus (labeled with 13C and 15N by cal-careous foraminifera in the 0-1 cm sediment horizon under different oxygen concentrations within the OMZ in the eastern Arabian Sea. The in situ tracer experiments were carried out along a depth transect on the Indian margin over a period of 4 to 10 days. The uptake of phy-todetrital carbon within 4 days by all investigated species shows that phytodetritus is a rele-vant food source for foraminifera in OMZ sediments. The decrease of total carbon uptake from 540 to 1100 m suggests a higher demand for carbon by species in the low-oxygen core region of the OMZ or less food competition with macrofauna. Especially Uvigerinids showed high uptake of phytodetrital carbon at the lowest oxygenated site. Variation in the ratio of phytodetrital carbon to nitrogen between species and sites indicates that foraminiferal carbon and nitrogen use can be decoupled and different nutritional demands are found between spe-cies. Lower ratio of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen at 540 m could hint for greater demand or storage of food-based nitrogen, ingestion or hosting of bacteria under almost anoxic condi-tions. Shifts in the foraminiferal assemblage structure (controlled by oxygen or food availabil-ity and in the presence of other benthic organisms account for observed changes in the pro-cessing of phytodetritus in the different OMZ habitats. Foraminifera dominate the short-term processing of phytodetritus in the OMZ core but are less important in the lower OMZ bounda-ry region of the Indian margin as biological interactions and species distribution of foraminif-era change with depth and oxygen levels.

  7. Hydrogeological exploitation through structural analysis and petrophysical proprieties of the Barremian sandstone-calcareous bar in Agadir-Essaouira basin (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Latifa Al; Amrouch, Khalid; Jaillard, Etienne; Geraud, Yves; Masrour, Moussa; Ougadire, Mohamed; Lkebir, Noura; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine

    2017-04-01

    The Barremian unit in Agadir Essaouira basin consists of a sandstone-calcareous bar alternated with clays. The thickness of this bar is about 30 meters and may consist the best reservoir in the lower Cretaceous units. The porosity and permeability of the sandstones are controlled by carbonate cementation. Several thin sections were studied in details in order to explore the texture and mineral contents. The results show that the sandy limestone and lithic sandstones facies have poor reservoir potential due to the limited fluid circulation. On the other hand, the sandstones are characterized by dolomite crystals replacing carbonates cement, which is confirmed by the petrophysical study. The measurements reveal that the primary permeability is about 1.8 10-4 mD to 1.3 mD in sandy-limestone and about 1.6 mD to 1.3 103 mD in sandstones, while the porosity is about 3.22% to 8.54 % in sandy-limestone and about 13.08% to 23.03 % in sandstones. Detailed fracture analyzes are measured within the Barremian bar in both North and South Atlasic folds. As a result, the fractures are similar between the two synclines, with a major set of N105-130 direction and minor set of N20-30 direction in the North and the South flanks of the South Atlasic fold respectively. The North Atlasic fold showed a major set of N80-100 direction and a minor set of N0-15 direction. The average intensity of fractures is about 11 fractures/m2. The results show that the Barremian unit is controlled by early sedimentlogical processes. The intense fracture network enables water to circulate within fractures which increases the porosity. Chemical water analyzes reveal that the groundwater is enriched on (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and SO42- due water/rock interactions.

  8. Changes in distribution of calcareous benthic foraminifera in the central Barents Sea between the periods 1965-1992 and 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Margot; Kristensen, Dorthe Klitgaard; Hald, Morten; Pavlova, Olga; Jørgensen, Lis Lindal

    2012-12-01

    Live benthic foraminifera assemblages from 30 surface sediment samples taken in 2005 and 2006 from the central Barents Sea are compared with total benthic foraminifera assemblages from a database containing samples taken between 1965 and 1992. We evaluate the hypothesis that observed environmental changes in the region have led to observable shifts in benthic foraminiferal fauna. Of the 12 infaunal calcareous species studied marked decreases were observed in cold water species Buccella spp., Elphidium excavatum, Islandiella norcrossi and Nonionellina labradorica. A decline combined with a marked change in spatial distribution is seen in Cassidulina laevigata, Trifarina fluens, Stainforthia loeblichi, Cassidulina reniforme, Cassidulina neoteretis, Melonis barleeanus, and Pullenia bulloides. Warm water species Epistominella nipponica is the only species of these 12 that increased in abundance. The general shift toward dominance of warm water species and temperature tolerant species agrees well with the observed temperature increase in the basin. At the level of individual data points, a relationship between assemblage change and environmental change is not straightforward. The comparison of the new data with the database also displays a shift toward higher abundances of more fragile species, which can be attributed to method differences. The species that display the most pronounced change are those associated with cold water and proximity of the ice edge. The magnitude of benthic foraminiferal change in the study area is largest in a conspicuous belt that appears to follow roughly the Polar Front. This area has a lower temperature and salinity gradient through the last decades than the rest of the study area, and its high faunal change may be due to the position of the Polar Front moving away from this area, and associated changes in the sea ice edge.

