Sample records for calanus pacificus implications

  1. Environmental drivers of vertical distribution in diapausing Calanus copepods in the Northwest Atlantic (United States)

    Krumhansl, Kira A.; Head, Erica J. H.; Pepin, Pierre; Plourde, Stéphane; Record, Nicholas R.; Runge, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Catherine L.


    Copepods of the genus Calanus play a critical trophic role in the North Atlantic ecosystems, where they serve as an important source of energy-rich food for fish and marine mammals, including the endangered North Atlantic right whale. As a strategy for coping with unfavorable near-surface conditions, Calanus enter diapause and migrate to deep water in late summer and fall after feeding and accumulating lipid stores in spring and summer. In order to assess the most important physical drivers of vertical distribution of diapausing Calanus, we synthesized existing depth-stratified abundance data of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus hyperboreus from the Northwest Atlantic continental shelf and slope regions, spanning Newfoundland in the northeast to the Gulf of Maine in the southwest. Bottom depth strongly constrained the depth and shape of vertical distributions, with distributions becoming deeper and less compact as bottom depth increased. Diapausing Calanus, observed across a broad range of temperature (T) and in-situ density (σ) conditions (T = -1.0 to 14.4 °C, σ = 25.3-28.1 kg m-3), tended to distribute at depths with the coldest temperatures locally available. Over the shelf, diapausing Calanus in the GOM and SS generally did not have access to temperatures considered optimal for diapause (<5 °C), in many cases occurring at temperatures well above this threshold. Diapausing Calanus in both habitats were most commonly below the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL), a feature formed through wind-driven mixing during the winter, but this effect was more obvious over the shelf than in slope waters. Our analysis highlights key differences in the vertical distributions of diapausing Calanus over the shelf vs. the slope, having regional implications for ecological dynamics and population persistence in the face of warming temperatures. In general, understanding factors that influence vertical distributions of diapausing Calanus will allow us to more accurately predict how

  2. The effect of changes in temperature and food on the development of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Maar, Marie; Jonasdottir, Sigrun


    We studied the response in development times of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus to changes in temperature and food conditions. Grazing experiments were performed at different temperatures for both species, and the results were implemented in a stage-resolved zooplankton population...... of the Calanus populations can be expected under climate change...

  3. Dinámica del plancton en la región sur de la Corriente de California

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    Sergio Hernández Trujillo


    Full Text Available Se efectuó el análisis de la abundancia de la biomasa zooplanctónica, del micro y nanofitoplancton y de Calanus pacificus Brodsky 1948 en combinación con datos de temperatura superficial del mar en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, entre febrero de 1983 y septiembre de 1991. La biomasa del zooplancton presentó una tendencia estacional de variación de la abundancia. Respecto al fitoplancton, la abundancia mensual de la fracción nanofitoplancton (We analyzed zooplankton biomass, micro- and nannophytoplankton abundance, Calanus pacificus Brodsky 1948 abundance, and sea surface temperature along the west coast of Baja California between February 1983 and September 1991. The zooplankton biovolume abundance decreased from spring to autumn. The average abundance of nannophytoplankton (< 20µm was generally higher than microphytoplankton (20 µm. Both increased 3.5 times in abundance after 1986. Seasonally, both fractions (NP and MP were least abundant in winter and most abundant in summer and autumn. Calanus pacificus abundance was variable, but especially high in May of some years. Abundance was lowest in winter and highest in spring, dropping in summer and autumn. Sea surface temperatures averaged 21.5 ºC, with highest in autumn (24.2ºC and the lowest in spring (17.9ºC. C. pacificus abundance and sea surface temperature were inversely related by cruise, season, and latitude. The phytoplankton abundance and zooplankton biomass and C. pacificus abundance showed low and high abundance patterns coincident with warming and cooling events (El Niño-La Niña.

  4. Some like it hot - Calanus in Disko Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Møller, Eva Friis

    The ongoing temperature increase in the Arctic affects the succession patterns in the marine pelagic ecosystem. Reduction and earlier breakup of sea ice changes the initiation of the spring bloom. Along the Greenland coast three species of Calanus dominate the zooplankton; C. hyperboreus, C....... glacialis and C. finmarchicus. C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis are large lipid rich Arctic species, whereas C. finmarchicus is a smaller North Atlantic species. During the last two decades we have investigated the Calanus community in the Disko Bay, western Greenland. Calanus are impacted...... by the environmental changes, directly through their physiological rates as egg production, development, growth, and metabolic cost and indirectly via the environment through changes in ice cover, salinity, and food availability. The Calanus species have different lifecycles and show different responses to increasing...

  5. Tidal exchange of two decapod larvae Palaemon pacificus (Caridea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net fluxes were 97,1% and 99,9%. Larval life is then spent at sea after which the pre-postlarvae invade the estuary to reach the estuarine nursery areas. For P. pacificus this was during zoea 6, mainly on the nocturnal flood-tides. Net fluxes of P. pacificus zoea 6 were 95,8% and 100%. Most larval movement occurred at peak ...

  6. pacificus (Caridea) and Upogebia africana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aemon pacificus and Upogebia africana in and out of .... bottom plankton samples were obtained using two 57-cm WP2 ... KAHLSICO model 005-W A 130 flowmeter. ..... Figure 7 Catch per unit effort of Pa/aemon paci/icus zoea 6 and adults.

  7. Calanus spp.-Vectors for the biotoxin, domoic acid, in the Arctic marine ecosystem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammilehto, A.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Krock, B.


    Three Calanus species, Calanus glacialis, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus hyperboreus, which are the most important zooplankton herbivores in Western Greenland, were fed with unialgal cultures of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. All three copepod speci...... are potential vectors for domoic acid to higher trophic levels in the Arctic...... cell quota of P. seriata during the experiment on C. glacialis than on the other two copepod species. The depuration experiment on C. glacialis indicated that the copepods still retained domoic acid after 10 h of depuration in filtered sea water. The results show that the three Calanus species...

  8. Egg production and hatching success in the calanoid copepods Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus in the North Sea from March to September 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Trung, N. H.; Hansen, F.


    of seston fatty acids. Seasonal and spatial distribution and production differed between the species. Calanus finmarchicus was found only offshore of the 50-m isobath, with decreasing E-r (37-28 eggs female(-1) day(-1)) from March to July. Calanus helgolandicus had two abundance peaks, in spring and autumn...

  9. A comparative study on growth performance and biochemical composition of mixed culture of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans with monocultures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pednekar, C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    ., 1977. A mathematical theory for single nutrient competition in continuous cultures of micro-organsims. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 32, 366–383. Huntley, M.E., Barthel, K.G., Starr, J.L., 1983. Particle rejection by Calanus pacificus: discrimination between...

  10. Spatial modelling of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus: parameter differences explain differences in biogeography

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    Robert John Wilson


    Full Text Available The North Atlantic copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus are moving north in response to rising temperatures. Understanding the drivers of their relative geographic distributions is required in order to anticipate future changes. To explore this, we created a new spatially explicit stage-structured model of their populations throughout the North Atlantic. Recent advances in understanding Calanus biology, including U-shaped relationships between growth and fecundity and temperature, and a new model of diapause duration are incorporated in the model. Equations were identical for both species, but some parameters were species-specific. The model was parameterized using Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey data and tested using time series of abundance and fecundity. The geographic distributions of both species were reproduced by assuming that only known interspecific differences and a difference in the temperature influence on mortality exist. We show that differences in diapause capability are not necessary to explain why C. helgolandicus is restricted to the continental shelf. Smaller body size and higher overwinter temperatures likely make true diapause implausible for C. helgolandicus. Known differences were incapable of explaining why only C. helgolandicus exists southwest of the British Isles. Further, the fecundity of C. helgolandicus in the English Channel is much lower than we predict. We hypothesize that food quality is a key influence on the population dynamics of these species. The modelling framework presented can potentially be extended to further Calanus species.

  11. Molecular Detection and Identification of Rickettsia Species in Ixodes pacificus in California (United States)

    Phan, Jimmy Ninh; Lu, Casey Roy; Bender, William Garrett; Smoak, Robert Marion


    Abstract We amplified 16S rRNA, gltA, and ompA genes from Ixodes pacificus by polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing, BLAST analysis, and phylogenetic constructions indicated that two Rickettsia phylotypes are present in I. pacificus. While phylotype G021 has high homology to Ixodes scapularis endosymbiotic Rickettsia, phylotype G022 is a deeply branched novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. PMID:21413886

  12. Ixodes pacificus Ticks Maintain Embryogenesis and Egg Hatching after Antibiotic Treatment of Rickettsia Endosymbiont (United States)

    Kurlovs, Andre H.; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin


    Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic’s effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus. PMID:25105893

  13. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.


    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  14. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Gilarte, Patricia; Kreuzinger-Janik, Bianca; Majdi, Nabil; Traunspurger, Walter


    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs) of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9) Escherichia coli cells ml(-1) at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day); mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile). The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  15. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Patricia Gilarte

    Full Text Available The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9 Escherichia coli cells ml(-1 at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day; mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile. The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  16. Life History Responses and Gene Expression Profiles of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus Cultured on Cryptococcus Yeasts.

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    Gaurav V Sanghvi

    Full Text Available Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey. However, in laboratory studies Escherichia coli OP50 has been used as standard food source, similar to investigations in Caenorhabditis elegans and it is unclear to what extent this biases the obtained results and how relevant findings are in real nature. To gain first insight into the variation in traits induced by a non-bacterial food source, we study Pristionchus-fungi interactions under laboratory conditions. After screening different yeast strains, we were able to maintain P. pacificus for at least 50-60 generations on Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus curvatus. We describe life history traits of P. pacificus on both yeast strains, including developmental timing, survival and brood size. Despite a slight developmental delay and problems to digest yeast cells, which are both reflected at a transcriptomic level, all analyses support the potential of Cryptococcus strains as food source for P. pacificus. In summary, our work establishes two Cryptococcus strains as alternative food source for P. pacificus and shows change in various developmental, physiological and morphological traits, including the transcriptomic profiles.

  17. Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasyrhynchidae description of the adult form Descrição da forma adulta de Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965 (Trypanorhyncha: Dasynrhynchidae

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    Sergio Carmona de São Clemente


    Full Text Available One out of four specimens of sharks, Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, captured off the southern Brazilian Coast, harboured cestodes identified as Dasyrhynchus pacificus Robinson, 1965, of which the adult form is now described and referred as ocurring in Brazil.Um entre quatro espécimes de Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1860, coletados na costa sul brasileira, estava parasitado por cestóides pertencentes ao gênero Dasyrhynchus Pintner, 1928. Os espécimes foram identificados como D. pacificus Ribinson, 1965, sendo este o primeiro registo da ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil. Nesta oportunidade, é pela primeira vez apresentada a descrição da forma adulta, embora sem o proglotide grávido.

  18. The Rickettsia Endosymbiont of Ixodes pacificus Contains All the Genes of De Novo Folate Biosynthesis (United States)

    Bodnar, James; Mortazavi, Bobak; Laurent, Timothy; Deason, Jeff; Thephavongsa, Khanhkeo; Zhong, Jianmin


    Ticks and other arthropods often are hosts to nutrient providing bacterial endosymbionts, which contribute to their host’s fitness by supplying nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. It has been detected, in our lab, that Ixodes pacificus is host to Rickettsia species phylotype G021. This endosymbiont is predominantly present, and 100% maternally transmitted in I. pacificus. To study roles of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, bioinformatic and molecular approaches were carried out. MUMmer genome alignments of whole genome sequence of I. scapularis, a close relative to I. pacificus, against completely sequenced genomes of R. bellii OSU85-389, R. conorii, and R. felis, identified 8,190 unique sequences that are homologous to Rickettsia sequences in the NCBI Trace Archive. MetaCyc metabolic reconstructions revealed that all folate gene orthologues (folA, folC, folE, folKP, ptpS) required for de novo folate biosynthesis are present in the genome of Rickettsia buchneri in I. scapularis. To examine the metabolic capability of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, genes of the folate biosynthesis pathway of the bacterium were PCR amplified using degenerate primers. BLAST searches identified that nucleotide sequences of the folA, folC, folE, folKP, and ptpS genes possess 98.6%, 98.8%, 98.9%, 98.5% and 99.0% identity respectively to the corresponding genes of Rickettsia buchneri. Phylogenetic tree constructions show that the folate genes of phylotype G021 and homologous genes from various Rickettsia species are monophyletic. This study has shown that all folate genes exist in the genome of Rickettsia species phylotype G021 and that this bacterium has the genetic capability for de novo folate synthesis. PMID:26650541

  19. Genome- and transcriptome-assisted development of nuclear insertion/deletion markers for Calanus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolina, I.; Kollias, S.; Poortvliet, M.


    Copepods of the genus Calanus are key zooplankton species in temperate to arctic marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, species identification remains challenging. Furthermore, the recent report of hybrids among Calanus species highlights the need for diagnostic nuclear markers t...

  20. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States (United States)

    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.


    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  1. The role of egg cannibalism for the Calanus succession in the Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank-Gopolos, Thomas; Friis Møller, Eva; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel


    , we calculated and compared field egg mortality rates with potential egg clearance rates for the Calanus complex based on rates from the experiments. Our results show that in Disko Bay cannibalism by Calanus spp., even at its highest level just before the spring bloom, could only account for about 10...

  2. Lipid Content in Arctic Calanus: a Matter of Season and Size (United States)

    Daase, M.; Søreide, J.; Freese, D.; Hatlebakk, M. K.; Jørgen, B.; Renaud, P.; Gabrielsen, T. M.; Vogedes, D.


    Copepods of the genus Calanus are considered key elements of the marine food chain of the Arctic and North Atlantic. They convert low-energy carbohydrates and proteins of their algae diet into high-energy wax ester lipids. These lipids are accumulated over the productive season and stored in a lipid sac which sustains the organism over long periods without algal food supply, and which makes Calanus spp. an important prey item. Here we investigated what determines the variability in lipid content of overwintering stages and adults of Arctic and North Atlantic Calanus species. Using image analysis of lipid sac area, we have estimated individual lipid content of Calanus species in the waters and fjords of Svalbard (78-81oN). Data were collected all year round, at surface and deep waters and in locations under the influence of either Atlantic or Arctic hydrographic conditions. Lipid content showed stage specific seasonal variability which can be related to life history strategies and the phenology of algae blooms. Depth specific differences in lipid content were only observed at the start of the overwintering period. Our data also demonstrate that species specific differences in lipid content were not as fundamentally different as previously assumed. Rather, based on molecular identification of the species, we show that the lipid content of the Arctic C. glacialis and the Atlantic C. finmarchicus is dependent on size alone, challenging the classical understanding of these two species yielding two distinctly different ecosystem services based upon a difference in lipid content.

  3. Concentrations of sunscreens and antioxidant pigments in Arctic Calanus spp. in relation to ice cover, ultraviolet radiation, and the phytoplankton spring bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Kiørboe, Thomas; Snoeijs, Pauline


    , namely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and the carotenoid astaxanthin, from March to May in Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus. Ice cover was 100% in the beginning of March, started to break up during April and was gone by the end of May. UVR-exposure in the water column...

  4. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  5. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard. (United States)

    Costello, Michael J


    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  6. Functional Conservation and Divergence of daf-22 Paralogs in Pristionchus pacificus Dauer Development. (United States)

    Markov, Gabriel V; Meyer, Jan M; Panda, Oishika; Artyukhin, Alexander B; Claaßen, Marc; Witte, Hanh; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J


    Small-molecule signaling in nematode dauer formation has emerged as a major model to study chemical communication in development and evolution. Developmental arrest as nonfeeding and stress-resistant dauer larvae represents the major survival and dispersal strategy. Detailed studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus revealed that small-molecule communication changes rapidly in evolution resulting in extreme structural diversity of small-molecule compounds. In C. elegans, a blend of ascarosides constitutes the dauer pheromone, whereas the P. pacificus dauer pheromone includes additional paratosides and integrates building blocks from diverse primary metabolic pathways. Despite this complexity of small-molecule structures and functions, little is known about the biosynthesis of small molecules in nematodes outside C. elegans Here, we show that the genes encoding enzymes of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway involved in small-molecule biosynthesis evolve rapidly, including gene duplications and domain switching. The thiolase daf-22, the most downstream factor in C. elegans peroxisomal β-oxidation, has duplicated in P. pacificus, resulting in Ppa-daf-22.1, which still contains the sterol-carrier-protein (SCP) domain that was lost in C. elegans daf-22, and Ppa-daf-22.2. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced mutations in both P. pacificus daf-22 genes and identified an unexpected complexity of functional conservation and divergence. Under well-fed conditions, ascaroside biosynthesis proceeds exclusively via Ppa-daf-22.1 In contrast, starvation conditions induce Ppa-daf-22.2 activity, resulting in the production of a specific subset of ascarosides. Gene expression studies indicate a reciprocal up-regulation of both Ppa-daf-22 genes, which is, however, independent of starvation. Thus, our study reveals an unexpected functional complexity of dauer development and evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  7. Preliminary results: Deep sea oil spill in the Arctic – effects of pyrene on overwintering Calanus copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Kirstine Underbjerg; Dinh, Khuong Van; Hjorth, Morten


    Polar Oceans are some of the least impacted by human activities due to seasonal or permanent sea ice that limits human access. Projections of future polar ice loss suggest that the impact will increase substantially because of changing environmental conditions and pollution. Arctic Oceans hold...... during overwintering does indeed impact both Calanus species, and that C. hyperboreus seem to be more robust than the smaller C. glacialis. While effects on C. glacialis may have implications for stock recruitment within the season, potential effects on C. hyperboreus are likely delayed until next season...

  8. Microevolution of Duplications and Deletions and Their Impact on Gene Expression in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Baskaran

    Full Text Available The evolution of diversity across the animal kingdom has been accompanied by tremendous gene loss and gain. While comparative genomics has been fruitful to characterize differences in gene content across highly diverged species, little is known about the microevolution of structural variations that cause these differences in the first place. In order to investigate the genomic impact of structural variations, we made use of genomic and transcriptomic data from the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, which has been established as a satellite model to Caenorhabditis elegans for comparative biology. We exploit the fact that P. pacificus is a highly diverse species for which various genomic data including the draft genome of a sister species P. exspectatus is available. Based on resequencing coverage data for two natural isolates we identified large (> 2 kb deletions and duplications relative to the reference strain. By restriction to completely syntenic regions between P. pacificus and P. exspectatus, we were able to polarize the comparison and to assess the impact of structural variations on expression levels. We found that while loss of genes correlates with lack of expression, duplication of genes has virtually no effect on gene expression. Further investigating expression of individual copies at sites that segregate between the duplicates, we found in the majority of cases only one of the copies to be expressed. Nevertheless, we still find that certain gene classes are strongly depleted in deletions as well as duplications, suggesting evolutionary constraint acting on synteny. In summary, our results are consistent with a model, where most structural variations are either deleterious or neutral and provide first insights into the microevolution of structural variations in the P. pacificus genome.

  9. Functional comparison of the nematode Hox gene lin-39 in C. elegans and P. pacificus reveals evolutionary conservation of protein function despite divergence of primary sequences


    Grandien, Kaj; Sommer, Ralf J.


    Hox transcription factors have been implicated in playing a central role in the evolution of animal morphology. Many studies indicate the evolutionary importance of regulatory changes in Hox genes, but little is known about the role of functional changes in Hox proteins. In the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental processes can be compared at the cellular, genetic, and molecular levels and differences in gene function can be identified. The Hox gene lin-3...

  10. Long-Term Trends and Variability in Spring Development of Calanus finmarchicus in the Southeastern Norwegian Sea during 1996-2012 (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Bagøien, E.; Melle, W.


    Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant copepod species in the Norwegian Sea in terms of biomass, playing a key role in the ecosystem by transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This study analyses the long-term trend of a 17-year time series (1996-2012) on abundance of adult Calanus finmarchicus in the Atlantic water-mass of the southern Norwegian Sea during spring. The long-term trend in spring abundance was assessed by using Generalised Additive Models, while simultaneously accounting for both general population development and inter-annual variation in population development throughout the study period. In one model, we focus on inter-annual changes in timing of the Calanus spring seasonal development by including Mean Stage Composition as a measure for state of population development. Following a short increase during the years 1996 to 2000, the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus decreased strongly until about the year 2010. For the two last years of the studied period, 2011-2012, increasing population abundances are suggested but with less certainty. The model results suggest that the analysis is capturing the G0 generation, displaying a peak for the adults in about mid-April. Inter-annual differences in spring seasonal development, with the peak of adults shifting towards earlier in the season as well as a shorter generation time are suggested. Considering the importance of Calanus finmarchicus as food for planktivorous predators in the Norwegian Sea, our time series analysis suggests relevant changes both with respect to the spring abundance and timing of this food source. The next step is to relate variation in the Calanus time series to environmental factors with special emphasis on climatic drivers.

  11. Biological processes in the North Sea: comparison of Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus vertical distribution and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Koski, Marja


    stratified with a tidally generated deep chlorophyll maximum at 30 m depth. When co-occurring, a separation of the species was evident, where C. finmarchicus preferred colder (9°C) deeper waters, while C. helgolandicus stayed in the warmer (16°C) surface waters. Egg production rates (EPRs) were...... not statistically different between the species, and the population egg production depended primarily on female abundance and was generally higher for C. finmarchicus. EPRs of the Calanus spp. were best explained by the abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, flagellates and ciliates. Hatching...

  12. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.


    Distribution and reproduction activity of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied in the waters between Scotland and Iceland in April 1997 during the expected time of the animals' ascent to surface waters following diapause. Ascent was taking place on both sides of the Iceland-Scot...

  13. Early development of Calanus hyperboreus nauplii: Response to a changing ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Grønkjær, Peter


    To forecast effects of temperature changes on recruitment and population dynamics of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus, laboratory experiments investigating temperature and food effects on early development were performed in Disko Bay, western Greenland, in 2009, and ascent rates of C. hyper...

  14. Divergent gene expression in the conserved dauer stage of the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Amit


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organism can respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting gene regulation and by forming alternative phenotypes. In nematodes, these mechanisms are coupled because many species will form dauer larvae, a stress-resistant and non-aging developmental stage, when exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, and execute gene expression programs that have been selected for the survival of the animal in the wild. These dauer larvae represent an environmentally induced, homologous developmental stage across many nematode species, sharing conserved morphological and physiological properties. Hence it can be expected that some core components of the associated transcriptional program would be conserved across species, while others might diverge over the course of evolution. However, transcriptional and metabolic analysis of dauer development has been largely restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use a transcriptomic approach to compare the dauer stage in the evolutionary model system Pristionchus pacificus with the dauer stage in C. elegans. Results We have employed Agilent microarrays, which represent 20,446 P. pacificus and 20,143 C. elegans genes to show an unexpected divergence in the expression profiles of these two nematodes in dauer and dauer exit samples. P. pacificus and C. elegans differ in the dynamics and function of genes that are differentially expressed. We find that only a small number of orthologous gene pairs show similar expression pattern in the dauers of the two species, while the non-orthologous fraction of genes is a major contributor to the active transcriptome in dauers. Interestingly, many of the genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer and orphan genes in P. pacificus, are differentially expressed suggesting that these genes are of evolutionary and functional importance. Conclusion Our data set provides a catalog for future functional investigations and indicates novel insight

  15. Are Calanus spp. shifting poleward in the North Atlantic? A habitat modelling approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem; Castellani, Claudia; Licandro, Priscilla; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Irigoien, Xabier


    is to verify the poleward shift of zooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. helgolandicus, C. hyperboreus) for which distributional changes have been recorded in the North Atlantic Ocean and to assess how much of this shift was triggered

  16. An Ehrlichia strain from a llama (Lama glama) and Llama-associated ticks (Ixodes pacificus). (United States)

    Barlough, J E; Madigan, J E; Turoff, D R; Clover, J R; Shelly, S M; Dumler, J S


    An ehrlichia was identified in the blood of a diseased llama (lama glama). Sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene showed the ehrlichia to be closely related to members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup. The agent was also found in a pool of ticks (Ixodes pacificus) collected at the llama site. PMID:9157118

  17. Functional comparison of the nematode Hox gene lin-39 in C. elegans and P. pacificus reveals evolutionary conservation of protein function despite divergence of primary sequences. (United States)

    Grandien, K; Sommer, R J


    Hox transcription factors have been implicated in playing a central role in the evolution of animal morphology. Many studies indicate the evolutionary importance of regulatory changes in Hox genes, but little is known about the role of functional changes in Hox proteins. In the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental processes can be compared at the cellular, genetic, and molecular levels and differences in gene function can be identified. The Hox gene lin-39 is involved in the regulation of nematode vulva development. Comparison of known lin-39 mutations in P. pacificus and C. elegans revealed both conservation and changes of gene function. Here, we study evolutionary changes of lin-39 function using hybrid transgenes and site-directed mutagenesis in an in vivo assay using C. elegans lin-39 mutants. Our data show that despite the functional differences of LIN-39 between the two species, Ppa-LIN-39, when driven by Cel-lin-39 regulatory elements, can functionally replace Cel-lin-39. Furthermore, we show that the MAPK docking and phosphorylation motifs unique for Cel-LIN-39 are dispensable for Cel-lin-39 function. Therefore, the evolution of lin-39 function is driven by changes in regulatory elements rather than changes in the protein itself.

  18. Status of the eastern Pacific agujon needlefish Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) (Beloniformes: Belonidae). (United States)

    Collettte, B B; Banford, H M


    Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876) is confirmed to have full species rank based on: 1) sympatry with T. acus melanotus at Isla Gorgona and in Panamá; 2) level of morphological differentiation in numbers of vertebrae, dorsal and anal fin rays; and 3) level of mtDNA differentiation. The eastern Pacific agujon needlefish is found from the Gulf of California, Mexico, to Peru, including the Galápagos Islands.

  19. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.


    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  20. Re-assessing copepod growth using the Moult Rate method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Keister, J. E.; Richardson, A. J.


    Estimating growth and production rates of mesozooplankton, and copepods in particular, is important in describing flows of material and energy though pelagic systems. Over the past 30 years, the Moult Rate (MR) method has been used to estimate juvenile copepod growth rates in ∼40 papers. Yet the MR......-moulting stage, e.g. copepodite stage 5 to adult. We performed experiments with Calanus pacificus to estimate growth of stage C5 using an alternative method. We found that the error size and sign varied between mass type (i.e. DW, C and N). Recommendations for practical future assessments of growth in copepods...

  1. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Okumura


    Full Text Available Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1, two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus.

  2. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.


    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  3. Petroleum compounds in the marine food web: short-term experiments on the fate of naphthalene in Calanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corner, E D.S.; Harris, R P; Kilvington, C C; O' Hara, S C.M.


    Adult female Calanus helgolandicus Claus immersed for 24 h in sea-water solutions of (1-/sup 14/C)naphthalene accumulated a detectable quantity (3.6 pg/animal) from concentrations as low as 0.10 Feeding experiments using barnacle nauplii or diatoms as foods showed that the dietary route of entry was more important quantitatively than direct uptake from solution in that in order to ensure that the same quantity of radioactivity in the animals was attained by the two routes the level of hydrocarbon in solution had always to be far greater than that present as particulate food. Relevant to these observations was the further finding that after naphthalene had been accumulated directly from solution in sea water depuration was rapid and only a small fraction, less than 5 percent, of the original radioactivity could be detected after 10 days; by contrast, when the hydrocarbon was taken up by way of the food depuration was much slower, so that at the end of 10 days about a third of the original level of radioactivity still remained in the animals. Short-term experiments in which Calanus were fed on labelled diets for 24 h under bacteria-free conditions showed that at the end of this period over 90 percent of the radioactivity in the animals was present as unchanged naphthalene. However, more than two thirds of that released by the animals was in some form other than the hydrocarbon, a finding consistent with the view that Calanus is able to metabolize it.

  4. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne


    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... with lower peak biomass in 2011 and 2012. The models predicted different timing of initialization and development of egg production rates based on phytoplankton biomass and temperature and model performance varied from ‘poor’ to ‘very good’. Phytoplankton biomass controlled the changes in egg production...