  9. Sea-surface dynamics changes in the North Atlantic Ocean (IODP Site U1314) during late Pliocene deduced from calcareous nannofossil observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatiningrum, R. S.; Sato, T.; Effendi, R.

    2016-12-01

    Calcareous nannofossils were analyzed on the late Pliocene sediments (2.55 to 2.88 Ma) from the southern Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic IODP Site U1314 (56°21.9'1N, 27°53.3'W) at an average resolution of 3 kyr. In this study, a total 131 samples were analyzed and a total of 24 species from 14 genera were identified by polarizing microscope observation. In general, the coccolith assemblage is dominated by Reticulofenestra spp., whilst significant changes in paleoceanographic conditions are mainly shown by the ratio of Reticulofenstra morphometric and several subordinate species. Top of D. tamalis found at 272.81 mcd, which dates to an age of 2.756 Ma. The age is based on correlation with the age model established by Hayashi et al. (2012) and modified partly by Sato et al. (2015). The presence of abundant large reticulofenestrids and lower abundance of C. pelagicus characterized the interval through G12 to G10, indicate oligotrophic surface waters and northward heat transport by intensified NAC. During G9/G8 transition the abundance of large reticulofenestrids decreased abruptly and alternating with small reticulofenestrids. Above G9/G8 transition is characterized by abundance of small reticulofenestrids, higher abundance of P. lacunosa and the cold-water species C. pelagicus, suggesting higher surface water productivity and the prevalence of cold waters over the site. Thus, reflecting a weakened influence of the NAC and southward position of AF that is characterized by high eddy activity in correspondence with cooler and nutrient-rich waters.

  10. SWAP Modeling Results of Monitored Soil Water Moisture Data of Irrigation Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiliger, A.; Garsia-Orenes, F.; van den Elsen, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    In arid and semiarid zones of the Mediterranean regions a shortage of fresh water resources constitutes some time dramatic problem. In these regions with growing population and the scarce of rainfall irregularity in time during growing season an efficient use of water irrigation became a main challenge for future extensive agriculture development. In the frame of FP6 Water-Reuse project 516731 project a special field experimentation has been carried out in Alicante Region of Spain (Location UTM X: 693.809, Y: 4.279.922, Z: 626) on a Sandy Typic Xerofkuvent (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), Calcaric Fluvisol (WRB, FAO, 1989). with aim to investigate water regime in water repellent soils under irrigation of vine Vitus Labrusca. During field experimentation from 2006 till 2008 on 9 plots, there the same regime of irrigation water application was maintained, a monitoring of weather parameters was done by automatic meteorological station as well as a monitoring of soil water moisture was done by set of data-loggers and TDR-soil moisture sensors ECO-2 installed at different depts. SWAP model was used to simulate water regime of irrigated plots. Empirical coefficients of van Genuchten-Mualem's equations were calculated by pedotransfer functions derived from HYPRES data base using measured values of bulk density, organic matter content and soil texture. Testing of validity of the use of estimated curves was done by comparison with unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters of water retention and hydraulic conductivity measured in vitro by Wind's method on soil samples. Calibration of SWAP model for each plot was done on measured soil moisture data of irrigation events by adjusting a value of saturated hydraulic coefficient. Verification of the SWAP model was done by full range of experimental data. Similarity and non-similarity of the water regime at experimental plots as well as results of verification of SWAP model were analyzed

  11. Soil tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli

    2013-01-01

    The web platform offers a compilation of various formats and materials dealing with reduced tillage and its challenges regarding weeds. A selection of short movies about mechanical weeding, green manure and tailor-made machinery is listed. Leaflets and publications on reduced tillage can be downloaded. In there, different treatments and machinery are tested and compared to advice farmers on how to conserve soil while keeping weed under control. For Swiss farmers information on the leg...