  5. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll and Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea - A basin-scale habitat comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bagø ien, Espen; Melle, Webjø rn; Kaartvedt, Stein


    Seasonal patterns for mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll, and Calanus finmarchicus in different water masses between 62 and 70°N of the Norwegian Sea were compared using spatiotemporally aggregated basin-scale data. Norwegian Coastal Water was stratified throughout the year due to a low-salinity upper layer. The winter mixed layer depth was typically about 50-60m, and the spring phytoplankton bloom peaked in late April. In Atlantic and Arctic Waters the winter mixed layer depths were much greater, typically about 175-250m. Due to the requirement for thermal stratification, the phytoplankton build-ups there were slower and the peaks were delayed until late May. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrient consumption and chlorophyll was similar for the Atlantic and Arctic areas. Young Calanus copepodites of the first new generation in Coastal Water peaked in early May, preceding the peak in Atlantic Water by about 2weeks, and that in Arctic Water by about 6weeks. While the young G 1 cohorts in Coastal and Atlantic waters coincided rather well in time with the phytoplankton blooms, the timing of the cohort in Arctic Water was delayed compared to the phytoplankton. Two or more Calanus generations in Coastal Water, and two generations in Atlantic Water were observed. Only one generation was found in Arctic Water, where scarce autumn data precludes evaluation of a possible second generation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll and Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea - A basin-scale habitat comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Bagøien, Espen


    Seasonal patterns for mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll, and Calanus finmarchicus in different water masses between 62 and 70°N of the Norwegian Sea were compared using spatiotemporally aggregated basin-scale data. Norwegian Coastal Water was stratified throughout the year due to a low-salinity upper layer. The winter mixed layer depth was typically about 50-60m, and the spring phytoplankton bloom peaked in late April. In Atlantic and Arctic Waters the winter mixed layer depths were much greater, typically about 175-250m. Due to the requirement for thermal stratification, the phytoplankton build-ups there were slower and the peaks were delayed until late May. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrient consumption and chlorophyll was similar for the Atlantic and Arctic areas. Young Calanus copepodites of the first new generation in Coastal Water peaked in early May, preceding the peak in Atlantic Water by about 2weeks, and that in Arctic Water by about 6weeks. While the young G 1 cohorts in Coastal and Atlantic waters coincided rather well in time with the phytoplankton blooms, the timing of the cohort in Arctic Water was delayed compared to the phytoplankton. Two or more Calanus generations in Coastal Water, and two generations in Atlantic Water were observed. Only one generation was found in Arctic Water, where scarce autumn data precludes evaluation of a possible second generation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from GERDA and CALANUS from 1972-03-14 to 1972-03-24 (NCEI Accession 9500067) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected from ships CALANUS and GERDA between March 14, 1972 and March 24, 1972. The real time data of water temperature at varying...

  8. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane


    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  9. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis (United States)

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas


    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  10. Extensive cross-disciplinary analysis of biological and chemical control of Calanus finmarchicus reproduction during an aldehyde forming diatom bloom in mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja


    Egg and faecal pellet production and egg hatching success of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were monitored over a period of 14 days (14-28 April, 2008) while fed water from 4 differently treated mesocosms and ambient water. Two of the mesocosms used were inoculated with the polyunsatur...

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Metabolic Transitions during Development and Diapause Preparation in the Copepod Calanus finmarchicus. (United States)

    Tarrant, Ann M; Baumgartner, Mark F; Lysiak, Nadine S J; Altin, Dag; Størseth, Trond R; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik


    Calanus finmarchicus, like many other copepods in the family Calanidae, can enter into a facultative diapause during the last juvenile phase (fifth copepodid, C5) to enable survival during unfavorable periods. Diapause is essential to the persistence of Calanus populations and profoundly impacts energy flow within oceanic ecosystems, yet regulation of diapause is not understood in these animals. Transcriptional profiling has begun to provide insight into metabolic changes occurring as C. finmarchicus prepares for and enters into diapause or skips diapause to prepare for the terminal molt. In particular, components of the glycolysis, pentose phosphate and lipid synthesis pathways are upregulated early in the C5 stage when lipid stores are low. Currently, our ability to identify metabolic patterns is limited by the incomplete functional annotation of the C. finmarchicus transcriptome. Such limitations are widespread among studies of non-model organisms and addressing them should be a priority for future research. In addition, integrating the results across multiple emerging complementary transcriptomic studies will provide a more complete picture of copepod physiology than isolated studies. Ultimately, identifying molecular markers of copepod physiology could enable robust identification of animals preparing to enter into diapause and ultimately lead to a greatly improved understanding of diapause regulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email:

  12. Abundance, distribution and population structure of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in a springtime right whale feeding area in the southwestern Gulf of Maine (United States)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Schoenherr, Jill R.; Beardsley, Robert; Chen, Changsheng

    Springtime aggregations of the planktivorous right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis) occur in the northern Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, where they feed upon dense concentrations of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. This association was studied during the multidisciplinary South Channel Ocean Productivity Experiment (SCOPEX) in 1988 and 1989. The spatial and temporal variability of the abundance, geographic distribution, and population structure of these copepods were analyzed using data from 99 vertically-stratified or horizontally-sequenced MOCNESS plankton tows. Higher water column abundances and higher relative proportion of older copepod lifestages occurred near feeding whales compared to sites without whales, but total water column copepod biomass and Calanus abundance did not always differ between these types of locations. This suggests that the whales seek out aggregations of older copepod lifestages rather than simply the most dense aggregations. Other factors (and perhaps an element of chance) may influence which specific patches, among all patches potentially suitable in terms of copepod abundance and age composition, the whales utilize at a particular time. The times and locations of the highest Calansus water column abundances varied between years, as did the presence of feeding whales, probably because of year-to-year differences in the springtime temperature cycle and current strength. A temporal progression of lifestages occurred within the region in both years during the roughly 3-week duration of each survey, indicative of a growing rather than a diapausing population, at least up to the copepodite 4 (C4) stage. Due in part to a delay in the springtime warming in 1989 compared to 1988, the copepod development cycle, which is largely driven by in situ temperature, was delayed about 1-2 weeks in 1989. Peak abundances of younger Calanus were found in the northwestern part of the region each year, whereas peak abundances of

  13. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic, by manual counting methods, and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.


    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the possibly most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of ten representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000–2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along ...... scientists and their institutions.,,

  14. The effect of egg versus seston quality on hatching success, naupliar metabolism and survival of Calanus finmarchicus in mesocosms dominated by Phaeocystis and diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Yebra, L.; Dutz, Jörg


    We studied the effect of a developing Skeletonema marinoi/Phaeocystis spp. bloom on Calanus finmarchicus hatching success, early naupliar survival and metabolism. Our focus was (1) on the development of reproductive rates during a bloom initiation, peak and decline in relation to the production o...

  15. Feeding, growth, and food conversion of the marine planktonic copepod Calanus helgolandicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.


    Food intake, growth rate, and food conversion of nauplii, copepodids, and adult females of Calanus helgolandicus were investigated experimentally at 15/sup 0/C. The diatom Lauderia borealis and the dinoflagellates Gonyaulax polyedra, Gymnodinium splendens, and Prorocentrum micans were offered separately as food at concentrations ranging from 41 to 101 C liter/sup -1/. Amounts of food ingested differed with concentration and species. Daily exponential growth rates were highest for nauplii and young copepodids (k = 0.29 to 0.41) and decreased gradually with increasing age of the copepods to k = 0.02. Gross growth efficiency changed during the different juvenile life periods of the copepod with maximum values for the period CdI to CIII. Feeding on L. borealis at lower food concentrations resulted in an increase in gross growth efficiency. (auth)

  16. Are Calanus spp. shifting poleward in the North Atlantic? A habitat modelling approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem


    In the last decade, the analysis based on Continuous Plankton Recorder survey in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean detected one of the most striking examples of marine poleward migration related to sea warming. The main objective of this study is to verify the poleward shift of zooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. helgolandicus, C. hyperboreus) for which distributional changes have been recorded in the North Atlantic Ocean and to assess how much of this shift was triggered by sea warming, using Generalized Additive Models. To this end, the population gravity centre of observed data was compared with that of a series of simulation experiments: (i) a model using only climate factors (i.e. niche-based model) to simulate species habitat suitability, (ii) a model using only temporal and spatial terms to reconstruct the population distribution, and (iii) a model using both factors combined, using a subset of observations as independent dataset for validation. Our findings show that only C. finmarchicus had a consistent poleward shift, triggered by sea warming, estimated in 8.1 km per decade in the North Atlantic (16.5 per decade for the northeast), which is substantially lower than previous works at the assemblage level and restricted to the Northeast Atlantic. On the contrary, C. helgolandicus is expanding in all directions, although its northern distribution limit in the North Sea has shifted northward. Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus, which have the geographic centres of populations mainly in the NW Atlantic, showed a slight southward shift, probably responding to cool water penetrating southward in the Labrador Current. Our approach, supported by high model accuracy, shows its power in detecting species latitudinal shifts and identifying its causes, since the trend of occurrence observed data is influenced by the sampling frequency, which has progressively concentrated to lower latitudes with time. © 2013 © 2013 International Council for

  17. The effect of essential fatty acids for the somatic growth in nauplii of Calanus finmarchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein eLeiknes


    Full Text Available The growth of Calanus finmarchicus nauplii was studied through three spawning seasons (2007, 2009 and 2011 using flow-through tubes. Natural seston was collected every second day and added as food source using a peristaltic pump. A mixture of cultured microalgae supplied in surplus concentration was used as a control treatment. No significant correlation between growth and food concentration measured as Chlorophyll a (Chla or particulate organic carbon (POC was detected, but the growth rate was significantly related to the content of EPA (20:5n-3 and DHA (22:6n-3 in the seston. The growth rate was overall higher for nauplii fed cultured microalgae compared to the nauplii fed natural seston. Although the nauplii fed algae cultures were fed surplus food, the growth did vary between the growth periods. Furthermore, the growth rate for nauplii fed natural seston and for nauplii fed cultured algae were positively related, suggesting that the maternal condition and the food quality experienced by the mothers could explain some of the variation in naupliar growth rate. We present lipid class data on Calanus finmarchicus eggs from field samples that, contrary to previous studies, showed a high content of wax esters. Fatty acid analyzes of eggs, nauplii stages and copepodites from field samples showed that eggs and nauplii have a similar fatty acid composition and that the main increase in the content and share of DHA and EPA was from nauplii to copepodite. The secondary production measured as naupliar growth was compared to the secondary production measured as carbon specific female egg production rate. The secondary production measured as egg production was generally higher than the secondary production measured as naupliar growth early in the spring, whereas the opposite situation was observed during post-bloom situations in late spring/early summer.

  18. Dangerous relations in the Arctic marine food web: Interactions between toxin producing Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms and Calanus copepodites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardardottir, Sara; Pancic, Marina; Tammilehto, Anna


    Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid (DA), a toxin that is vectored in the marine food web, thus causing serious problems for marine organisms and humans. In spite of this, knowledge of interactions between grazing zooplankton and diatoms is restricted. In this study, we...... examined the interactions between Calanus copepodites and toxin producing Pseudo-nitzschia. The copepodites were fed with different concentrations of toxic P. seriata and a strain of P. obtusa that previously was tested to be non-toxic. The ingestion rates did not differ among the diets (P. seriata, P...

  19. Effects of a future warmer ocean on the coexisting copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis in Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael; Swalethorp, Rasmus


    The effects of temperature and food was examined for Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis during 3 phases of the phytoplankton spring bloom in Disko Bay, western Greenland. The 2 species were collected during pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom and exposed to temperatures from 0 to 10°C, combined...... production. Our results suggest that a future warmer ocean will reduce the advantage of early spawning by C. glacialis and that C. finmarchicus will become increasingly prevalent...

  20. Opposing Forces of A/T-Biased Mutations and G/C-Biased Gene Conversions Shape the Genome of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus (United States)

    Weller, Andreas M.; Rödelsperger, Christian; Eberhardt, Gabi; Molnar, Ruxandra I.; Sommer, Ralf J.


    Base substitution mutations are a major source of genetic novelty and mutation accumulation line (MAL) studies revealed a nearly universal AT bias in de novo mutation spectra. While a comparison of de novo mutation spectra with the actual nucleotide composition in the genome suggests the existence of general counterbalancing mechanisms, little is known about the evolutionary and historical details of these opposing forces. Here, we correlate MAL-derived mutation spectra with patterns observed from population resequencing. Variation observed in natural populations has already been subject to evolutionary forces. Distinction between rare and common alleles, the latter of which are close to fixation and of presumably older age, can provide insight into mutational processes and their influence on genome evolution. We provide a genome-wide analysis of de novo mutations in 22 MALs of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and compare the spectra with natural variants observed in resequencing of 104 natural isolates. MALs show an AT bias of 5.3, one of the highest values observed to date. In contrast, the AT bias in natural variants is much lower. Specifically, rare derived alleles show an AT bias of 2.4, whereas common derived alleles close to fixation show no AT bias at all. These results indicate the existence of a strong opposing force and they suggest that the GC content of the P. pacificus genome is in equilibrium. We discuss GC-biased gene conversion as a potential mechanism acting against AT-biased mutations. This study provides insight into genome evolution by combining MAL studies with natural variation. PMID:24414549

  1. Effects of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on gene expression levels of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus. (United States)

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Vitiello, Valentina; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Ianora, Adrianna


    Diatoms are eukaryotic unicellular plants that constitute one of the major components of marine phytoplankton, comprising up to 40% of annual productivity at sea and representing 25% of global carbon-fixation. Diatoms have traditionally been considered a preferential food for zooplankton grazers such as copepods, but, in the last two decades, this beneficial role has been challenged after the discovery that many species of diatoms produce toxic metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that induce reproductive failure in zooplankton grazers. Diatoms are the dominant natural diet of Calanus sinicus, a cold-temperate calanoid copepod that supports secondary production of important fisheries in the shelf ecosystems of the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan and South China Sea. In this study, the effect of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi on C. sinicus has been evaluated by analyzing expression level changes of genes involved in defense and detoxification systems. Results show that C. sinicus is more resistant to a diet of this diatom species in terms of gene expression patterns, compared to the congeneric species Calanus helgolandicus which is an important constituent of the temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean and northern Mediterranean Sea. These findings contribute to the better understanding of genetic and/or phenotypic flexibility of copepod species and their capabilities to cope with stress by identifying molecular markers (such as stress and detoxification genes) as biosensors for environmental perturbations (e.g. toxins and contaminants) affecting marine copepods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and morphological features of the antarctic species of CALANUS and The euphausiid fauna of the antarctic and notal regions; 1955-02-22 to 1958-06-17 (NODC Accession 0000922) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains abundance, length, and life history data of four species of Calanus copepods. The data is a compilation of 3 cruises of the MV OB carried out by...

  3. Effects of starvation on intermolt development in Calanus finmarchicus copepodites: a comparison between theoretical models and field studies1 (United States)

    Crain, Jennifer A.; Miller, Charles B.

    Campbell et al . (Deep Sea Research II, 48 (2001) 531) have shown that there was a localized starvation event affecting Calanus finmarchicus on the southern flank of Georges Bank in April 1997. Growth and molting rates of this dominant copepod were reduced. We have used the morphology of tooth development in field-collected samples to show that this starvation affected animals living continuously in the field, as well as those in Campbell et al .'s experimental tanks. Assuming a point of reserve saturation (PRS) response of Calanus to food limitation, and correspondence between PRS and advance from the postmolt jaw facies, the proportion of individuals with postmolt jaws should increase in all copepodite stages under starvation. Individuals that have developed past PRS should molt to the next stage, acquiring postmolt facies. Thus, the fraction of postmolt jaws should increase, while the fraction of jaws in later phases should decrease. This was observed for a drifter-marked station over five days. Numerical simulations of jaw phase distributions expected under full nutrition, and both total and patchy starvation were generated from individual-based models of development. Proportions of copepodites in postmolt phase do not increase with full nutrition. A simulation of a total starvation event showed a marked increase in postmolts during food limitation, but the increase was more extreme than the field data. A modification of the starvation simulation, representing patchy feeding conditions, matched the level of increase of postmolt individuals in all stages that was observed in the field samples.

  4. On the surprising lack of differences between two congeneric calanoid copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Speirs, Douglas C.; Heath, Michael R.


    The important calanoid copepod species Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus have distinct geographic ranges which are changing under the influence of climate change. Understanding the mechanisms underlying their distributions is becoming increasingly important as a result of the possible ecological impacts of these range shifts. Here we review inter-species differences in key life cycle traits that influence each species' geographic distribution, in particular development and growth, fecundity, feeding behaviour, vertical migration and overwintering behaviour. The distinct temperature niche of each species leads to an a priori assumption that the response of life cycle traits to temperature is a key determinant of their contrasting geographic distributions. A new development model was created to reconcile published experimental development times for each species. Model output indicates that at temperatures below approximately 12-13 °C, C. finmarchicus is the faster developing species, but above these temperatures C. helgolandicus develops more quickly. Conventionally Calanus development time is assumed to decrease monotonically with temperature; however our model indicates that the response of development time to temperature is instead U-shaped. Differences in life cycle aspects such as seasonality and vertical structuring are interpreted in light of this development model. Body size and lipid accumulation abilities could be significant influences on each species' geographic distribution; however evidence is consistent with inter-species differences not existing for these traits. Published evidence shows that inter-species differences in egg production may exist, but do not follow a clear pattern. Diapause is an important and well studied life cycle adaptation of C. finmarchicus, but has received little attention in C. helgolandicus. We reviewed knowledge of diapause and suggest the hypothesis that C. helgolandicus is restricted to continental shelf regions

  5. Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 1967-02-24 to 1970-11-13 (NCEI Accession 7100821) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic and meteorological data measurements collected from CTD, bottle and other instruments. Data were collected from Gerda, J.E., Pillsbury and Calanus in...

  6. Biogeography of key mesozooplankton species in the North Atlantic, by manual counting methods, and egg production of Calanus finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, W.; Runge, J. A.; Head, E.


    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation of data on key mesozooplankton species, including the possibly most important copepod, Calanus finmarchicus. Distributional data of ten representative zooplankton taxa, from recent (2000–2009) Continuous Plankton Recorder data, are presented, along...... with basin-scale data of the phytoplankton colour index. Then we present a compilation of data on C. finmarchicus including observations of abundance, demography, egg production and female size with accompanying data on temperature and chlorophyll. This is a contribution by Canadian, European and US...... scientists and their institutions.,,

  7. Grazing rates of Calanus finmarchicus on Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under different levels of ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Fields

    Full Text Available UVB alters photosynthetic rate, fatty acid profiles and morphological characteristics of phytoplankton. Copepods, important grazers of primary production, select algal cells based upon their size, morphological traits, nutritional status, and motility. We investigated the grazing rates of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured under 3 levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR only (4 kJ-m(-2/day, and PAR supplemented with UVR radiation at two intensities (24 kJ-m(-2/day and 48 kJ-m(-2/day. There was no significant difference in grazing rates between the PAR only treatment and the lower UVR treatment. However, grazing rates were significantly (∼66% higher for copepods feeding on cells treated with the higher level of UVR. These results suggest that a short-term increase in UVR exposure results in a significant increase in the grazing rate of copepods and, thereby, potentially alters the flow rate of organic matter through this component of the ecosystem.

  8. Vertical distribution and population structure of Calanus finmarchicus at station India (59°N, 19°W) during the passage of the great salinity anomaly, 1971 1975 (United States)

    Irigoien, Xabier


    Abundance, vertical distribution and stage composition of Calanus finmarchicus was analysed for a period of four and half years, 1971-1975, based on data collected at weather station India in the North Atlantic (59°N, 19°W). The passage of the Great Salinity Anomaly in the area was reflected by a decrease in the salinity from 1973 to 1975. Calanus finmarchicus arrives at the surface by the end of March and stays in the upper 50 m, but with a stage segregation in the vertical distribution, until the descent periods at the end of May-June and in August-September. During this period two or three cohorts develop, apparently in close relation with the phytoplankton pulses. Abundance is highly variable, with maximum values ranging from 8770 ind m -2 in 1974 to 56,541 ind m -2 in 1973. There was no clear effect of the Great Salinity Anomaly, the maximum abundance occurring the year the Great Salinity Anomaly arrived, 1973, and the minimum values occurring the next year, 1974, when the effect of the Great Salinity Anomaly was well established. However, the structure of the population seems to have been affected during the Great Salinity Anomaly. Possible interactions between phytoplankton blooms, the Great Salinity Anomaly and C. finmarchicus population dynamics are discussed.

  9. Palaeococcus pacificus sp. nov., an archaeon from deep-sea hydrothermal sediment. (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Lijing; Alain, Karine; Jebbar, Mohamed; Shao, Zongze


    A hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, piezophilic archaeon (strain DY20341(T)) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from an East Pacific Ocean hydrothermal field (1° 37' S 102° 45' W) at a depth of 2737 m. The cells were irregular cocci, 0.8-1.5 µm in diameter. Growth was observed between 50 and 90 °C (optimum 80 °C), pH 5.0 and 8.0 (optimum pH 7.0), 1% and 7% (w/v) sea salts (Sigma, optimum 3%), 1% and 4% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3%) and 0.1 and 80 MPa (optimum 30 MPa). The minimum doubling time was 66 min at 30 MPa and 80 °C. The isolate was an obligate chemoorganoheterotroph, capable of utilizing complex organic compounds and organic acids including yeast extract, peptone, tryptone, casein, starch, Casamino acids, citrate, lactate, acetate, fumarate, propanoate and pyruvate for growth. It was strictly anaerobic and facultatively dependent on elemental sulfur or sulfate as electron acceptors, but did not reduce sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. The presence of elemental sulfur enhanced growth. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.6 ± 1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the closest relative of the isolated organism was Palaeococcus ferrophilus DMJ(T) (95.7% 16S rRNA gene similarity). On the basis of its physiological properties and phylogenetic analyses, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Palaeococcus pacificus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain DY20341(T) (=JCM 17873(T)=DSM 24777(T)).

  10. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus (United States)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.


    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  11. Determination of uptake of dispersed oil in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbye, A.G.; Altin, D.; Frost, T.


    Many research programs in Norway have focused on the acute toxic effects of oils on zooplankton. Oil companies and those responsible for pollution control strive to develop predictive models for the fate and behaviour of seawater discharges from offshore activities. The models include transport, acute toxic effects, uptake and biodegradation, and accumulation in the food chain. Exposure studies have been conducted using both static tests and continuous flow tests. This paper presented a study in which the biological uptake of dispersed oil in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was examined using a specially designed flow-through system with an oil dispersion generator. The oil used in the exposure studies was a base oil product from TotalFina that had a very low concentration of water-soluble components, and had very low acute toxicity towards the test organism. The oil was dispersed to a size range of 1 to 10μm. The test species actively filters water for particles in the size range less than 10 to 50 μm. Exposure of the oil dispersion at an average concentration of 600 μg/L gave increasing bioaccumulation from 7 to 14 days, and the calculated bioaccumulation factor was found to be in the range of 200-800. Solvent washing of a duplicate sample of zooplankton at 14 days indicated that a significant portion of the hydrocarbon is absorbed to the surface of the organisms. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Carbon budget of a marine phytoplankton-herbivore system with carbon-14 as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copping, A.E.; Lorenzen, C.J.


    Adult female and stage V Calanus pacificus were fed 14 C-labeled phytoplankton in the laboratory in the form of monospecific cultures and natural populations. A carbon budget was constructed by following the 14 C activity and the specific activity, over 48 h, in the phytoplankton, copepod, dissolved organic, dissolved inorganic, and fecal carbon compartments. The average incorporation of carbon into the copepod's body was 45% of the phytoplankton carbon available. Of the phytoplankton carbon, 27% appeared as dissolved organic carbon, 24% as dissolved inorganic carbon, and 3 to 4% in the form of fecal pellets. All of the tracer was recovered at the end of the experiments. The specific activity of the phytoplankton compartment was constant throughout each experiment. The other compartments had initial specific activities of zero, or close to zero, and increased throughout the experiment. In most experiments, the copepod specific activity equalled that of the phytoplankton at the end of 48 h, while the dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and fecal specific activities remained well below that of the phytoplankton

  13. Effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles from gladius of Todarodes pacificus for glucose sensing. (United States)

    Anusha, J R; Fleming, Albin T; Kim, Hee-Je; Kim, Byung Chul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Raj, C Justin


    An effective enzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles synthesized from the gladius of Todarodes pacificus (GCSP). The chemically synthesized chitosan from gladius was pulverized to submicron particles by ball milling technique, which was further characterized and compared with the standard chitosan (SCS). The degree of deacetylation of GCSP was determined using FTIR spectroscopy which was comparable to the value of standard chitosan. The glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized over GCSP on porous zinc oxide/platinum nanoparticle (ZnO/Pt) based electrode. The morphological and structural properties of the electrodes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The glucose sensing behavior of electrode was estimated using electrochemical analysis and showed an excellent analytical performance. The electrode ZnO/Pt/GCSP conjugated with GOx displayed high sensitivity (88.76 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) with low detection limit in short response time. In addition, the very low value of Michaelis-Menten constant for GCSP based electrode contributes a better affinity of the electrode surface towards glucose oxidase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity of Calanus spp. copepods to environmental changes in the North Sea using life-stage structured models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Møller, Eva Friis; Gürkan, Zeren


    Sea because it allows them to utilize the spring bloom more efficiently and independently of the timing and amount of oceanic inflow. The combination of lower temperatures, higher overwintering and oceanic inflow simulating the situation in the 1960s largely favoured C. finmarchicus and their relative......, overwintering and oceanic inflow in the North Sea. Life-stage structured models are validated against CPR data and vertical distributions north of the Dogger Bank in the North Sea for the reference year 2005. The model shows that 1) ± 2°C changes from the current level mainly influence the seasonal patterns...... and not the relative occurrence of the two species, 2) changes due to oceanic inflow mainly appeared in the northern and southern part of the North Sea connected to the NE Atlantic and not in the central part and 3) the abundance of Calanus species were very sensitive to the degree of overwintering within the North...

  15. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions. (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar


    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of Calanus hyperboreus from Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Vestergaard; Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel


    The effects of temperature and food availability on feeding and egg production of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus were investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland, from winter to spring 2009. The abundance of females in the near bottom layer and the egg production of C. hyperboreus prior...... reproduction, the females migrated to the surface layer to exploit the bloom and refill their lipid stores. In 2 laboratory experiments, initiated before and during the spring bloom, mature females were kept with and without food at 5 different temperatures ranging from 0 to 10°C and the fecal pellet and egg...... production were monitored. Food had a clear effect on fecal pellet production but no effect on egg production, while temperature did not have an effect on egg or fecal pellet production in any of the experiments. Analyses of carbon and lipid content of the females before and after the experiments did...

  17. Seasonal Habitat Patterns of Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes Pacificus Inferred from Satellite-Based Species Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D. Alabia


    Full Text Available The understanding of the spatio-temporal distributions of the species habitat in the marine environment is central to effectual resource management and conservation. Here, we examined the potential habitat distributions of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan during a four-year period. The seasonal patterns of preferential habitat were inferred from species distribution models, built using squid occurrences detected from night-time visible images and remotely-sensed environmental factors. The predicted squid habitat (i.e., areas with high habitat suitability revealed strong seasonal variability, characterized by a reduction of potential habitat, confined off of the southern part of the basin during the winter–spring period (December–May. Apparent expansion of preferential habitat occurred during summer–autumn months (June–November, concurrent with the formation of highly suitable habitat patches in certain regions of the Sea of Japan. These habitat distribution patterns were in response to changes in oceanographic conditions and synchronous with seasonal migration of squid. Moreover, the most important variables regulating the spatio-temporal patterns of suitable habitat were sea surface temperature, depth, sea surface height anomaly, and eddy kinetic energy. These variables could affect the habitat distributions through their impacts on growth and survival of squid, local nutrient transport, and the availability of favorable spawning and feeding grounds.

  18. Current meter and other data collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean as part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (EPOCS) and Subtropical Atlantic Current Study (STACS), 23 March 1983 - 19 November 1986 (NODC Accession 8700226) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from R/V RESEARCHER and R/V CALANUS in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from March 23, 1983 to...

  19. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjorn Henrik, E-mail: [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Altin, Dag [BioTrix, N-7022 Trondheim (Norway); Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sorheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Storseth, Trond R. [SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)


    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO{sub 2} from natural gas and for CO{sub 2} capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress ({gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine

  20. The North Atlantic Ocean as habitat for Calanus finmarchicus: Environmental factors and life history traits (United States)

    Melle, Webjørn; Runge, Jeffrey; Head, Erica; Plourde, Stéphane; Castellani, Claudia; Licandro, Priscilla; Pierson, James; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Johnson, Catherine; Broms, Cecilie; Debes, Høgni; Falkenhaug, Tone; Gaard, Eilif; Gislason, Astthor; Heath, Michael; Niehoff, Barbara; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Pepin, Pierre; Stenevik, Erling Kaare; Chust, Guillem


    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation and analysis of data on Calanus finmarchicus abundance, demography, dormancy, egg production and mortality in relation to basin-scale patterns of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, circulation and other environmental characteristics in the context of understanding factors determining the distribution and abundance of C. finmarchicus across its North Atlantic habitat. A number of themes emerge: (1) the south-to-north transport of plankton in the northeast Atlantic contrasts with north-to-south transport in the western North Atlantic, which has implications for understanding population responses of C. finmarchicus to climate forcing, (2) recruitment to the youngest copepodite stages occurs during or just after the phytoplankton bloom in the east whereas it occurs after the bloom at many western sites, with up to 3.5 months difference in recruitment timing, (3) the deep basin and gyre of the southern Norwegian Sea is the centre of production and overwintering of C. finmarchicus, upon which the surrounding waters depend, whereas, in the Labrador/Irminger Seas production mainly occurs along the margins, such that the deep basins serve as collection areas and refugia for the overwintering populations, rather than as centres of production, (4) the western North Atlantic marginal seas have an important role in sustaining high C. finmarchicus abundance on the nearby coastal shelves, (5) differences in mean temperature and chlorophyll concentration between the western and eastern North Atlantic are reflected in regional differences in female body size and egg production, (6) regional differences in functional responses of egg production rate may reflect genetic differences between western and eastern populations, (7) dormancy duration is generally shorter in the deep waters adjacent to the lower latitude western North Atlantic shelves than in the east, (8) there are differences in stage-specific daily mortality rates between

  1. Effect of grazing-mediated dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production on the swimming behavior of the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. (United States)

    Breckels, Mark N; Bode, Nikolai W F; Codling, Edward A; Steinke, Michael


    Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging behavior in a range of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 ± 9.74%) and low (29.1 ± 18.33%) DMS treatments. However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical interactions between copepods and their prey.

  2. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea (United States)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag


    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  3. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of the copepod Calanus sinicus using 454 GS FLX.

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    Juan Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite their species abundance and primary economic importance, genomic information about copepods is still limited. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the copepod Calanus sinicus, which is a dominant species in the coastal waters of East Asia. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a large number of expressed sequence tags for the copepod C. sinicus. RESULTS: Copepodid larvae and adults were used as the basic material for transcriptome sequencing. Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,470,799 reads were obtained, which were assembled into 56,809 high quality expressed sequence tags. Based on their sequence similarity to known proteins, about 14,000 different genes were identified, including members of all major conserved signaling pathways. Transcripts that were putatively involved with growth, lipid metabolism, molting, and diapause were also identified among these genes. Differentially expressed genes related to several processes were found in C. sinicus copepodid larvae and adults. We detected 284,154 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that provide a resource for gene function studies. CONCLUSION: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for C. sinicus. This resource allowed us to identify genes associated with primary physiological processes and SNPs in coding regions, which facilitated the quantitative analysis of differential gene expression. These data should provide foundation for future genetic and genomic studies of this and related species.

  4. No maternal or direct effects of ocean acidification on egg hatching in the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Vermandele, Fanny; Carignan, Marie-Helene; Jacque, Sarah; Calosi, Piero


    Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean and the Arctic is recognised as the region where this transformation will occur at the fastest rate. Moreover, many Arctic species are considered less capable of tolerating OA due to their lower capacity for acid-base regulation. This inability may put severe restraints on many fundamental functions, such as growth and reproductive investments, which ultimately may result in reduced fitness. However, maternal effects may alleviate severe effects on the offspring rendering them more tolerant to OA. In a highly replicated experiment we studied maternal and direct effects of OA predicted for the Arctic shelf seas on egg hatching time and success in the keystone copepod species Calanus glacialis. We incubated females at present day conditions (pHT 8.0) and year 2100 extreme conditions (pHT 7.5) during oogenesis and subsequently reciprocally transplanted laid eggs between these two conditions. Statistical tests showed no effects of maternal or direct exposure to OA at this level. We hypothesise that C. glacialis may be physiologically adapted to egg production at low pH since oogenesis can also take place at conditions of potentially low haemolymph pH of the mother during hibernation in the deep.

  5. Projecting the effects of climate change on Calanus finmarchicus distribution within the U.S. Northeast Continental Shelf. (United States)

    Grieve, Brian D; Hare, Jon A; Saba, Vincent S


    Calanus finmarchicus is vital to pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies suggest the species is vulnerable to the effects of global warming, particularly on the Northeast U.S. Shelf, which is in the southern portion of its range. In this study, we evaluate an ensemble of six different downscaled climate models and a high-resolution global climate model, and create a generalized additive model (GAM) to examine how future changes in temperature and salinity could affect the distribution and density of C. finmarchicus. By 2081-2100, we project average C. finmarchicus density will decrease by as much as 50% under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. These decreases are particularly pronounced in the spring and summer in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank. When compared to a high-resolution global climate model, the ensemble showed a more uniform change throughout the Northeast U.S. Shelf, while the high-resolution model showed larger decreases in the Northeast Channel, Shelf Break, and Central Gulf of Maine. C. finmarchicus is an important link between primary production and higher trophic levels, and the decrease projected here could be detrimental to the North Atlantic Right Whale and a host of important fishery species.

  6. Comprehensive Transcriptome Study to Develop Molecular Resources of the Copepod Calanus sinicus for Their Potential Ecological Applications (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun


    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m)-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics. PMID:24982883

  7. Transcriptomic Markers of Lipid Synthesis and Deposition in the Arctic Planktonic Copepod Calanus glacialis (United States)

    Bucklin, A. C.; Tarrant, A. M.; DiVito, K. R.; Reese, B.; O'Neill, R. J.; Knutsen, T.; Wiebe, P. H.


    The zooplankton assemblage of the Arctic Ocean is directly impacted by the rapid climate shifts, including warming, loss of ice cover, and changes in the composition of the pelagic assemblage at all trophic levels. Arctic zooplankton species will likely exhibit the full range of responses, including acclimation, adaptation, biogeographical range shifts, and local extinction. The copepod Calanus glacialis has been characterized as an opportunistic species that can switch between active feeding (on either phytoplankton or ice algae) and use of stored energy reserves, including both long-term stores of wax esters in a lipid sac and more dynamic reservoirs of triglycerides throughout the body. This study examined differential expression of selected genes associated with lipid synthesis and deposition pathways in field-caught specimens of C. glacialis. Samples were collected in shelf and offshore regions north and west of Svalbard (Norway) during an August-September, 2015 cruise of the R/V Helmer-Hanssen associated with the SI_Arctic program. Specimens of C. glacialis were photographed to allow analysis of lipid sac volume, and then flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen for analysis of differential gene expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The goal of this effort is to use transcriptomic markers to understand how C. glacialis may respond to warming temperatures and changes in time/space patterns of food availability. Our hypothesis is that C. glacialis may exhibit opportunistic life history patterns and physiological responses that pre-adapt the species to acclimation and/or adaptation to environmental variation associated with climate change in Arctic regions.

  8. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

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    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  9. Role of lipids for the reproductive success of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis (United States)

    Hatlebakk, M. K.; Graeve, M.; Niehoff, B.; Johnsen, G.; Søreide, J.


    Extensive energy storage is common among polar animals, and a range of reproductive strategies have evolved from pure capital breeders, relying on stored energy only, to 100% income breeders where freshly ingested food fuel reproduction. The Arctic calanoid copepod Calanus glacialis is primarily a grazer that accumulates large lipid stores during spring and summer. The breeding strategy to this relatively large and lipid-rich copepod is somewhere on the continuum from pure capital to 100% income breeder. To investigate the importance of stored lipids versus freshly ingested food for the reproductive success of this key copepod we conducted a combined laboratory and field study on a high-Arctic population of C. glacialis in Svalbard from January to May. Total lipids, lipid composition, gonad maturation, egg production and egg hatching success were carefully followed for starved and algal fed females in the laboratory and for females in situ. Lipid stores decreased significantly over time even when food was available, both in laboratory and in field, suggesting that the females largely depended on stored resources for reproduction no matter of the food availability. Lipid reduction was most rapid during gonad maturation prior to first egg production. Almost all fed females spawned compared to only half of the starved ones, and number of eggs and the egg hatching success were significantly improved for fed females. When food was scarce, females produced fewer but more lipid-rich eggs as opposed to more eggs with less lipids when food was abundant - a strategy not previously described for C. glacialis. The fatty acid composition appeared to be more important than the total lipid content for ensuring high egg hatching success, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3), as well as the saturated fatty acids 16:0 and 18:0 seemed to be particularly important. We conclude that C. glacialis is capable of capital breeding, but primarily rely on fresh food for

  10. Refractoriness of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii. (United States)

    Lane, R S; Mun, J; Eisen, L; Eisen, R J


    The western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is refractory to experimental infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, one of several Lyme disease spirochetes pathogenic for humans. Another member of the Lyme disease spirochete complex, Borrelia bissettii, is distributed widely throughout North America and a similar, if not identical, spirochete has been implicated as a human pathogen in southern Europe. To determine the susceptibility of S. occidentalis to B. bissettii, 6 naïve lizards were exposed to the feeding activities of Ixodes pacificus nymphs experimentally infected with this spirochete. None of the lizards developed spirochetemias detectable by polymerase chain reaction for up to 8 wk post-tick feeding, infected nymphs apparently lost their B. bissettii infections within 1-2 wk after engorgement, and xenodiagnostic L. pacificus larvae that co-fed alongside infected nymphs did not acquire and maintain spirochetes. In contrast, 3 of 4 naïve deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) exposed similarly to feeding by 1 or more B. bissettii-infected nymphs developed patent infections within 4 wk. These and previous findings suggest that the complement system of S. occidentalis typically destroys B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes present in tissues of attached and feeding I. pacificus nymphs, thereby potentially reducing the probability of transmission of these bacteria to humans or other animals by the resultant adult ticks.

  11. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)


    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  12. A novel method for simultaneous and continuous determination of thermal properties during phase transition applied to Calanus finmarchicus. (United States)

    Bantle, Michael; Eikevik, Trygve Magne; Brennvall, Jon Eirik


    The thermal properties of a product are the most important parameters for practical engineering purposes and models in food science. Calanus finmarchicus is currently being examined as a marine resource for uncommon aquatic lipids and proteins. Thermal conductivity, specific heat, enthalpy and density were measured over the temperature range from -40 to +20 degrees C. The initial freezing point was determined to be -2.3 degrees C. The thermal properties were recorded continuously on 4 samples using a new method, and the results were compared with predictive models. The accuracy of the new method is demonstrated by different calibration runs. Significant differences in the thermal conductivity of the frozen material were found between the parallel-series model and the data, whereas the model of Pham and Willix (1989) or the Maxwell-Euken adaption showed better agreement. The measured data for specific heat, enthalpy, and density agreed well with the model. Practical Application: The thermal data obtained can be used directly in food engineering and technology applications, for example, in a thin layer model for freezing food for which precise thermal data for each layer are now available, enabling the more accurate prediction of freezing times and temperature profiles. Dimensionless numbers (such as the Biot number) can also be based on measured data with minor deviations compared to more general modeled thermal properties. Future activities will include the generation of a comprehensive database for different products.

  13. CNP stoichiometry of a lipid-synthesising zooplankton, Calanus finmarchicus, from winter to spring bloom in a sub-Arctic sound (United States)

    Aubert, A. B.; Svensen, C.; Hessen, D. O.; Tamelander, T.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal stoichiometry of the high-latitude lipid-synthesising copepod Calanus finmarchicus and assess how this would affect dietary demands with season, ontogeny and lipid storage. C:N:P ratios in different stages (adults, copepodite V and IV), in eggs and faecal pellets as well as in bulk food (seston) was analysed in a sub-Arctic Norwegian sound (69° 47'N, 19° 19'E) from late February to mid-May 2009. The period covered the phytoplankton bloom and was divided into four sequences of the bloom based on chl a and seston C:chl a ratio variations. The calculation of the somatic elemental C:N and C:P body ratios (without the lipid storage) indicates that nearly homeostatic control in C. finmarchicus is maintained in somatic tissues within stages, while not if the lipid storage pool is included. Nutrient limitation was assessed calculating threshold elemental ratios based on the somatic body ratios and for different sets of assimilation efficiencies, and indicated a predominant C limitation that may reflect demands for lipid storage. The results suggest that stoichiometric composition and demands in such high-latitude, lipid-storing species strongly depend on stage and season, and the large contribution of storage lipids highlights the need for a two-compartment approach for lipid-synthesising species, with different dietary requirements for somatic growth and for lipid storage.

  14. Ontogenetic Responses of Calanus chilensis to Hypoxia from Northern Chile (23ºS), Humboldt Current Ecosystem (United States)

    Ruz, P. M.; Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.; Franco-Cisterna, B.; Yebra, L.; Keister, J. E.


    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are being subjected to expansion, intensification and shoaling of Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's), as a result of ongoing climate change. To understand how dominant epipelagic copepods may respond to stressful conditions induced by low oxygen, we experimentally studied the effect of hypoxia over the stage-specific physiology of Calanus chilensis from the Mejillones Bay (23°S — 70°W), northern Chile, during the winters of 2013 and 2014. Females, eggs and nauplii (NI to NIV) of C. chilensis were incubated under hypoxia ( 0.7 mg O2 L-1) and normoxia ( 8.3 mg O2 L-1) conditions at a constant temperature of 14ºC as to estimate egg production rate (EPR), hatching success (HS) and naupliar growth and development time. Additionally, we estimated survivorship by using Neutral Red technique, and also examined female metabolism by measuring specific activity of the enzymes Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (spAARS) (growth index) and the electron transport system (spETS) (potential respiration). Survival of females and EPR were not significantly affected by dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, coinciding with no significant changes in their metabolism. By contrast, HS was reduced from normoxia (70%) to hypoxia (30%), whereas naupliar growth (NI to NIII) was lower under hypoxia (0.155 ± 0.007 d-1) than normoxia (0.237 ± 0.006 d-1), resulting also in a longer development time, 6.490 ± 0.353 d and 4.238 ± 0.149 d, respectively. Most eggs and nauplii collected at the end of the experiments were alive, although a higher proportion of organisms were recovered in normoxia than hypoxia. Our results revealed stage-specific responses to hypoxia in C. chilensis and the importance of ontogenetic responses to variable levels of oxygenation in the upwelling zone.

  15. Grazing Impact of the Copepod Calanus sinicus on Phytoplankton in the Northern East China Sea in Late Spring (United States)

    Kim, Garam; Kang, Hyung-Ku


    We investigated the feeding habits of Calanus sinicus during its four developmental stages as copepodite 4 (CIV), copepodite 5 (CV), adult males and females in early June 2015 at 12 sampling stations along the southern coast of Korea to the northern East China Sea, to better understand the role of C. sinicus in controlling phytoplankton stocks. Ingestion rate, daily ration as body carbon, population ingestion rate, and grazing impact were estimated using the gut pigment method. The mean biomass of CVs was the greatest (13.5 mg C m-3) and that of adult males was the lowest (0.7 mg C m-3). The ingestion rate per C. sinicus individual tended to increase with developmental stage, with the highest rate in adult females (519 ng chl ind-1 d-1) and the lowest rate in CIVs (305 ng chl ind-1 d-1). A significant correlation was found between ingestion rate and temperature, but not salinity or chlorophyll-a concentration. The daily ration of C. sinicus as body carbon significantly decreased with increased body weight, with the highest value found in CIVs (66.4%) and the lowest value in adult males (30%). Despite the high ingestion rate of the adults, the mean grazing impact of C. sinicus on phytoplankton biomass, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration, was the highest in CVs (2.6%), followed by CIVs and adult females, and was the lowest in adult males (0.1%). The higher grazing impact of copepodites than adults underscores the importance of evaluating copepodite stages in the feeding studies of marine food webs.

  16. Multi-gene analysis reveals a lack of genetic divergence between Calanus agulhensis and C. sinicus (Copepoda; Calanoida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kozol

    Full Text Available The discrimination and taxonomic identification of marine species continues to pose a challenge despite the growing number of diagnostic metrics and approaches. This study examined the genetic relationship between two sibling species of the genus Calanus (Crustacea; Copepoda; Calanidae, C. agulhensis and C. sinicus, using a multi-gene analysis. DNA sequences were determined for portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI; nuclear citrate synthase (CS, and large subunit (28S rRNA genes for specimens collected from the Sea of Japan and North East (NE Pacific Ocean for C. sinicus and from the Benguela Current and Agulhas Bank, off South Africa, for C. agulhensis. For mtCOI, C. sinicus and C. agulhensis showed similar levels of haplotype diversity (H(d = 0.695 and 0.660, respectively and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Pairwise F(ST distances for mtCOI were significant only between C. agulhensis collected from the Agulhas and two C. sinicus populations: the Sea of Japan (F(ST = 0.152, p<0.01 and NE Pacific (F(ST = 0.228, p<0.005. Between the species, F(ST distances were low for both mtCOI (F(ST = 0.083, p = 0.003 and CS (F(ST = 0.050, p = 0.021. Large subunit (28S rRNA showed no variation between the species. Our results provide evidence of the lack of genetic distinction of C. sinicus and C. agulhensis, raise questions of whether C. agulhensis warrants status as a distinct species, and indicate the clear need for more intensive and extensive ecological and genetic analysis.

  17. Effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure treatments on water properties, physicochemical and microbial qualities of minimally processed squids (todarodes pacificus). (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jiao, Shunshan; Lian, Zixuan; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun


    This study investigated the effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on water properties, physicochemical, and microbial qualities of squids (Todarodes pacificus) during 4 °C storage for up to 10 d. Single-cycle treatments were applied at 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 20 min (S-200, S-400, and S-600), and two-cycle treatments consisted of two 10 min cycles at 200, 400, or 600 MPa, respectively (T-200, T-400, and T-600). HHP-treated samples had higher (P pressure level caused no significant difference in water state of squids. The two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, and total plate counts (TPC) of squids during storage, in which TPC of S-600 and T-600 was 2.9 and 1.8 log CFU/g at 10 d, respectively, compared with 7.5 log CFU/g in control. HHP treatments delayed browning discoloration of the squids during storage, and the higher pressure level and two-cycle HHP were more effective. Water properties highly corresponded with color and texture indices of squids. This study demonstrated that the two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling microbial growth and quality deterioration while having similar impact on the physicochemical and water properties of squids in comparison with the single-cycle treatment, thus more desirable for extending shelf-life of fresh squids. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Composition and physical state of phospholipids in calanoid copepods from India and Norway

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farkas, T.; Storebakken, T.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The fatty acid composition and physical state of isolated phospholipids obtained from marine copepods collected on the Southwest coast of India (Calanus spp.) and the west coast of Norway (Calanus finmarchicus) were investigated to compare...

  19. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae). (United States)

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag


    Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ≥ 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification.

  20. Vertical distribution, feeding and vulnerability to tactile predation in Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege


    We assessed the vertical distribution and feeding of the calanoid copepod Metridia longa in the Oslofjord, Norway during winter and spring 2006. Adult females of Metridia longa inhabited the whole 200 m deep-water column. Their distribution was shallower at night than during the day. Enumeration of egested faecal pellets suggested that feeding activity was greater at night than during the day and that more pellets were produced by individuals collected at shallow depths vs. by individuals found deeper. There was no pronounced difference between months in feeding activity. Although the hypothesis is that they prey on Calanus eggs and nauplii, scanning of Metridia faecal pellets by PCR using Calanus-specific primers did not confirm the presence of any Calanus prey DNA. Most pellets had a greenish colour, implying herbivorous feeding. Feeding is related to swimming, and the actively swimming Metridia would presumably be vulnerable to tactile invertebrate predators. However, predation experiments where the carnivorous copepod Pareuchaeta norvegica was offered similar-sized Metridia and Calanus proved that Pareuchaeta consumed the less-active Calanus, but not the Metridia. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Regulation of gene expression is associated with tolerance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis to CO2-acidified sea water. (United States)

    Bailey, Allison; De Wit, Pierre; Thor, Peter; Browman, Howard I; Bjelland, Reidun; Shema, Steven; Fields, David M; Runge, Jeffrey A; Thompson, Cameron; Hop, Haakon


    Ocean acidification is the increase in seawater p CO 2 due to the uptake of atmospheric anthropogenic CO 2 , with the largest changes predicted to occur in the Arctic seas. For some marine organisms, this change in p CO 2 , and associated decrease in pH, represents a climate change-related stressor. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns of nauplii of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis cultured at low pH levels. We have previously shown that organismal-level performance (development, growth, respiration) of C. glacialis nauplii is unaffected by low pH. Here, we investigated the molecular-level response to lowered pH in order to elucidate the physiological processes involved in this tolerance. Nauplii from wild-caught C. glacialis were cultured at four pH levels (8.05, 7.9, 7.7, 7.5). At stage N6, mRNA was extracted and sequenced using RNA-seq. The physiological functionality of the proteins identified was categorized using Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways. We found that the expression of 151 contigs varied significantly with pH on a continuous scale (93% downregulated with decreasing pH). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that, of the processes downregulated, many were components of the universal cellular stress response, including DNA repair, redox regulation, protein folding, and proteolysis. Sodium:proton antiporters were among the processes significantly upregulated, indicating that these ion pumps were involved in maintaining cellular pH homeostasis. C. glacialis significantly alters its gene expression at low pH, although they maintain normal larval development. Understanding what confers tolerance to some species will support our ability to predict the effects of future ocean acidification on marine organisms.

  2. Vertical distribution, feeding and vulnerability to tactile predation in Metridia longa (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege; Brucet, Sandra; Kaartvedt, Stein


    deeper. There was no pronounced difference between months in feeding activity. Although the hypothesis is that they prey on Calanus eggs and nauplii, scanning of Metridia faecal pellets by PCR using Calanus-specific primers did not confirm the presence

  3. De novo assembly of a transcriptome for Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda--the dominant zooplankter of the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra H Lenz

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II, late nauplius (NV-VI, early copepodite (CI-II, late copepodite (CV and adult (CVI female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components ("comps" was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is "silent" at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome

  4. Trophic interactions of the pelagic ecosystem over the Reykjanes Ridge as evaluated by fatty acid and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    Petursdottir, H.; Gislason, A.; Falk-Petersen, S.; Hop, H.; Svavarsson, J.


    Trophic relationships of the important oceanic crustacean species Calanus finmarchicus, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Sergestes arcticus, as well as the mesopelagic fishes Maurolicus muelleri, Benthosema glaciale and Sebastes mentella, were investigated over the Reykjanes Ridge in June 2003 and in June 2004. Measurements were performed of length, wet weight, dry weight, total lipid, lipid class, fatty acid and fatty alcohol profiles and stable isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N). High amounts of the Calanus lipid markers, 20:1(n-9) and 22:1(n-11) in these species confirm the importance of Calanus spp. in this ecosystem. Comparisons of fatty acid/alcohol profiles by multivariate analysis revealed two main trophic pathways over the Reykjanes Ridge. In one pathway, Calanus spp. was an important part of the diet for the small mesopelagic fish species M. muelleri and B. glaciale and the shrimp S. arcticus, whereas in the other pathway, the euphausiid M. norvegica was the dominant food for the redfish S. mentella, and Calanus spp. were of less importance. M. muelleri and the smaller B. glaciale feed on C. finmarchicus, whereas the larger B. glaciale and S. arcticus select the larger, deeper-living C. hyperboreus. All investigated species are true pelagic species except for the shrimp S. arcticus, which seems to have a benthic feeding habit as well. The δ 15N levels show that of the species investigated, C. finmarchicus occupies the lowest trophic level (2.0) and the redfish, S. mentella, the highest (4.2). All the species were lipid rich, typical for subarctic pelagic ecosystem. Calanus finmarchicus, S. arcticus and B. glaciale store wax esters as their lipid stores, while M. norvegica, M. muelleri and S. mentella store triacylglycerols.

  5. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas


    (Centropages typicus, Calanus helgolandicus, Temora longicornis, Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Euterpina acutifrons). Behaviors of individual nauphi were divided into sequences of sinking, swimming and jumping events. Motility behavior is both stage- and species-specific in terms of appearance......Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... of tracks, speeds, durations and frequencies of events as well as time budgets. Motility mode often changes drastically during naupliar ontogeny. Crudely, nauplii can be divided into those moving with a jump-sink type of motility of various frequencies (1 min(-1) to 3 s(-1)) and those swimming...

  6. Seawater pH Predicted for the Year 2100 Affects the Metabolic Response to Feeding in Copepodites of the Arctic Copepod Calanus glacialis. (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Bailey, Allison; Halsband, Claudia; Guscelli, Ella; Gorokhova, Elena; Fransson, Agneta


    Widespread ocean acidification (OA) is transforming the chemistry of the global ocean, and the Arctic is recognised as a region where the earliest and strongest impacts of OA are expected. In the present study, metabolic effects of OA and its interaction with food availability was investigated in Calanus glacialis from the Kongsfjord, West Spitsbergen. We measured metabolic rates and RNA/DNA ratios (an indicator of biosynthesis) concurrently in fed and unfed individuals of copepodite stages CII-CIII and CV subjected to two different pH levels representative of present day and the "business as usual" IPCC scenario (RCP8.5) prediction for the year 2100. The copepods responded more strongly to changes in food level than to decreasing pH, both with respect to metabolic rate and RNA/DNA ratio. However, significant interactions between effects of pH and food level showed that effects of pH and food level act in synergy in copepodites of C. glacialis. While metabolic rates in copepodites stage CII-CIII increased by 78% as a response to food under present day conditions (high pH), the increase was 195% in CII-CIIIs kept at low pH-a 2.5 times greater increase. This interaction was absent for RNA/DNA, so the increase in metabolic rates were clearly not a reaction to changing biosynthesis at low pH per se but rather a reaction to increased metabolic costs per unit of biosynthesis. Interestingly, we did not observe this difference in costs of growth in stage CV. A 2.5 times increase in metabolic costs of growth will leave the copepodites with much less energy for growth. This may infer significant changes to the C. glacialis population during future OA.

  7. Population dynamics and life history strategies of the dominant copepods in a sub-arctic Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    Investigations of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic pelagic food web have previously focused on the copepod genus Calanus, as they often dominate the mesozooplankton community and serve as a lipid rich food source for higher trophic levels. However, if night samples are considered a different food web...... might emerges with the omnivorous copepod Metridia spp. in a major role. Biology of Metridia is practically unknown but deviates from Calanus e.g. Metridia does not hibernate but stays active yearlong benefiting from being omnivore. In the present study abundance, depth distribution, and egg and pellet...... hibernating Calanus. M. longa might thereby also have a central role in the lipid rich food chain which is a distinct feature for Arctic and Sub-Arctic ecosystems...

  8. Community structure of zooplankton in the main entrance of Bahía Magdalena, México during 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available The zooplankton community structure, including copepods, euphausiids, chaetognaths, and decapod larvae, was monitored during six circadian cycles using Bongo net (500 *m mesh net samples from Bahía Magdalena, on the southwest coast of Baja California, México. Samples were obtained during three oceanographic surveys (March, July, and December 1996 to describe the changes in the zooplankton community structure throughout the main mouth of Bahía Magdalena. The zooplankton community structure showed strong changes with a close relation to environmental conditions. During March, a well-mixed water column with low temperature and salinity indicated an influence of the California Current water and local upwelling processes. During July, temperature increased a nd a wide salinity range was recorded. The stratification of the water column was intense during summer, enhancing the thermocline. The highest temperatures and salinity were recorded in December, related to the presence of the Costa Rica Coastal Current (CRCC. The thermocline deepened as water temperature increased. A typical temperate community structure with low specific richness dominated by Calanus pacificus, Nyctiphanes simplex, and Acartia clausi and high zooplankton biomass (average 9.3 and 5.5 ml 1000 m-3respectively during March and July shifted to a more complex tropical community structure with a low zooplankton biomass in December (average 0.37 ml 1000 m-3. The mouth of Bahía Magdalena has a vigorous exchange of water caused by tidal currents. The zooplankton community structure was not significantly different between the central part of Bahía Magdalena and the continental shelf outside the bay for all months. The results suggest a more dynamic inside-outside interaction of zooplankton assemblages than first thought.La estructura de la comunidad de zooplancton, incluyendo copépodos, eufáusidos, quetognatos y larvas de decápodos, fue monitoriada por seis ciclos circadianos

  9. The response of three dominant Arctic copepod species to elevated CO2 concentrations and water temperatures


    Hildebrandt, Nicole


    Ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming are threatening marine life. Within the framework of the research project BIOACID, this thesis aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the sensitivity of the dominant Arctic calanoid copepod species Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus to elevated pCO2 and temperatures. Controlled laboratory experiments have shown that subadult and adult Calanus life stages are rather robust to the direct effects of OA during both active and rest...

  10. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.