  12. A unified CPT–SPT correlation for non-crushable and crushable cohesionless soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous developments in the Cone Penetration Test (CPT, the Standard Penetration Test (SPT is still used extensively in site investigations. Hence, there is a constant need to update the CPT–SPT correlations to make use of the growing experience with the CPT. Many CPT–SPT correlations have been proposed based on case histories of predominantly quartzitic/non-crushable sands; yet, more efforts are needed to enhance their reliability. Additionally, recent studies were carried out on calcareous/crushable sands have shown that the common CPT–SPT correlations for these sands are even less reliable than they are for quartzitic sands. In this study, a proposed approach is presented to define the related soil compressibility parameters of the CPT–SPT correlations. The presented methodology enhances the reliability of the CPT–SPT correlations and provides a unified approach encompassing both crushable and non-crushable sands.

  13. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are

  14. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  15. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  16. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Following on from discussions that took place during the 19th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO) in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2012, the ISTRO working groups “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) and “Subsoil Compaction” decided...... to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... and climatic conditions, as well as in utilizing VSE methods together with qualitative methods to evaluate the impact of soil management (Munkholm et al., 2013). Soil compaction due to agricultural operations is a serious threat to soil productivity and soil ecological functions and has been a key research...

  17. Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.

    1977-01-01

    ; horizon is plugged to downward moving solutions. V. The fifth stage includes soils which are platy to tabular, dense, strongly cemented. A well-developed laminar layer occurs on the upper surface. VI. The sixth and most advanced stage is massive, multilaminar, and strongly cemented calcrete with abundant pisoliths, the upper surface of which may be brecciated. Pisoliths may indicate many generations of brecciation and reformation. In general calcic soils include stages I through III and are friable to moderately indurated; whereas pedogenic calcretes include stages IV through VI and are dense and strongly indurated. In a single pedon the morphologic stage of carbonate deposition decreases downward in the profile. The stage of development may be used in local regions for correlation and determination of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces. Some structures observed in pedogenic calcretes may be present in other types of calcrete but the horizontal zonation typical of deposits of soil processes is absent. Laminar structure in particular is not restricted to pedogenic deposits and is common in many varieties of calcrete. Very little chemical change occurs in the noncalcareous nonclayey fractions of calcretes with age; but clay minerals within calcretes undergo a complex history of authigenesis. There is a depletion of magnesium in the calcareous portion and an enrichment of magnesium in the clayey portion of a calcrete with age. In keeping with this relationship, montmorillonite, or mixed layer montmorillonite-illite, is common in younger calcretes; whereas the high magnesium-silicate clays, sepiolite and palygorskite, are common in older calcretes. This indicates that the magnesium depleted from the carbonate is redistributed authigenically in clay minerals. The mobility of carbonate introduces many problems in attempts to date calcretes directly. Although the relative ages of soils within a province may be determined by quant

  18. Two look-alike dasycladalean algae: Clypeina isabellae masse, Bucur, Virgone & Delmasso, 1999 from the Berriasian of Sardinia (Italy and Clypeina loferensis sp. N. from the upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlagintweit Felix

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New material from the Berriasian of eastern Sardinia, Italy, and from the NW of Sardinia published by PECORINI in 1972 as 'Clypeina sp. A', allows a better characterization and an emended diagnosis of Clypeina isabellae MASSE et al., 1999 from the Berriasian of SW France. Another morphologically somehow similar Clypeina species from the Upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria is described as Clypeina loferensis n. sp. Remarks on the genera Clypeina MICHELIN and Hamulusella ELLIOTT, a Clypeina-type dasycladalean alga with proximal bulged laterals, and Clypeina jurassica-sulcata are also provided.

  19. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in soils

  20. Soil Compressibility under Irrigated Perennial and Annual Crops in a Semi-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Watanabe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In irrigated soils, a continuous state of high moisture reduces resistance of the soil to applied external forces, favouring compaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of developed calcareous soils in irrigated annual and perennial cropping systems of the Apodi Plateau, located in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Four areas of irrigated crops were evaluated: banana after two (B2 and 15 (B15 years cultivation, pasture (P, and a corn and beans succession (MB, as well as the reference areas for soil quality and corresponding natural vegetation (NVB2, NVB15, NVP and NVMB. Samples were collected at layers of 0.00-0.10 and 0.20-0.30 m; and for B2 and B15, samples were collected in the row and inter-row spaces. The following properties were determined: degree of compactness (DC, preconsolidation pressure (σp, compression index (Cc, maximum density (ρmax, critical water content (WCcrit, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon of light organic matter (Clom. Mean values were compared by the t-test at 5, 10, 15 and 20 % probability. An increase was seen in DC at a layer of 0.20-0.30 m in MB (p<0.15, showing the deleterious effects of preparing the soil by ploughing and chiselling, together with the cumulative traffic of heavy machinery. The TOC had a greater influence on ρmax than the stocks of Clom. Irrigation caused a reduction in Cc, and there was no effect on σp at field capacity. The planting rows showed different behaviour for Cc, ρmax, and WCcrit,, and in general the physical properties displayed better conditions than the inter-row spaces. Values for σp and Cc showed that agricultural soils display greater load-bearing capacity and are less susceptible to compaction in relation to soils under natural vegetation.