    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  11. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies (United States)


    Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for

  12. Comparative transcriptomics of the nematode gut identifies global shifts in feeding mode and pathogen susceptibility. (United States)

    Lightfoot, James W; Chauhan, Veeren M; Aylott, Jonathan W; Rödelsperger, Christian


    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been established as a model for comparative studies using the well known Caenorhabditis elegans as a reference. Despite their relatedness, previous studies have revealed highly divergent development and a number of morphological differences including the lack of a pharyngal structure, the grinder, used to physically lyse the ingested bacteria in C. elegans. To complement current knowledge about developmental and ecological differences with a better understanding of their feeding modes, we have sequenced the intestinal transcriptomes of both nematodes. In total, we found 464 intestine-enriched genes in P. pacificus and 724 in C. elegans, of which the majority (66%) has been identified by previous studies. Interestingly, only 15 genes could be identified with shared intestinal enrichment in both species, of which three genes are Hedgehog signaling molecules supporting a highly conserved role of this pathway for intestinal development across all metazoa. At the level of gene families, we find similar divergent trends with only five families displaying significant intestinal enrichment in both species. We compared our data with transcriptomic responses to various pathogens. Strikingly, C. elegans intestine-enriched genes showed highly significant overlaps with pathogen response genes whereas this was not the case for P. pacificus, indicating shifts in pathogen susceptibility that might be explained by altered feeding modes. Our study reveals first insights into the evolution of feeding systems and the associated changes in intestinal gene expression that might have facilitated nematodes of the P. pacificus lineage to colonize new environments. These findings deepen our understanding about how morphological and genomic diversity is created during the course of evolution.

  13. Effects of pyrene exposure and temperature on early development of two co-existing Arctic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenvald, Julie Cornelius; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hjorth, Morten


    Oil exploration is expected to increase in the near future in Western Greenland. At present, effects of exposure to oil compounds on early life-stages of the ecologically important Calanus spp. are unknown. We investigated the effects of the oil compound pyrene, on egg hatching and naupliar...... with temperature at high pyrene concentration in C. finmarchicus. Both Calanus species were affected by pyrene exposure but C. finmarchicus was more sensitive compared to C. glacialis. Lowered growth rate and increased mortality of the naupliar stages entail reduced recruitment to copepod populations. Exposure...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede S. Sumiarsa


    Full Text Available Pengamatan kelimpahan spesies copepoda, ordo Calanoida di Teluk Pegametan, Bali telah dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2007. Teluk Pegametan adalah salah satu wilayah yang potensial untuk budidaya laut yang terletak di bagian barat Laut Bali. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginventarisasi spesies-spesies copepoda dari ordo Calanoida yang hidup di perairan Teluk Pegametan. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 10 stasiun sampling dengan metode sampling secara horizontal pada permukaan laut. Plankton net berdiameter 31 cm dengan ukuran mesh 40 mm ditarik sepanjang 10 meter dengan menggunakan speed boat di sekitar stasiun pengamatan. Sampel diawetkan dengan formalin 4% untuk diidentifikasi. Dari hasil pengamatan di sepuluh stasiun terdapat 14 spesies copepoda ordo Calanoida yaitu: Acrocalanus gracilis, Calanus minor, C. sinicus, C. tenuicornis, Centropoges abdominalis, Eucalanus attenuatus, Haloptilus longicornis, Lucicutia curta, L. flavicornis, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Pseudocalanus gracilis, Rinchalanus cornutus, Scolecithricella minor, dan Temora turbinata. Spesies dominan adalah Calanus sinicus dengan proporsi 65,6% dari jumlah individu yang dijumpai. Observation on the abundance of copepod species (order: Calanoida in Pegametan Bay has been conducted in April 2007. Pegametan Bay is located on the North West of Bali and is one of several potential areas for mariculture. The purpose of this study was to find out the abundance of copepod (Order: Calanoida in the bay. Research sampling was conducted in 10 sampling points where planktons were collected using plankton net of 40 µm mesh size with diameter of 31 cm dragged horizontally on the sea water surface as far as 10 m each. Samples were preserved in 4% formalin for identification.  There were 14 species of Calanoida copepod species found during the research: Acrocalanus gracilis, Calanus minor, C. sinicus, C. tenuicornis, Centropoges abdominalis, Eucalanus attenuatus, Haloptilus longicornis

  15. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  16. Distribution of dominant calanoid copepod species in the Greenland Sea during late fall; 06 November 1988 to 12 December 1988 (NODC Accession 0000917) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between 6 November and 12 December 1988, vertical distributions of Calanus finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus, C. glacialis adn Metridia long were studied at three...

  17. Revisiting the role of individual variability in population persistence and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Morozov

    Full Text Available Populations often exhibit a pronounced degree of individual variability and this can be important when constructing ecological models. In this paper, we revisit the role of inter-individual variability in population persistence and stability under predation pressure. As a case study, we consider interactions between a structured population of zooplankton grazers and their predators. Unlike previous structured population models, which only consider variability of individuals according to the age or body size, we focus on physiological and behavioural structuring. We first experimentally demonstrate a high degree of variation of individual consumption rates in three dominant species of herbivorous copepods (Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, Calanus euxinus and show that this disparity implies a pronounced variation in the consumption capacities of individuals. Then we construct a parsimonious predator-prey model which takes into account the intra-population variability of prey individuals according to behavioural traits: effectively, each organism has a 'personality' of its own. Our modelling results show that structuring of prey according to their growth rate and vulnerability to predation can dampen predator-prey cycles and enhance persistence of a species, even if the resource stock for prey is unlimited. The main mechanism of efficient top-down regulation is shown to work by letting the prey population become dominated by less vulnerable individuals when predator densities are high, while the trait distribution recovers when the predator densities are low.

  18. Metabarcoding and metabolome analyses of copepod grazing reveal feeding preference and linkage to metabolite classes in dynamic microbial plankton communities. (United States)

    Ray, Jessica L; Althammer, Julia; Skaar, Katrine S; Simonelli, Paolo; Larsen, Aud; Stoecker, Diane; Sazhin, Andrey; Ijaz, Umer Z; Quince, Christopher; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Frischer, Marc; Pohnert, Georg; Troedsson, Christofer


    In order to characterize copepod feeding in relation to microbial plankton community dynamics, we combined metabarcoding and metabolome analyses during a 22-day seawater mesocosm experiment. Nutrient amendment of mesocosms promoted the development of haptophyte (Phaeocystis pouchetii)- and diatom (Skeletonema marinoi)-dominated plankton communities in mesocosms, in which Calanus sp. copepods were incubated for 24 h in flow-through chambers to allow access to prey particles (<500 μm). Copepods and mesocosm water sampled six times spanning the experiment were analysed using metabarcoding, while intracellular metabolite profiles of mesocosm plankton communities were generated for all experimental days. Taxon-specific metabarcoding ratios (ratio of consumed prey to available prey in the surrounding seawater) revealed diverse and dynamic copepod feeding selection, with positive selection on large diatoms, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and fungi, while smaller phytoplankton, including P. pouchetii, were passively consumed or even negatively selected according to our indicator. Our analysis of the relationship between Calanus grazing ratios and intracellular metabolite profiles indicates the importance of carbohydrates and lipids in plankton succession and copepod-prey interactions. This molecular characterization of Calanus sp. grazing therefore provides new evidence for selective feeding in mixed plankton assemblages and corroborates previous findings that copepod grazing may be coupled to the developmental and metabolic stage of the entire prey community rather than to individual prey abundances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Fitri Isma Nugraha


    Full Text Available Penelitian keanekaragaman spesies copepoda yang hidup di sekitar keramba jaring apung (KJA di Teluk Sumberkima, Bali Utara dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari 2007 dengan posisi sampling 50L 0237293 UTM 9101738. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman dan distribusi vertikal populasi zooplankton khususnya copepoda di sekitar KJA Teluk Sumberkima pada beberapa tingkat kedalaman. Sampling copepoda dilakukan dengan memompa air laut sejumlah volume tertentu pada tingkat kedalaman masing-masing 0 m, 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, dan 15 m. Air laut tersebut kemudian disaring pada 200 µm secara terpisah. Sampel copepoda diawetkan dengan formalin 4% untuk analisis mikroskopik di laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan terdapat 3 ordo yang terdiri atas 22 spesies copepoda. Ordo yang mendominasi adalah Calanoida yang ditemukan pada setiap kedalaman, dilanjutkan oleh ordo Cyclopoida yang ditemukan pada kedalaman 0 m, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m, dan 15 m dan ordo Harpacticoida yang ditemukan di semua lapisan kedalaman. Spesies yang mendominasi di setiap kedalaman adalah Calanus sinicus dan Calanus minor. The aim of this experiment was to study biodiversity and vertical distribution of copepods around floating cage culture in Sumberkima Bay, North Bali, in sea water depth levels of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 meters at sampling site of 50L 0237293 UTM 9101738. The observation was done in February 2007. Samples were obtained by pumping and then filtering the seawater through 200 µm membrane filter. Samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for microscopic observation. Results showed that there were three orders from 22 copepod species dominated by the order of Calanoida found in any depth level followed by the order of Cyclopoida found at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 15 meters depth. Even though the order of Harpacticoida copepods was found in each observed depth level but this order was in little quantity. Dominant species at each depth level was Calanus

  20. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  1. Secondary production at the Polar Front, Barents Sea, August 2007 (United States)

    Basedow, Sünnje L.; Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.


    To investigate spatial patterns of secondary production we sampled four core hydrographical regions of the Polar Front in the Barents Sea (Arctic Water, ArW; Polar Front Water, PFW; Atlantic Water, AtW; and Melt Water, MW) by towing an undulating instrument platform along a transect crossing the front from August 8-9, 2007. Sensors mounted on the platform provided data on the hydrography (CTD), fluorescence (Fluorometer, F) and zooplankton abundance in the size range between 0.1 and 30 mm (Laser Optical Plankton Counter, LOPC). These continuous, biophysical data with high-spatial resolution were supplemented by discrete water and zooplankton net samples at stations for sensor calibrations. After in depth quality assessments of the biophysical data, estimates were made of the vital rates based on biovolume spectrum theory. Five size groups were distinguished from the LOPC data: small (S), mainly Oithona spp. and the appendicularian Fritillaria sp.; medium (M), mainly Pseudocalanus spp. and Calanus spp. CI-CIII; large (L), mainly Calanus spp. CIV-CV; and extra large (XL and 2XL), juvenile and adult euphausids. Size groups were further divided based on transparency of organisms. Vital rates based on the biophysical in situ data in combination with biovolume spectrum theories agreed generally well with data from empirical and numerical models in the literature. ArW was characterised by subsurface maxima of chlorophyll a (chl a), and an estimated population growth of ca. 13 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for CI-CIII Calanus spp. and some older Pseudocalanus within the chl a maxima. Frontal waters were characterised by low chl a concentrations, but high abundances and production (around 1 g C m- 3 d- 1) of small copepods (Oithona spp.) and appendicularians (Fritillaria sp.). The estimated production of small-size zooplankton was an order of magnitude higher than the production of all other size groups combined, including large copepods. The high loss rates (- 166 to - 271 mg C m- 3 d- 1

  2. Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herberts, C.


    Description of three Zoanthids new to the Tulear region (S.W. Madagascar): a macrocnemic species, Epizoanthus cf. minutus Duerden, 1898, and two brachycnemic species, Zoanthus pacificus Walsh & Bowers, 1971, and Z. vietnamensis Pax, 1957. These new records bring the number of zoanthids known from

  3. Lipid sac area as a proxy for individual lipid content of arctic calanoid copepods


    Vogedes, Daniel; Varpe, ?ystein; S?reide, Janne E.; Graeve, Martin; Berge, J?rgen; Falk-Petersen, Stig


    We present an accurate, fast, simple and non-destructive photographic method to estimate wax ester and lipid content in single individuals of the calanoid copepod genus Calanus and test this method against gas-chromatographic lipid measurements.

  4. Eggs as a Suitable Tool for Species Diagnosis of Causative Agents of Human Diphyllobothriosis (Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leštinová, Kateřina; Soldánová, Miroslava; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman


    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2016), č. článku e0004721. ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adenocephalus pacificus * helminth fauna * infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.834, year: 2016

  5. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmina, T.A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, E.T.; Spraker, T.R.; Kornyushyn, V.V.; Kuchta, Roman


    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2015), s. 256-263 ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothrium pacificum) * Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis * Cestoda * Diphyllobothridea * Diplogonoporus tetrapterus * Otariidae, North Pacific * Tapeworms * Tetrabothriidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  6. Ocean acidification ameliorates harmful effects of warming in primary consumer. (United States)

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Hanssen, Anja Elise


    Climate change-induced warming and ocean acidification are considered two imminent threats to marine biodiversity and current ecosystem structures. Here, we have for the first time examined an animal's response to a complete life cycle of exposure to co-occurring warming (+3°C) and ocean acidification (+1,600 μatm CO 2 ), using the key subarctic planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus , as a model species. The animals were generally negatively affected by warming, which significantly reduced the females' energy status and reproductive parameters (respectively, 95% and 69%-87% vs. control). Unexpectedly, simultaneous acidification partially offset the negative effect of warming in an antagonistic manner, significantly improving reproductive parameters and hatching success (233%-340% improvement vs. single warming exposure). The results provide proof of concept that ocean acidification may partially offset negative effects caused by warming in some species. Possible explanations and ecological implications for the observed antagonistic effect are discussed.

  7. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance and community structure in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2009-2016 (United States)

    McKinstry, Caitlin A. E.; Campbell, Robert W.


    Large calanoid copepods and other zooplankters comprise the prey field for ecologically and economically important predators such as juvenile pink salmon, herring, and seabirds in Prince William Sound (PWS).​ From 2009-2016, the Gulf Watch Alaska program collected zooplankton 5-10 times each year at 12 stations in PWS to establish annual patterns. Surveys collected 188 species of zooplankton with Oithona similis, Limacina helicina, Pseudocalanus spp., and Acartia longiremis as the most common species present in 519 samples. Generalized additive models assessed seasonal abundance and showed peak abundance in July (mean: 9826 no. m-3 [95% CI: 7990-12,084]) and lowest abundance in January (503 no. m-3 [373 to 678]). Significantly higher zooplankton abundance occurred in 2010 (542 no. m-3 ± 55 SE) and lowest in 2013 (149 no. m-3 ± 13). The species composition of communities, determined via hierarchical cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, produced six distinct communities based on season and location. The winter community, characterized by warm-water indicator species including Mesocalanus tenuicornis, Calanus pacificus, and Corycaeus anglicus, diverged into four communities throughout the spring and summer. The first spring community, characterized by copepods with affinities for lower salinities, occurred sound-wide. The second spring community, comprised of planktonic larvae, appeared sporadically in PWS bays in 2011-2013. Spring and summer open water stations were defined by the presence of large calanoid copepods. A summer community including the most abundant taxa was common in 2010 and 2011, absent in 2013, then sporadically appeared in 2014 and 2015 suggesting interannual variability of zooplankton assemblages. The zooplankton community shifted to a uniform assemblage characterized by cnidarians in the early autumn. Community assemblages showed significant correlations to a set of environmental variables including SST, mixed layer depth

  8. Short-snouted toothless ichthyosaur from China suggests Late Triassic diversification of suction feeding ichthyosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Martin Sander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae, a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale)

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind


    A bottom-mounted upward-facing 38-kHz echo sounder was deployed at ~400 m and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~60 52?N, ~5 24?E), Norway. The scattering layers seen during autumn (September-October) 2008 were identified by trawling. Glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) were mainly distributed below ~200 m and displayed three different diel behavioral strategies: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM) and no DVM (NoDVM). The IDVM group was the focus of this study. It consisted of 2-year and older individuals migrating to ~200-270 m during the daytime, while descending back to deeper than ~270 m during the night. Stomach content analysis revealed increased feeding during the daytime on overwintering Calanus sp. We conclude that visually searching glacier lanternfish performing IDVM benefit from the faint daytime light in mid-waters when preying on overwintering Calanus sp. 2011 The Author(s).

  10. Characterisation of large zooplankton sampled with two different gears during midwinter in Rijpfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachowiak-Samołyk Katarzyna


    Full Text Available During a midwinter cruise north of 80°N to Rijpfjorden, Svalbard, the composition and vertical distribution of the zooplankton community were studied using two different samplers 1 a vertically hauled multiple plankton sampler (MPS; mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 200 μm and 2 a horizontally towed Methot Isaacs Kidd trawl (MIK; mouth area 3.14 m2, mesh size 1500 μm. Our results revealed substantially higher species diversity (49 taxa than if a single sampler (MPS: 38 taxa, MIK: 28 had been used. The youngest stage present (CIII of Calanus spp. (including C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis was sampled exclusively by the MPS, and the frequency of CIV copepodites in MPS was double that than in MIK samples. In contrast, catches of the CV-CVI copepodites of Calanus spp. were substantially higher in the MIK samples (3-fold and 5-fold higher for adult males and females, respectively. The MIK sampling clearly showed that the highest abundances of all three Thysanoessa spp. were in the upper layers, although there was a tendency for the larger-sized euphausiids to occur deeper. Consistent patterns for the vertical distributions of the large zooplankters (e.g. ctenophores, euphausiids collected by the MPS and MIK samplers provided more complete data on their abundances and sizes than obtained by the single net. Possible mechanisms contributing to the observed patterns of distribution, e.g. high abundances of both Calanus spp. and their predators (ctenophores and chaetognaths in the upper water layers during midwinter are discussed.

  11. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation. (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S


    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  13. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles. (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker


    Two species of the genus Borrelia , Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus ; Ixodes jellisoni , I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127 T  = DSM 17990 T  =  CIP 109136 T ) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446 T  = DSM 17989 T  = ATCC BAA-2689 T ).

  14. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.


    content were measured in dominant species to investigate effect of Chl a concentration and phytoplankton composition on ingestion rate. Egg production experiments were carried out under different food conditions. Rare deep water zooplankton species were also investigated to increase our knowledge in the Arctic biodiversity. Copepods Calanus finmarchicus is known as a marker of the Atlantic water mass, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, vice versa, are the coldwater Arctic species. In our study we investigated three Calanus species distribution and analyzed their ecological status. Changes in zooplankton composition results in the alteration of energy transfer within the pelagic food web ("cold" and "warm" scenarios) with potential consequences for growth and survival of seabirds Little Auk (Alle alle) and Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). We discuss the advection effect on the zooplankton community, compare the population development phases with phytoplankton bloom phases (match-mismatch), estimate grazing impact on phytoplankton community and consider different life strategies for the three different Calanus species.

  15. Calcium Carbonate Dissolution Above the Lysocline: Implications of Copepod Grazing on Coccolithophores (United States)

    White, M. M.; Waller, J. D.; Lubelczyk, L.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Wyeth, A.; Fields, D.; Balch, W. M.


    Copepod-coccolithophore predator-prey interactions are of great importance because they facilitate the export of particulate inorganic and organic carbon (PIC and POC) from the surface ocean. Coccolith dissolution in acidic copepod guts has been proposed as a possible explanation for the paradox of PIC dissolution above the lysocline, but warrants further investigation. Using a new application of the 14C-microdiffusion technique, we investigated the dissolution of coccoliths in copepod guts. We considered both an estuarine predator-prey model (Acartia tonsa and Pleurochrysis carterae) and an open ocean predator-prey model (Calanus finmarchicus and Emiliania huxleyi). Additionally, we considered the impacts of pCO2 on this process to advance our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on trophic interactions. In the estuarine predator-prey model, fecal pellets produced immediately after previously-starved copepods grazed on P. carterae had PIC/POC ratios 27-40 % lower than that of the algae, indicating PIC dissolution within the copepod gut, with no impact of pCO2 on this dissolution. Subsequent fecal pellets showed increasing PIC/POC, suggesting that calcite dissolution decreases as the gut fills. The open ocean predator-prey model showed equivocal results, indicating high variability among individual grazing behavior, and therefore no consistent impact of copepod grazing on coccolith dissolution above the lysocline in the open ocean. We will further discuss the effects of fecal pellet PIC/POC ratios on sinking rate.

  16. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton. (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia


    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical Entomology Studies - III. A Revision of the Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 12, Number 2) (United States)


    Subgroup with quinquefasciatus which is widespread throughout tropical parts of the world, (2) TrifiZatus Subgroup with vegans and hutchinsoni, both...region; torrentium Martini 1925 from the western Palearctic; vegans Wiedemann 1828 from the eastern Pale- arctic; pervigiluns Bergroth 1889, pacificus...discovered when the fauna is thoroughly examined. 2. C ULEX (C ULEX) VAGANS WIEDEMANN (Figs. 4, 5, 14) Culex vegans Wiedemann 1828: 545 (d, 0

  18. Identification of four squid species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Feng, Junli; Liu, Shasha; Zhang, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaona; Dai, Zhiyuan


    Squids are distributed worldwide, including many species of commercial importance, and they are often made into varieties of flavor foods. The rapid identification methods for squid species especially their processed products, however, have not been well developed. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) systems based on specific primers and TaqMan probes have been established for rapid and accurate identification of four common squid species (Ommastrephes bartramii, Dosidicus gigas, Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus) in Chinese domestic market. After analyzing mitochondrial genes reported in GenBank, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene was selected for O. bartramii detection, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for D. gigas and T. Pacificus detection, ATPase subunit 6 (ATPase 6) gene for I. Argentinus detection, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) gene for designing Ommastrephidae-specific primers and probe. As a result, all the TaqMan systems are of good performance, and efficiency of each reaction was calculated by making standard curves. This method could detect target species either in single or mixed squid specimen, and it was applied to identify 12 squid processed products successfully. Thus, it would play an important role in fulfilling labeling regulations and squid fishery control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes. (United States)

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J


    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Sinha

    Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at

  1. Implicative Algebras | Kolluru | Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Keywords: Implicative ...

  2. A revision of the Haploporinae Nicoll, 1914 (Digenea: Haploporidae) from mullets (Mugilidae): Haploporus Looss, 1902 and Lecithobotrys Looss, 1902. (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta


    The status of the nominal species of Haploporus Looss, 1902 and Lecithobotrys Looss, 1902 is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study based on newly collected specimens from the western Mediterranean, the re-examination of museum material and a critical evaluation of published data. H. benedeni (Stossich, 1887) (type-species) is described and H. lateralis Looss, 1902 is considered to be its junior synonym. Additional data are given for H. pseudoindicus Rekharani & Madhavi, 1985, H. spinosus Machida, 1996 and H. magnisaccus Machida, 1996. Species parasitising Valamugil spp. from the Indo-West Pacific region, H. indicus Rekharani & Madhavi, 1985, H. spinosus, H. magnisaccus, H. mugilis Liu & Yang, 2002 and H. muscolosaccus Machida, 2003, are considered incertae sedis with respect to their generic affiliation. H. pacificus (Manter, 1963) (syn. Neohaploporus pacificus Manter, 1963), H. pseudoindicus and H. musculosaccus are designated as species inquirendae and H. lossii Al-Bassel, 1990 is considered to be a nomen nudum. Lecithobotrys putrescens Looss, 1902 is described based on newly collected material from Liza spp. Pseudolecithobotrys n. g. is erected to accommodate Lecithobotrys stomachicola Machida, 1996, as P. stomachicola (Machida, 1996) n. comb., from the North Pacific. L. aegyptiacus Hassan, El-Aziz, Khidr & Abu Samak, 1990 is considered to be a synonym of Saccocoelium tensum Looss, 1902, and L. brisbanensis (Martin, 1974) (syn. Paralecithobotrys brisbanensis Martin, 1974), L. vitellosus Sharma & Gupta, 1970 and L. suezcanali Nisreen Ezz El-Dien, Abdel-Rahman, El-Gawady, Imam & Fahmy, 1990 are regarded as species inquirendae. New generic diagnoses are presented for both Haploporus and Lecithobotrys.

  3. Prime implicants in dynamic reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrväinen, Tero


    This paper develops an improved definition of a prime implicant for the needs of dynamic reliability analysis. Reliability analyses often aim to identify minimal cut sets or prime implicants, which are minimal conditions that cause an undesired top event, such as a system's failure. Dynamic reliability analysis methods take the time-dependent behaviour of a system into account. This means that the state of a component can change in the analysed time frame and prime implicants can include the failure of a component at different time points. There can also be dynamic constraints on a component's behaviour. For example, a component can be non-repairable in the given time frame. If a non-repairable component needs to be failed at a certain time point to cause the top event, we consider that the condition that it is failed at the latest possible time point is minimal, and the condition in which it fails earlier non-minimal. The traditional definition of a prime implicant does not account for this type of time-related minimality. In this paper, a new definition is introduced and illustrated using a dynamic flowgraph methodology model. - Highlights: • A new definition of a prime implicant is developed for dynamic reliability analysis. • The new definition takes time-related minimality into account. • The new definition is needed in dynamic flowgraph methodology. • Results can be represented by a smaller number of prime implicants.

  4. Vertical and horizontal distribution of zooplankton and polar cod in southern Baffin Bay (66-71°N) in September 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Dünweber, Michael; Møller, Eva Friis


    Zooplankton are the link connecting primary producers to higher trophic levels, and knowing their distribution and community is important for predicting the distribution of predator species, like fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. However, data from open Arctic oceans are still scarce. In autumn...... fishes in the upper 500 m of southern Baffin Bay in September 2009. The zooplankton community was dominated by copepods (55 % of abundance in the upper 500 m), primarily of the genus Calanus. Other important zooplankton taxa included Limacina helicina, Chaetognatha, and Cirripedia nauplii...

  5. L'analyse implicative bayésienne multivariée d'un questionnaire binaire : quasi-implications et treillis de Galois simplifié


    Bernard, Jean-Marc; Poitrenaud, Sébastien


    We propose a new method for simplifying the Galois lattice associated to a binary questionnaire (n units classified according to q binary questions). The method consists in weakening the implications borne by the lattice into quasi-implications. At the descriptive level, the method involves a new measure for quasi-implications (the "multivariate implicative index") which satisfies some requirements of invariance by logical equivalence. At the inductive level, uncertainty about the patterns' t...

  6. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico (United States)

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Shaw, Scott R.


    Abstract Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (Heerz ecmahla sp. n. and Heerz macrophthalma sp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (Lissopsius pacificus sp. n. and Lissopsius jalisciensis sp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (Ondigus cuixmalensis sp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2nd and 3rd domain regions) DNA sequence data. PMID:22328849

  7. Stable Associations Masked by Temporal Variability in the Marine Copepod Microbiome. (United States)

    Moisander, Pia H; Sexton, Andrew D; Daley, Meaghan C


    Copepod-bacteria interactions include permanent and transient epi- and endobiotic associations that may play roles in copepod health, transfer of elements in the food web, and biogeochemical cycling. Microbiomes of three temperate copepod species (Acartia longiremis, Centropages hamatus, and Calanus finmarchicus) from the Gulf of Maine were investigated during the early summer season using high throughput amplicon sequencing. The most prominent stable component of the microbiome included several taxa within Gammaproteobacteria, with Pseudoalteromonas spp. especially abundant across copepod species. These Gammaproteobacteria appear to be promoted by the copepod association, likely benefitting from nutrient enriched microenvironments on copepods, and forming a more important part of the copepod-associated community than Vibrio spp. during the cold-water season in this temperate system. Taxon-specific associations included an elevated relative abundance of Piscirickettsiaceae and Colwelliaceae on Calanus, and Marinomonas sp. in Centropages. The communities in full and voided gut copepods had distinct characteristics, thus the presence of a food-associated microbiome was evident, including higher abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and chloroplast sequences in the transient communities. The observed variability was partially explained by collection date that may be linked to factors such as variable time since molting, gender differences, and changes in food availability and type over the study period. While some taxon-specific and stable associations were identified, temporal changes in environmental conditions, including food type, appear to be key in controlling the composition of bacterial communities associated with copepods in this temperate coastal system during the early summer.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Copepod Photoreception. (United States)

    Porter, Megan L; Steck, Mireille; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lenz, Petra H


    Copepod crustaceans are an abundant and ecologically significant group whose basic biology is guided by numerous visually guided behaviors. These behaviors are driven by copepod eyes, including naupliar eyes and Gicklhorn's organs, which vary widely in structure and function among species. Yet little is known about the molecular aspects of copepod vision. In this study we present a general overview of the molecular aspects of copepod vision by identifying phototransduction genes from newly generated and publicly available RNA-sequencing data and assemblies from 12 taxonomically diverse copepod species. We identify a set of 10 expressed transcripts that serve as a set of target genes for future studies of copepod phototransduction. Our more detailed evolutionary analyses of the opsin gene responsible for forming visual pigments found that all of the copepod species investigated express two main groups of opsins: middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) opsins and pteropsins. Additionally, there is evidence from a few species (e.g., Calanus finmarchicus, Eurytemora affinis, Paracyclopina nana, and Lernaea cyprinacea) for the expression of two additional groups of opsins-the peropsins and rhodopsin 7 (Rh7) opsins-at low levels or distinct developmental stages. An ontogenetic analysis of opsin expression in Calanus finmarchicus found the expression of a single dominant MWS opsin, as well as evidence for differences in expression across development in some MWS, pteropsin, and Rh7 opsins, with expression peaking in early naupliar through early copepodite stages.

  9. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods. (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik


    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of carbon and lipid sources on variation of mercury and other trace elements in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Letcher, Robert J; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; McKinney, Melissa A; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian


    In the present study, the authors investigated the influence of carbon and lipid sources on regional differences in liver trace element (As, Cd, Cu, total Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, and Zn) concentrations measured in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 121) from 10 Alaskan, Canadian Arctic, and East Greenland subpopulations. Carbon and lipid sources were assessed using δ(13) C in muscle tissue and fatty acid (FA) profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue as chemical tracers. A negative relationship between total Hg and δ(13) C suggested that polar bears feeding in areas with higher riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon accumulate more Hg than bears feeding in areas with lower freshwater input. Mercury concentrations were also positively related to the FA 20:1n-9, which is biosynthesized in large amounts in Calanus copepods. This result raises the hypothesis that Calanus glacialis are an important link in the uptake of Hg in the marine food web and ultimately in polar bears. Unadjusted total Hg, Se, and As concentrations showed greater geographical variation among polar bear subpopulations compared with concentrations adjusted for carbon and lipid sources. The Hg concentrations adjusted for carbon and lipid sources in Bering-Chukchi Sea polar bear liver tissue remained the lowest among subpopulations. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that carbon and lipid sources for polar bears should be taken into account when one is assessing spatial and temporal trends of long-range transported trace elements. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Are Arctic productivity hotspots sources or sinks? A trait-based approach to mesozooplankton life history and energetics along advective corridors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Neil; Ashjian, Carin J.; Campbell, Robert G.

    Marine productivity hotspots are usually conceived of, or defined as, sources of energy and nutrients to surrounding waters (for example, in the context of marine protected areas that serve as buffers against fisheries catch elsewhere). This study considers whether Arctic hotspots for top predators...... to mesozooplankton and where it is transferred from mesozooplankton to higher predators. These results suggest that the yield of Calanus to predators in the Chukchi Sea is dependent primarily on Bering Sea phytoplankton blooms, although this complex interdependence could change as ice retreats and phytoplankton...

  12. Arctic Diatoms - Diversity, Plankton Interactions and Poulation Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammilehto, Anna

    shellfish poisoning (ASP). This thesis showed that three most abundant mesozooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus and copepodite stages C3 and C4) in the study area (Disko Bay, western Greenland) feed upon toxic P. seriata and retain the toxin, and may therefore act...... that blooming behavior may be beneficial for F. cylindrus. High genetic diversity found in F. cylindrus coupled with high ecophysiological variability (i.e. variation among the strains and phenotypic plasticity) with regard to projected increase in temperature and decrease in pH due to climate change suggests...

  13. Maritime Violence : Implications to Malaysia


    Zubir, Nurulizwan Ahmad


    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  14. The privacy implications of Bluetooth


    Kostakos, Vassilis


    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermor...

  15. Quantum histories and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, A.


    Classical mechanics and standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics respect subspace implications. For example, if a particle is confined in a particular region R of space, then in these theories we can deduce that it is confined in regions containing R. However, subspace implications are generally violated by versions of quantum theory that assign probabilities to histories, such as the consistent histories approach. I define here a new criterion, ordered consistency, which refines the criterion of consistency and has the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. This raises the question: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? If so, ordered consistency defines a version of quantum theory with greater predictive power than the consistent histories formalism. If not, and our observations are defined by a non-ordered consistent quantum history, then subspace implications are not generally valid. (orig.)

  16. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.


    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  17. Fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideals of hyper BCK-algebras


    Jun, Young Bae; Shim, Wook Hwan


    We consider the fuzzification of the notion of implicative hyper BCK-ideals, and then investigate several properties. Using the concept of level subsets, we give a characterization of a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. We state a relation between a fuzzy hyper BCK-ideal and a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. We establish a condition for a fuzzy hyper BCK-ideal to be a fuzzy implicative hyper BCK-ideal. Finally, we introduce the notion of hyper homomorphisms of hyper ...

  18. Implications of deforestation and desertification on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture. The problems of deforestation and desertification were examined as they affect land and agricultural productivity. The socio-economic implications of deforestation and desertification in sustainable agriculture were equally ...

  19. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  20. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis. (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif


    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.


    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  2. Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil ULUKAN


    Full Text Available Transformation of University Organizations:Leadership and Managerial Implications Cemil ULUKAN, Ph.D Anadolu UniversityOpen Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEYABSTRACT Technology and globalization are forcing higher education institutions to transform themselves. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding the leadership and managerial implications of recent developments for higher education. Reviewing unique characteristics and the fundamental changes shaping higher education, the paper examines the need for organizational transformation and the major managerial implications.

  3. Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among ... and Awareness Implication on E-Waste Management among Nigerian Collegiate ... with e-waste may pose potential threat to human health and the environment.

  4. Pan-Arctic concentrations of mercury and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in marine zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerleau, Corinne, E-mail: [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, Nuuk 3900, Greenland (Denmark); Stern, Gary A.; Pućko, Monika [Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Foster, Karen L. [Foster Environmental, Peterborough, ON K9J 8L2 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Fortier, Louis [Québec-Océan, Département de Biologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)


    Zooplankton play a central role in marine food webs, dictating the quantity and quality of energy available to upper trophic levels. They act as “keystone” species in transfer of mercury (Hg) up through the marine food chain. Here, we present the first Pan-Arctic overview of total and monomethylmercury concentrations (THg and MMHg) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) in selected zooplankton species by assembling data collected between 1998 and 2012 from six arctic regions (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea, southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay and northern Baffin Bay). MMHg concentrations in Calanus spp., Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp. were found to increase with higher δ{sup 15}N and lower δ{sup 13}C. The southern Beaufort Sea exhibited both the highest THg and MMHg concentrations. Biomagnification of MMHg between Calanus spp. and two of its known predators, Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp., was greatest in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our results show large geographical variations in Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures for individual species related to regional ecosystem features, such as varying water masses and freshwater inputs, and highlight the increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea. - Highlights: • Assessment of Pan-Arctic variability in zooplankton Hg concentrations • Increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea • Zooplankton plays a central role in the Hg pathway within Arctic marine food webs.

  5. Variability in copepod trophic levels and feeding selectivity based on stable isotope analysis in Gwangyang Bay of the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Chen, Mianrun; Kim, Dongyoung; Liu, Hongbin; Kang, Chang-Keun


    Trophic preference (i.e., food resources and trophic levels) of different copepod groups was assessed along a salinity gradient in the temperate estuarine Gwangyang Bay of Korea, based on seasonal investigation of taxonomic results in 2015 and stable isotope analysis incorporating multiple linear regression models. The δ13C and δ15N values of copepods in the bay displayed significant spatial heterogeneity as well as seasonal variations, which were indicated by their significant relationships with salinity and temperature, respectively. Both spatial and temporal variations reflected those in isotopic values of food sources. The major calanoid groups (marine calanoids and brackish water calanoids) had a mean trophic level of 2.2 relative to nanoplankton as the basal food source, similar to the bulk copepod assemblage; however, they had dissimilar food sources based on the different δ13C values. Calanoid isotopic values indicated a mixture of different genera including species with high δ15N values (e.g., Labidocera, Sinocalanus, and Tortanus), moderate values (Calanus sinicus, Centropages, Paracalanus, and Acartia), and relatively low δ15N values (Eurytemora pacifica and Pseudodiaptomus). Feeding preferences of different copepods probably explain these seasonal and spatial patterns of the community trophic niche. Bayesian mixing model calculations based on source materials of two size fractions of particulate organic matter (nanoplankton at simple energy flow of the planktonic food web of Gwangyang Bay: from primary producers (nanoplankton) and a mixture of primary producers and herbivores (microplankton) through omnivores (Acartia, Calanus, Centropages, and Paracalanus) and detritivores (Pseudodiaptomus, Eurytemora, and harpacticoids) to carnivores (Corycaeus, Tortanus, Labidocera, and Sinocalanus).

  6. Behavioral Strategies of Lanternfishes (Family Myctophidae) in a High-Latitude Fjord and the Tropical Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind


    The diel vertical migration (DVM) and feeding periodicity of myctophids (lanternfishes) were studied in the high-latitude Masfjorden, Norway, and the tropical Red Sea. In Masfjorden, a bottom-mounted echo sounder permitted continuous studies throughout the year, and revealed a diverse seasonal DVM behavior. During spring and summer, when zooplankton peaks in the epipelagic zone, migrating glacier lanternfish performed normal DVM (NDVM), ascending to the epipelagic zone during night and residing below ~200m during daytime. During autumn and winter, when Calanus overwinters between ~150–300 m, migrating glacier lanternfish mainly performed inverse DVM (IDVM), ascending to feed on Calanus in mid-waters during daytime. Non migrating (NoDVM) individuals were present all year below ~300 m in Masfjorden. In the Red Sea, where zooplankton has an epipelagic distribution, the whole population of skinnycheek lanternfish performed NDVM, feeding in the epipelagic zone at night, while residing at ~500–750 m during daytime. The warm waters of the Red Sea were hypothesized to limit the time individuals can stay in the mesopelagic zone without migrating to feed in the epipelagic layers. The DVM behavior of myctophids largely seemed to relate to the distribution of zooplankton, and it was hypothesized that NDVM will prevail with epipelagic distribution of prey, while IDVM and NoDVM are common in areas where zooplankton migrate seasonally to mesopelagic depths. Potential predators were continuously present, found to apparently attack glacier lanternfish, at mesopelagic depth in Masfjorden. Thus, myctophids are under threat of predation even at mesopelagic depth.

  7. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression...... and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  8. Evaluating pyrene toxicity on Arctic key copepod species Calanus hyperboreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Friis Møller, Eva


    was unaffected. The hatching success was also unaffected, although the total reproductive output was reduced with increased pyrene concentrations. Accumulation of pyrene in the copepods was higher in feeding than starving females and only trace amounts of the phase I metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene, were found...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murăriţa Ilie


    Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

  10. Positive Implicative Ideals of BCK-Algebras Based on Intersectional Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwan Roh


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to lay a foundation for providing a soft algebraic tool in considering many problems that contain uncertainties. In order to provide these soft algebraic structures, the notion of int-soft positive implicative ideals is introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between an int-soft ideal and an int-soft positive implicative ideal are established. Characterizations of an int-soft positive implicative ideal are obtained. Extension property for an int-soft positive implicative ideal is constructed. The ∧-product and ∨-product of int-soft positive implicative ideals are considered, and the soft intersection (resp., union of int-soft positive implicative ideals is discussed.

  11. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications. (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul


    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  12. Industrial implications of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressouyre, G.M.


    Two major industrial implications of hydrogen are examined: problems related to the effect of hydrogen on materials properties (hydrogen embrittlement), and problems related to the use and production of hydrogen as a future energy vector [fr

  13. Implications of U.S. electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, D.A.


    This article is a concise summary of the potential impacts of electric utility deregulation, including the resolution of stranded costs, impact on electricity rates, reformation of utilities, and reshuffling of the nation's fuel portfolio. The national and state implications of the deregulation of the electricity industry are monumental and overwhelming. The implications occur on many fronts, including monetary, quality, reliability, and environmental issues. Many significant changes will occur as a result--some will be positive and others may be more disturbing

  14. A Note on One Less Known Class of Generated Residual Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Havlena


    Full Text Available This paper builds on our contribution [Havlena and Hlinena, 2016] which studied modelling of the conjunction in human language. We have discussed three different ways of constructing conjunction. We have dealt with generated t-norms, generated means and Choquet integral. In this paper we construct the residual operators based on the above conjunctions. The only operator based on a t-norm is an implication. We show that this implication belongs to the class of generated implications I^g_N which was introduced in [Smutna, 1999] and studied in [Biba and Hlinena, 2012]. We study its properties. More, we investigate this class of generated implications. Some important properties, including relations between some classes of implications, are given.

  15. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  16. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri N.; Brown, Kristina A.; Edwards, Laura A.; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S.


    The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 μatm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 μatm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods. PMID:24297880

  17. Trophic role and top-down control of a subarctic protozooplankton community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne


    % of phytoplankton biomass d−1. The highest copepod biomass (24 g C m−2) occurred in spring, with Metridia longa alone contributing up to 92% of the biomass. A grazing experiment with M. longa feeding on a natural plankton assemblage confirmed that this species cleared cells in the size range 10 to 60 μm...... with an average clearance rate of 2.4 ml μg C−1 d−1. The copepod community, dominated by the genera Calanus, Metridia, Pseudocalanus, Oithona, Microsetella and Triconia/Oncaea, accounted for 72 to 93% of the copepod biomass in the spring. After the large calanoid copepod species left the surface layer...

  18. Strategic Implications of Global Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monaghan, Karen


    "Strategic Implications of Global Health" responds to a request from the Undersecretary of State for Democratization and Global Affairs for an intelligence assessment on the connections between health and U.S. national interests...

  19. Paradoxical implications of personal social media use for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Rice, R.E.


    New information and communication technologies can have paradoxical implications: they may be liberating and constraining at the same time. This field study examines the direct implications of personal social media use for work on employees’ autonomy and work pressure, and the indirect effects on

  20. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.


    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  1. The Technological Society: Implications for Women in the Workplace. (United States)

    Cianni, Mary; Weitz, Anna D.


    Although increased technology is altering the nature of work, familiar barriers continue to exist for women. Examines the equity of access to technology, the career implications for those employed at home, and the realities of newly promised occupational opportunities. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Author/BL)

  2. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.


    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  3. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications. (United States)

    Shanner, Laura


    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  4. Structuralism and Its Heuristic Implications. (United States)

    Greene, Ruth M.


    The author defines structuralism (a method for modeling and analyzing event systems in a space-time framework), traces its origins to the work of J. Piaget and M. Fourcault, and discusses its implications for learning. (CL)

  5. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Tropical Mangrove Wetland Fishes: Evaluating Potential Risk to Coastal Wildlife. (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Satyanarayana, Behara; Fui, Siau Yin; Shirai, Kotaro


    The present study, aimed at observing the total concentration of mercury (Hg) in edible finfish species with an implication to human health risk, was carried out from the Setiu mangrove wetlands on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Out of 20 species observed, the highest Hg concentrations were found among carnivores-fish/invertebrate-feeders, followed by omnivores and carnivores-invertebrate-feeders, while the lowest concentrations in herbivores. The Hg concentrations varied widely with fish species and body size, from 0.12 to 2.10 mg/kg dry weight. A positive relationship between body weight and Hg concentration was observed in particular for Toxotes jaculatrix and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Besides the permissible range of Hg concentration up to 0.3 mg/kg (cf. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) in majority of species, the carnivore feeders such as Acanthopagrus pacificus, Gerres filamentosus, and Caranx ignobilis have shown excess amounts (> 0.40 mg/kg flesh weight) that raising concerns over the consumption by local people. However, the weekly intake of mercury-estimated through the fish consumption in all three trophic levels-suggests that the present Hg concentrations are still within the range of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reported by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Perhaps, a multi-species design for Hg monitoring at Setiu wetlands would be able to provide further insights into the level of toxicity transfer among other aquatic organisms and thereby a strong health risk assessment for the local communities.

  6. The SANE Research Project: Its Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew; Dugdale, Shirley


    Describes a 2-year research program called Sustainable Accommodation for the New Economy (SANE), which is exploring the implications of the distributed workplace. Its focus is on the creation of sustainable, collaborative workplaces for knowledge workers across Europe, encompassing both virtual and physical spaces. Discusses its implications for…

  7. Advective loss of overwintering Calanus finmarchicus from the Faroe-Shetland Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rullyanto, Arief; Jonasdottir, Sigrun H.; Visser, Andre W.


    , a regionally important secondary producer. Using a high resolution hydrodynamic model, MIKE 3 FM, we simulate the overflow of deep water and estimate the associated loss rate of C. finmarchicus as a function of the water depth strata within which they reside. We estimate a net advective loss from the Norwegian...

  8. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings. (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  9. Physician-Rating Web Sites: Ethical Implications. (United States)

    Samora, Julie Balch; Lifchez, Scott D; Blazar, Philip E


    To understand the ethical and professional implications of physician behavior changes secondary to online physician-rating Web sites (PRWs). The American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) Ethics and Professionalism Committee surveyed the ASSH membership regarding PRWs. We sent a 14-item questionnaire to 2,664 active ASSH members who practice in both private and academic settings in the United States. We received 312 responses, a 12% response incidence. More than 65% of the respondents had a slightly or highly unfavorable impression of these Web sites. Only 34% of respondents had ever updated or created a profile for PRWs, although 62% had observed inaccuracies in their profile. Almost 90% of respondents had not made any changes in their practice owing to comments or reviews. One-third of respondents had solicited favorable reviews from patients, and 3% of respondents have paid to improve their ratings. PRWs are going to become more prevalent, and more research is needed to fully understand the implications. There are several ethical implications that PRWs pose to practicing physicians. We contend that it is morally unsound to pay for good reviews. The recourse for physicians when an inaccurate and potentially libelous review has been written is unclear. Some physicians have required patients to sign a waiver preventing them from posting negative comments online. We propose the development of a task force to assess the professional, ethical, and legal implications of PRWs, including working with companies to improve accuracy of information, oversight, and feedback opportunities. It is expected that PRWs will play an increasing role in the future; it is unclear whether there will be a uniform reporting system, or whether these online ratings will influence referral patterns and/or quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Kierkegaardian Implications of Punishment, Guilt, and Forgiveness for Education. (United States)

    Senyshyn, Yaroslav


    Explores Soren Kierkegaard's notion of punishment, which should interest educators because it provides a way to avoid the pitfalls of unjust punishment by viewing it in conjunction with the implications of guilt and forgiveness. The paper notes the need to question the notion of punishment closely and seek to understand its implications. (SM)

  11. Poverty and Brain Development in Children: Implications for Learning (United States)

    Dike, Victor E.


    Debates on the effect of poverty on brain development in children and its implications for learning have been raging for decades. Research suggests that poverty affects brain development in children and that the implications for learning are more compelling today given the attention the issue has attracted. For instance, studies in the fields of…

  12. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig


    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  13. Shopper marketing implications on communication strategies and actions


    Silveira, Paulo Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina


    Comunicação apresentada em 15th IAMB Conference, Lisboa Shopper marketing is an international recent concept and approach to marketing. Since shopper marketing is in the early stages of development, it is also an emerging research field, and consequently questions and challenges acrossall the marketing-mix variables are emerging. This paper addressesshopper marketing implications on one of those variables – communication.Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the implications ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir


    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  15. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ESL students ... and collaborative teaching/learning model involving the major course convenors. ... The quality of the work and mood of all concerned improved tremendously.

  16. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.


    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

  17. Implications of SNOMED CT versioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Dennis; Cornet, Ronald; Lau, Francis


    To determine the changes each Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) release undergoes and the implications of those changes. (1) We reviewed the SNOMED CT Component History documentation and analyzed the Component History table in detail. (2) We outlined a list of semantic

  18. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopoulos, D.V.


    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  19. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, M.E.; Scholz, Tomáš


    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 1697-1703 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megaloblastic anemia * identification * populations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.994, year: 2015

  20. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.


    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  1. Military Implications of Global Warming. (United States)


    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  2. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A


    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  3. Safety implications of control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.


    The Safety Implications of Control Systems Program has three major activities in support of USI-A47. The first task is a failure mode and effects analysis of all plant systems which may potentially induce control system disturbance that have safety implications. This task has made a preliminary study of overfill events and recommended cases for further analysis on the hybrid simulator. Work continues on overcooling and undercooling. A detailed investigation of electric power network is in progress. LERs are providing guidance on important failure modes that will provide initial conditions for further simulator studies. The simulator taks is generating a detailed model of the control system supported by appropriate neutronics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics submodels of all other principal plant components. The simulator is in the last stages of development. Checkout calculations are in progress to establish model stability, robustness, and qualitative credibility. Verification against benchmark codes and plant data will follow

  4. Theoretical analyses of the refractive implications of transepithelial PRK ablations. (United States)

    Arba Mosquera, Samuel; Awwad, Shady T


    To analyse the refractive implications of single-step, transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TransPRK) ablations. A simulation for quantifying the refractive implications of TransPRK ablations has been developed. The simulation includes a simple modelling of corneal epithelial profiles, epithelial ablation profiles as well as refractive ablation profiles, and allows the analytical quantification of the refractive implications of TransPRK in terms of wasted tissue, achieved optical zone (OZ) and induced refractive error. Wasted tissue occurs whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the applied epithelial ablation profile, achieved OZ is reduced whenever the actual corneal epithelial profile is thicker than the applied epithelial ablation profile and additional refractive errors are induced whenever the actual difference centre-to-periphery in the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the difference in the applied epithelial ablation profile. The refractive implications of TransPRK ablations can be quantified using simple theoretical simulations. These implications can be wasted tissue (∼14 µm, if the corneal epithelial profile is thinner than the ablated one), reduced OZ (if the corneal epithelial profile is thicker than ablated one, very severe for low corrections) and additional refractive errors (∼0.66 D, if the centre-to-periphery progression of the corneal epithelial profile deviates from the progression of the ablated one). When TransPRK profiles are applied to normal, not previously treated, non-pathologic corneas, no specific refractive implications associated to the transepithelial profile can be anticipated; TransPRK would provide refractive outcomes equal to those of standard PRK. Adjustments for the planned OZ and, in the event of retreatments, for the target sphere can be easily derived.

  5. Clinical Ethics Consultation After God: Implications for Advocacy and Neutrality. (United States)

    Parker, J Clint


    In After God: Morality and Bioethics in a Secular Age, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. explores the broad implications for moral reasoning once a culture has lost a God's-eye perspective. In this paper, I focus on the implications of Engelhardt's views for clinical ethics consultation. I begin by examining the question of whether clinical ethics consultants (CECs) should advocate a particular viewpoint and/or process during consultations or adopt a neutral stance. I then examine the implications of Engelhardt's views for this question. Finally, I discuss some of Engelhardt's foundational ontological, metaphysical, meta-ethical, and epistemological commitments and how these commitments connect to his views on clinical ethics consultation.

  6. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders and Their Clinical Implications in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theocharidou


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation. The latter has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Enhanced colonic motility is usually associated with the use of lactulose. Pharmacological interventions aiming to alter gastrointestinal motility in cirrhosis could potentially have a beneficial effect reducing the risk of hepatic decompensation and improving prognosis.

  7. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications (United States)

    Sun, Miantao


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  8. Clinical implications of contemporary gender theory. (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy


    The current intellectual scene in psychoanalysis is marked by vigorous theoretical controversies about gender. The ideas being debated have important implications for clinical work, which have not been thoroughly explicated or integrated into common practice. These implications include the following: gender can accrue idiosyncratic meanings; gender identity is considered fluid and rigidity of gender identity deemed problematic; gender-related conflicts are typically described as divergent; analysis of superego conflicts related to gender becomes particularly important; and, finally, gender-related biases are seen as inevitable and must be taken into account in the clinical situation. A detailed clinical example illustrates the application of these ideas. While the more dramatic cases related to gender have been more frequent subjects of study, conflicts about gender are everyday occurrences for our patients and deserve further attention.

  9. Implication of Information and Communication Technologies for the Internationalisation of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik


    Paper on the implications of ICTs on the internationalisation of services - with an emphasis on factors affecting this development.......Paper on the implications of ICTs on the internationalisation of services - with an emphasis on factors affecting this development....

  10. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  11. Myasthenia Gravis and Its Aeromedical Implications. (United States)

    Jagathesan, Tania; O'Brien, Michael D


    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune condition where antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, eventually causing damage to the motor end plate. The clinical features include muscle fatigability as well as ocular, bulbar, and limb weakness, which can have implications on the role of a pilot or air traffic controller. This retrospective study reviewed the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA) experience of myasthenia gravis. A search of the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records database from 1990 to 2016 identified 11 individuals with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Data were extracted for the class of medical certificate, age at diagnosis, symptoms, acetylcholine receptor antibody status, treatment, the time from diagnosis to loss of medical certification, and the reasons for loss of certification. There were two Class 1 certificate holders (for professional flying) and six Class 2 certificate holders (for private pilot flying) and three air traffic controllers. The mean and median ages at diagnosis were 53 and 57 yr, respectively, with a range of 28-67 yr. The mean and median intervals from diagnosis to loss of certification were 22 and 11 mo, respectively, with a range of 0 to 108 mo. The aeromedical implications of myasthenia gravis, including complications, types of treatment, and functional impact, are considered. A policy for medical certification following a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is proposed.Jagathesan T, O'Brien MD. Myasthenia gravis and its aeromedical implications. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):30-33.

  12. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava


    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  13. Hypertext, Hypermedia, and Metacognition: Research and Instructional Implications for Disabled Readers. (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest


    The article examines the potential impact of computer-based text technologies, called hypermedia, on disabled readers. Discussed are hypertext, the hypercard, and implications of metacognitive research (such as author versus user control over text manipulations), instructional implications, and instructional text engineering. (DB)

  14. Influence of Environmental Variables on Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae Growth and Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiao Xu

    Full Text Available Benthic dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce the ciguatoxin precursors responsible for the occurrence of ciguatera toxicity. The prevalence of ciguatera toxins in fish has been linked to the presence and distribution of toxin-producing species in coral reef ecosystems, which is largely determined by the presence of suitable benthic habitat and environmental conditions favorable for growth. Here using single factor experiments, we examined the effects of salinity, irradiance, and temperature on growth of 17 strains of Gambierdiscus representing eight species/phylotypes (G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, G. pacificus, G. silvae, Gambierdiscus sp. type 4-5, most of which were established from either Marakei Island, Republic of Kiribati, or St. Thomas, United States Virgin Island (USVI. Comparable to prior studies, growth rates fell within the range of 0-0.48 divisions day(-1. In the salinity and temperature studies, Gambierdiscus responded in a near Gaussian, non-linear manner typical for such studies, with optimal and suboptimal growth occurring in the range of salinities of 25 and 45 and 21.0 and 32.5°C. In the irradiance experiment, no mortality was observed; however, growth rates at 55 μmol photons · m(-2 · s(-1 were lower than those at 110-400 μmol photons · m(-2 · s(-1. At the extremes of the environmental conditions tested, growth rates were highly variable, evidenced by large coefficients of variability. However, significant differences in intraspecific growth rates were typically found only at optimal or near-optimal growth conditions. Polynomial regression analyses showed that maximum growth occurred at salinity and temperature levels of 30.1-38.5 and 23.8-29.2°C, respectively. Gambierdiscus growth patterns varied among species, and within individual species: G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carpenteri, and G. pacificus generally exhibited a wider range of tolerance to environmental

  15. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  16. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  17. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother. (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A


    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  18. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.


    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  19. Characterization of technetium(vII) reduction by cell suspensions of thermophilic bacteria and archaea. (United States)

    Chernyh, Nikolay A; Gavrilov, Sergei N; Sorokin, Vladimir V; German, Konstantin E; Sergeant, Claire; Simonoff, Monique; Robb, Frank; Slobodkin, Alexander I


    Washed cell suspensions of the anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus pacificus and Thermoproteus uzoniensis and the anaerobic thermophilic gram-positive bacteria Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens and Tepidibacter thalassicus reduced technetium [(99)Tc(VII)], supplied as soluble pertechnetate with molecular hydrogen as an electron donor, forming highly insoluble Tc(IV)-containing grayish-black precipitate. Apart from molecular hydrogen, T. ferrireducens reduced Tc(VII) with lactate, glycerol, and yeast extract as electron donors, and T. thalassicus reduced it with peptone. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis of cell suspensions of T. ferrireducens showed the presence of Tc-containing particles attached to the surfaces of non-lysed cells. This is the first report on the reduction in Tc(VII) by thermophilic microorganisms of the domain Bacteria and by archaea of the phylum Euryarchaeota.

  20. Developmental systems of plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in nematodes. (United States)

    Serobyan, Vahan; Sommer, Ralf J


    Several decades of research provided detailed insight into how genes control development and evolution, whereas recent studies have expanded this purely genetic perspective by presenting strong evidence for environmental and epigenetic influences. We summarize examples of phenotypic plasticity and trans-generational epigenetic inheritance in the nematode model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, which indicate that the response of developmental systems to environmental influences is hardwired into the organismś genome. We argue that genetic programs regulating these organismal-environmental interactions are themselves subject to natural selection. Indeed, macro-evolutionary studies of nematode feeding structures indicate evolutionary trajectories in which plasticity followed by genetic assimilation results in extreme diversity highlighting the role of plasticity as major facilitator of phenotypic diversification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.


    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian dark-rumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  2. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.