  1. Influence of climate and eolian dust on the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils in the northern Bighorn basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Soil chronosequences in the northern Bighorn basin permit the study of chronologic changes in the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils formed in different climates. Two chronosequences along Rock Creek in south-central Montana formed on granitic alluvium in humid and semiarid climates over the past two million years. A chronosequence at the Kane fans in north-central Wyoming formed on calcareous alluvium in an arid climate over the past 600,000 years. Detailed analyses of elemental chemistry indicate that the soils in all three areas gradually incorporated eolian dust that contained less zirconium, considered to be chemically immobile during weathering, than did the alluvium. B and C horizons of soils in the wettest of the chronosequences developed mainly at logarithmic rates, suggesting that leaching, initially rapid but decelerating, dominated the dust additions. In contrast, soils in the most arid of the chronosequences developed at linear rates that reflect progressive dust additions that were little affected by leaching. Both weathering and erosion may cause changes with time to appear logarithmic in A horizons of soils under the moist and semiarid climatic regimes. Clay minerals form with time in the basal B and C horizons and reflect climatic differences in the three areas. Vermiculite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, and smectite form in the soils of the moist-climate chronosequence; smectite forms in the semiarid-climate chronosequence; and smectite and palygorskite form in the arid-climate chronosequence. ?? 1990.

  2. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bruyère, D. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Laperche, V.; Michel, K. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis. - Highlights: • Application of a series of artificial neural networks (ANN) to quantitative LIBS • Matrix-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Concentration-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Series of quantitative ANN models dedicated to the analysis of data subsets • Relative error of prediction lower than 20% for LIBS analysis of soil samples.

  3. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  5. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  6. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  7. Fertilization with liquid digestate in organic farming - effects on humus balance, soil potassium contents and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Siegl, Thomas; Bonell, Marion; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Ableidinger, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Biogas production and use of liquid digestate are subject of controversial discussion in organic farming. Using biomass from intercrops as feedstock for biogas production makes it possible to produce renewable energy without compromising food production. With liquid digestate, crops can be fertilized in a more targeted way than by incorporating intercrop biomass into the soil. For long-term sustainability in organic farming, however, this practice must not have adverse effects on soil fertility. In order to assess the effects of fertilization with liquid digestate on soil fertility, two randomised field experiments were conducted for two years on different soil types near Bruck/Leitha (Lower Austria). One experiment was set up on a calcareous chernozem with 4 % humus content, the other on a parachernozem with pH 5.9 and 2.1 % humus. Soil potassium content, both in the water-soluble fraction and in the exchangeable fraction, increased significantly at both sites. As fertilization with liquid digestate exceeded the potassium requirements of the crops by far, the proportion of potassium of the exchangeable cations increased rapidly. Soil physical properties were not influenced by digestate fertilization on the chernozem site. On the parachernozem, aggregate stability was increased by the organic matter applied via digestate. On this acidic site low in humus content, the supply of 4 t/ha organic matter, which featured a lignin content of 37 % and was relatively resistant to decomposition, had a clearly positive impact on soil physical properties. Humus balances were computed both with the 'Humuseinheiten'-method and with the site-adapted method STAND. They were calculated on the basis of equal amounts of intercrop biomass either left on the field as green manure or used for biogas production and the resulting amount of liquid digestate brought back to the field. The humus balances indicated that the humus-efficacy of the liquid digestate was equal to slightly higher

  8. Effect of soil use on their quality, in areas of the farm “Baños de Marrero”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Aguila Alcantara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two areas (a natural and an agricultural ecosystem, located on brown calcareous soil (correlated to Order Inceptisol, Subgroup Mollic Eutrudept in the Soil Taxonomy system, were chosen with the aim of assessing the effect of agricultural land use on soil quality using the compared scenarios perspective. The physical indicators analyzed were aggregate stabled, permeability coefficient, the factor of structure, lower and upper limits of plasticity, as well as, the index of plasticity. The chemical indicators measured were pH (H2O, pH (KCl, organic matter content, and levels of P2O5 and K2O. Soil microbiology was analyzed by plate counting. For mesofauna extr