    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  3. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work. (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M


    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  4. Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture. Increasing carbon dioxide: Good for most crops. Increase in mean temperature: orter ... Increasing rainfall intensity and dry days- more floods and droughts: Higher production variability. Himalayan glaciers to recede: irrigation in IGP gradually becomes less dependable ...

  5. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin


    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  6. Early development of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung-Madsen, Signe; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel


    was highly significant (r2> 0.99). There was little difference between hatching and development rates of the two species; however, the egg hatching rate at low temperatures was faster than predicted from measurements made in other areas. Also nauplii development times at 0 °C were similar, with C. glacialis...

  7. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications (United States)

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa


    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  8. The CHARGE Association: Implications for Teachers. (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.


    CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…

  9. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION. AKINPELU, A.O. ... huge potential for the export market (Egesi et al., 2007). In urban areas ... farmer's/ household income and economic growth. Stakeholders in ..... dissertation submitted to the school of graduate studies in partial fulfilment of the.

  10. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans...

  11. Evolving Conceptualization of Leadership and Its Implication for Vocational Technical Education (United States)

    Boateng, Christina


    Leadership has been conceptualized variedly in the literature with various implications for those who lead and the people and organizations they lead. In this paper a thorough appraisal of the literature on the evolving conceptualization of leadership and its specific implication for leadership in vocational technical education is presented. A…

  12. Forestry implications of agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the USA (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Alexander N. Moiseyev


    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss forestry implications of SRWC based on an economic analysis. As with the development of paper recycling, anticipating forestry implications of agricultural SRWC will depend in part on anticipating market conditions and economic impacts of technological developments. This chapter presents an analytic framework and market outlook...

  13. Socio-economic implications of structural changes in plantations in Asian countries.


    Sircar KN; Navamukundan, A; Sajhau JP; Sukarja R


    ILO pub. Working paper on the economic implications and social implications of restructuring in plantations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka - covers agricultural production, employment, working conditions of plantation workers, wages, management, and public ownership or private ownership of tea, coffee, rubber, etc. Plantations; comments on labour legislation. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  14. A novel homozygous truncating GNAT1 mutation implicated in retinal degeneration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carrigan, Matthew


    The GNAT1 gene encodes the α subunit of the rod transducin protein, a key element in the rod phototransduction cascade. Variants in GNAT1 have been implicated in stationary night-blindness in the past, but unlike other proteins in the same pathway, it has not previously been implicated in retinitis pigmentosa.

  15. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that ...

  16. Business ethics: implications for managed care contracts. (United States)

    Stahl, D A


    Business ethics is a specialized study that emphasizes how moral standards apply to organizations, policies, procedures and behavior. Moral standards must be considered to understand the implications of business ethics in subacute care.

  17. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies : Implications for Women's Reproductive Rights and Social Citizenship. There is a general perception that assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) affect only a small number of affluent women in India. However, the ART industry - tied as it is to the vigorously pushed medical tourism ...

  19. Changing business environment: implications for farming


    Malcolm, Bill


    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  20. Clinical Implications Of Childhood Bilingualism | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Clinical Implications Of Childhood Bilingualism.

  1. Exploring ethical implications of personal relationships in dyadic business exchanges


    Davidrajuh, Reggie


    This paper explores the ethical implications of the existence of personal relationships in business exchanges. Firstly, this paper introduces personal relationship in business exchanges. Secondly, three normative theories of business ethics that are related to the issue of personal relationship are presented. Finally, this paper explores the ethical implications on personal relationships according to the three theories. The main recommendation of this paper is that an analysis of ...

  2. The CH/π hydrogen bond: Implication in chemistry (United States)

    Nishio, M.


    The CH/π hydrogen bond is the weakest extreme of hydrogen bonds that occurs between a soft acid CH and a soft base π-system. Implication in chemistry of the CH/π hydrogen bond includes issues of conformation, crystal packing, and specificity in host/guest complexes. The result obtained by analyzing the Cambridge Structural Database is reviewed. The peculiar axial preference of isopropyl group in α-phellandrene and folded conformation of levopimaric acid have been explained in terms of the CH/π hydrogen bond, by high-level ab initio MO calculations. Implication of the CH/π hydrogen bond in structural biology is also discussed, briefly.

  3. Differences in plankton community structure and carbon cycling along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, K.E.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Rysgaard, S.

    Huge differences in plankton community structures and biomasses are observed along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters at the West Greenland coast. The offshore region has a high biomass of copepods dominated by Calanus spp., which are capable of consuming 55....... Protozooplankton accounts for 20-38% of the carbon turnover in the offshore and inland areas. However, protozooplankton like copepods has low ability to turn over the primary production close to the Ice Sheet. Increased run of from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to global warming could displace the existing climate...... gradient. This would have a profound influence on the future plankton community structure as well as the energy transfer to higher trophic levels in Arctic coastal ecosystems....

  4. Feminist Developmental Theory: Implications for Counseling. (United States)

    Wastell, Colin A.


    Discusses the importance of counseling guided by a life-span development model. Emphasizes that one popular theory should be modified by taking into account a broader understanding of life-span development in terms of commonalities and differences in male and female development. Examines implications with borderline personality disorder and…

  5. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... The respondents were functional heads of the companies under the survey. ... of downside losses in order to minimize the negative impact of risk on returns.

  6. Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for school leadership: A case study of two South African high schools. ... South African Journal of Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  7. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  8. The pedagogical implications of information and communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pedagogical implications of information and communication technology on adult education: a case study of the osun state colleges of ... Finally, the department should give individual students access to the use of 1C1 equipment.

  9. Implications of the "My School" Website for Disadvantaged Communities: A Bourdieuian Analysis (United States)

    Mills, Carmen


    Drawing on the theoretical constructs of Pierre Bourdieu, this article explores implications of the Australian "My School" website for schools located in disadvantaged communities. These implications flow from the legitimisation of certain cultural practices through the hidden linkages between scholastic aptitude and cultural heritage…

  10. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications. (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.


    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  11. Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keneswary Ravichanthiran


    Full Text Available Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.

  12. Deeply discounted medications: Implications of generic prescription drug wars. (United States)

    Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M


    To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.

  13. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications]. (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E


    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  15. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management (United States)

    Harvey R. Smith


    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  16. First Planck results and cosmological implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The Planck satellite has measured CMB anisotropies over the full sky with unprecedented sensitivity. The collaboration has released its first CMB temperature maps and cosmological analysis on the 21st of March. I will present a summary of these new CMB results, focusing mainly on their implications for our understanding of the Universe.

  17. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  18. Tobacco, politics and economics: implications for global health. (United States)

    Stebbins, K R


    This paper examines the expanding presence of multinational cigarette companies into almost every country in the world, and discusses the health implications of this global penetration. Cigarettes deserve special attention because tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that is harmful to one's health when used as intended. A temptation exists to blame governments for the existence of health-threatening products within their borders. However, this paper illustrates the extent to which extra-national forces influence domestic policies and circumstances. Cigarette smokers are often blamed for their lethal habit, despite billion-dollar promotional schemes which attract people to smoking, obscuring the harmful consequences of consuming a highly addictive drug. Multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting Asian and Third World populations. To facilitate this market penetration, political avenues are often pursued with considerable success, disregarding the health implications associated with cigarette tobacco. The use of tobacco in development programs (e.g. the U.S. 'Food for Peace' program) has political and economic implications for donor and recipient countries, and lucrative advantages for the tobacco companies. However, this paper recommends that corporate profits and foreign policy should not be pursued at the expense of tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths among Third World peoples.

  19. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.


    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  20. Fukushima Daiichi: implications for carbon-free energy, nuclear nonproliferation, and community resilience. (United States)

    Hall, Howard L


    Implications of the nuclear power plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi are explored in this commentary. In addition to questions of nuclear reactor regulatory standards, broader implications on noncarbon-emitting energy production, nuclear nonproliferation objectives, and community resilience and emergency response against catastrophic events are explored. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. The Professional-Bureaucratic Conflict: Origins, Implications, Resolution. (United States)

    Angona, Judith; Williams, Leonard B.


    Examines the literature on the inevitable conflict in modern organizations between the professional's training for self-administration and bureaucratic denial of individual initiative and draws implications for administrative techniques that can help win the loyalty of a professional staff. (Author/WD)

  2. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen


    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  3. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  4. Insecurity and national economic development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecurity and national economic development implications for Nigeria's vision 20: 2020. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... These social menace trigger off a worrisome sense of insecurity that challenge Nigeria's efforts towards national economic development and consequently its vision ...

  5. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  6. Darwin and Darwinism: the (alleged) social implications of the origin of species. (United States)

    Orr, H Allen


    Most scientific theories, even revolutionary ones, change the practice of a particular science but have few consequences for culture or society at large. But Darwinism, it has often been said, is different in this respect. Since the publication of The Origin of Species, many have claimed that Darwinism has a number of profound social implications. Here, I briefly consider three of these: the economic, the political, and the religious. I suggest that, for the most part, these supposed implications have been misconstrued or exaggerated. Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction-from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism.

  7. Applying a Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective to Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Implications for Schools. (United States)

    Tyler, Patrick M; White, Stuart F; Thompson, Ronald W; Blair, R J R


    A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition. The potential implications for current and future classroom-based assessments and interventions for students with these deficits are discussed.

  8. Proof complexity of intuitionistic implicational formulas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil


    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2017), s. 150-190 ISSN 0168-0072 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * intuitionistic logic * implicational fragment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  9. Cost Characteristics of Telecom Networks and their Implications for Market Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed.......The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed....

  10. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  11. Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software Development. ... Software maintenance is the process of modifying existing operational software by correcting errors, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ... disseminated by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). ... The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a ...

  13. International University Research Ventures: Implications for U.S. Economic Competitiveness National Security (United States)


    NTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY The views, opinions and/or findings...UNIVERSITY RESEARCH VENTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR US ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY Report Term: 0-Other Email: to inform political and economic theories about technology transfer, innovation, economic competitiveness, and democratization/civil

  14. Explicit Memory among Individuals with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disability: Educational Implications (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Shtein, Sarit; Weiss, Itzhak; Svisrsky, Naama


    We previously reported a meta-analysis of explicit memory studies in populations with intellectual disability (ID). The current study discusses the educational implications of this meta-analysis. The main factors at the core of these implications can be divided into two categories: those related to task characteristics (e.g., depth of processing,…

  15. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael


    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  16. A review of the clinical implications of bisphosphonates in dentistry. (United States)

    Borromeo, G L; Tsao, C E; Darby, I B; Ebeling, P R


    Bisphosphonates are drugs that suppress bone turnover and are commonly prescribed to prevent skeletal related events in malignancy and for benign bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Bisphosphonate associated jaw osteonecrosis (ONJ) is a potentially debilitating, yet poorly understood condition. A literature review was undertaken to review the dental clinical implications of bisphosphonates. The present paper briefly describes the postulated pathophysiology of ONJ and conditions with similar clinical presentations. The implications of bisphosphonates for implantology, periodontology, orthodontics and endodontics are reviewed. Whilst bisphosphonates have potential positive applications in some clinical settings, periodontology particularly, further clinical research is limited by the risk of ONJ. Prevention and management are reviewed, including guidelines for reducing cumulative intravenous bisphosphonate dose, cessation of bisphosphonates prior to invasive dental treatment or after ONJ development, and the use of serum beta-CTX-1 in assessing risk. In the context of substantial uncertainty, the implications of bisphosphonate use in the dental clinical setting are still being determined. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental crises and problems throughout the world are widespread and increasing rapidly. In relation to these concerns, the article discusses the following aspects: people and the environment, environmental conflicts, climate change and environmental conflicts, and management implications. The section on people ...

  18. Shame, Guilt and Remorse: Implications for Offender Populations (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Hafez, Logaina


    The emotions shame and guilt may represent a critical stepping stone in the rehabilitation process. Often referred to as “moral” emotions owing to their presumed role in promoting altruistic behavior and inhibiting antisocial behaviors, shame and guilt provide potentially exciting points of intervention with offenders. In this article, we describe current psychological theory and research that underscores important differences between shame and guilt. We note parallels between psychologists’ conceptions of guilt and shame, and criminologists’ conceptions of reintegrative and disintegrative shaming. We summarize recent research investigating the implications of these moral emotions for criminal and risky behavior, with special emphasis on the handful of studies conducted with actual offenders. We conclude with a discussion of implications for treatment in criminal justice settings. PMID:22523475

  19. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.


    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  20. How do local stakeholders respond to the uncertain implications of an innovative flood infrastructure project? (United States)

    van den Hoek, Ronald; Brugnach, Marcela; Hoekstra, Arjen


    In the 20th century, flood management was dominated by rigid structures - such as dikes and dams - which intend to strictly regulate and control water systems. Although the application of these rigid structures has been successful in the recent past, their negative implications for ecosystems and natural processes is often not properly taken into account. Therefore, flood management practices are currently moving towards more nature-inclusive approaches. Building with Nature (BwN) is such a new approach of nature-inclusive flood management in the Netherlands, which aims to utilize natural dynamics (e.g., wind and currents) and natural materials (e.g., sediment and vegetation) for the realization of effective flood infrastructure, while providing opportunities for nature development. However, the natural dynamics driving a project based on BwN design principles are inherently unpredictable. Furthermore, our factual knowledge base regarding the socio-ecological system in which the BwN initiative is implemented is incomplete. Moreover, in recent years, it is increasingly aimed for by decision-makers to involve local stakeholders in the development of promising flood management initiatives. These stakeholders and other actors involved can have diverging views regarding the project, can perceive unanticipated implications and could choose unforeseen action paths. In short, while a project based on BwN design principles - like any human intervention - definitely has implications for the socio-ecological system, both the extent to which these particular implications will occur and the response of stakeholders are highly uncertain. In this paper, we study the Safety Buffer Oyster Dam case - a BwN pilot project - and address the interplay between the project's implications, the uncertainties regarding these implications and the action paths chosen by the local stakeholders and project team. We determine how the implications of the Safety Buffer project are viewed by local

  1. Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of social judgement theory for persuasive advertising campaigns. ... The way the consumers perceive an advertising campaign will, therefore, determine how they will respond to the advertisement. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  4. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.


    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  5. Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment. (United States)

    Meglio, Delores


    Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

  6. Energy policy in China: implications for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZhongXiang Zhang [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)


    This is the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy. It evaluates the economics of climate change and provides national, cost-effective policies for climate change. The book consists of three main parts, firstly, an analysis of the Chinese energy system to increase awareness of the implications of this sector for China`s future carbon dioxide emissions, secondly, a macroeconomic analysis of carbon dioxide emissions limits using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and finally, a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Catalina, MIHALCIUC


    Full Text Available Accounting assessment is a process with tax implications on accounting figures. In fact, when it comes to evaluation, we need to clarify exactly what is being refered to: it s about the individual assessment of an asset or liability, or about the global assessment of a business. So, in a narrower approach, in accounting we are particularly interested in the individual assessment of assets and liabilities. In the evaluation, the concept of value is the primary element, accounting, especially along with the application of the principle of economic prevalence over the juridic, managed to convey the best measure those interested, information about how to create, to mesure and how to comunicate to business partners the value. The tax implication that arise after the evaluation of the individual elements of the asset, influence the result of the exercise by including the expenditure in the total expenses generated by the evaluation. The main asset elements, which following the evaluation generate tax implications are the tangible fixed asset, financial and stocks. Based on this consideration, one of the main objectives of this paper is to highlight the tax implications arising from the evaluation of financial instruments that generate tax liabilities.

  8. The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech


    Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from

  9. The End of Hypergamy: Global Trends and Implications. (United States)

    Esteve, Albert; Schwartz, Christine R; Van Bavel, Jan; Permanyer, Iñaki; Klesment, Martin; Garcia, Joan


    The gender gap in education that has long favored men has reversed for young adults in almost all high and middle-income countries. In 2010, the proportion of women aged 25-29 with a college education was higher than that of men in more than 139 countries which altogether represent 86% of the world's population. According to recent population forecasts, women will have more education than men in nearly every country in the world by 2050, with the exception of only a few African and West Asian countries (KC et al. 2010). The reversal of the gender gap in education has major implications for the composition of marriage markets, assortative mating, gender equality, and marital outcomes such as divorce and childbearing (Van Bavel 2012). In this work, we focus on its implications for trends in assortative mating and, in particular, for educational hypergamy: the pattern in which husbands have more education than their wives. This represents a substantial update to previous studies (Esteve et al. 2012) in terms of the number of countries and years included in the analysis. We present findings from an almost comprehensive world-level analysis using census and survey microdata from 420 samples and 120 countries spanning from 1960 to 2011, which allow us to assert that the reversal of the gender gap in education is strongly associated with the end of hypergamy and increases in hypogamy (wives have more education that their husbands). We not only provide near universal evidence of this trend but extend our analysis to consider the implications of the end of hypergamy for family dynamics, outcomes and gender equality. We draw on European microdata to examine whether women are more likely to be the breadwinners when they marry men with lower education than themselves and discuss recent research regarding divorce risks among hypogamous couples. We close our analysis with an examination of attitudes about women earning more money than their husbands and about the implications

  10. The Atom in a Molecule: Implications for Molecular Structure and Properties (United States)


    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 February 2016 – 23 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The atom in a molecule: Implications for molecular...For presentation at American Physical Society - Division of Atomic , Molecular, and Optical Physics (May 2016) PA Case Number: #16075; Clearance Date...10 Energy (eV) R C--H (au) R C--H(au) The Atom in a Molecule: Implications for Molecular Structures and Properties P. W. Langhoff, Chemistry

  11. miRNAs in inflammatory skin diseases and their clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Skov, Lone


    biological processes. The clinical implications of miRNAs are intriguing, both from a diagnostic and a therapeutic perspective. Accordingly, there is emerging evidence for the clinical potential of miRNAs as both biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in skin diseases. Future studies will hopefully...... incomplete; however, it is known that miRNAs are implicated in various cellular processes of both normal and diseased skin. Some miRNAs appear to be consistently deregulated in several different inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, indicating a common role in fundamental...

  12. The nuclear and its psychological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.


    From the 13. to 15. january 1977, the S.F.R.P. has organised at Paris, with the patronage of The National Institute of Health and Medical Research, the French Society of Radiology, a colloquium devoted to the nuclear and its psycho-implications sociological. It is a second edition, realised at the demand of the Antoine Beclere Center. (N.C.)

  13. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)


    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  14. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...

  15. Alternative Families and Children: Implications for Education. (United States)

    Alexander, Jannette; Eiduson, Bernice T.


    Since 1973, the UCLA Family Styles Project has studied a sample of nontraditional Caucasian families (single mothers, social contract families, communal families) plus a comparison group of conventional nuclear families. Findings are reported on parents' personal/social values and changes in childrearing practices. Implications for education are…

  16. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  17. Managerialism and higher education governance: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary ...

  18. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    main manifestations and implications of these conflicts are examined in the next section ... with invasive or alien species. This special ... the majority of potential pest species. ... Production of goods: food, durable materials and industrial products, ... well as a remarkably stable life support system that has allowed human.

  19. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin


    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  20. Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of ecological and social characteristics to community livelihoods in the coastal ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This will further address conflicts over resource uses that may arise due to livelihood ...

  1. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the implications of decision making process on employees' turnover in the Institute of ... Involvement in Decision Making and Agricultural Employees' Turnover in Ibadan, Nigeria 37 ..... Lack of motivation.

  2. Dependence on carbonated water: Clinical and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available A case of caffeine dependence syndrome with preference for a specific brand of carbonated water (popularly known as soft drinks or colas is discussed to highlight the clinical and policy implications.

  3. Awareness of Health Implications of Agrochemical Use: Effects on Maize Production in Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin N. Mabe


    Full Text Available This study assessed factors that affect awareness of health implications of agrochemical use and its effects on maize production in Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality of Ashanti Region, Ghana. One hundred and fifty-four (154 maize farmers were randomly sampled from the municipality. The study used awareness indicators to estimate an index representing farmers’ awareness levels of health implications of agrochemical use. An ordered logit compliment with multivariate linear regression model was used to identify the drivers of farmers’ awareness level of health implications of agrochemical use. Also, a multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the effects of health implications of agrochemical use on maize output. On average, the respondents have the moderate awareness level of health implications of agrochemical use (0.578. The awareness level was significantly explained by education, the number of children in school, ownership of TV/radio, experience in agrochemicals use, and farm size. The multivariate linear regression results showed that awareness levels of health implications of agrochemical use increase maize output. It is therefore recommended that interventions aimed at increasing farmers’ awareness levels of health implications of agrochemicals use should focus on educating farmers through interactive radio discussion and training sessions on the field and incorporate safety use of agrochemical in our educational curriculum.

  4. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ... (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  5. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D


    expression studies have indicated an equally large set of candidate genes that only partially overlap linkage genes. A thorough assessment, beyond the resolution of current GWA studies, of the disease risk conferred by the numerous schizophrenia candidate genes is a daunting and presently not feasible task....... We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling networks...... implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated with schizophrenia...

  6. The implicit contract: implications for health social work. (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L M


    Identifying common patient dynamics is useful for developing social work practice sensitivity in health social work. This article draws on findings from a study of women who terminated desired pregnancies because of fetal anomalies and identifies dynamics that may be applicable to many health settings. Data suggest that women have expectations that submission to medical care, particularly high-tech medical care, should ensure a positive outcome--in this case a healthy baby. Analysis of data reveals the presence of an implicit contract that the women hold with the medical system,"Mother Nature," or society. The analysis carries an implication that health social work should help patients develop realistic expectations about health care. The presence of implicit contracts may have further implications for liability and litigation. Social work roles and interventions are addressed.

  7. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic science...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  8. Technical limitations of African prints and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON GARMENT CONSTRUCTION IN. GHANA ... economic growth throughout the world. In. 2001, the sector ... and its exports represent 45 billion Euros, mak- ing it the world's ..... Unpublished BA Thesis,. College of Art ...

  9. Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ... that one of the most obvious and urgent problems at management level in organizations is ... to change their attitude and behavior as rapidly as their organization requires.

  10. attitudes of women to menopause: implications for counselling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    conforms to society's standards of youth and beauty include low self- esteem, depression and anxiety. .... issue in understanding her attitudes or perception of menopause. Fifty- .... Lippert, L. (1997). Women at midlife: Implications for theories of.

  11. Mainstreaming academic literacy teaching: Implications for how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws on research into the role of academic literacies within a range of disciplines and its implications for academic literacy teaching in Higher Education. The study explored ways of transforming current academic literacy teaching practices with a view to developing better synergy between the academic ...

  12. Implications of the behavioral approach to hypnosis. (United States)

    Starker, S


    The findings of behaviorally oriented research regarding the importance of cognitive-motivational variables in hypnosis are examined and some clinical and theoretical implications are explored. Hypnosis seems usefully conceptualized as a complex configuration or gestalt of interacting variables on several different levels, for example, cognitive, motivational, social, physiologic.

  13. Total Quality Management: Implications for Educational Assessment. (United States)

    Rankin, Stuart C.


    Deming's "System of Profound Knowledge" is even more fundamental than his 14-principle system transformation guide and is based on 4 elements: systems theory, statistical variation, a theory of knowledge, and psychology. Management should revamp total system processes so that quality of product is continually improved. Implications for…

  14. Federal Tax Implications of Charitable Gift Annuities (United States)

    Teitell, Conrad


    Surveys the federal tax implications of "immediate" charitable gift annuities (annuity payments beginning within one year of transfer) and "deferred payment" charitable gift annuities (beginning at a specified date), both of which enable individuals to make a charitable gift, retain a form of life income, and achieve federal…

  15. Fight and flight in dinoflagellates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Fagerberg, Tony; Wohlrab, Sylke


    We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemical...... and morphological responses augmented over 3 d. Toxicity subsequently averaged 299% higher than controls, and average biovolume 24% lower than controls because of suppression of chain formation in grazed treatments. Grazer-induced toxicity returned to control levels after approximately 11 d, equivalent to five cell...... that the inducing cue(s) attenuate rapidly in seawater, which allows A. tamarense to adjust resource allocation to grazer-induced responses to follow fluctuations in grazer density. Grazer-induced responses, however, develop too slowly to be accounted for in short-term grazing experiments with laboratory cultures...

  16. Micro- and mesozooplankton in Southwest Greenland waters in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Ribergaard, M.H.; Stenberg, Claus


    Plankton samples and oceanographic data were obtained during transect studies across fishing banks over the Southwest Greenland shelf in June 1999, May, and July 2000. The study gives a detailed description of micro- and mesozooplankton distributions and community structures during spring bloom...... glacialis, and Calanus hyperboreus generally dominated the micro- and mesozooplankton biomass, with Pseudocalanus spp., Metridia longa, and Oithona spp. comprising most of the remaining biomass. By number, bivalves larvae and relatively large copepod nauplii (> 200 mu m) dominated the zooplankton community....... The circulation around the banks seems to create retention areas entrapping plankton for periods. Model simulations predict that upwelling occurs west of the shelf banks and to a lesser extent in the deep channels separating the banks. This upwelling, caused by wind and tidal motions, probably increases...

  17. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory


    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  18. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates


    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

  19. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  20. changing stm curricula for the information age: implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    information age, rationale and strategies for changing STM curricular, implications for the teacher and then conclusion. ... learner under the guidance of a school to effect a change in the ..... education international conference. Ofele, C. N. ...

  1. Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Keystone Life Orientation (LO) teachers: Implications for educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keystone Life Orientation (LO) teachers: Implications for educational, social, and ... characteristics and support networks needed by keystone Life Orientation (LO) ... In this study “keystone” refers to LO teachers who make a positive impact in ...

  3. A novel homozygous truncating GNAT1 mutation implicated in retinal degeneration


    Carrigan, Matthew; Duignan, Emma; Humphries, Pete; Palfi, Arpad; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane


    Background The GNAT1 gene encodes the ? subunit of the rod transducin protein, a key element in the rod phototransduction cascade. Variants in GNAT1 have been implicated in stationary night-blindness in the past, but unlike other proteins in the same pathway, it has not previously been implicated in retinitis pigmentosa. Methods A panel of 182 retinopathy-associated genes was sequenced to locate disease-causing mutations in patients with inherited retinopathies. Results Sequencing revealed a ...

  4. Species identification of ciguatoxin-carrying grouper implicated in food poisoning. (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Ken-Lin; Lee, Ming-Ming; Lan, Chi-Hsun; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hwang, Deng-Fwu


    Food poisoning due to ingestion of an unknown red grouper occurred in southern Taiwan. To identify the species of toxic red grouper implicated in food poisoning, a 475-bp sequence of the cytochrome b gene from six species of fresh red grouper meat was amplified by using a pair of primers (L14735/H15149). This fragment could be amplified when fish meat was treated with different heating processes. After sequencing, it was found that no variation in sequences was detected among individuals within each species. The species of toxic red grouper meat implicated in food poisoning was judged to be Lutjanus bohar based on sequence analysis. In addition, restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII rapidly distinguished these six species of red grouper and the two samples implicated in food poisoning. No toxicity of viscera in 18 specimens of six red grouper species was detected, but two food poisoning samples were found to be toxic. This study indicated that DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis are powerful methods for identifying potentially toxic red grouper species as L. bohar.

  5. Bioenergy and its implication for yoga therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chathapuram Rajan Narayanan


    Full Text Available Electro photonic imaging (EPI is being researched relative to its application for yoga therapy. Three parameters of interest in EPI measurements are as follows: Communication energy (C, integral or normalized area (IA, and Entropy (E. It is important to note that C indicates the total energy of communication for the organ system; IA is an indication of total amount of energy that is available for the organ system while entropy is an indication of the amount of coherence of the energy. Coherence and entropy are inversely related; this means less the entropy, more the coherence and vice versa. Illustrative cases of successful therapy with yoga practices in a wide variety of abnormal conditions are examined, and in every case, entropy is shown to decrease for the affected organ system while communication energy stays within stable range. Relative to the electromagnetic (Rubik and living matrix (Oschman models, it is suggested that the regulation of energy, its coherence in the biological system and interaction with life processes provide the basis for model building and design of health-promoting procedures. Further, this approach is examined relative to yoga theory, traditional medicine systems, and scientific developments in the field of gene expression and neuroplasticity and a generalized model that we call Unified System of Medicine is proposed. This model has direct implications on methods used to control the environmental factors to get robust results from EPI application for therapeutic purposes. Implications for furthering research in yoga therapy using EPI and implications of EPI as a translational technology between traditional medicine systems and modern medicine is discussed.

  6. Body mass management of lightweight rowers: nutritional strategies and performance implications. (United States)

    Slater, Gary; Rice, Anthony; Jenkins, David; Hahn, Allan


    The majority of lightweight rowers undertake acute weight loss prior to competition. Given the competitive advantage afforded to larger, more muscular rowers over their smaller counterparts, the use of moderate, acute weight loss may be justified, at least among larger, leaner athletes who struggle to achieve the specified body mass requirement and have limited potential for further body mass loss via reductions in body fat. The performance implications of moderate acute weight loss appear to be small on the ergometer and may be even less on water, at least when aggressive recovery strategies are adopted between weigh-in and racing. Furthermore, any performance implications of acute weight loss are not exacerbated when such weight loss is undertaken repeatedly throughout the course of a regatta, and may even be eliminated when aggressive recovery strategies are introduced before and after racing. The combination of adequate sodium, fluid and carbohydrate in line with current guidelines results in the best performances. While the performance implications of modest acute weight loss may still need to be considered in regard to competition outcome, chronic body mass strategies may not be without performance implications. This is especially the case for athletes who have very low levels of body fat and/or athletes who decrease their body mass too quickly. Further studies are needed to address the degree of weight loss that can be tolerated with minimal health and/or performance implications, and the optimal time frame over which this should occur. Possible adaptation to the physiological state that accompanies acute weight loss also warrants investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  7. The dental public health implications of cosmetic dentistry: a scoping review of the literature. (United States)

    Doughty, J; Lala, R; Marshman, Z


    The popularity of cosmetic surgery has seen a rapid increase recently, with the trend mirrored in dentistry. The Department of Health expressed concerns about the potential for biological and psychosocial harm of these cosmetic procedures. Furthermore, the dental public health implications (DPH) of the growing uptake of cosmetic dental procedures have not been explored. Conduct a scoping review to explore the DPH implications of cosmetic dentistry and identify gaps for future research. A fivestage scoping review was conducted of studies identified using the search terms cosmetic AND dentistry. Data from the studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted, collated and summarised into themes. Fifty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria (11 cross-sectional studies, 10 literature reviews and 36 opinion pieces). The DPH implications were summarised into five emergent themes: dento-legal and ethical, marketing, psychosocial, biological and workforce. These themes revealed patients' increased expectations, expanding commercialisation of the profession, psychological risks to vulnerable patients, the iatrogenic consequences of invasive cosmetic dental procedures and workforce implications of the current trends. The scoping review found that existing literature on cosmetic dentistry is predominately anecdotal - professional opinions and discussions. Despite this, our findings demonstrated workforce training and governance implications due to increased demand for cosmetic dentistry. Further empirical research is needed to understand the DPH implications of the increasing demand and uptake of cosmetic dental procedures to guide evidence-based policy to safeguard patients and improve the quality of dental services. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  8. Nuclear debate and its implications in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, J M


    The controversy associated with nuclear power has been grouped into three areas: safety, economics, and availability of uranium. Implications of these factors are discussed in terms of their effects on Third World countries, particularly in Latin America.

  9. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory


    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  10. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  11. Civil implications of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.; Gallie, N.


    The following aspects are discussed; spent fuel transport by rail, routes and possible accidents; reactors, possible accidents and effects of radioactive releases to the environment; possible effects of sabotage and terrorist attacks; possible hazards from fuel reprocessing plants; radioactive wastes, inventories and possible effects of escape to environment; biological radiation effects; civil war effects and democratic freedoms; the miners' strike and its implications. (U.K.)

  12. Social Constructionism and Ethics: Implications for Counseling (United States)

    Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James


    Social constructionism is set forth as an epistemological framework from which to establish an ethical base for the field of counseling. The development of the social constructionist movement in counseling is described. Implications of a social constructionist position are considered in relation to ethics. A case example is provided to illustrate…

  13. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality. (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  14. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt


    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  15. Globalisation; Its Implications and Consequences for Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to look at the concept of globalisations and analyse its implications and consequences for developing nations in Africa. It is premised on the general perception that globalisations is a positive and powerful force for the improved material well-being of humankind, that would aid the developing countries ...

  16. Economic and environmental implications of a U.S. nuclear moratorium, 1985--2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, C.E.; Allen, E.L.; Cooper, C.L.; MacPherson, H.G.; Phung, D.L.; Poole, A.D.; Pollard, W.G.; Rotty, R.M.; Treat, N.L.; Weinberg, A.M.


    This study assesses some economic and environmental implications of a nuclear moratorium in the United States. The moratorium is assumed to prohibit new construction starts of reactors after 1980, but to allow continued operation of reactors on line by 1985. Though the main focus is the period between 1980 and 2010, some consideration is given to the implications of a permanent loss of the nuclear option

  17. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)


    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  18. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas


    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  19. Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Toshie


    Full Text Available Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic development, regulation of maternal gene expression and telomere protection. We have recently shown that Vasa (known as Mouse Vasa Homolog in mouse, a nuage component, plays a mitotic role in promoting chromosome condensation and segregation by facilitating robust chromosomal localization of condensin I in the Drosophila germline. Vasa functions together with Aubergine (a PIWI family protein and Spindle-E/mouse TDRD-9, two other nuage components that are involved in the piRNA pathway, therefore providing a link between the piRNA pathway and mitotic chromosome condensation. Here, we propose and discuss possible models for the role of Vasa and the piRNA pathway during mitosis. We also highlight relevant studies implicating mitotic roles for RNAs and/or nuage in other model systems and their implications for cancer development.

  20. Implications for Effective Child Development System in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Child Rights Campaign and the Nigerian Family: Implications for Effective Child .... of socialization like: day-care centres, schools, peer groups, video bars, recreational parks and new social media have taken over this role. The outcome is that ...

  1. ERP in large Danish enterprises: Implications for SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles


    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption...... in the 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4% of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby


    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  3. Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour. (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Raine, Adrian


    Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?

  4. Noncommutative black-body radiation: Implications on cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, A.H.; Hajirahimi, M.


    Including loop corrections, black-body radiation in noncommutative space is anisotropic. A direct implication of possible space non-commutativity on the cosmic microwave background map is argued. (authors)

  5. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.


    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto Ardi


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore university students’ motivation from the perspectives of cognitive approach and discuss its pedagogical implication in EFL learning. A questionnaire which consisted of 19 Likert-scale items was distributed to 192 students. The questionnaire was adapted from Language Learning Orientation Scale, which was developed by Noels, Pelletier, Clément, and Vallerand (2000. The language learning orientation scale was developed based on self-determination theory. The items of the instrument sought to explore students’ level of cognitive motivation, which were originally grouped into six aspects, such as external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation-accomplishment, intrinsic motivation-knowledge and intrinsic motivation-stimulation. The results of the research suggested that the students were identified with a high degree of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The pedagogical implications EFL teachersmay provide include authentic materials and communication, students’ engagement and collaboration, as well as feedback and reward. The pedagogical implications are expected to increase students’ current state of motivation.

  7. Nutritional implications of food allergies | Steinman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8% of children affected at some point in their childhood. It is important to recognise that the nutritional implications encompass not only the elimination of essential food(s) from the diet (and the consequent attendant lack of energy, protein or ...

  8. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Nicholls, S.


    This study assesses the impacts of projected climate change on Australia's tourism industry. Based on application of the Tourism Climatic Index, it investigates potential changes in climatic attractiveness for Australia's major destinations, and discusses implications for tourist flows and tourism

  9. Big data's implications for transportation operations : an exploration. (United States)

    The purpose of this white paper is to expand the understanding of big data for transportation operations, the value it could provide, and the implications for the : future direction of the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) Connected Vehicle R...

  10. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  11. The Rational Unconscious: Implications for Mental Illness and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Rational and reality-congruent unconscious processes facilitate adaptive functioning and have implications for mental illness and psychotherapy. With this knowledge, psychotherapists can more effectively guide interventions to improve mental health.

  12. Printing Insecurity? The Security Implications of 3D-Printing of Weapons


    Walther, Gerald


    In 2013, the first gun printed out of plastic by a 3D-printer was successfully fired in the US. This event caused a major media hype about the dangers of being able to print a gun. Law enforcement agencies worldwide were concerned about this development and the potentially huge security implications of these functional plastic guns. As a result, politicians called for a ban of these weapons and a control of 3D-printing technology. This paper reviews the security implications of 3D-printing te...

  13. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research......-calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information......, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique...

  14. Gradient dissimilation in Mongolian: Implications for diachrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jatteau, Adèle; Hejná, Michaela


    This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast with this ass......This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast...... with this assumption, we explore the hypothesis that gradient dissimilation may represent the phonetic precursor of completed, regular dissimilatory processes. Such cases of dissimilation might then be reanalysed as Neogrammarian types of change. To assess this question, we gather and analyse new data from Halh...... Mongolian, a language reported to show gradient dissimilation (Svantesson et al. 2005), and compare it to two completed patterns of dissimilation reconstructed within the Mongolic family: Mongolian Chahar and Monguor. The results suggest that the gradient dissimilation in Halh may represent the phonetic...

  15. Racial Microaggressions against Black Americans: Implications for Counseling (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing; Nadal, Kevin L.; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Lin, Annie I.; Torino, Gina C.; Rivera, David P.


    Racial microaggression themes were identified using a focus-group analysis of self-identified Black participants. Six categories of demeaning and invalidating messages reflected beliefs of White supremacy that were unintentionally conveyed by perpetrators. Implications for counselors and the counseling process are discussed.

  16. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  17. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  18. Environment, Biology, and Culture: Implications for Adolescent Development. (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn


    Introduces this special theme issue examining the roles of socialization, biology, and culture as they affect adaptive and maladaptive developmental outcomes. Problems of adolescence addressed include antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, low achievement, and eating problems. Considers factors implicated in successful…

  19. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  20. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source using Google search engine as well as international, national and local journals. The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries.

  1. The implications of globalization for conservation in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwampamba, TH


    Full Text Available of Ecology, vol. 54(2): 133-135 The implications of globalization for conservation in Africa Mwampamba TH Abrams RW Awoyemi S Babalola FD Borokini TI Egoh, Benis Idrissi HR Koussa T Nganje M O'Leary J ABSTRACT: The Third African...

  2. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.


    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  3. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

  4. HBV DNA Integration: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications (United States)

    Tu, Thomas; Budzinska, Magdalena A.; Shackel, Nicholas A.; Urban, Stephan


    Chronic infection with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. One peculiar observation in cells infected with HBV (or with closely‑related animal hepadnaviruses) is the presence of viral DNA integration in the host cell genome, despite this form being a replicative dead-end for the virus. The frequent finding of somatic integration of viral DNA suggests an evolutionary benefit for the virus; however, the mechanism of integration, its functions, and the clinical implications remain unknown. Here we review the current body of knowledge of HBV DNA integration, with particular focus on the molecular mechanisms and its clinical implications (including the possible consequences of replication-independent antigen expression and its possible role in hepatocellular carcinoma). HBV DNA integration is likely to influence HBV replication, persistence, and pathogenesis, and so deserves greater attention in future studies. PMID:28394272

  5. Does chaos theory have major implications for philosophy of medicine? (United States)

    Holm, S


    In the literature it is sometimes claimed that chaos theory, non-linear dynamics, and the theory of fractals have major implications for philosophy of medicine, especially for our analysis of the concept of disease and the concept of causation. This paper gives a brief introduction to the concepts underlying chaos theory and non-linear dynamics. It is then shown that chaos theory has only very minimal implications for the analysis of the concept of disease and the concept of causation, mainly because the mathematics of chaotic processes entail that these processes are fully deterministic. The practical unpredictability of chaotic processes, caused by their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, may raise practical problems in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, but it raises no major theoretical problems. The relation between chaos theory and the problem of free will is discussed, and it is shown that chaos theory may remove the problem of predictability of decisions, but does not solve the problem of free will. Chaos theory may thus be very important for our understanding of physiological processes, and specific disease entities, without having any major implications for philosophy of medicine.

  6. Global implications of China's healthcare reform. (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian


    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Neoliberalism and its implications for mental health in the UK. (United States)

    Ramon, Shulamit


    This article sets out to outline the tenets of neoliberalism and globalization, prior to the identification of the implications of neoliberalism for the British health system since 1979. The article then focuses on the applications and implications of neoliberalism for the British mental health system in terms of service organization and management, and the impact these changes in direction had on the three existing service sectors: users, carers and professionals. The discussion and the conclusion highlight the significance of these developments in the mental health system in the rather hybrid context of health, mental health, and social care policy and practice in the United Kingdom.

  8. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism. (United States)

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  9. The implications of the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.


    The methods and results of the German Risk Study published in 1979 are summarized and its implications for reactor safety are discussed. It has led to suggestions that risk analysis should be more widely used for nuclear and other technological systems. It has also identified the need for specific system modifications and confirmed trends in safety research. (author)

  10. Energy from forests: environmental and wildlife implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, D [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Chick, S; Vergara, W


    This report analyzes the feasibility of utilizing forests in North America as an energy source. The analysis focuses on three major aspects: (1) the technology of converting wood biomass to energy; (2) the potential of wood as a source of energy; and (3) the environmental implications of using forest products for energy. 49 references, 6 tables.

  11. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  12. Alternative models of DSM-5 PTSD: Examining diagnostic implications. (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Yong Chen, Yoke; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Shevlin, Mark


    The factor structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated with evidence supporting the recently proposed seven-factor Hybrid model. However, despite myriad studies examining PTSD symptom structure few have assessed the diagnostic implications of these proposed models. This study aimed to generate PTSD prevalence estimates derived from the 7 alternative factor models and assess whether pre-established risk factors associated with PTSD (e.g., transportation accidents and sexual victimisation) produce consistent risk estimates. Seven alternative models were estimated within a confirmatory factor analytic framework using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Data were analysed from a Malaysian adolescent community sample (n = 481) of which 61.7% were female, with a mean age of 17.03 years. The results indicated that all models provided satisfactory model fit with statistical superiority for the Externalising Behaviours and seven-factor Hybrid models. The PTSD prevalence estimates varied substantially ranging from 21.8% for the DSM-5 model to 10.0% for the Hybrid model. Estimates of risk associated with PTSD were inconsistent across the alternative models, with substantial variation emerging for sexual victimisation. These findings have important implications for research and practice and highlight that more research attention is needed to examine the diagnostic implications emerging from the alternative models of PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Competitive implications of cross-border banking


    Claessens, Stijn


    This paper reviews the recent literature on cross-border banking, with a focus on policy implications. Cross-border banking has increased sharply in recent decades, particularly in the form of entry, and has affected the development of financial systems, access to financial services, and stability. Reviewing the empirical literature, the author finds much, although not uniform, evidence that cross-border banking supports the development of an efficient and stable financial system that offers ...



    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka


    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  15. Market-Driven Management: the Policy Implications


    Bellini, Nicola


    The first policy implication of the diffusion of a Market-Driven Management approach is the same as the spreading of globalization, i.e. the obsolescence of industrial policies as traditionally designed and managed by Nation-States with the established toolbox of protectionism and subsidies, picking 'national champions', etc. The growing asymmetry between the physical jurisdiction of political bodies and the global operation space of modern corporations feeds the apparent trend toward company...

  16. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis


    Roč. 3, č. 26 (2012), s. 333-368 ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  17. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications: case report. Mallika Balakrishnan, Renju Kuriakose, Rachel Cherian Koshy. Abstract. Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, a severe consequence of ...

  18. Prognostic implications of plasma fibrinogen and serum Creactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic implications of plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in tumour resection and survival following successful tumour resection in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: One hundred and fifty-three NSCLC patients who underwent surgical ...

  19. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  1. Philosophy of adult education and the implication for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy of adult education and the implication for agricultural extension service. ... The paper highlights the relationhip between adult education and extension using the philosophy as a fulcrum between both. The paper further reiterated ...

  2. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  3. Changes in East Asian Food Consumption: Some Implications for Australian Irrigated Agriculture


    Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay


    This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...

  4. User-generated content on Facebook: Implications from the perspective of two organisations


    Kurian, Jayan


    The purpose of this study is to examine the implications (user benefits and costs) of user-generated content posted by users on Facebook from an organisational perspective. Though motivations to use social networking sites are widely researched and published, studies on implications eventuating from different types of content posted by users on social networking sites is sparse. Hence, this study addresses the gap in literature by an interpretive analysis of user-generated content posted by u...

  5. Bank Consolidation in Nigeria: Marketing Implications and Challenges for the Surviving Banks


    IE Ernest


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the marketing implications of the Nigerian bank consolidation with a view to theorizing the marketing challenges which Third World countries wishing to embark on the same exercise should watch out for. The research used secondary data sources to expose the status of marketing in the pre-consolidation era and goes further to put forward the marketing implications and challenges of the exercise. Delivery of quality services, repositioning of brand identi...



    Puah, Chin-Hong; Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui; Lau, Evan


    The relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Gross Domestic Products (GDP) had become the centre piece of recent researches in identifying the short run and long run implications between the two variables. Using the hypotheses of FDI led GDP and GDP led FDI as theoretical framework, this study intends to analyze the implications of the rise of China towards the ASEAN-5 countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand from the perspective of FDI an...

  7. Evaluation of toxicological implications of ingestion exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because increased LDL cholesterol, decreased HDL cholesterol and alteration in the level of total serum cholesterol have all been implicated as risk factors for atherosclerosis, this present study was designed to determine whether very low percentages of gasoline per kilogramme body weight could cause toxicity in rats.

  8. Communication and conflict management in the family: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses communication and conflict management in the family within the framework of implications for national development using a simple random sample of 400 respondents. Findings show that conflict is an inevitable characteristic of the family. However, it has been noted that effective communication would ...

  9. Issues in Cognitive Psychology: Implications for Professional Education. (United States)

    Regehr, Glenn; Norman, Geoffrey R.


    Research developments in cognitive psychology, and their implications for teaching and learning at the level of professional education, are summarized. Areas discussed include organization of long-term memory, influences on storage and retrieval from memory, problem solving and transfer/use of analogy, concept formation/categorization/pattern…

  10. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for Sustainable Development. Good Wilson. Abstract. Given the prevailing view that population policy has the potentials to reduce pressure of population on development and the attendant improvement of the welfare of people in society now and in the future, ...

  11. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health ... communities often only learnt about disability following the birth of a disabled child. ... to education and the availability of transport, particularly amongst caregivers ...

  12. Implications of parent-child relationships for emerging adults' subjective feelings about adulthood. (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Killoren, Sarah E


    Little is known about the role of parents in promoting their children's successful transition to adulthood, particularly for college students who may maintain stronger ties to parents than other emerging adults. The present study therefore investigated longitudinal implications of parent-child relationship qualities during emerging adults' first year of college for their feelings about the upcoming transition to adulthood 3 years later, as well as implications of 3 types of parental control (behavioral control, psychological control, helicopter parenting) for these associations. Multilevel models indicated that emerging adults who reported less negativity in their relationships with mothers and fathers felt more like adults 3 years later compared with emerging adults with low-quality relationships, while high levels of psychological control and helicopter parenting had detrimental implications for their vocational identity development and perceived competence regarding their transition to adulthood. However, nuanced interactions between parent-child relationship quality and parental control indicated that behavioral control had positive implications for outcomes if it occurred within the context of high-quality relationships, or when utilized with sons. The present study highlights the complex role that parents may play during college students' transition to adulthood, and future work should continue to examine ways that clinicians can incorporate parents as a potential resource for promoting emerging adults' successful transition to adulthood and the workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Automotive fuels - environmental and health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.G.


    This document covers papers presented to the Institute of Petroleum's conference ''Automotive Fuels: Environmental and Health Implications'' held on the 9th October 1991. This wide ranging title meant that topics covered included the biochemistry, pathology and epidemiology of automotive fuel use, combustion science, environmental chemistry and atmospheric modelling. Also discussed are the technology of fuel and engine manufacture, limiting and containing emissions and social and political aspects relating to the use of automotive fuels. (UK)

  14. Structuralism: Its Implications for the Performance of Prose Fiction (United States)

    Hopkins, Mary Francis


    Discusses the implications of structuralism by examining "Introduction to The Structural Analysis of Narrative", a contemporary writing by Roland Barthes. Explains Barthes' terms and concepts by using Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway character for an example. (MH)

  15. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications. (United States)


    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  16. Exome sequencing identifies three novel candidate genes implicated in intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Agha

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a major health problem mostly with an unknown etiology. Recently exome sequencing of individuals with ID identified novel genes implicated in the disease. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to identify the genetic cause of ID in one syndromic and two non-syndromic Pakistani families. Whole exome of three ID probands was sequenced. Missense variations in two plausible novel genes implicated in autosomal recessive ID were identified: lysine (K-specific methyltransferase 2B (KMT2B, zinc finger protein 589 (ZNF589, as well as hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT with a de novo mutation with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The KMT2B recessive variant is the first report of recessive Kleefstra syndrome-like phenotype. Identification of plausible causative mutations for two recessive and a dominant type of ID, in genes not previously implicated in disease, underscores the large genetic heterogeneity of ID. These results also support the viewpoint that large number of ID genes converge on limited number of common networks i.e. ZNF589 belongs to KRAB-domain zinc-finger proteins previously implicated in ID, HHAT is predicted to affect sonic hedgehog, which is involved in several disorders with ID, KMT2B associated with syndromic ID fits the epigenetic module underlying the Kleefstra syndromic spectrum. The association of these novel genes in three different Pakistani ID families highlights the importance of screening these genes in more families with similar phenotypes from different populations to confirm the involvement of these genes in pathogenesis of ID.

  17. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.


    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  18. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  19. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.


    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  20. Financial implications of anemia management in anaemic chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives- To assess the cost implications of anaemia management using ESA's and parenteral iron and vitamins at the University ofBenin Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health care centre in South-South Nigeria. Methods-Costs of investigating a patient for anaemia were obtained from the revenue unit of the laboratory.

  1. Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication of Love in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper re-examines Toni Morrison's Beloved to identify an example of the types of mother/daughter relationship that existed between black mothers and their daughters and the implications of such relationship on the Black American society. The paper is a psychoanalytic reading, utilizing Melanie Klein's Object ...

  2. The demographic implications of nomadic herdsmen and farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the demographic implications resulting from nomadic herdsmen and farmers clashes in Nigeria. Relevant published texts across the country and the Malthusian theory provided the leverage for the study. It revealed that the Nigeria's population is dynamic and growing at a very rapid rate compared to ...

  3. Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration and Health Implication of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water from Urban ... water is not mentioned by WHO, but all the samples analyzed were found to ... Key words: Drinking water quality, Heavy metals, Maximum admissible limit, ...

  4. [The closure of forensic hospitals and the implications for nursing care]. (United States)

    Piccoli, Michele


    The closure of forensic hospitals and the implications for nursing care. The closure of forensic hospitals led to the opening of new wards to admit psychiatric patients who committed a crime and by Italian law, cannot be imprisoned. Over 826 residents of forensic hospitals, around 350 cannot be discharged because considered dangerous for the society. The new wards where these patients will be admitted raise some legal and ethical problems as health professionals (doctors and nurses) will be responsible not only of the patients health but also of their legal custody. The professional and ethical implications need a debate among professionals.

  5. Implications of nuclear data uncertainties to reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greebler, P.; Hutchins, B.A.; Cowan, C.L.


    Uncertainties in nuclear data require significant allowances to be made in the design and the operating conditions of reactor cores and of shielded-reactor-plant and fuel-processing systems. These allowances result in direct cost increases due to overdesign of components and equipment and reduced core and fuel operating performance. Compromising the allowances for data uncertainties has indirect cost implications due to increased risks of failure to meet plant and fuel performance objectives, with warrantees involved in some cases, and to satisfy licensed safety requirements. Fast breeders are the most sensitive power reactors to the uncertainties in nuclear data over the neutron energy range of interest for fission reactors, and this paper focuses on the implications of the data uncertainties to design and operation of fast breeder reactors and fuel-processing systems. The current status of uncertainty in predicted physics parameters due to data uncertainties is reviewed and compared with the situation in 1966 and that projected for within the next two years due to anticipated data improvements. Implications of the uncertainties in the predicted physics parameters to design and operation are discussed for both a near-term prototype or demonstration breeder plant (∼300 MW(e)) and a longer-term large (∼1000 MW(e)) plant. Significant improvements in the nuclear data have been made during the past three years, the most important of these to fast power reactors being the 239 Pu alpha below 15 keV. The most important remaining specific data uncertainties are illustrated by their individual contributions to the computational uncertainty of selected physics parameters, and recommended priorities and accuracy requirements for improved data are presented

  6. The little auk population at the North Water Polynya. How palaeohistory, archaeology and anthropology adds new dimensions to the ecology of a high arctic seabird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Lyngs, Peter

    interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of little auk ecology in times of change. Recent and ongoing little auk studies at the North Water Polynya have shown the high densities of little auks (about 2 pairs/m2) breeding under the stones in the vast scree slopes, the highly specialized chick diet (80 % Calanus...... hyperboreus), the foraging ranges (75 km, GPS tracking) the local foraging behaviour (TDR), and yearly migration pattern (gls) where little auks disperse over the north-eastern Atlantic during winter. An interdisciplinary approach has added new dimensions to population history and human harvest. Lakes......-feeding Bowhead whale population, took place. Anthropological research reveals how, though small in size, little auk is a significant resource for the Inuit with important cultural values attached and adding resilience to human populations in times where the dominant marine mammal prey is inaccessible due...

  7. Copepod egg production, moulting and growth rates and secondary production in the Skagerrak in August 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, W.T.; Tiselius, P.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Measurements of hydrography, chlorophyll, moulting rates of juvenile copepods and egg production rates of adult female copepods were made at eight stations along a transect across the Skagerrak. The goals of the study were to determine (i) if there were correlations between spatial variations...... in hydrography, phytoplankton and copepod production rates, (ii) if copepod egg production rates were correlated with juvenile growth rates, and (iii) if there was evidence of food-niche separation among co-occurring female copepods. The 200 km wide Skagerrak had a stratified water column in the center...... is similar to maximum rates known from laboratory studies, thus were probably not food-limited. Egg production rates were food-limited with the degree of limitation varying among species: 75% of maximum for Centropages typicus, 50% for Calanus finmarchicus, 30% for Paracalanus parvus and 15% for Acartia...

  8. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna


    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when......The climate-induced reduction in the mean copepod size, mainly driven by a decrease in the abundance of the large Calanus finmarchicus around 1987, has been linked to the low survival of fish larvae in the North Sea. However, to what extent this sort of reduction in copepod size has any influence...

  9. Succession and fate of the spring diatom bloom in Disko Bay, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dünweber, Michael; Swalethorp, Rasmus; Kjellerup, Sanne


    Phytoplankton and copepod succession was investigated in Disko Bay, western Greenland from February to July 2008. The spring phytoplankton bloom developed immediately after the breakup of sea ice and reached a peak concentration of 24 mg chl a m–3 2 wk later. The bloom was analyzed during 3 phases...... from the initiation of the bloom but only had a small grazing impact on the phytoplankton. Consequently, there was a close coupling between the spring phytoplankton bloom and sedimentation of particulate organic carbon (POC). Out of 1836 ± 180 mg C m–2 d–1 leaving the upper 50 m, 60% was phytoplankton...... and fate of the phytoplankton spring bloom was controlled by nitrogen limitation and subsequent sedimentation, while grazing-mediated flux by the Calanus-dominated copepod community played a minor role in the termination of the spring bloom of Disko Bay....

  10. Productivity and recovery of forage fish under climate change and fishing: North Sea sandeel as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; van Deurs, Mikael; MacKenzie, Brian


    -east Atlantic, acting as a key prey for predatory fish and sea birds, as well as supporting a large commercial fishery. In this case study, we investigate the underlying factors affecting recruitment and how these in turn affect productivity of the North Sea sandeel using long-term data and modelling. Our...... results demonstrate how sandeel productivity in the central North Sea (Dogger Bank) depends on a combination of external and internal regulatory factors, including fishing and climate effects, as well as density dependence and food availability of the preferred zooplankton prey (Calanus finmarchicus...... and Temora longicornis). Furthermore, our model scenarios suggest that while fishing largely contributed to the abrupt stock decline during the late 1990s and the following period of low biomass, a complete recovery of the stock to the highly productive levels of the early 1980s would only be possible...

  11. Immunological Mechanisms Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Urticaria and Hashimoto Thyroiditis. (United States)

    Berghi, Nicolae Ovidiu


    Autoimmunity represents the attack of the immune system of an organism against its own cells and tissues. Autoimmune diseases may affect one organ (Hashimoto thyroiditis) or can be systemic (chronic urticaria). Many factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity (white cells, cytokines, chemokines). Hashimoto thyroiditis has been associated with chronic urticaria in the last 3 decades in a number of clinical studies. Anti-thyroid antibodies have been documented in a proportion ranging from 10% to 30% in chronic urticaria patients in different countries from 3 continents. Two of the factors involved in the mechanism of autoimmunity are present both in the pathophysiology of Hashimoto thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. According to recent studies, IL6 is implicated in the pathogenesis of both diseases. TregsCD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells have also been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of these 2 entities. This review offers an explanation of the clinical and statistical association between these two diseases from the pathophysiological point of view.

  12. Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a "Contextaulised Choice Model" to Prospective South African Domestic Partnerships Legislation. ... is enacted. Keywords: Life partnership; domestic partnership; Domestic Partnerships Bill; choice argument; contextualised choice model; reciprocal duty of support.

  13. Some Implications for Regulation of ICT and Media Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    The term convergence in the areas of ICT and media means the coming together of IT, telecommunications, broadcasting and other media, technologically, market and policy wise. It is the sectoral convergence of the hitherto more separate ICT and media areas, which is in focus, even though...... there certainly are also changes taking place vertically in the different sectors. The paper examines the relationships between technology and market developments and policy and regulatory initiatives. The issue is, therefore, not solely the implications of market and technology trends on policy and regulation......, but also the reverse implications of policy and regulatory frameworks on technology and market developments. The paper analyses the convergence tendencies at a technological, market level and policy and regulatory level. It is, however, the policy level, which is the centre of attention in the paper...

  14. Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since 1998, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organizing a series of workshops to address the various aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. These workshops have been instrumental in forging consensus and improving understanding of key issues in this area. Building on the experience of the first two 'Villigen workshops', the third in the series extensively analysed three case studies, which covered the licensing of a new facility, the clean-up and release of an old facility, and the rehabilitation of a large, contaminated area. Consideration was given to the stakeholder involvement processes that had been used, and the implications that these did or could have on radiological protection policy, regulation and application. The workshop papers analysing these processes and implications are presented in these proceedings, which should provide valuable examples and lessons for governments, regulators and practitioners. (author)

  15. Drug Testing in the Schools. Implications for Policy. (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Drug testing of district employees and students is examined from several perspectives: implications for school policy, legality, administration and protocol, and test reliability and accuracy. Substance abuse has become a major concern for educators, parents, and citizens as illegal drugs are more readily available. It is also pointed out that the…

  16. Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For Policy. ... Globalisation has had both negative and positive impact on the cultural heritage development and preservation in Africa. However, this article argues that ... This cooperation can only be meaningful if it begins with what is already there, i.e. in the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different parts of eight plants implicated in Akwa Ibom ethnomedicinal literature as toxic were examined for toxicity in rats after oral and intraperitoneal administration. Only the ethanolic extract of S. indica leaves was toxic by both oral and intraperitoneal routes. The extract of C. edulis roots, E. kamerunica leaves, ...

  18. Which Notion of Implication Is the Right One? From Logical Considerations to a Didactic Perspective. (United States)

    Durand-Guerrier, Viviane


    Summarizes Tarski's semantic truth theory to clarify different aspects of implication. Extends the classical definition of implication as a relationship between propositions to a relationship between open sentences with at least one free variable. Analyzes two problematic situations and the presentation of some experimental results from research…

  19. Alternative Fuels and Propulsion Systems: Some Technology trends and Possible Implications for the Future Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dortmans, Peter


    .... For each of these, technological developments are captured and considered in terms of their implications, both on military systems directly, and the broader implications for the future context. The impacts on Land Force core skills within the Army-as-a-system framework of these technologies are discussed.

  20. The use of dexamethasone in animals: implication for fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to dexamethasone causes numerous changes in various biological systems including the reproductive system and this has huge implication on fertility and pregnancy. Maternal dexamethasone administration promotes foetal lung maturation and thermoregulation in premature foetuses. This indication makes ...

  1. Global Climate Change: National Security Implications (United States)


    it cost to treat asthma in children and other health problems caused by the dirt we were putting out of the smokestacks. It was passed by Latin America for a number of years. General Clark used to say, “In SOUTHCOM, take no credit and expect none.” And I think that was a good rule...damage the health of our children .35 People also need to better understand the implications of globalization. Not all currently appreciate how our

  2. Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els


    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 30 August - 3 September). Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment. Paper presented at the bi-annual EARLI conferences, Exeter, UK.

  3. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.


    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  4. Determinants of premarital sex in Maiduguri, Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of the strategies to reduce the impact of. HIV/AIDS is ... endorsing the use of an STI vaccine, the introduction of HPV vaccine is ..... implications for HIV and drug abuse ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  5. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.


    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  6. LUTS and sexual dysfunction : Implications for management of BPH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, J


    Objectives: To summarise currently available data describing the impact of surgical and pharmacological treatments for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on male sexual function. To compare treatment options and outline implications for the management of this patient group. Methods: Key published

  7. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica


    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  8. The implications of nonauthentic questions in Galatians | Verster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new classification of non-authentic questions is helpful in understanding the way in which Paul uses persuasion in Galatians. Paul uses many non-authentic questions, and the implications thereof are evident in the type of question used. The way in which he violates the maxims identified by Grice also entails certain ...

  9. Diagnosing Organization-Environment "Fit": Implications for Organization Development (United States)

    Gabarro, John J.


    This article has attempted to: (1) describe several dimensions of organization-environment fit; (2) describe some concepts which can be used in diagnosing the degree to which a school system's organization matches the demands and needs of its environment; (3) present some implications of such a diagnosis for OD [organizational development]…

  10. Current Research on Adolescence and its Program Implications. (United States)

    Cvetkovich, George; Grote, Barbara

    This paper discusses program implications of research on adolescents. A brief historical review of teenage sexuality is presented in order to put current information in perspective. The present increase in teenage fertility is seen as part of a larger epidemic failure of socialization. A number of recent studies are reviewed and synthesized,…

  11. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions. (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko


    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  12. Women education: problems and implications for family responsibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writer examined education in the context of its availability for the women folk. The paper also elucidates the problems of women education, and the implications of poor women education for family responsibility. It was suggested in the paper that for optimal national development, women who are the first teachers in the ...

  13. Periodic Epileptiform Discharges Clarified for the Nonneurologist Intensivist: Clinical Implications and Current Management. (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Boro, Alexis D; Shiloh, Ariel L; Milstein, Mark J; Savel, Richard H


    Periodic epileptiform discharges (PEDs) are frequently encountered during continuous electroencephalography monitoring in the intensive care unit. Their implications and management are variable and highly dependent on the clinical context. This article is intended for the nonneurologist intensivist, reviews basic terminology and clinical implications (including causes, prognosis, and association with seizures), and suggests an approach to management. Several case vignettes are included to illustrate the clinical variability associated with PEDs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Terror management theory applied clinically: implications for existential-integrative psychotherapy. (United States)

    Lewis, Adam M


    Existential psychotherapy and Terror Management Theory (TMT) offer explanations for the potential psychological effects of death awareness, although their respective literatures bases differ in clarity, research, and implications for treating psychopathology. Existential therapy is often opaque to many therapists, in part due to the lack of consensus on what constitutes its practice, limited published practical examples, and few empirical studies examining its efficacy. By contrast, TMT has an extensive empirical literature base, both within social psychology and spanning multiple disciplines, although previously unexplored within clinical and counseling psychology. This article explores the implications of a proposed TMT integrated existential therapy (TIE), bridging the gap between disciplines in order to meet the needs of the aging population and current challenges facing existential therapists.

  15. 77 FR 9946 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications... (United States)


    ... industry entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and... data analysis in the context of identifying potential drug interactions. The guidance also addresses... Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, and Implications for Dosing and Labeling.'' Comments were received...

  16. Implications of the Bakassi conflict resolution for Cameroon | Baye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sketches a conceptual framework of international conflict dynamics and resolution, examines the geopolitics of the Bakassi dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon, and outlines socio-economic implications of its peaceful settlement. Neglect and subsequent discovery of oil deposits subjected the Bakassi ...

  17. Coherence of Radial Implicative Fuzzy Systems with Nominal Consequents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    -, č. 4 (2006), s. 60-66 ISSN 1509-4553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : implicative fuzzy system * radial fuzzy system * nominal output space * coherence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Social and ethical implications of psychiatric classification for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of Diseases, currently 10th edition, it is timely to consider the wider societal implications of evolving psychiatric classification, especially within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The author reviewed developments in psychiatric classification, especially the move from categorical to dimensional ...

  19. The Male Role in Contraception: Implications for Health Education. (United States)

    Chng, Chwee Lye


    Many males still perceive contraception as a woman's responsibility. This paper describes male contraceptives and their effectiveness and draws implications for school and community health education professionals. More equitable sharing of the responsibility for contraception might result in more effective contraception. (PP)

  20. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and

  1. Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research. (United States)

    Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

    This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

  2. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. ... If properly managed and stimulated, fungi can contribute significantly to improving soil health, thus improving food security in a sustainable manner. Keywords: Mycoaugmentation ...

  3. Martin Heidegger on Temporality: Its Moral Implication on Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survival, self-preservation, that we cannot donate for the welfare of others and also for good neighbourliness. Our method is to reflect on the original works of Heidegger and commentaries written on him by other authors to see the implications for the ...

  4. The public health implications of pathogens in polluted aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The public health implications of pathogens in polluted aquatic ecosystems: a review. ... Pathogen contamination in water sources and related diseases constitute ... of public water supply and most importantly, increased rate of human mortality. ... illnesses related to respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatological systems, ...

  5. Machine implications for detectors and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchi, Toshiaki


    Future linear colliders are very different at many aspects because of low repetition rate (5∼200 Hz) and high accelerating gradient (22∼150 MeV/m). For high luminosity, the beam sizes must be squeezed in extremely small region at interaction point (IP). We briefly describe new phenomena at the IP, i.e. beamstrahlung process, creations of e + e - pairs and minijets. We also report machine implications related to the energy spread, beamstrahlung, bunch-train structure, beam polarizations and backgrounds for detectors and physics

  6. the implications of non- authentic questions in galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tegies in the form of non-authentic questions in Paul's letters may thus be scru- tinised, and their ... A similar approach will be followed in this paper by ... and to describe their implications in order to better understand their function .... They are not addressed to the receiver, and can be primarily rational or emotional.

  7. Influence of Spousal Communication on Marital Stability: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...



    CLINCI, Ionut Cristian


    This paper first tries to describe the antidumping measures and to explain how they work in the trade relations between EU and China. Then it tries to explain the implications of the antidumping measures from an economic perspective. Finally, the paper tries to answer the question whether the EU discriminates China in its antidumping policies.

  9. Inner City Providence: Implications for Education. Attachment 2. (United States)

    Blanchard, Walter J.

    This is a collection of raw data and brief descriptions of the neighborhoods which compose the inner city of Providence. It was compiled so that staff, teachers, and the community leaders could think together about the implications of these data for the schools, education, and for the social studies project. Demographic data on the seven…

  10. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis


    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  11. State-Dependent Implication and Equivalence in Quantum Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Herbut


    Full Text Available Ideal occurrence of an event (projector leads to the known change of a state (density operator into (the Lüders state. It is shown that two events and give the same Lüders state if and only if the equivalence relation is valid. This relation determines equivalence classes. The set of them and each class, are studied in detail. It is proved that the range projector of the Lüders state can be evaluated as , where denotes the greatest lower bound, and is the null projector of . State-dependent implication extends absolute implication (which, in turn, determines the entire structure of quantum logic. and are investigated in a closely related way to mutual benefit. Inherent in the preorder is the state-dependent equivalence , defining equivalence classes in a given Boolean subalgebra. The quotient set, in which the classes are the elements, has itself a partially ordered structure, and so has each class. In a complete Boolean subalgebra, both structures are complete lattices. Physical meanings are discussed.

  12. A Weak S-Implication on Interval Sets%区间集上的弱S-蕴涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛占熬; 程惠茹; 黄海松; 李跃军


      区间集是表达模糊信息的一种有效方法,蕴涵算子的研究是逻辑研究的关键,在区间集上构造蕴涵具有重要的研究价值。在区间集上构造了一个新的区间集弱S-蕴涵,证明了其正则性、单调性以及其他一些重要性质。最后证明了由它可构造剩余格,这为区间集的逻辑系统的建立提供了理论基础。%The theory of interval sets provides an effective method for expressing fuzzy information. Researching implication operators is a key step for fuzzy logic system. Thus it is very important to construct implication operators on interval sets. This paper constructs a new implication operator of interval sets, named as weak S-implication. Meanwhile, it proves the regularity, monotonicity and other important properties of weak S-implication. Finally, it proves that the residuated lattice is constituted under the S-implication operator on interval sets. This research provides a theoretical foundation for the logic system of interval sets.

  13. Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Skill gap analysis indicated 16 areas including packaging of cassava products with ...

  14. Climate Change: Implications for South African Building Systems and Components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T


    Full Text Available to determine the implications of these changes for buildings. Proposals are made on how buildings may be adapted to climate change and recommendations on further research and development are outlined....

  15. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways. (United States)


    This research project was focused on the transportation planning implications of automated/connected : vehicles (AV/CVs) on Texas highways. The research assessed how these potentially transformative : technologies can be included in transportation pl...

  16. Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and implications for avian species in Sambisa game reserve, Borno state, Nigeria. ... avian species diversity and abundance in Sambisa Game Reserve in Borno State, Sudano-Sahelian vegetation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Characteristics of the birds community in the islands off the West Coast of Seogwipo City, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Byung Kim


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to survey the status of birds in islands off the west coast of Seogwipo City – Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, Marado, and Gapado islands – in May and September 2013, as a part of the joint research of the Korean Biodiversity Consortium. As a result, 56 species were observed in those four islands: 167 individuals of 15 species on Beomseom, 79 individuals of 13 species on Hyeongjeseom, 193 individuals of 21 species on Gapado, and 354 individuals of 42 species on Marado; where seven threatened birds were confirmed to inhabit there. Apus pacificus is dominant on Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, and Marado while Passer montanus is dominant on Gapado. Species diversity was highest on Marado (2.54 which was followed by Gapado and Beomseom (1.99 and Hyeongjeseom (1.82. These findings will be used as valuable data to protect the biota of the islands off Seogwipo including Beomseom that was a state-designated natural reserve.

  18. Field Studies on Lyme Disease in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Piesman


    Full Text Available The primary tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern and central North America is Ixodes dammini; in western North America, Ixodes pacificus. Searching for the appropriate vector is the first step in determining whether a region is endemic and enzootic for the spirochete B burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, followed by examination of the ticks (questing or already attached to hosts and wildlife for the spirochete. Questing ticks can be collected through a variety of methods. The two major animal hosts for I dammini are the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus and the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Sampling strategies should consider habitat and season. All three life stages of the vector tick should be located, indicating a self-sustaining population. Although B burgdorferi can be detected in many ways, there is no substitute for isolating the spirochete in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II medium for definitive proof of the presence of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  19. Major and c-series gangliosides in lenticular tissues: mammals to molluscs. (United States)

    Saito, M; Sugiyama, K


    Gangliosides of eye lenses were examined in mammals (rat, rabbits, pig, cow), bird (chicken), reptile (terrapin), amphibian (bullfrog), bony fish (red sea bream, bluefin tuna, bonito, Pacific mackerel) and molluscs (common squid, Pacific octopus). Besides the fact that GM3 was the common ganglioside species, the composition of major gangliosides in mammalian eye lenses significantly differed from each other. While gangliotetraose gangliosides were abundant in rat eye lens, they did not constitute major components in porcine and bovine tissues. The c-series ganglioside GT3 was expressed in rat eye lenses but were practically absent in other mammalian tissues. The composition of major gangliosides in eye lenses of lower animals varied from species to species, whereas c-series gangliosides were consistently expressed, showing similar compositional profiles. Our results demonstrate the species-specific compositions of lenticular gangliosides. Evidence was also provided suggesting that eye lenses of common squid (Todarodes pacificus) and Pacific octopus (Octopus vulgaris) express gangliosides including gangliotetraose species and c-series gangliosides.

  20. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses. (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D


    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  1. New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries. Heather J Zar, Eric Bateman, Michelle Ramsay. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  2. Gani Odutoku ' Dialogu with Mona Lisa: Interrogating Implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exists in the interface that Africa and Europe shares, African nationalist efforts must combine concepts of Negritude and Tigritude to reinvent a new African consciousness that rises beyond the ashes of past debilitating conditions. Key words- Euro-African Interface, Negritude, Tigritude, Implication, Pan-Africanism ...

  3. The Applications of Phonemic Contrasts and Their Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    final-year Yoruba-English bilingual University undergraduates and the implications of their applications on pedagogic practices especially in English as a second language (ESL) environment. This subject is rarely studied in Nigeria, yet, it might be significant for shaping the effective teaching of oral English.

  4. Implications of the ethical-legal framework for adolescent HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fourthly, the institutional framework for establishing research priorities and regulation of ethical review is being strengthened with the establishment of new institutions such as the National. Health Research Ethics Committee. The South African ethical-legal framework and its implications for adolescent HIV vaccine trials ...

  5. Translanguaging: Definitions, Implications, and Further Needs in Burgeoning Inquiry (United States)

    Poza, Luis


    The term "translanguaging" has appeared with growing frequency in research about the education of linguistic minority students. Amid increasing application of the term, concern emerges regarding the consistency of its definitions and characterizations, specifically with respect to the term's social justice implications, which risk…

  6. Prognostic implications of plasma fibrinogen and serum C- reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reactive protein levels in non-small cell lung cancer resection and ... Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the prognostic implications of plasma fibrinogen and serum C-reactive protein ... The possibility of complete resection and associated findings are reported. Results: ... operable using pre-operative chemotherapy and/or ...

  7. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. INTRODUCTION. Asthma is recognized as an eosinophil mediated inflammation of the airways1. Eosinophils are major contributors to the damage in the airways of asthmatic patients which when activated, degranulate and release ...

  8. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. ... The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff.

  9. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank


    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  10. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.


    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  11. World-View Entrapment: Moral-Ethical Implications for Gifted Education. (United States)

    Ambrose, Don


    This article explores the moral-ethical implications of the mechanistic world view and related issues such as technological determinism, social Darwinism, and androcentrism. It finds that educational approaches reinforced by the mechanistic world view include positivistic approaches to curriculum, instruction, and research. Recommendations for…

  12. Implications of population growth for Nigeria's development | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's population that was 16 million in 1911 is about 140 million today. Attention invariably turns to the implications of this growth to the qualities of life for her inhabitants. The paper notes that high birth rate, low death rate and migration are the sources of the high population growth in Nigeria. The population then ...

  13. Organizational Resilience: The Theoretical Model and Research Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lei


    Full Text Available Organizations are all subject to a diverse and ever changing and uncertain environment. Under this situation organizations should develop a capability which can resist the emergency and recover from the disruption. Base on lot of literature, the paper provides the main concept of organizational resilience; construct the primary theoretical model and some implications for management.

  14. Traumatic hyphaema in Ilorin, Nigeria: implications for designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... included children while at play 6 (26%), children while being disciplined by adults 5 (21.7%), ... The implications of these in fashioning relevant health education messages are explored. ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. The use of prime implicants in dependability analysis of software controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Michael; Apostolakis, George; Guarro, Sergio


    The behavior of software controlled systems is usually non-binary and dynamic. It is, thus, convenient to employ multi-valued logic to model these systems. Multi-valued logic functions can be used to represent the functional and temporal relationships between the software and hardware components. The resulting multi-valued logic model can be analyzed deductively, i.e. by tracking causality in reverse from undesirable 'top' events to identify faults that may be present in the system. The result of this deductive analysis is a set of prime implicants for a user-defined system top event. The prime implicants represent all the combinations of basic component conditions and software input conditions that may result in the top event; they are the extension to multi-valued logic of the concept of minimal cut sets that is used routinely in the analysis of binary fault trees. This paper discusses why prime implicants are needed in the dependability analysis of software controlled systems, how they are generated, and how they are used to identify faults in a software controlled system

  16. The use of prime implicants in dependability analysis of software controlled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Michael; Apostolakis, George; Guarro, Sergio


    The behavior of software controlled systems is usually non-binary and dynamic. It is, thus, convenient to employ multi-valued logic to model these systems. Multi-valued logic functions can be used to represent the functional and temporal relationships between the software and hardware components. The resulting multi-valued logic model can be analyzed deductively, i.e. by tracking causality in reverse from undesirable 'top' events to identify faults that may be present in the system. The result of this deductive analysis is a set of prime implicants for a user-defined system top event. The prime implicants represent all the combinations of basic component conditions and software input conditions that may result in the top event; they are the extension to multi-valued logic of the concept of minimal cut sets that is used routinely in the analysis of binary fault trees. This paper discusses why prime implicants are needed in the dependability analysis of software controlled systems, how they are generated, and how they are used to identify faults in a software controlled system.

  17. The Critical Aspect on Fair Value Accounting And Its Implication To Islamic Financial Institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Majid


    Full Text Available The Critical Aspect on Fair Value Accounting And Its Implication To Islamic Financial Institutions. Fair value accounting (FVA paradigm replaced the historical cost accounting (HCA in the development of accounting standards that FVA is more relevant that HCA probably did not provide the real financial and income information. This paper tries to explore critical aspects of the fair value accounting and its implications to Islamic Financial Institutions implications. This study concludes that that fair value accounting measurement provides many critical aspects to be implemented to Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs. AAOIFI proposed cash equivalent value as respond to fair value measurement that cash equivalent value when the attribute condition are present such as the relevance, reliability and understandability of the resulting information  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i2.1236

  18. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy. (United States)

    Roberts, James A.


    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  19. Climate change and energy: The implications for the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Arriaga, J. I.


    This paper examines the mutual implications between the climate change problem and the actual energy-at-a-crossroads situation of the unsustainable world energy model. The implications for the Spanish case are studied as a case example. The paper provides a brief review of the scientific evidence on climate change, analyzes the causes of the present energy dilemma and characterizes the problem to be addressed. The principal challenge for the future climate regime is to identify the nature and level of commitment that will provide sufficient incentives for all countries, with such a diversity of interests. The paper also exposes the most plausible framework for the future climate regime, the basic components of such a regime, the role to be played by the major stake holders and some guidelines for future negotiations. (Author)

  20. Coprorhexy, coprophagy, and coprochaly in the copepods Calanus helgolandicus, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Oithona similis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Morten; Poulsen, Louise K.


    Studies of fecal pellet flux show that a large percentage of pellets produced in the upper ocean is degraded within the surface waters. It is therefore important to investigate these degradation mechanisms to understand the role of fecal pellets in the oceanic carbon cycle. Degradation of pellets...

  1. Population genetics of drifting (Calanus spp.) and resident (Acartia clausi) plankton in Norwegian fjords

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bucklin, A.; Kaartvedt, S.; Guarnieri, M.; Goswami, U.

    fjords may be determined by local production (Aksnes and Magnesen, 1983). Thus, closed and open fjords may differ in zooplankton species’ composi- tion and in the degree to which populations of a given species are resident (i.e. self.... Introduction Fjords differ in their degree of exchange with open coastal waters. The biological and physical dynamics of open fjords are thought to be determined largely by advection (Aksnes et al., 1989; Giske et al., 1991), while abundances in more closed...

  2. Live discrimination of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus females: can we trust phenological differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Kjellerup, Sanne; Smolina, Irina


    and revealed no hybrids. Molecular identification confirmed that live females of the two species from Greenlandic waters, both East and West, can easily be separated by the red pigmentation of the antenna and somites of C. glacialis in contrast to the pale opaque antenna and somites of C. finmarchicus......, confirming that the pigmentation criterion is valid for separation of the two species....... finmarchicus from Disko Bay, western Greenland. Our analysis confirms that length cannot be used as a stand-alone criterion for separation. The results based on the new morphological character were verified genetically using a single mitochondrial marker (16S) and nuclear loci (six microsatellites and 12 In...

  3. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world. (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian


    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumleve, T D [Plowshare Systems Research Division, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  5. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles


    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  6. Literature and the Sarau: Political Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Pivetta de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the phenomenon of the cultural gatherings that currently take place in the urban peripheries of Brazil’s larger cities, such as, for example, Sarau da Cooperifa, organized by Sérgio Vaz, and Sarau Suburbano, managed by Alessandro Buzo, both in São Paulo. We attempt to understand how they are organized and the cultural functions they perform in the context of a debate on literature as a cultural practice (Williams 1977; 2015 with aesthetic and political implications (Rancière 1996; 2009.

  7. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles


    Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  8. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.


    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  9. Implications of Capital Punishment in the Nigerian Society | Uche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, opinion pool seems high on ways of moving Nigeria forward, however, mute indifference and cold passivity have characterized the cherished dreams of most Nigerians. The over emphasis on material gains have compounded and increased criminal tendencies in Nigerians. A systematic look at the implications of ...

  10. Eye mechanics and their implications for eye movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Ansgar Roald


    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of the mechanical properties of the oculomotor system and the implications of these properties for eye movement control. The investigation was conducted by means of computer models and simulations. This allowed us to combine data from anatomy, physiology

  11. Complications of Diabetes and Their Implications for Service Providers. (United States)

    Ponchillia, S. V.


    This article presents information on the complications of both Type I and Type II diabetes and the implications for the rehabilitation of persons with diabetes and visual impairment. Topics covered include retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic hand syndrome, neuropathy of the autonomic nervous…

  12. Computer Vision Syndrome: Implications for the Occupational Health Nurse. (United States)

    Lurati, Ann Regina


    Computers and other digital devices are commonly used both in the workplace and during leisure time. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a new health-related condition that negatively affects workers. This article reviews the pathology of and interventions for CVS with implications for the occupational health nurse.

  13. The evolutionary strata of DARPP-32 tail implicates hierarchical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The evolutionary strata of DARPP-32 tail implicates hierarchical functional expansion in higher vertebrates. CHOONG YONG UNG and TEOW CHONG TEOH. Supplementary data 1. Protein sequences of PPP1R1 family from 39 vertebrate species in FASTA format. Supplementary data 2. Multiple sequence alignment results ...

  14. Piaget's Theories and Some Possible Implications for Educational Television. (United States)

    Bliss, Joan; And Others


    Details Piaget's four stages in the cognitive development of children--the sensorimotor period, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage--and discusses their implications for the planning and design of programs for instructional television, and possible effects on mental development and the cognitive…

  15. LDC nuclear power prospects, 1975--1990: commercial, economic, and security implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The potential market for products of the U. S. nuclear industry in the lesser developed countries is evaluated. The political, economic, and security implications of U. S. nuclear technology exports to these countries are analyzed. Information is presented under the following headings: energy projections and economic change in less developed countries; comparative costs of nuclear and conventional power; the general policy environment and its effect on the nuclear power market potential; assessment of U. S. and foreign capabilities in the international competitive environment for production and sale of nuclear power plant products and services; and assessment of international and domestic implications of expanding exports of U. S. nuclear products to less developed countries. (U.S.)

  16. Consumerism and consumer complexity: implications for university teaching and teaching evaluation. (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A


    A contemporary issue is the effects of a corporate production metaphor and consumerism on university education. Efforts by universities to attract students and teaching strategies aimed at 'adult learners' tend to treat student consumers as a homogeneous group with similar expectations. In this paper, I argue that consumer groups are not uniform. I use Dagevos' theoretical approach to categorize consumers as calculating, traditional, unique, and responsible. Based on the characteristics of consumers occupying these categories, I describe the implications of the varying consumer expectations for teaching. I also consider the implications for evaluation of teaching and call for research taking consumer types into account when evaluating teaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kant on mental disorder. Part 2: philosophical implications of Kant's account. (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick


    This paper considers various philosophical problems arising from Kant's account of mental disorder. Starting with the reasons why Kant considered his theory of mental disorder important, I then turn to the implications of this theory of Kant's metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. Given Kant's account of insanity as 'a totally different standpoint... from which one sees all objects differently' (7: 216), the Critique of Pure Reason should be read as offering a more social epistemology than typically recognized. Also, mental disorders that seem to undermine human freedom and rationality raise problems for Kant's moral philosophy that his pragmatic anthropology helps to mitigate. Finally, I propose some implications of Kant's account of mental disorder for contemporary work on mental illness.

  18. Limitation of third party nuclear liability. Causes, implications and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, M.


    Third party liability of the nuclear power generation industry is discussed. It has several purposes. One is to clarify the distinctive features of nuclear liability as compared with traditional liability in tort. Particular interest is devoted to one such feature, namely the express liability limitation from which the nuclear power generation industry benefits. The causes and implications of this feature are discussed. One important implication of the current order is that the top risk of the nuclear power generation industry is explicitly or implicitly transferred to governments. This risk transfer can be regarded as a subsidy to the nuclear power generation industry. Subsidizations counteract efficiency. Therefore, the possibilities of neutralizing or abolishing the subsidy are explored. (author)

  19. The economics of energy policy in China. Implications for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongxiang Zhang


    This book is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change. The book provides 1) an analysis of the Chinese energy system in order to shed light on its implications for China's future CO 2 emissions; 2) a macroeconomic analysis of CO 2 emission limits for China, using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and 3) a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model. (UK)

  20. Ethical implications and decision making in care education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layse Kelle Silva


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals.