WorldWideScience

Sample records for calamares loligo plei

  1. Aspectos biológicos del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi (Cephalopodo: Loliginidae) en Huarmey, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Cardoso; Juan Tarazona; Carlos Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la biología del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi Orbigny sobre la base de muestreos provenientes de las capturas de la pesquería artesanal de Huarmey, Perú), entre febrero y marzo de 1985. Se analizaron las características de la estructura poblacional, reproducción y alimentación.

  2. Aspectos biológicos del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi (Cephalopodo: Loliginidae en Huarmey, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi Orbigny sobre la base de muestreos provenientes de las capturas de la pesquería artesanal de Huarmey, Perú, entre febrero y marzo de 1985. Se analizaron las características de la estructura poblacional, reproducción y alimentación.

  3. Morfometría comparada de los estatolitos del calamar Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) del norte de Perú e islas Falkland

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Marco A.; Rocha, Francisco; Osorio, Cecilia

    2001-01-01

    A total of 241 statoliths were analyzed: 141 belonging to Loligo gahi from the Northern Perú (70 left statoliths and 71 right statoliths) corresponding to 34 males and 47 females, and 100 from the Falkland Islands (50 left statoliths and 50 right statoliths) corresponding to 35 males and 23 females. Total length (TL), dome length (DL) and face length (FL) were measured, determining in each specimen the mantle dorsal length (ML) and sex. The measures became quotients of ML, and were compared u...

  4. Morfometría comparada de los estatolitos del calamar Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) del norte de Perú e islas Falkland Compared morphometry of squid statoliths Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) of northern Perú and Falkland islands

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Marco A.; Francisco J. Rocha; Cecilia Osorio

    2001-01-01

    Se analizó un total de 241 estatolitos: 141 pertenecientes a Loligo gahi del norte del Perú (70 estatolitos izquierdos y 71 derechos) correspondientes a 34 machos y 47 hembras, y 100 de las islas Falkland (50 estatolitos izquierdos y 50 derechos) correspondientes a 35 machos y 23 hembras. En cada estatolito se midió longitud total (LT), longitud del domo (LD) y longitud del rostro (LR), determinándose en cada ejemplar la longitud dorsal del manto (LM) y sexo. Las medidas se transformaron como...

  5. Morfometría comparada de los estatolitos del calamar Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae del norte de Perú e islas Falkland Compared morphometry of squid statoliths Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae of northern Perú and Falkland islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Vega

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó un total de 241 estatolitos: 141 pertenecientes a Loligo gahi del norte del Perú (70 estatolitos izquierdos y 71 derechos correspondientes a 34 machos y 47 hembras, y 100 de las islas Falkland (50 estatolitos izquierdos y 50 derechos correspondientes a 35 machos y 23 hembras. En cada estatolito se midió longitud total (LT, longitud del domo (LD y longitud del rostro (LR, determinándose en cada ejemplar la longitud dorsal del manto (LM y sexo. Las medidas se transformaron como cocientes de LM, comparándose mediante análisis discriminante. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los estatolitos izquierdo y derecho en ambos sexos y en ambas áreas, por lo que se compararon sólo los del lado derecho. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre machos y hembras del norte de Perú así como entre ambos sexos de las islas Falkland. También se hallaron diferencias significativas para individuos del mismo sexo entre ambas zonas. Se discute la significación de las diferencias encontradas entre los estatolitos de L. gahi del Perú e islas FalklandA total of 241 statoliths were analyzed: 141 belonging to Loligo gahi from the Northern Perú (70 left statoliths and 71 right statoliths corresponding to 34 males and 47 females, and 100 from the Falkland Islands (50 left statoliths and 50 right statoliths corresponding to 35 males and 23 females. Total length (TL, dome length (DL and face length (FL were measured, determining in each specimen the mantle dorsal length (ML and sex. The measures became quotients of ML, and were compared using discriminant analysis. Significant differences between the left statolith and the rigth statolith were not observed in either sex, reason why those of the right hand side were compared. Significant differences between males and females from the North of Perú were found as well as between both sexes from those of the Falkland Islands. There were also significant differences for individuals of the

  6. Crecimiento y reclutamiento del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Perú (1991 a 1994).

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, Juan

    1996-01-01

    Presenta las características biológicas y poblacionales del calamar gigante a fin de establecer las medidas adecuadas de explotación. Se aprecia que el calamar presenta una alta tasa de crecimiento pudiendo alcanzar tallas de 41 a 53 cm. al año de edad y se revela la presencia de dos pulsos anuales de reclutamiento, los que involucran varios meses durante primavera-verano y otoño-invierno.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Changwen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence. The genome was 17,370 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 3 main non-coding regions. The composition and order of genes, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of L. opalescence is A 38.62%, C 19.40%, T 32.37% and G 9.61%, with a highly A + T bias of 70.99%. All of the three control regions (CR) contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Loliginidae. PMID:25703845

  8. Relaciones ontogénicas y espacio-temporales en la dieta del calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en Perú, utilizando un Modelo Aditivo Generalizado

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre Norza Sior, Ana Renza Paola

    2011-01-01

    El calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (d'Orbigny, 1835) es un depredador importante en el ecosistema del Perú. Se postula que el papel del calamar gigante varía teniendo en cuenta la talla, tiempo, hora, temperatura y distribución espacial. Para comprobar esta hipótesis se aplicó un modelo aditivo generalizado (GAM) en datos biológicos de alimentación de 4178 calamares gigantes capturados por la flota industrial pesquera a lo largo del litoral peruano (3ºS a 18ºS) desde 2 a 299 millas náuticas (...

  9. Model of Auctioneer Estimation of Swordtip Squid (Loligo edulis) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Matsumoto, Keisuke; Morimoto, Eiji; Ezoe, Satoru; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hirano, Takayuki

    The knowledge of experienced auctioneers regarding the circulation of marine products is an essential skill and is necessary for evaluating product quality and managing aspects such as freshness. In the present study, the ability of an auctioneer to quickly evaluate the freshness of swordtip squid (Loligo edulis) at fish markets was analyzed. Evaluation characteristics used by an auctioneer were analyzed and developed using a fuzzy logic model. Forty boxes containing 247 swordtip squid with mantles measuring 220 mm that had been evaluated and assigned to one of five quality categories by an auctioneer were used for the analysis and the modeling. The relationships between the evaluations of appearance, body color, and muscle freshness were statistically analyzed. It was found that a total of four indexes of the epidermis color strongly reflected evaluations of appearance: dispersion ratio of the head, chroma on the head-end mantle and the difference in the chroma and brightness of the mantle. The fuzzy logic model used these indexes for the antecedent-part of the linguistic rules. The results of both simulation and evaluations demonstrate that the model is robust, with the predicted results corresponding with more than 96% of the quality assignments of the auctioneers.

  10. Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán Ponce-Díaz; Luis Almendarez-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empresas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas calamareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades represent...

  11. Composición de tallas de la captura de calamar gigante en el Golfo de California durante 1981

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Rodríguez, Mauricio; Klett Traulsen, Alexander

    1985-01-01

    La Pesquería de Calamar Gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en el Golfo de California tuvo un notable desarrollo durante los años de 1978 a 1980, pasando de una producción de 2,000 t en el primero a 22,400 t en el último. Ese marcado incremento estuvo íntimamente asociado con la aplicación de un mayor esfuerzo de pesca. En 1981 las capturas sufrieron un decrecimiento muy significativo, causando la crísis de la pesquería y desde 1982 el recurso dejó de presentarse en el área, terminando de esta manera s...

  12. Estudio preliminar del sistema reproductor del Calamar Gigante del Golfo de Baja California Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1935) Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Báez, Rosa Isabel

    1980-01-01

    El calamar gigante del Golfo California es un recurso potencial de gran importancia para México. Como base para estudiar el ciclo de madurez gonadal, se describe el sistema reproductor de ejemplares colectados durante 1980. En las hembras existe un ovario, un par de glándulas nidamentales y un par de glándulas nidamentales accesorias; en su histología presenta ovocitos de diversos estadios de maduración con células foliculares en cordones. La maduración avanzada coincide con la presencia de p...

  13. Distribución de Tallas y Condición Reproductiva del Calamar Gigante Dosidicus Gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) en el Golfo de California

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Abunader, J.I.; Nevárez Martínez, M.O.; Hernández Herrera, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    Se analizaron cambios en la distribución de tallas, número de cohortes y condición reproductiva del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas utilizando muestras provenientes de siete cruceros oceanográficos de investigación, efectuados en la región central del Golfo de California, México de 1997 a 2008. En todas las estaciones se muestrearon hasta 25 ejemplares registrando longitud del manto, sexo y fase de madurez gonádica y cuando la captura lo permitió, se realizó un muestreo masivo de 100 ejemplar...

  14. Characterization, localization and function of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of Aplysia and Loligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has characterized pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia and the cephalopod Loligo using [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting with G protein specific antisera. As in vertebrates, this class of G protein is associated with membranes and enriched in nervous tissue in Aplysia. Analysis of dissected Aplysia ganglia reveal that it is enriched in neuropil, a region containing most of the central nervous system synapses. Because both Aplysia and Loligo synaptosomes are enriched in pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, it is likely that they are found in synaptic terminals. Fractionation of Aplysia synaptosomes into membrane and vesicle fractions reveals that, although the majority of G protein is recovered in the plasma membrane fraction, a small proportion is recovered in the vesicle fraction. He shows that G proteins are on intracellular membranes by ADP-ribosylating extruded axoplasm with pertussis toxin. A plausible explanation for vesicular localization of G protein in axoplasm is that G proteins are transported to terminals on vesicles. He has shown, using ligature experiments with Aplysia connectives and temperature block experiments in the giant axon of Loligo, that G proteins move by anterograde fast axonal transport. Injection of pertussis toxin into the identified Aplysia neuron L10 blocks histamine-induced presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release. This suggests that pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins play a role in modulating transmitter release at synaptic terminals. In the giant synapse of Loligo, he presents preliminary data that demonstrates that the activation of G proteins in the presynaptic terminal results in decreased transmitter release

  15. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Jose; Sauer, Warwick H H; McKeown, Niall J; Shaw, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings) wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1) unique sire; 2) dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3) randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires); and 4) a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection. PMID:26872354

  16. Irradiación gamma en anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) : Aspectos tecnológicos y de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió desde un abordaje multidisciplinario el efecto de la irradiación gamma sobre dos productos pesqueros, a fin de analizar la factibilidad de extender su vida comercial en refrigeración. Se utilizaron dos productos que difieren en su composición y preservación: anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) frescas y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita). En distintas experiencias se aplicó la irradiación gamma mediante una fuente de Cobalto-60, en la planta de irradiación semi...

  17. Validación histológica de los estadios de madurez gonádica de las hembras de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en el Golfo de California, México

    OpenAIRE

    JG Díaz-Uribe; A Hernández-Herrera; E Morales-Bojórquez; S Martínez-Aguilar; MC Suárez-Higuera; A Hernández-López

    2006-01-01

    Se analizó la estructura de ovocitos en las gónadas de hembras de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas), para validar los estadios morfocromáticos de madurez sexual, basados en una escala de seis etapas. Las muestras fueron obtenidas quincenalmente en el área de Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, entre junio del 2001 y noviembre del 2002. De cada gónada se obtuvieron cortes histológicos para contar el número de ovocitos en cada nivel de desarrollo. Con la frecuencia de ovocitos en cada nivel de ...

  18. La modificación del ecosistema marino reflejada en las poblaciones de las especies de calamares Dosidicus gigas, Illex coindetii, Illex argentinus, Todarodes sagittatus, Doryteuthis gahi y Onykia ingens Dinámica y función de los calamares en los ecosistemas Marine ecosystem change in the squid populations of Dosidicus gigas, Illex coindetii, Illex argentinus, Todarodes sagittatus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens Dynamic and function of squid species in the ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Luis, Rigoberto

    2013-01-01

    [spa] En esta tesis se revisaron las relaciones que existen entre las poblaciones de dos especies de calamares ommastréfidos Dosidicus gigas y Illex argentinus con las series temporales de la temperatura superficial del mar, clorofila a y las estimaciones de biomasa zooplanctónica, lo que resultó en la comprensión de que la temperatura puede afectar directamente a las poblaciones de organismos productores primarios y a los integrantes del zooplancton, y no así a los organismos juveniles y a...

  19. Chromatographic Characterization and GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Constituents with Antimicrobial Potential from the Pigmented Ink of Loligo duvauceli

    OpenAIRE

    Girija, Smiline; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Kuppusamy, Pandi Suba; Gajendran, Hariprasad; Rajagopal, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic characterization and the GC-MS evaluation of the black pigmented ink of Loligo duvauceli in the present study have yielded an array of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial property. Facing an alarm of antimicrobial resistance globally, a need for elucidating antimicrobial agents from natural sources will be the need for the hour. In this view, this study is aimed at characterizing the black pigmented ink of the Indian squid L. duvauceli. The squid ink was subjected to...

  20. Reclamation of Loligo duvauceli (Orbigny, 1848 Digestive Gland (Liver Waste for the Extraction of Oil and its Lipid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madeswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt was made to isolate the fatty acids from the digestive gland of cephalopod squid Loligo duvauceli. Generally fish and their by-products are the major natural sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, both of them plays a vital role in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The percentage yield of oil extracted was found to be 40.17. In the liver oil, the total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and free fatty acid contents were found to be 2.445 mg g-1, 295.45, 204.28, 45.88 0, 99.31, 59.09 and 10.67 mg dL-1, respectively. The fatty acid profile was also analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA, PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid and (Multi Unsaturated Fatty acids MUFA were found to be 70.31, 2.30 and 6.99%, respectively. In the search of new potential source for fish oil, the present study brought out the possibility of the usage of digestive gland of cephalopod as a potent alternative source.

  1. Biological patterns of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in the slope trawl fishery off Brazil Patrones biológicos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en la pesquería de arrastre en el talud continental de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial exploitation of the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus was virtually non-existent in Brazilian waters until 2000 when foreign trawlers initiated their operations on slope grounds as part of a government-induced chartering program. Since then, the species has been included among the targets of a developing slope trawl fishing off southeastern and southern Brazil. Biological samples were collected from commercial catches of 25 national and seven foreign (chartered trawlers between 23°-33°S and 170-740 m depth. These samples represent two periods of the commercial exploitation of Illex argentinus in Brazil: 2001-2003, when both chartered and national trawlers operated simultaneously, and 2006-2007, when only national vessels continued to exploit I. argentinus along with other slope stocks. Catches contained immature and ma-turing squid throughout the year, as well as at least two distinct, fully mature, spawning groups: one composed of small-sized males and females present year-round on the shelf-break/ upper slope (La explotación comercial del calamar argentino (Illex argentinus no existía en aguas brasilenas hasta el año 2000, cuando buques extranjeros iniciaron sus operaciones en el talud como parte de un programa gubernamental de arrendamiento. Desde entonces la especie forma parte de un conjunto de recursos que han motivado el desarrollo de una pesquería de arrastre en el talud del sur y sureste de Brasil. Se colectaron muestras biológicas de las capturas comerciales de 25 buques arrastreros nacionales y siete extranjeros entre los paralelos 23°-33°S y en profundidades de 170 a 740 m. Estas muestras representaron dos periodos de la explotación comercial de I. argentinus en Brasil: 2001-2003, cuando buques nacionales y extranjeros operaron simultáneamente, y 2006-2007 cuando sólo buques nacionales permanecieron explotando el calamar argentino en conjunto con otros recursos del talud. Las capturas estuvieron

  2. Differential expression of the FMRF gene in adult and hatchling stellate ganglia of the squid Loligo pealei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter H. Burbach

    2013-12-01

    The giant fiber system of the squid Loligo pealei mediates the escape response and is an important neurobiological model. Here, we identified an abundant transcript in the stellate ganglion (SG that encodes a FMRFamide precursor, and characterized FMRFamide and FI/LRF-amide peptides. To determine whether FMRFamide plays a role in the adult and hatchling giant fiber system, we studied the expression of the Fmrf gene and FMRFamide peptides. In stage 29 embryos and stage 30 hatchlings, Ffmr transcripts and FMRFamide peptide were low to undetectable in the SG, in contrast to groups of neurons intensely expressing the Fmrf gene in several brain lobes, including those that innervate the SG. In the adult SG the Fmrf gene was highly expressed, but the FMRFamide peptide was in low abundance. Intense staining for FMRFamide in the adult SG was confined to microneurons and fibers in the neuropil and to small fibers surrounding giant axons in stellar nerves. This shows that the Fmrf gene in the SG is strongly regulated post-hatching, and suggests that the FMRFamide precursor is incompletely processed in the adult SG. The data suggest that the SG only employs the Fmrf gene post-hatching and restricts the biosynthesis of FMRFamide, demonstrating that this peptide is not a major transmitter of the giant fiber system. This contrasts with brain lobes that engage FMRFamide embryonically as a regulatory peptide in multiple neuronal systems, including the afferent fibers that innervate the SG. The biological significance of these mechanisms may be to generate diversity within Fmrf-expressing systems in cephalopods.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Oka, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Yoshinori; Amiya, Noriko; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri, by performing a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the spear-squid brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve, indicating the existence of a cGnRH-II-like peptide in the brain. For immunohistochemistry, a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of GnRH (LRH13) and a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II were used. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (that reacted with LRH13) were mainly detected in the central part of the ventral magnocellular lobe (vmL), and a few cell bodies were also detected in the olfactory lobe and palliovisceral lobe (pvL). Bundles of GnRH-like-ir axons were observed running from the vmL to the internal brain regions. GnRH-like-ir fibers were widely distributed in almost all the brain regions. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were localized in the optic gland, outer region of the vmL, and pvL. Further, cGnRH-II-ir fibers were distributed in the wide areas of the brain. These results suggest that at least two forms of GnRH-like peptidergic neuronal systems exist in the spear-squid brain. PMID:18313672

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of calexcitin from Loligo pealei: a neuronal protein implicated in learning and memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant squid calexcitin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the orthorhombic space group P212121. The neuronal protein calexcitin from the long-finned squid Loligo pealei has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Calexcitin is a 22 kDa calcium-binding protein that becomes up-regulated in invertebrates following Pavlovian conditioning and is likely to be involved in signal transduction events associated with learning and memory. Recombinant squid calexcitin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the orthorhombic space group P212121. The unit-cell parameters of a = 46.6, b = 69.2, c = 134.8 Å suggest that the crystals contain two monomers per asymmetric unit and have a solvent content of 49%. This crystal form diffracts X-rays to at least 1.8 Å resolution and yields data of high quality using synchrotron radiation

  5. Kebiasaan makan dan komposisi makanan tiga species cumi (Loligo edulis, Sepioteuthis lessoniana dan Sepia officinalis hasil tangkapan nelayan dari Perairan Pantai Utara Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Ismail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kebiasaan makan dan komposisi makanan tiga species cumi hasil tangkapan nelayan dari perairan pantai Utara Provinsi Aceh mulai April sampai Mei 2013. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode penarikan contoh secara acak sederhana yaitu dengan mengambil sampel secara acak yang mewakili semua ukuran cumi yang ad. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis makanan yang dijumpai pada lambung Loligo edulis adalah ikan (75,1%, udang (20,5% dan cumi (4,4%; pada lambung Sepia offisinalis diperoleh jenis makanan; ikan (89,9%, udang (10% dan kepiting (0,29%; dan pada Sepioteuthis lessoniana ikan (99,9% dan cacing (0,1%. Sehingga dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa ketiga species yang diteliti karnivora dengan ikan-ikan kecil dan udang sebagai makanan utama.

  6. Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, T. Aran; Hanlon, Roger T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    extinguished at all frequencies if (1) water temperatures were less than 8°C, (2) statocysts were ablated, or (3) recording electrodes were placed in locations other than near the statocysts. Both the AEP response characteristics and the range of responses suggest that squid detect sound similarly to most fish......Although hearing has been described for many underwater species, there is much debate regarding if and how cephalopods detect sound. Here we quantify the acoustic sensitivity of the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) using near-field acoustic and shaker-generated acceleration stimuli. Sound field......, with the statocyst acting as an accelerometer through which squid detect the particle motion component of a sound field. The modality and frequency range indicate that squid probably detect acoustic particle motion stimuli from both predators and prey as well as low-frequency environmental sound signatures that may...

  7. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO2. → We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. → Increasing pCO2 affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. → Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO2. → Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the ocean, which may reach 950 μatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO2) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO2 (380, 850 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pHT of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110mAg, 109Cd, 57Co, 203Hg, 54Mn and 65Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110mAg, 203Hg and 65Zn were affected by the pCO2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO2 enhanced the uptake of both 110mAg and 65Zn while 203Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO2. 65Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO2. Conversely, uptake of 109Cd and 54Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing pCO2. Only the accumulation of 57

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Reveillac, E. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs) UMR 6250 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, Institut du Littoral et de l' Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); School of the Environment, Science Faculty, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007 (Australia); Gattuso, J.P. [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO{sub 2}. {yields} We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. {yields} Increasing pCO{sub 2} affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. {yields} Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO{sub 2}. {yields} Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in the ocean, which may reach 950 {mu}atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO{sub 2}) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO{sub 2} (380, 850 and 1500 {mu}atm corresponding to pH{sub T} of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 203}Hg and {sup 65}Zn were affected by the pCO{sub 2} treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO{sub 2} enhanced the uptake of both {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 65}Zn while {sup 203}Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO{sub 2}. {sup 65}Zn

  9. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.

  10. Efecto de la calidad del agua y tamaño de partícula en la producción de quitosano a partir de B-quitina extraída de desperdicios de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rocha-Pino; Shirai, K.; L. Arias; H. Vázquez-Torres

    2008-01-01

    La pluma de calamar gigante es una fuente importante de B-quitina, la cual tiene un arreglo de cadenas en forma paralela que le da un carácter particular en sus propiedades tales como, alta reactividad, afinidad en disolventes orgánicos y retención de agua. La extracción de la B-quitina se realizó con el método químico, el cual consistió en desmineralización (DM) probando HCl 0.2M ó 1M, posteriormente se realizó la desproteinización (DP) con NaOH en concentraciones de 0.2M a 2M. La DP total, ...

  11. Calamares omastréfidos (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, N.E.; Ivanovic, M.L.; Elena, B.

    1998-01-01

    An update of the knowledge on the three most important ommastrephid species that inhabit the SW Atlantic: Illex argentinus, Martialia hyadesi and Ommastrephes bartramii, is presented. Up to the moment, only I.argentinus was intensively studied. Its distribution, population structure, reproduction, growth and paralarval development are analyzed, togheter with other aspects of its biology, such as feeding, predators and parasites. Also its utilization for human consmption is considered. Regardi...

  12. Feeding habits of the cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the diet of the adult cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro, through stomach content analysis. The sampling included 350 specimens measuring between 100 and 163cm in total length, collected from 2004 to 2006. For each prey species, the frequency of occurrence, density and biomass, body length and weight, and Index of Relative Importance (IRI were calculated. The cannibalistic feeding behavior of the cutlassfish was also recorded. According to the IRI, the preferential prey species were the fishes T. lepturus, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Odontognathus mucronatus, Stellifer brasiliensis and Isophisthus parvipinnis, and the crustacean Pleoticus muelleri. The cephalopods Loligo sanpaulensis and L. plei occurred occasionally in the stomach contents analyzed. The diet of T. lepturus in northern Rio de Janeiro was composed of pelagic and demersal prey species, associated with estuarine and coastal areas. The fish species and one crustacean species were the most representative items in its diet.

  13. Evaluation of alternative sources of collagen fractions from Loligo vulgaris squid mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Natascia; Bonani, Walter; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Acid-Solubilized Collagen (ASC) and Pepsin-Solubilized Collagen (PSC) were extracted from the mantle of the common European squid, and were comparatively characterized. ASC and PSC were isolated with an extraction yield of 5.1 and 24.2% (on dry weight basis), respectively. SDS-PAGE showed that the ASC was mostly comprised of α1- and α2-chains; while the PSC presented relevant β- and γ-components. GPC analysis confirmed that both the ASC and the PSC consisted of fractions characterized by different molecular weight. Thermal denaturation behavior of ASC and PSC were followed by calorimetric and rheological analyses; denaturation temperature was estimated to be 22°C for ASC and 21°C for PSC. Amino acid composition and solubility of collagen were also investigated. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the isolated collagen was evaluated in vitro and no cytotoxic activity caused by the collagen extracts was observed. This study demonstrated that squid mantle has potential as an alternative source of collagen-derived materials. PMID:26972602

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Squid (Loligo Spp.) Tissues of Kedah-Perlis Waters, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in three different tissues collected from the ink-sac, head, and muscle of the squid. Squid samples were caught off the coastal waters of Kedah-Perlis, where only mature squids within the maturity size-range of 13 to 15 cm were used. From this study, the concentration of Zn (35.06 ± 4.06 mg/ kg in dry weight) was found significantly higher in all of the tissues, followed by Cu (15.10 ± 13.28 mg/ kg in dry weight), Cd (4.76 ± 3.77 mg/ kg in dry weight), and Pb with an average value of 4.01 ± 0.08 mg/ kg in dry weight. From this study, it was discovered that Zn and Cu concentrations in the tissues were lower than the maximum limit recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization, Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), as well as other countries. Meanwhile, both non-essential elements namely Cd and Pb recorded higher values than that of the recommended concentrations. According to the Metal Pollution Index (MPI), the ink-sac indicated medium-range contamination, while the head and muscle tissues showed low contamination levels. (author)

  15. Intense ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, Roger T.; Tyack, Peter L; Madsen, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales use intense ultrasonic clicks to echolocate prey and it has been hypothesized that they also acoustically debilitate their prey with these intense sound pulses to facilitate capture. Cephalopods are an important food source for toothed whales, and there has probably been an evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating ...

  16. THE BEHAVIOR OF LOLIGO OPALESCENS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) AS OBSERVED BY A REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE (ROV). (R825381)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Intense ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, R.T.; Tyack, P.L.;

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales use intense ultrasonic clicks to echolocate prey and it has been hypothesized that they also acoustically debilitate their prey with these intense sound pulses to facilitate capture. Cephalopods are an important food source for toothed whales, and there has probably been an...... evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating bats, and it can be hypothesized that cephalopods might have evolved similar ultrasound detection as an......) do not acoustically debilitate this cephalopod species....

  18. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus) collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Piras; Giannina Chessa; Maurizio Cossu; Federica Rubattu; Gianuario Fiori

    2013-01-01

    Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; ...

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF SQUID PARALARVAE, LOLIGO OPALESCENS (CEPHALOPODA: MYOPSIDA), IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT IN THE THREE YEARS FOLLOWING THE 1997 EL NINO. (R825381)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. The everyday-life in neanderthal times: a full-immersive Pleistocene reconstruction for the Casal De' Pazzi Museum (Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Palombini

    2012-11-01

    movie in computer-graphic, to be shown to the public, explaining neanderthal man and ancient elephant's life, and an edu-game, for children's learning, the Plei-stostation, implemented by touch-screen interaction dynamics.

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2284 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2284 ref|NP_062836.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo bleekeri] s...DH dehydrogenase 6 [Loligo bleekeri] dbj|BAB03648.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo bleekeri] NP_062836.1 0.11 35% ...

  2. AcEST: DK952636 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|Q17094|OPSD_LOLSU Rhodopsin (Fragment) OS=Loligo subulata GN=... 34 0.55 sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbes...QGYPPQGYPPQGYPPQ---GYPPP 419 >sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN

  3. 75 FR 37739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Butterfish Fisheries in the Federal Register on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5537). The final rule modified... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment to the Loligo Trimester 2... Fishing Year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. This action complies with the 2010...

  4. 76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Loligo was set at 3,384 mt (76 FR 8306, February 14, 2011). Due to an under harvest of the Trimester 1... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  5. AcEST: DK959676 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mined scaffold_7, whole... 40 0.15 tr|B2ZTQ5|B2ZTQ5_LOLBL Muscle myosin heavy chain OS=Loligo bleek... 38 0....QKLNQSEDIIEQLQKDKSQLQLELEQLKEGSNLEKVQILQELSNAK 585 >tr|B2ZTQ5|B2ZTQ5_LOLBL Muscle myosin heavy chain OS=Loligo blee

  6. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    -colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

  7. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos de medidas de conformação, produção de leite e idade ao primeiro parto em vacas da raça Gir Leiteiro Estimate of genetic parameters of conformation traits, milk production and age at first calving in dairy Gyr breed cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Arias Wenceslau

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Foram utilizados 573 registros zootécnicos de vacas primíparas da raça Gir Leiteiro para estimar os componentes de (covariância das características de conformação, produção de leite em até 305 dias de lactação (PLEI e idade ao primeiro parto (IPP pelo Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML. Esses componentes foram utilizados no cálculo dos coeficientes de herdabilidade e nas correlações genéticas, fenotípicas e residuais. As medidas de conformação, circunferência torácica (CTOR, altura na garupa (AG, comprimento corporal (CC, comprimento de tetas (CT, diâmetro de tetas (DT e altura de úbere (AU foram realizadas em vacas à primeira lactação, com idade média de 4,05 anos. As correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre PLEI e IPP foram 0,49 e 0,18, respectivamente. As correlações genéticas entre as características foram: PLEI x CTOR = -0,37; PLEI x AG = -0,62; PLEI x CC = -0,52; PLEI x CT = -0,08; PLEI x DT = -0,12; PLEI x AU = -0,69; IPP x CTOR = -0,05; IPP x AG = -0,37; e IPP x CC = 0,25. As estimativas de correlações genéticas entre produção de leite e medidas de tamanho corporal, de modo geral, indicam que a seleção para produção de leite teria, como resposta correlacionada, diminuição do tamanho da vaca.ABSTRACT - Data from 573 primiparous lactating Gyr cows were used to estimate the (co variance components of the conformation traits, milk production up to 305 days of lactation (MP and age at first calving (AFC by REML method. These components were used to calculate heritability coefficients and genetic, phenotypic and residual correlations. The conformation measures, the heart girth (HG, croup height (CH, body length (BL, teats length (TL, teats diameter (TD and udder height (UH were obtained in the cows at first lactation with average age of 4.05 years. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between MP and AFC were 0.49 and 0.18 respectively. The genetic correlation between

  8. Hydrology of Dutch Cirsio-Molinietum meadows: Prospects for restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, A.J.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Jalink, M.H.; Bakker, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    . Fen meadows (Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum) are seriously threatened by desiccation, acidification and eutro-phication. In The Netherlands several projects were launched to restore damaged fen meadows. This review describes how successes and failures of these restoration projects depend on hydrological systems. Six hydrological systems have been distinguished, which all provide the site conditions required by this community. Nowadays, the best developed fen meadows are found in the higher Plei...

  9. Pedo-tephrostratigraphic context of Palaeo-Mesolithic occurrences at Frigento, Hirpinia (Campanian Apennine)

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, F.; Laboratory of Anthropology University of Naples Federico II; Giaccio, B.; Istituto di Geologia ambientale e Geoingegneria CNR Roma; Isaia, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia

    2009-01-01

    For the first time a stratigraphic framework has been provided for several Palaeolithic and possible Mesolithic occurrences of the Campanian Apennine, on the basis of the numerous manifestations recognized at Frigento (Avellino). Knowledge of the Palaeolithic peopling of the mountainous region of southern Italy was, until now, extremely poor. In 2006 a geoarchaeological project identified a stratified sequence comprising four main pedological units intercalated with no less than six Late Plei...

  10. Cephalopod Resources of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Arocha, Freddy

    1989-01-01

    The cephalopod resources of Venezuela are reviewed, based on previous literature and observations from commercial catches. The history of the squid and octopus fishery in the major fishing grounds is presented along with information on the catches and seasonality. Squids are landed in Venezuela throughout the year, with a high in February when most of the catch consists of the arrow squid, Doryteuthis plei. Octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is abundant in the catches from June until October, with a ...

  11. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  12. AcEST: BP917678 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 32 2.1 sp|Q9BY76|ANGL4_HUMAN Angiopoietin-related prote...GP 6 QGY P+GYPP+ P G P PP GP Sbjct: 399 QGYPPQGYPPQGYPPQGYP---PPPQGP 423 >sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbes

  13. AcEST: DK951309 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available V=1 31 2.3 sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 30 6.6 sp|P09241|OPSD_OCTDO Rho...|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 Length = 452 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect

  14. Comparing two radar rainfall products with the help of Multifractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Bompard, Philippe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Distributed rainfall radar data are commonly used in hydrology and increasingly used in urban hydrology. However radar validation and comparison still commonly relies on standard scores such as Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, Correlation and Quadratic Error, which enable to grasp neither the underlying spatio-temporal structure of the studied rainfall field nor meaningful statistics, i.e. of order larger than two. We implement an innovative methodology that relies on Universal Multifractal (UM) to compare two operational radar products covering the Paris region. The UM framework has been extensively used to characterize and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over a wide range of scales such as rainfall with the help of only three parameters, which are furthermore physically meaningful. Both Météo-France operational radar mosaic and the CALAMAR radar product use the same single polarization C-band radar data. However their QPE algorithms are different, as well as the calibration with rain gauges. Cartesian fields of final resolution 1 km in space and 5 min in time are used in this study. Three rainfall events that occurred in 2010 and 2011 are used, in order to quantify the quality of the adjustment process we add to this comparison a non-adjusted CALAMAR radar product. As a first step, we compare these radar products to the Val de Marne County network of 27 rain gauges distributed over a 245 Km2 area. Standard scores at various resolutions (5min, 15min, 30min and 1h) are computed. The Météo France radar product is better correlated with these rain gauges data than both CALAMAR products at 5min scale, but we observe the opposite when we increase the time scale. We also observe that the CALAMAR adjustment process improves the correlation with rain gauges. In a second step, both spatial (2D maps) and temporal (1D time series for each pixel) multifractal analyses are performed and the UM parameters computed. Preliminary results suggest that both products do

  15. Conception et Réalisation D’un Stéthoscope Electronique à affichage numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Kendouci, Samah; Ikhlef, Fatiha

    2014-01-01

    L'invention concerne un stéthoscope électronique possédant un transducteur de vibrations, un amplificateur, un dispositif de casque d'écoute et au moins un filtre numérique permettant d'établir au moins une fonction de transfert d'impulsion correspondant à au moins un type de stéthoscope acoustique. Ainsi, les signaux entendus correspondront à ceux appris et de la sorte, les avantages d'une amplification plus importante et de l'élimination de sources de bruit pourront être plei...

  16. Evolución paleoambiental de la mitad sur de la Península Ibérica. Aplicación a la evaluación del comportamiento de los repositorios de residuos radiactivos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de; Ortiz Menéndez, José Eugenio; Alcalde, Cristina; Badal, E.; Castroviejo Bolibar, Ricardo; R. Cobo; Chacón, Enrique; Delgado, A; Demoustier, A.; Fernández-Gianotti, Jorge; Figueiral, Isabel; Garcia-Amorena Gomez del Moral, Ignacio; García-Martínez, Mª Jesús; Llamas Borrajo, Juan F.; Juliá, R.

    2003-01-01

    Esta publicación refleja los resultados obtenidos de la realización de los proyectos "EQUIP: Evidency from Quaternary Infills Palaeohydrogeology" (F 14W/ CT96/0031), financiado por la UE, "Evolución Paleoclimática de [a Mitad Sur de [a Península Ibérica" financiado por ENRESA y "Paleoclima" financiado por el Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear y ENRESA. La cuenca de Guadix-Baza, sector oriental, es una de las escasas zonas europeas donde se ha conservado un registro razonablemente completo del Pleis...

  17. Formative Feedback to Improve Learning on a Teacher Education Degree using a Personal Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus M B Ross

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an action research projectinvolving a structured, formative assessment feedbackprocess, within a personal learning environment (PLE, toaddress concerns about effectiveness of previous coursedelivery. The project ran during session 2006-07 involvingthe use of a series of tutor mediated self and peer assessedcore tasks associated with five distinct learning milestones.These were associated with identifiable blocks of lecturesdelivered by different staff involved in the programme. Theseries of Core Tasks placed progressively increasingdemands on students so helping them develop moresophisticated learning skills as the year progresses. The PLEis used as the medium for self/peer assessment processes andfor tutor feedback and mediation.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03215-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available from clone CH242-290P9 on chromo... 44 8.9 1 ( X79583 ) L.forbesi mitochondria lrRNA gene. 44 8.9 1 ( CU4678...07 ) H.melpomene DNA sequence from clone AEHM-27I5. 44 8.9 1 ( AF110075 ) Loligo forbesi 16S ribosomal RNA g

  19. Biology and meso-scale distribution patterns of North Sea cephalopods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oesterwin, D.; Hofstede, ter R.; Harley, B.; Brendelberger, H.; Piatkowski, U.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, 132,178 cephalopods were sampled in the North Sea during ICES International Bottom Trawl Surveys. Most abundant were the long-finned squids Alloteuthis subulata (124,751 animals) and Loligo forbesii (3415 animals). Short-finned squids such as Todaropsis eblanae, Todarodes sagi

  20. 50 CFR 648.13 - Transfers at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers at sea. 648.13 Section 648.13... sea. (a) Only vessels issued a Loligo and butterfish moratorium or Illex moratorium permit under § 648... purchased at sea. (c) All persons are prohibited from transferring or attempting to transfer NE...

  1. Hydrolysates from scallop and squid processing byproducts as specialty aquafeed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around 9,000 MT of squid (Loligo pealei) is landed annually in Rhode Island, USA, most of which is processed resulting in 40-50% unutilized byproducts (about 3,500 MT). On the other hand, the sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) resource off New England is currently at historic high levels of 22,7...

  2. 75 FR 70187 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... (75 FR 3092, January 19, 2010). The deadline for submission was March 22, 2010. The project selection... the Loligo fishery, established in 2010 by MSB Amendment 10 (75 FR 11441, March 11, 2010), could.... Section 648.26 as amended at 75 FR 11450, March 11, 2010, effective January 1, 2011, and is...

  3. 75 FR 1024 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., 2003 (68 FR 27516), NMFS published, at the request of the Council, an ANPR indicating that the Council... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Control Date for Loligo and Illex Squid AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. 75 FR 43090 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...-2179, fax (978) 281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 30, 2010 (75 FR 37739), a temporary rule... equivalent is 10,770 mt. Correction In rule FR Doc. 2010-15933 published on June 30, 2010, (75 FR 37739) make... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment to the Loligo Trimester...

  5. Isofocusing and immunological investigations on cephalopod lens proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Lancieri, M.

    1979-01-01

    Soluble lens proteins from Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, and Loligo vulgaris were analyzed by thin-layer isoelectric focusing and compared by various immunochemical methods using antibodies directed against total soluble lens protein antigens from the said three species. The results show clos

  6. 50 CFR 648.122 - Season and area restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that have a minimum mesh size of 5.0-inch (12.7-cm) diamond mesh, applied throughout the codend for at... following non-exempt species: Loligo squid, black sea bass and silver hake (whiting). (b) Northern Gear... this section, 5.0-inch (12.7 cm) diamond mesh, applied throughout the codend for at least 75...

  7. Aislamiento de Microsatélites y flujo Genético en Dosidicus Gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) entre el Golfo de California y La Costa Occidental de La Península de Baja California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    El calamar gigante, Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) es una especie semioceánica y nerítica endémica del Pacífico Oriental, distribuida desde el norte de California E.U.A (43º N) hasta el sur de Chile (20°S), incluyendo el Golfo de California. Habita aguas desde la superficie hasta 1000 metros de profundad. Particularmente dentro del Golfo de California (México), es considerado uno de los recursos pesqueros más importantes, sin embargo el manejo de la pesquería de éste cefalóp...

  8. Feeding of Blue Marlin Makaira Nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Arizmendi Rodríguez, Dana; Gudiño González, Napoleón; Galván Magaña, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlín azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes), de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI), fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52%) y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%).ABSTRACTWe analyzed the stomach content...

  9. Reestructuración en frío de músculo de pescado mediante la incorporación de alginato sódico y transglutaminasa microbiana

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Conde, Helena María

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo general de la presente Memoria consiste en abordar, a través de diversos estudios parciales, el desarrollo tecnológico de la reestructuración en frío a partir de recortes de músculo picado de merluza congelada (Merluccius capensis), músculo picado de merluza fresca (Merluccius merluccius), trucha fresca (Oncorhynchis mykiss) y surimi de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas). Para ello se emplearán diferentes técnicas de procesado que incluyen el empleo de Alginato sódic...

  10. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the central-south coast off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIO ULLOA; MARTA FUENTEALBA; VÍCTOR RUIZ

    2006-01-01

    Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848) y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para ...

  11. Food Habits of the Yeloow Snapper Lutjanus Argentiventris (Peters, 1869) (Pericoidei: Lutjanidae) in La Paz Bay, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa I. Vázquez; Rodríguez, Jesús; Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Se analizaron cambios en la distribución de tallas, número de cohortes y condición reproductiva del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas utilizando muestras provenientes de siete cruceros oceanográficos de investigación, efectuados en la región central del Golfo de California, México de 1997 a 2008. En todas las estaciones se muestrearon hasta 25 ejemplares registrando longitud del manto, sexo y fase de madurez gonádica y cuando la captura lo permitió, se realizó un muestreo masivo de 100 ejemplar...

  12. Pesca con anzuelos en barcos palangreros del Océano Pacífico mexicano: efectos en la captura y peso de tiburones y otras especies

    OpenAIRE

    Galeana-Villaseñor, Ildefonso; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Santana Hernández, Heriberto

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de dos tipos de anzuelos y dos tipos de carnada en la tasa de captura de barcos palangreros en el noroeste del Océano Pacífico mexicano. Se realizaron cuatro viajes de pesca comercial con un total de 47 lances, entre marzo de 2005 y agosto de 2006. Los dos tipos de anzuelos usados fueron: recto 11º de inclinado 9/0 de uso tradicional y circular plano 16/0 (experimental). Se utilizaron dos tipos de carnada: calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) y peces juveniles de lisa (Mugil ...

  13. Elementos de colonialidad y biopolítica en una historia caribeña (ficticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cabrera

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La primera novela colombiana, Yngermina o la hija de Calamar (Juan José Nieto, 1844, re-escritura de la historia regional cartagenera como locus de civilización con elementos utópicos, delinea un cuerpo político ideal moldeado por dinámicas particulares de raza y género y es empleada en este artículo como espacio para observar las contradicciones del discurso liberal decimonónico desde la óptica de la biopolítica y la colonialidad del poder.

  14. Axiomas de estar por casa: la matemática de la mesa perfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Alsina, Claudi

    2010-01-01

    Evidentemente usted puede comer andando mientras hinca el diente a un bocadillo de calamares, puede tomar un desayuno de pie en la cocina o comer una hamburguesa dentro del coche. El afán de comer lleva a los humanos a aceptar condiciones infrahumanas para cometer su ataque al cocido o al croissant. Habrá observado en muchas ocasiones personas devorando un sandwhich en un repleto vagón de metro o tomar un café sentándose en la cama. Incluso hay personas que hacen simulacros de comer en los av...

  15. The Possible Role of Climatic Changes In Later Pleistocene Human Evolution and Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, C.

    Problems of chronological resolution greatly restrict our ability to match the Pleis- tocene fossil human succession to detailed palaeoclimatic records. This talk will ad- dress two relevant research areas. The first concerns the ancient human occupation of Britain, now the focus of a specific project (AHOB). Human occupation of Britain was influenced by two main factors, palaeogeography (particularly in relation to the periodic absence of a land bridge, largely controlled by climate) and palaeoclimate (particularly influenced by conditions in the North Atlantic). The second area con- cerns the European extinction of the Neanderthals and their replacement by modern humans. Particularly in the latter case, if we can move beyond reliance on uncalibrated radiocarbon chronologies, we may eventually be able to correlate human demographic changes, including Neanderthal extinction, with rapid climatic fluctuations.

  16. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Desilva, C.; Badesab, S.

    are expressed as µg g-1 wet tissue. Duplicate samples of fish tissue were collected for estimation of TPH. The data was then analysed using STATISTICA software for ANOVA Test from which the correlation coefficient between total length, total weight and TPH...-1 wet weight. The minimum value was recorded in lean ribbon fish (Trichiurus lepturus) and the maximum in cephalopod (Loligo indica). The TPH concentration was also found to be high in crustaceans in particular prawns in the same period...

  17. Seasonal Survey of Contaminants (Cd and Hg) and Micronutrients (Cu and Zn) in Edible Tissues of Cephalopods from Tunisia: Assessment of Risk and Nutritional Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Rjeibi, Moncef; Metian, Marc; Hajji, Tarek; Guyot, Thierry; Rafika, Ben Chaouacha-Chekir; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    International audience Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the muscle tissues (arms and mantle) of three commercial cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis) caught in three different Tunisian coastal regions. The highest concentrations found correspond to the essential elements Cu and Zn. Octopuses and cuttlefish showed the highest levels of those elements while squid ...

  18. Interspecific and geographical variations of trace metal concentrations in cephalopods from Tunisian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Rjeibi, Moncef; Metian, Marc; Hajji, Tarek; Guyot, Thierry; Chaouacha-Chekir, Rafika Ben; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience The concentrations of 6 metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were investigated and compared in three tissues (arms, digestive gland and mantle) of three cephalopod species from the Tunisian waters: the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Whatever the species or the sites, the digestive gland displayed the highest concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn highlighting its major role in the...

  19. Composition in essential and non-essential elements of early stages of cephalopods and dietary effects on the elemental profiles of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Roger; Bustamante, Paco

    2006-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed at providing a first look at the elemental composition of the early stages of cephalopods as an approach to their elemental requirements in culture. Essential and non-essential elemental profiles of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the European squid Loligo vulgaris and the common octopus Octopus vulgaris laboratory hatchlings and wild juveniles were analysed. In addition, for O. vulgaris we determined elemental profiles of mature ovary, eggs in di...

  20. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  1. Conceptual Tools for Managing Two Monterey Bay Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Ish, Teresa Lin

    2003-01-01

    I developed two conceptual models addressing fishery questions in the Monterey Bay motivated by 1) the California Market Squid (Loligo opalescens) and 2) marine reserves as a recovery and management tool. The model for California Market Squid incorporates the close ties between environmental variability and squid life history. Inclusion of environmental factors in the model provides a biological mechanism contributing to the large fluctuations that occur in the fishery. Furthermore, I predict...

  2. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  3. Simultaneous measurements of magnesium, calcium and sodium influxes in perfused squid giant axons under membrane potential control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1975-10-01

    1. Giant axons from the squids Dosidicus gigas, Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris were internally perfused with 550 or 275 mM KF plus sucrose and bathed in artificial sea water containing 45Ca, 28Mg or mixtures of 45Ca-28Mg or 45Ca-22Na. Resting influxes and extra influxes during voltage-clamp pulses were measured by collecting and counting the internal perfusate. 2. For Dosidicus axons in 10 mM-CaCl2 the resting influx of calcium was 0-016 +/- 0-007 p-mole/cm2 sec and a linear function of external concentration. For two experiments in 10 and 84-7 mM-CaCl2, 100 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. Resting calcium influx in 10 mM-CaCl2 was 0-017 +/- 0-013 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. 3. With 55 mM-MgCl2 outside the average resting magnesium influx was 0-124 +/- 0-080 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. Discarding one aberrant point the value is 0-105 +/- 0-046 which is not significantly different from the resting calcium influx for Dosidicus fibres in 55 mM-CaCl2, given as 0-094 p-mole/cm2 sec by the regression line shown in Fig. 1. In two experiments 150 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. 4. With 430 mM-NaCl outside 100 nM tetrodotoxin reduced the average resting influx of sodium in Dosidicus axon from 27-7 +/- 4-5 to 25-1 +/- 6-2 p-mole/cm2 sec and for Loligo fibres in 460 mM-NaCl from 50-5 +/- 4 to 20 +/- 8 p-mole/cm2 sec. 5. Using depolarizing pulses of various durations, the extra calcium influx occurred in two phases. The early phase was eliminated by external application of tetrodotoxin. The results of analysis are consistent with, but do not rigorously demonstrate, the conclusion that the tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium entry is flowing through the normal sodium channels (cf. Baker, Hodgkin & Ridgway, 1971). 6. Measurements of extra influxes using 22Na and 45Ca simultaneously indicate that the time courses of tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium and sodium entry are similar but not necessarily identical. It is very doubtful that any significant calcium entry occurs before

  4. Strigolactones are a new-defined class of plant hormones which inhibit shoot branching and mediate the interaction of plant-AM fungi and plant-parasitic weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAITLIN; David

    2009-01-01

    Because plants are sessile organisms,the ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is critical for their survival.As a consequence,plants use hormones to regulate growth,mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses,and to communicate with other organisms.Many plant hormones function plei-otropically in vivo,and often work in tandem with other hormones that are chemically distinct.A newly-defined class of plant hormones,the strigolactones,cooperate with auxins and cytokinins to control shoot branching and the outgrowth of lateral buds.Strigolactones were originally identified as compounds that stimulated the germination of parasitic plant seeds,and were also demonstrated to induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi.AM fungi form symbioses with higher plant roots and mainly facilitate the absorption of phosphate from the soil.Conforming to the classical definition of a plant hormone,strigolactones are produced in the roots and translocated to the shoots where they inhibit shoot outgrowth and branching.The biosynthesis of this class of compounds is regulated by soil nutrient availability,i.e.the plant will increase its production of strigolactones when the soil phosphate concentration is limited,and decrease production when phosphates are in ample supply.Strigolactones that affect plant shoot branching,AM fungal hyphal branching,and seed germination in parasitic plants facilitate chemical synthesis of similar compounds to control these and other biological processes by exogenous application.

  5. Mass spectrometric survey of peptides in cephalopods with an emphasis on the FMRFamide-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweedler, J V; Li, L; Floyd, P; Gilly, W

    2000-12-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) survey of the major peptides in the stellar, fin and pallial nerves and the posterior chromatophore lobe of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo opalescens and Dosidicus gigas has been performed. Although a large number of putative peptides are distinct among the three species, several molecular masses are conserved. In addition to peptides, characterization of the lipid content of the nerves is reported, and these lipid peaks account for many of the lower molecular masses observed. One conserved set of peaks corresponds to the FMRFamide-related peptides (FRPs). The Loligo opalescens FMRFa gene has been sequenced. It encodes a 331 amino acid residue prohormone that is processed into 14 FRPs, which are both predicted by the nucleotide sequence and confirmed by MALDI MS. The FRPs predicted by this gene (FMRFa, FLRFa/FIRFa and ALSGDAFLRFa) are observed in all three species, indicating that members of this peptide family are highly conserved across cephalopods. PMID:11060217

  6. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  7. Feeding habits of the atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis, in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xênia Moreira Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new information on the feeding habits of the Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, in the Western South Atlantic. Nine stomach contents of S. frontalis incidentally caught in fishing operations conducted by the gillnet fleet based on main harbour of Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. These specimens were captured between 2005 and 2007. A total of 1 422 cephalopod beaks, 147 otoliths and three crustaceans were recovered from the stomach contents. The dolphins assessed preyed on at least eight different fish species of the families Trichiuridae, Carangidae, Sparidae, Merluccidae, Engraulidae, Sciaenidae, Congridae and Scombridae, five cephalopod species of the families Loliginidae, Sepiolidae, Tremoctopodidae and Thysanoteuthidae, and one shrimp species of the Penaeidae family. Based on the analysis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI, the Atlantic cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, was the most important fish species represented. Of the cephalopods, the squid Doryteuthis plei was by far the most representative species. Several items were reported for the first time as prey of the S. frontalis: Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Tremoctopus violaceus, Semirossia tenera, Merluccius hubbsi, Pagrus pagrus and Paralonchurus brasiliensis. S. frontalis presented teuthophagous and ichthyofagous feeding habits, with apparent predominance of the first, and preyed mainly on pelagic and demersal items.O presente estudo apresenta novas informações sobre os hábitos alimentares de golfinhos-pintados-do-Atlântico, Stenella frontalis, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados nove conteúdos estomacais de S. frontalis acidentalmente capturados em operações de pesca entre 2005 e 2007 pela frota pesqueira do município de Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, sudeste do Brasil. Foram recuperados dos conteúdos estomacais 1 422 bicos de cefalópodes, 147 otólitos e três camarões. Dos itens analisados, foram

  8. Identifying generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation from a numerical solution of Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Georgiev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic time series in the form of numerical solution (in an appropriate finite time interval of the Hodgkin-Huxley current clamped (HHCC system of four differential equations, well known in the neurophysiology as an exact empirical model of excitation of a giant axon of Loligo, is presented. Then we search for a second-order differential equation of generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo (GFN type, having as a solution the given single component (action potential of the numerical solution. The given time series is used as a basis for reconstructing orders, powers, and coefficients of the polynomial right-hand sides of GFN equation approximately governing the process of action potential. For this purpose, a new geometrical method for determining phase space dimension of the unknown dynamical system (GFN equation and a specific modification of least squares method for identifying unknown coefficients are developed and applied.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12409-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n-3; AltName: Full=Myosin heavy chai... 307 1e-81 AB303687_1( AB303687 |pid:none) Hypop...85_1( AB303685 |pid:none) Hypophthalmichthys molitrix MYH sc... 299 3e-79 BX510649_10( BX510649 |pid:none) Z...-81 BC073455_1( BC073455 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis hypothetical protei... 305 5e-81 U75357_1( U75357 |pid:none) Schizosaccharomyces...( AF042349 |pid:none) Loligo pealei myosin heavy chain i... 320 1e-85 T16416( T16416 )hypothetical protein F... U51472 |pid:none) Felis catus superfast myosin heavy cha... 308 6e-82 AB058959_1( AB058959 |pid:none) Patinopecten yessoensi

  10. Comparison on trace elements in squid statoliths of different species' origin: as available key for taxonomic and phylogenetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in squid statoliths were analyzed by PIXE for the following fourteen species in five families of different habit origin: Ommastrephidae, Ommastrephes bartrami, Dosidicus gigas, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis; Gonatidae, Gonatopsis makko, G. borealis, Berryteuthis magister; Loliginidae, Loligo bleekeri, L. duvaucelii, L. chinensis, L. edulis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana; Sepiidae, Sepia aculeata and Sepiella inermis; Sepiolidae, Rossia pacifica. Manganese, iron, copper, zinc and strontium were detected from statoliths of all species examined. Among these trace elements, Sr is the highest in concentration. Variation of statoliths Sr concentration reflects taxonomic position and the habitat of specimens. In Ommastrephids and Gonatids, that have oceanic habitat, statoliths Sr concentration is relatively high whereas that of Loliginids and Sepiids, that have coastal habitat, is comparatively low. This fact supports our previous report on this subject. R pacifica exceptionally shows high statoliths Sr concentration although this species inhabits in coastal water. (author)

  11. Structural Protein-based Flexible Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Shreiner, Robert; Szwejkowski, Chester J; Jung, Huihun; Hopkins, Patrick; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides a set of solutions for photonic structures that are finely tuned, organically diverse and optically efficient. Exquisite knowledge of structure-property relationships in proteins aids in the design of materials with desired properties for building devices with novel functionalities, which are difficult to achieve or previously unattainable. Recent bio-inspired photonic platforms made from proteinaceous materials lay the groundwork for many functional device applications, such as electroluminescence in peptide nucleic acids1, multiphoton absorption in amyloid fibers2 and silk waveguides and inverse opals3-5. Here we report whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators fabricated entirely from semi-crystalline structural proteins (i.e., squid ring teeth, SRT, from Loligo vulgaris and its recombinant, and silk from Bombyx mori) with unconventional thermo-optic response. We present a striking example of how small modifications at the molecular level lead to structural changes and alter macroscopic...

  12. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  13. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  14. Dieta del lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus Lesson, 1828, en la Isla San Jorge, en el norte del Golfo de California, México, 1998–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828, es el único pinnípedo residente en el Golfo de California, donde sus mayores poblaciones están en el cinturón de las Grandes Islas y en el norte del golfo. La Isla San Jorge, en el golfo norte, tiene la segunda colonia reproductiva, que también es genéticamente diferente de otras colonias del Golfo (Schramm-Urrutia, 2002. Se estudió la dieta de los lobos marinos de esta isla por medio del análisis de excretas, entre febrero de 1998 y marzo de 1999. El componente más importante de la dieta fue Porichthys sp. (principalmente P. analis Hubbs y Schultz, 1939, seguido de Pomadasys panamensis (Steindachner, 1875 y el calamar Lolliguncula panamensis Berry, 1911. Aparentemente, los lobos forrajearon principalmente en el fondo del mar. Las presas consumidas por los lobos marinos en la Isla San Jorge no son de valor comercial. Hubo poco traslapo en las dietas entre los lobos marinos y el bobo café, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, el ave ictiófaga mas abundante en la isla.

  15. Interacciones de pesquerías ribereñas en Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ojeda Ruiz de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de aportar al desarrollo de un modelo conceptual sobre la pesca ribereña o artesanal en el área de Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, se jerarquizó la importancia de 14 pesquerías de la región. La calificación se basó en un análisis cualitativo por puntos y en la estimación de un índice de importancia relativa, con indicadores como los promedios de captura, valor y frecuencia de registro de especies objetivo en desembarcos de embarcaciones menores, de 1998 a 2009; entre ellas están: almeja catarina, escama, camarón, callo de hacha, tiburón, jaiba, calamar, almeja pata de mula, rayas, lisa, pulpo, abulón, langosta y caracol chino. La interacción temporal entre varias de ellas es controlada por vedas oficiales, pero cuando ocurre se reconocen posibles efectos por pesca incidental e ilegal y modificaciones al ecosistema.

  16. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  17. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  18. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  19. IRBP-like proteins in the eyes of six cephalopod species--immunochemical relationship to vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) and cephalopod retinal-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S L; Lee, P G; Ozaki, K; Hara, R; Hara, T; Bridges, C D

    1988-01-01

    SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to examine soluble proteins from the eyes of six species of cephalopods i.e. Lolliguncula brevis, Sepia officinalis, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides, Rossia pacifica and Loligo opalescens. All species had a protein ("IRBP") with molecular weight virtually identical with vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) averaging 132,400 +/- 700 (n = 6). "IRBP" reacted on nitrocellulose blot transfers with rabbit antibovine IRBP and rabbit antifrog IRBP antibodies. Unlike vertebrate IRBP, cephalopod "IRBP" (from L. brevis) did not bind exogenous retinol or concanavalin A. The N-terminal amino acid appeared to be blocked in samples electroeluted from SDS gels. The antifrog IRBP antibodies also reacted with a series of proteins with molecular weights between 46,000 and 47,000, identified as retinal-binding protein (RALBP) with anti-RALBP antibodies. Anti-IRBP also reacted with pure RALBP prepared from Todarodes pacificus. Occasionally, anti-RALBP antibodies were seen to react weakly with "IRBP" in some cephalopods. We conclude that RALBP, cephalopod "IRBP" and vertebrate IRBP share a common but distant ancestry, and that a protein resembling IRBP appeared before the vertebrates diverged from the invertebrates. Both RALBP and IRBP appear to have analogous functions in shuttling retinoids between rhodopsin and the corresponding isomerizing system, retinochrome in the cephalopods and retinol isomerase in the vertebrates. The function of cephalopod "IRBP" is unknown. PMID:3195063

  20. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  1. Carboxymethylation of ulvan and chitosan and their use as polymeric components of bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A A A; Alves, A; Nunes, C; Coimbra, M A; Pires, R A; Reis, R L

    2013-11-01

    Ulvan, extracted from the green algae Ulva lactuca, and chitosan, extracted from Loligo forbesis squid-pen, were carboxymethylated, yielding polysaccharides with an average degree of substitution of ∼98% (carboxymethyl ulvan, CMU) and ∼87% (carboxymethyl chitosan, N,O-CMC). The carboxymethylation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantified by conductimetric titration and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The average molecular weight increased with the carboxymethylation (chitosan, Mn 145→296 kDa and Mw 227→416 kDa; ulvan, Mn 139→261 kDa and Mw 368→640 kDa), indicating successful chemical modifications. Mixtures of the modified polysaccharides were tested in the formulation of polyacrylic acid-free glass-ionomer bone cements. Mechanical and in vitro bioactivity tests indicate that the inclusion of CMU in the cement formulation, i.e. 0.50:0.50 N,O-CMC:CMU, enhances its mechanical performance (compressive strength 52.4±8.0 MPa and modulus 2.3±0.3 GPa), generates non-cytotoxic cements and induces the diffusion of Ca and/or P-based moieties from the surface to the bulk of the cements. PMID:23816652

  2. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanilla, F; Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1970-12-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 musec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential.2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential.3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current-voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939).4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential. PMID:5505231

  3. Squid rocket science: How squid launch into air

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dor, Ron; Stewart, Julia; Gilly, William; Payne, John; Borges, Teresa Cerveira; Thys, Tierney

    2013-10-01

    Squid not only swim, they can also fly like rockets, accelerating through the air by forcefully expelling water out of their mantles. Using available lab and field data from four squid species, Sthenoteuthis pteropus, Dosidicus gigas, Illex illecebrosus and Loligo opalescens, including sixteen remarkable photographs of flying S. pteropus off the coast of Brazil, we compared the cost of transport in both water and air and discussed methods of maximizing power output through funnel and mantle constriction. Additionally we found that fin flaps develop at approximately the same size range as flight behaviors in these squids, consistent with previous hypotheses that flaps could function as ailerons whilst aloft. S. pteropus acceleration in air (265 body lengths [BL]/s2; 24.5m/s2) was found to exceed that in water (79BL/s2) three-fold based on estimated mantle length from still photos. Velocities in air (37BL/s; 3.4m/s) exceed those in water (11BL/s) almost four-fold. Given the obvious advantages of this extreme mode of transport, squid flight may in fact be more common than previously thought and potentially employed to reduce migration cost in addition to predation avoidance. Clearly squid flight, the role of fin flaps and funnel, and the energetic benefits are worthy of extended investigation.

  4. Chemical composition of inks of diverse marine molluscs suggests convergent chemical defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Charles D; Kicklighter, Cynthia E; Johnson, P M; Zhang, Xu

    2007-05-01

    Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, sensory disruption, and phagomimicry. The latter two mechanisms are facilitated by millimolar concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) in sea hare ink and opaline, which stimulate the chemosensory systems of predators, ultimately leading to escape by sea hares. We hypothesize that other inking molluscs use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense. To investigate this, we examined concentrations of 21 FAA and ammonium in the defensive secretions of nine species of inking molluscs: three sea hares (Aplysia californica, Aplysia dactylomela, Aplysia juliana) and six cephalopods (cuttlefish: Sepia officinalis; squid: Loligo pealei, Lolliguncula brevis, Dosidicus gigas; octopus: Octopus vulgaris, Octopus bimaculoides). We found millimolar levels of total FAA and ammonium in these secretions, and the FAA in highest concentration were taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and lysine. Crustaceans and fish, which are major predators of these molluscs, have specific receptor systems for these FAA. Our chemical analysis supports the hypothesis that inking molluscs have the potential to use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense. PMID:17393278

  5. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  6. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L; Pedler, Byron E; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N; Reddy, Christopher M

    2006-11-01

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl, C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(7), and C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 microg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C(9)H(3)N(2)Br(6)Cl may be significant in the formation of C(9)H(4)N(2)Br(5)Cl. PMID:16517037

  7. Fast and slow activation kinetics of voltage-gated sodium channels in molluscan neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilly, W F; Gillette, R; McFarlane, M

    1997-05-01

    Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of Na current (I(Na)) were made under identical experimental conditions from isolated neurons from cephalopod (Loligo, Octopus) and gastropod (Aplysia, Pleurobranchaea, Doriopsilla) species to compare properties of activation gating. Voltage dependence of peak Na conductance (gNa) is very similar in all cases, but activation kinetics in the gastropod neurons studied are markedly slower. Kinetic differences are very pronounced only over the voltage range spanned by the gNa-voltage relation. At positive and negative extremes of voltage, activation and deactivation kinetics of I(Na) are practically indistinguishable in all species studied. Voltage-dependent rate constants underlying activation of the slow type of Na channel found in gastropods thus appear to be much more voltage dependent than are the equivalent rates in the universally fast type of channel that predominates in cephalopods. Voltage dependence of inactivation kinetics shows a similar pattern and is representative of activation kinetics for the two types of Na channels. Neurons with fast Na channels can thus make much more rapid adjustments in the number of open Na channels at physiologically relevant voltages than would be possible with only slow Na channels. This capability appears to be an adaptation that is highly evolved in cephalopods, which are well known for their high-speed swimming behaviors. Similarities in slow and fast Na channel subtypes in molluscan and mammalian neurons are discussed. PMID:9163364

  8. Natural waste materials containing chitin as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs: batch and continuous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, S A; Loureiro, J M; Boaventura, R A

    2005-10-01

    In this work three natural waste materials containing chitin were used as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs, namely the Anodonta (Anodonta cygnea) shell, the Sepia (Sepia officinalis) and the Squid (Loligo vulgaris) pens. The selected dyestuffs were the Cibacron green T3G-E (CI reactive green 12), and the Solophenyl green BLE 155% (CI direct green 26), both from CIBA, commonly used in cellulosic fibres dyeing, the most used fibres in the textile industry. Batch equilibrium studies showed that the materials' adsorption capacities increase after a simple and inexpensive chemical treatment, which increases their porosity and chitin relative content. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of a high internal resistance in both systems. Fixed bed column experiments performed showed an improvement in adsorbents' behaviour after chemical treatment. However, in the column experiments, the biodegradation was the main mechanism of dyestuff removal, allowing the materials' bioregeneration. The adsorption was strongly reduced by the pore clogging effect of the biomass. The deproteinised Squid pen (grain size 0.500-1.41 mm) is the adsorbent with highest adsorption capacity (0.27 and 0.037 g/g, respectively, for the reactive and direct dyestuffs, at 20 degrees C), followed by the demineralised Sepia pen and Anodonta shell, behaving like pure chitin in all experiments, but showing inferior performances than the granular activated carbon tested in the column experiments. PMID:16140355

  9. Radioisotopes demonstrate the contrasting bioaccumulation capacities of heavy metals in embryonic stages of cephalopod species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe

    Full Text Available Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic food webs and also constitute alternative fishery resources in the context of the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Most coastal cephalopod species of commercial importance migrate into shallow waters during the breeding season to lay their eggs, and are consequently subjected to coastal contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, European squid Loligo vulgaris, common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the sepiolid Rossia macrosoma were exposed during embryonic development to dissolved (110mAg, (109Cd, (60Co, (54Mn and (65Zn in order to determine their metal accumulation efficiencies and distribution among different egg compartments. Cuttlefish eggs, in which hard shells enclose the embryos, showed the lowest concentration factor (CF values despite a longer duration of exposure. In contrast, octopus eggs, which are only protected by the chorionic membrane, accumulated the most metal. Uptake appears to be linked to the selective retention properties of the egg envelopes with respect to each element. The study also demonstrated that the octopus embryo accumulated (110mAg directly from the dissolved phase and also indirectly through assimilation of the contaminated yolk. These results raise questions regarding the potential contrasting vulnerability of early life stages of cephalopods to the metallic contamination of coastal waters.

  10. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C9H3N2Br6Cl, C9H3N2Br7, and C9H4N2Br5Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 μg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C9H3N2Br6Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C9H3N2Br6Cl may be significant in the formation of C9H4N2Br5Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C9H3N2Br6Cl, C9H3N2Br7 and C9H4N2Br5Cl

  11. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  12. Hydrolysis of DFP and the Nerve Agent (S)-Sarin by DFPase Proceeds Along Two Different Reaction Pathways: Implica-tions for Engineering Bioscavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wymore, Troy W [ORNL; Langan, Paul [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Field, Martin J. [Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents such as (S)-sarin are among the most highly toxic compounds that have been synthesized. Engineering enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nerve agents ( bioscavengers ) is an emerging prophylactic approach to diminishing their toxic effects. Although its native function is not known, diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from Loligo vulgaris catalyzes the hydrolysis of OP compounds. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and (S)-sarin hydrolysis by DFPase with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) umbrella sampling simulations. We find that the mechanism for hydrolysis of DFP involves nucleophilic attack by Asp229 on phosphorus to form a pentavalent intermediate. P F bond dissociation then yields a phosphoacyl enzyme intermediate in the rate-limiting step. The simulations suggest that a water molecule, coordinated to the catalytic Ca2+, donates a proton to Asp121 and then attacks the tetrahedral phosphoacyl intermediate to liberate the diisopropylphosphate product. In contrast, the calculated free energy barrier for hydrolysis of (S)-sarin by the same mechanism is highly unfavorable, primarily due to the instability of the pentavalent phosphoenzyme species. Instead, simulations suggest that hydrolysis of (S)-sarin proceeds by a mechanism in which Asp229 could activate an intervening water molecule for nucleophilic attack on the substrate. These findings may lead to improved strategies for engineering DFPase and related six-bladed -propeller folds for more efficient degradation of OP compounds.

  13. A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Amanda L; Sweeney, Alison M; Johnsen, Sönke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-10-01

    Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater environments. While active mechanisms such as chromatophore patterning and body posturing are well known, passive mechanisms such as manipulating light with highly evolved reflectors may also play an important role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated the optical and biochemical properties of the silver layer covering the eye of the California fishery squid, Loligo opalescens. We discovered a novel nested-spindle geometry whose correlated structure effectively emulates a randomly distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), with a range of spatial frequencies resulting in broadband visible reflectance, making it a nearly ideal passive camouflage material for the depth at which these animals live. We used the transfer-matrix method of optical modelling to investigate specular reflection from the spindle structures, demonstrating that a DBR with widely distributed thickness variations of high refractive index elements is sufficient to yield broadband reflectance over visible wavelengths, and that unlike DBRs with one or a few spatial frequencies, this broadband reflectance occurs from a wide range of viewing angles. The spindle shape of the cells may facilitate self-assembly of a random DBR to achieve smooth spatial distributions in refractive indices. This design lends itself to technological imitation to achieve a DBR with wide range of smoothly varying layer thicknesses in a facile, inexpensive manner. PMID:21325315

  14. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  15. Evaluation of radar rainfall estimates and nowcasts to prevent flash flood in real time by using a road submersion warning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Sempere-Torres, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Important damages occur in small headwater catchments when they are hit by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal structure, sometimes resulting in flash floods. As these catchments are mostly not covered by sensor networks, it is difficult to forecast these floods. This is particularly true for road submersions. These are major concerns for flood event managers. The use of Quantitative Precipitation Estimates and Forecasts (QPE/QPF) especially based on radar measurements could particularly be adequate to evaluate rainfall-induced risks. Although their characteristic time and space scales would make them suitable for flash flood modelling, the impact of their uncertainties remain uncertain and have to be evaluated. The Gard region (France) has been chosen as case study. This area is frequently affected by severe flash floods and different kinds of rainfall observations are available in real time: radar rainfall estimates and nowcasts from METEO FRANCE and the CALAMAR system from SPC (state authority in charge of flood forecasting). An application devoted to the road network, has also been recently developed for this region. It combines distributed hydro-meteorological very short range forecasts and vulnerability analysis to provide warnings of road submersions. The first results demonstrate that it is technically possible to provide distributed short-term forecasts for a large number of sites. The study also demonstrates that a reliable estimation of the spatial distribution of rainfall is essential. For this reason, the road submersion warning system can be used to evaluate the quality of rainfall estimates and nowcasts. The warning system has been tested on the specific storm of the 29-30 September 2007. During this event, more than 300mm dropped on the South part of the Gard and many roads were submerged. Each of the mentioned rainfall datasets (i.e. estimates and nowcasts) was available in real time. They have been used to forecast the exact location of

  16. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  17. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  18. 山东半岛南部近岸海域渔业资源群落结构的季节变化%Seasonal Variation on Community Structure of Fishery Resources in the Coastal Waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张秀梅; 张沛东; 黄国强

    2011-01-01

    Based on the bottom trawl surveys in the coastal waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular during summer and winter in 2006, spring and autumn in 2007, the community structure of fishery resources was analyzed preliminarily. Survey results indicated that there were 72 species. The mean catch rates in summer, winter, spring and autumn were 18.1, 6.9, 1.3 and 10. 3 kg/h, respectively. The seasonal variation of biomass in weight followed the order of summer>winter >autumn>spring. The dominant species were Thryssa kammalensis, Saurida elongate, Rachypenaeus curvirostris and some invertebrates including Oratosquilla oratoria, Loligo edulis and Rachypenaeus curvirostris etc. Based on the survey data, the species richness R, Shannon-Weiner diversity index H' and evenness index J' were calculated respectively. Cluster analysis, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and similarity of percentage (SIMPER) showed that fishery resources in this area were decreased compared with original data. The study provided a scientific basis on protection of fishery biology diversities and resources restoration in the coastal waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular.%根据2006年夏、冬季和2007年春、秋季在山东半岛南部近岸海域进行的渔业资源底拖网调杏资料,初步分析了该海域渔业资源群落结构特征.结果表明,该海域4个航次的调查共捕获渔业资源种类72种.2006年夏、冬,2007年春、秋4个航次的单化网次渔获量分别为18.1、6.9、1.3、10.3 kg/h.生物量的季节变化,依次呈夏季>冬季>秋季>春季.优势种类主要为赤鼻棱鲲(Thryssa kammalensis)、长蛇鲻(Saurida elongate)、方氏云鳚(Enedrias fangi)及口虾蛄(Oratosquilla orato-ria)、剑尖枪乌贼(Loligo edulis)、鹰爪虾(Rachypenaeus curvirostris)等.根据4个航次的调查数据,分别计算了渔业生物群落的种类丰度指数R、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数H'、Pielou均匀度指数J'.通过聚类分析、单因子相似性分

  19. Artisanal fisheries production in the coastal zone of Itaipu, Niterói , RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Almeida Tubino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in the coastal zone of Itaipu-RJ play an important role in the local market, but little is known about production and productivity of the fisheries. From April 2001 to March 2003, we monitored a total of 618 landings from the beach-seine (99, the gill nets ("corvineira" - 331, "linguadeira" - 40 and "rede alta" - 25, the hook and line (98, the squid jigging (17, and the spear fishing and trap fisheries (five and three, respectively. The total monitored production was 21866 kg and the catch per unit effort (CPUE 35.4 kg.trip-1. Considering the number of effective fishing days and the average daily production per fishing gear, the annual production was estimated at 136687 kg (0.2% of the state's production in 2004. Predominant resources were: Micropogonias furnieri,Trichiurus lepturus, squids (Loligo spp., clupeiform fishes (Sardinella brasiliensis, Cetengraulis edentulus, Pellona harrowerii and Harengula clupeola, Eucinostomus spp., Cynoscion spp., Menticirrhus spp., Caranx crysos and Selene setapinnis. The combined analysis using hierarchical and non-hierarchical classification methods, separated four fishing gears and five species groups, based on their similarity patterns, identifying gears that most effectively capture the different fish groups. The beach-seine was less selective and most productive fishery in the summer. The "corvineira" was the second most productive fishery with higher yields in the summer and fall. Catches of "linguadeira" included rays and Paralychthys spp., wherereas the "rede alta" caught primarily M. furnieri,Mugil spp. and sharks.As pescarias artesanais na zona costeira de Itaipu-RJ desempenham um papel importante no mercado local, mas pouco se conhece sobre a produção e a produtividade da pesca. De abril-2001 a março-2003, nós monitoramos um total de 618 desembarques das pescarias de arrastos-de-praia (99, de redes de emalhe (corvineira - 331, linguadeira - 40 e rede alta - 25, de linha

  20. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry La disminución de los pingüinos de las Islas Falklands en la presencia de actividades de pesca comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKE BINGHAM

    2002-12-01

    Islands Government to exclude large-scale commercial fishing close to penguin breeding sitesLas islas Falklands son un lugar importante para tres especies de pingüinos, pingüino papua (Pygoscelis papua, pingüino de penacho amarillo (Eudyptes c.chrysocome y pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magallanicus. Recientemente estas especies han disminuido 84 % en estas islas. En la costa de Sudamérica los pingüinos no disminuyeron. Se sospecha que la causa es una reducción de peces y calamares debido a los barcos de pesca comercial que operan en aguas de las Islas Falklands. En 1995 el pingüino papua y el pingüino penacho amarillo terminaron sus disminuciones y ya parece que sus poblaciones están en equilibrio, pero en un número mucho mas bajo que antes que los pescadores comenzaron 20 años atrás. El pingüino de Magallanes todavía disminuye en las Islas Falklands. El pingüino de Magallanes depende más de especies de calamares y peces capturados por barcos de pesca comercial. Avisos de protección de la fauna no fueron suficientes para impedir que 1998 comenzaras exploraciones petroleras en las Islas Falklands. Tres derrames de petróleo ocurrieron en cinco meses, y cientos de pingüinos murieron. La torre de perforación se fue después de cinco meses, y no ocurrieron más derrames de petróleo. Nuevamente van a comenzar a buscar petróleo, sin mejorar la protección para la fauna. El turismo ha crecido rápidamente en las Islas Falklands, y la mayoría de los turistas llegan para ver los pingüinos. Investigaciones de poblaciones y éxito reproductivo indican que aún no hay efectos perjudiciales para los pingüinos por esta actividad. En este trabajo se investigan las causas potenciales de la disminución de pingüinos en las Islas Falklands y se hacen compariciones con poblaciones en Chile que parecen saludables

  1. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70 and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular

  2. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  3. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  4. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  5. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  6. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Connan

    Full Text Available Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa. These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  7. From Polyplacophora to Cephalopoda: comparative analysis of nitric oxide signalling in mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, L L; Gillette, R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-d histochemistry in the CNS and peripheral tissues in more than 2D ecologically and systematically different molluscan genera representing 3 main classes of the phylum MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora (Lepidopleurus, Lepidozona, Katharina), Gastropoda (Littorina, Lymnaea, Aplexa, Physa, Planorbarius, Planorbis, Helisoma, Biomphalaria, Helix, Limax, Cepaea, Bulla, Aplysia, Phyllaplysia, Philine, Pleurobranchea, Tritonia, Armina, Flabellina, Cadlina) and Cephalopoda (Octopus, Sepia, Rossia, Loligo). Several species were used for more detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological studies to further assay of NOS activity and to analyse functional roles of nitric oxide (NO) in these animals. The main conclusions of our comparative analysis and literature survey can be summarised as following: (i) There is strong evidence for the presence of NO-dependent signalling pathways in different molluscan species. (ii) We hypothesise that a general tendency in the evolution of NADPH-d-reactive cells in Mollusca is a migration of nitrergic function from periphery to the CNS. Also, different isoforms of NOS appear to be present in any one species. (iii) One of the main functional targets of NO signalling is the feeding system. However, there are obvious differences between predators (many labelled central motoneurons) and herbivorous species (many labelled peripheral putative sensory cells) as well as between land/freshwater and marine animals. Nevertheless, in all species tested NO-activated feeding-like motor patterns in the buccal ganglia. Additional functional and cellular targets for NO in molluscs are also considered. We briefly review neuromodulatory mechanisms of NO action and we consider molluscs as useful model systems for investigations of the roles of NO. PMID:8853687

  8. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Pedler, Byron E. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: bpedler@whoi.edu; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: ahangsterfer@whoi.edu; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2006-11-15

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7}, and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 {mu}g/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl may be significant in the formation of C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl.

  9. Localization of ion-regulatory epithelia in embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Charmantier, Guy; Lucassen, Magnus; Himmerkus, Nina; Melzner, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The tissue distribution and ontogeny of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been examined as an indicator for ion-regulatory epithelia in whole animal sections of embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopod species: the squid Loligo vulgaris and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This is the first report of the immunohistochemical localization of cephalopod Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the polyclonal antibody alpha (H-300) raised against the human alpha1-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was observed in several tissues (gills, pancreatic appendages, nerves), exclusively located in baso-lateral membranes lining blood sinuses. Furthermore, large single cells in the gill of adult L. vulgaris specimens closely resembled Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells described in fish. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that the amount and distribution of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in late cuttlefish embryos was similar to that found in juvenile and adult stages. The ion-regulatory epithelia (e.g., gills, excretory organs) of the squid embryos and paralarvae exhibited less differentiation than adults. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities for whole animals were higher in hatchlings of S. officinalis (157.0 +/- 32.4 micromol g (FM) (-1) h(-1)) than in those of L. vulgaris (31.8 +/- 3.3 micromol g (FM) (-1) h(-1)). S. officinalis gills and pancreatic appendages achieved activities of 94.8 +/- 18.5 and 421.8 +/- 102.3 micromol(ATP) g (FM) (-1) h(-1), respectively. High concentrations of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in late cephalopod embryos might be important in coping with the challenging abiotic conditions (low pH, high pCO(2)) that these organisms encounter inside their eggs. Our results also suggest a higher sensitivity of squid vs. cuttlefish embryos to environmental acid-base disturbances. PMID:20127256

  10. Efficient Surface Display of Diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase) in E. coli for Biodegradation of Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds (DFP and Cp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Karami, Ali; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-10-01

    Compounds including organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and chemical nerve agents are toxic compounds synthesized recently which disrupt the mechanisms of neural transmission. Therefore, a critical requirement is the development of a bio-refining technology to facilitate the biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants. The diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2) from the ganglion and brain of Loligo vulgaris acts on P-F bonds present in some OPs. Intracellular production of OPs-degrading enzymes or the use of native bacteria and fungi leads to a low degradation rate of OPs due to a mass transfer issue which reduces the overall catalytic efficiency. To overcome this challenge, we expressed DFPase on the surface of E. coli for the first time by employing the N-terminal domain of the ice nucleation protein (InaV-N) as an anchoring motif. Tracking the recombinant protein confirmed that DFPase is successfully located on the outer membrane. Further studies on its activity to degrade diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) showed its significant ability for the biodegradation of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with a specific activity of 500 U/mg of wet cell weight. Recombinant cells could also degrade chlorpyrifos (Cp) with an activity equivalent to a maximum value of 381.44 U/ml with a specific activity of 476.75 U/mg of cell, analyzed using HPLC technique. The optimum activity of purified DFPase was found at 30 °C. A more increased activity was also obtained in the presence of glucose-mineral-salt (GMS) supplemented with tryptone and 100 mg/L Co(2+) ion. These results highlight the high potential of the InaV-N anchoring domain to produce an engineered bacterium that can be used in the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:26239441

  11. Comparative Analysis and Distribution of Omega-3 lcPUFA Biosynthesis Genes in Marine Molluscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surm, Joachim M.; Prentis, Peter J.; Pavasovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has identified marine molluscs as an excellent source of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lcPUFAs), based on their potential for endogenous synthesis of lcPUFAs. In this study we generated a representative list of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) genes from major orders of Phylum Mollusca, through the interrogation of transcriptome and genome sequences, and various publicly available databases. We have identified novel and uncharacterised Fad and Elovl sequences in the following species: Anadara trapezia, Nerita albicilla, Nerita melanotragus, Crassostrea gigas, Lottia gigantea, Aplysia californica, Loligo pealeii and Chlamys farreri. Based on alignments of translated protein sequences of Fad and Elovl genes, the haeme binding motif and histidine boxes of Fad proteins, and the histidine box and seventeen important amino acids in Elovl proteins, were highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of aligned reference sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships for Fad and Elovl genes separately. Multiple, well resolved clades for both the Fad and Elovl sequences were observed, suggesting that repeated rounds of gene duplication best explain the distribution of Fad and Elovl proteins across the major orders of molluscs. For Elovl sequences, one clade contained the functionally characterised Elovl5 proteins, while another clade contained proteins hypothesised to have Elovl4 function. Additional well resolved clades consisted only of uncharacterised Elovl sequences. One clade from the Fad phylogeny contained only uncharacterised proteins, while the other clade contained functionally characterised delta-5 desaturase proteins. The discovery of an uncharacterised Fad clade is particularly interesting as these divergent proteins may have novel functions. Overall, this paper presents a number of novel Fad and Elovl genes suggesting that many mollusc groups possess most of the

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of PEGylated diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Marco; Heidenreich, Anne; Dorandeu, Frederic; Gäb, Jürgen; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Letzel, Thomas; Blum, Marc-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highly toxic organophosphorus compounds that irreversibly inhibit the enzyme acetycholinesterase (AChE), including nerve agents like tabun, sarin, or soman, still pose a credible threat to civilian populations and military personnel. New therapeutics that can be used as a pretreatment or after poisoning with these compounds, complementing existing treatment schemes such as the use of atropine and AChE reactivating oximes, are currently the subject of intense research. A prominent role among potential candidates is taken by enzymes that can detoxify nerve agents by hydrolysis. Diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from the squid Loligo vulgaris is known to effectively hydrolyze DFP and the range of G-type nerve agents including sarin and soman. In the present work, DFPase was PEGylated to increase biological half-life, and to lower or avoid an immunogenic reaction and proteolytic digest. Addition of linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains was achieved using mPEG-NHS esters and conjugates were characterized by electrospray ionization--time of flight--mass specrometry (ESI-ToF-MS). PEGylated wildtype DFPase and a mutant selective for the more toxic stereoisomers of the agents were tested in vivo with rats that were challenged with a subcutaneous 3x LD(50) dose of soman. While wildtype DFPase prevented death only at extremely high doses, the mutant was able keep the animals alive and to minimize or totally avoid symptoms of poisoning. The results serve as a proof of principle that engineered variants of DFPase are potential candidates for in vivo use if substrate affinity can be improved or the turnover rate enhanced to lower the required enzyme dose. PMID:22174192

  13. Tamaño de Parcela Experimental y Número de Repeticiones para Ensayos de Rendimiento con Caupi, Vigna ungiculata (l Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar Soto Carlos

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de estimar el tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental y el número de repeticiones para ensayos de rendimiento con caupl Vigna ungiculata (L Walp. El ensayo de campo, ensayo en blanco de 20 surcos de 25 m cada uno, se sembró durante el segundo semestre de 1990, en el Centro de Investigación Cotové, municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia, propiedad de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Medellín. La zona de vida corresponde a la de bosque seco tropical (bs -T. Se sembró la variedad experimental Licatur-1 OCA Calamar, a 0,60 m entre surcos y 0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos. La unidad básica se consideró de un surco de un metro de longitud. Para la estimación del tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se combinaron las unidades básicas para obtener arreglos de diferentes tamaños y formas, a los que se determinó el coeficiente de variación GVij: CVij –Sij/Yij i:1,2, ... L;j = 1, 2, ... A Con el conjunto de los CVij se obtuvo un modelo de regresión cuya expresión real se asume que es un modelo cuadrático en (largo y r (ancho, esto es: CVij= β12+β1α +β2γ+β21αˆ2+β22γˆ2+β12αγ El tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se estimó en unidades de 6 surcos (a 0,60 m. entre sí de 5 m de longitud (0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos, con un coeficiente de variación del 16%. El número de repeticiones estimado, para lograr un coeficiente de variación de 16% y una precisión razonable del 25% es de 4, asumiendo que las pruebas de comparación se hagan con un nivel de significancia de 0,05. A partir del modelo de regresión encontrado, para valores constantes del coeficiente de variación y número de surcos se estimó longitud de los mismos y con todos estos datos se generó una familia de curvas, de tal suerte que para un valor deseado de CV se puede escoger entre varias alternativas de tamaño de

  14. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de la vegetación por punto, para lo cual se tomaron datos de diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, altura y tamaño de la copa para todas aquellas plantas leñosas con DAP mayor o igual a 2,5 cm. Se capturaron 76 individuos agrupados en seis especies y cuatro géneros; destacándose Hamadryas februa (Hübner como la más dominante con 32 individuos. El mes de marzo presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia (6 especies y 25 individuos durantes las primeras lluvias en la zona. El punto 3 presentó los valores más altos de diversidad y abundancia de Biblidinae (5 especies y 37 individuos y la mayor densidad de árboles (D= 0,28 individuos/m2. Se demuestra que la estructura de este grupo de mariposas presenta un patrón temporal y espacial en esta reserva. El análisis de componentes principales demostró que el área basal total (ABT y la Densidad (D de plantas leñosas, pueden considerarse como un factor determinante en la distribución y abundancia de las especies de la subfamilia Biblidinae en la RCM.Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, ColombiaThe abundance and spatio-temporal variation of butterflies of the Biblidinae subfamily (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a fragment of Tropical dry forest at the Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; from January until August 2011, was analyzed. Within the study area four

  15. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    intensificaron en la década del 90. Sin embargo, entre 2000 y 2001 empezaron a operar buques arrendados para la pesca con palangre, red de enmalle, nasas y arrastre en aguas brasileras y lideraron el proceso de ocupación del talud superior (250-500 m dirigido principalmente a la captura del rape (Lophyus gastrophysus, merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi, brotóla de profundidad (Urophycis mystacea, chernia (Polyprion americanus, calamar argentino (Illex argentinus, cangrejo rojo (Chaceon notialis y cangrejo real (Chaceon ramosae. Entre 2004 y 2007, buques arrendados establecieron una valorada pesquería de langostinos de profundidad (Familia Aristeidae y explotaron intensamente los fondos del talud inferior (500-1000 m. Las capturas totales de recursos de aguas profundas variaron anualmente de 5.756 ton en 2000 a un máximo de 19.923 ton in 2002, decayendo a cerca de 11.000 ton en 2006. No obstante, que fueron recolectados datos pesqueros en forma intensas, estuviesen disponibles oportunamente evaluaciones de stock y se haya llevado a cabo un proceso formal de discusión participativa de planes de manejo para estas pesquerías, los stocks de aguas profundas han sido considerado en situación de sobrepesca debido a limitaciones de gobernabilidad.

  16. RIQUEZA Y ABUNDANCIA DE HESPERIOIDEA Y PAPILIONOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LAS DELICIAS, SANTA MARTA, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA Species Richness and Abundance of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera in Las Delicias Natural Reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA A VARGAS-ZAPATA

    Full Text Available Las formaciones de bosque seco tropical secundario que se encuentran en las estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, albergan una fauna representativa de lepidópteros. Este grupo es usado ampliamente como bioindicador del estado de conservación de bosques, por su sensibilidad a la intervención y especificidad en el uso de recursos. En el presente estudio se evaluaron la variación de la riqueza y abundancia de las mariposas Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea en la reserva natural Las Delicias. Se seleccionaron dos sitios de muestreo con grados de intervención diferentes, ubicados a 200 msnm y entre los 400 y 550 msnm. Se realizaron cuatro faenas de registro y capturas, de abril a julio de 2008; se utilizaron dos redes entomológicas, con un esfuerzo muestral de 16 horas por faenas y 10 trampas van Someren-Rydon cebadas con macerado de frutas y calamar. Se capturaron 432 adultos que corresponden a 52 géneros y 66 especies. La familia Nymphalidae presentó mayor riqueza (42 y abundancia (250, destacándose la especie sombrófila Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius, 1793 con 41 ejemplares, la cual es común en bosques con amplia cobertura vegetal. El sitio 2, presentó mayor riqueza (48 y abundancia (236; que coincide con el espacio donde se presenta la cobertura arbórea más amplia y mayor variación en la estratificación vertical. Además, en este lugar la presencia del recurso hídrico fue permanente durante los muestreos. Con el aumento de las lluvias en junio y julio, se observaron mayor floración y fructificación de la vegetación en la zona; aumentando la disponibilidad de recursos y por consiguiente, una mayor riqueza y abundancia de Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea en el área de estudio.In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of Lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity

  17. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400Hz sweep (RL=157±5dB re 1μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175dB re 1μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles

  18. Natural isotope of polonium in the edible tissue of Malaysian seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural isotope of polonium (210Po) in edible seafood tissue samples from east and west coast Peninsular of Malaysia was measured using the Alpha Spectrometry after spontaneous deposition on silver disc. Concentrations level of 210Po in the edible tissue of squid (Loligo spp) brought from Pasar Siti Khadijah an Pengkalan Kubor Kelantan, Pasar Chabang Tiga and Pasar Besar Dungun Terengganu, and Pasar Endau and Pasar Mersing Johor were ranging from 11.9 ± 1.2 Bq/kg to 71.1 ± 3.7 Bq/kg with mean value of 30.34 ± 1.29 Bq/kg. While the ranged activity of 210Po in the organism samples collected near coal power station was 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bq/kg in fish, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bq/kg in crustacean and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bq/ kg in molluscs. But the level of 210Po in fish species of Alute mate, Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus macrolepidotu and Sillago sihama caught in the water of Kuala Selangor in the ranged of 0.47 Bq/kg to 68.10 Bq/kg. The study also conducting on soft part of Anadara granosa purchased at Kuala Selangor, west coast of Malaysia in August 2001, April 2002 and September 2002. It is shown that 210Po is non-uniformly distributed within cockles of various sizes (i.e., 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 cm of shell length) and the concentration of 210Po in the soft parts of cockle was significantly different (p<0.05) due to sampling date. The highest value was observed in the smallest cockle with a shell length of 2.5 cm (411.6±26.16 Bq/g dry wt.). It is clear that there is an allometric relationship between 210Po activity concentration and individual cockle weight. This may reflect on the differences of metabolic rate and growth age of cockles and will discuss in detail during conference. (author)

  19. Trace elements in the statoliths of jumbo flying squid off the Costa Rica waters%哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 陈新军; 刘必林; 方舟

    2013-01-01

    Jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, is the most important commercial fishery in east Pacific Ocean, and the statolith in statocyst is widely applied in the field of population identification, life history analysis and habitat environment. In this paper, we studied the trace element composition of statolith in Dosidicus gigas and its relationship with the corresponding sea surface temperature ( SST) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( LA-ICP-MS) , then deduced the habitat in different life stages. The results showed that 54 kinds of elements were found in statolith of Dosidicus gigas, calcium ( Ca) ,sodium( Na) and strontium( Sr) are the major elements. Sr/Ca ratio in total statolith is higher than that in Todarodes pacificus ,Loligo gahi and Gonatus fabricii. Sr/Ca ratio is the highest in embryonic phase and declined by the age,and its relationship with SST shows a reciprocal ratio. There is no significant difference of Sr/Ca ratio between different hatching months in every life stage. Ba/Ca ratio shows a "U"form from larva to adult,this could be seen as the indicator of vertical movement with larva living in the surface and deep layer for adult. Nucleus is higher than peripheral zone in Mg/Ca ratio which presents positive correlation with SST, and this might be possible with the gradua decrease of growth rate in statolith. Meanwhile, this study also shows that Dosidicus gigas in embryonic phase used its own vitellicle as the nutrient substance, so the trace elements in this phase are related with genetic factor in parent rather than the water environment.%实验通过激光剥蚀电感等离子质谱法分析哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素,了解其微量元素组成及其与表温关系,推测其不同生活史阶段的栖息环境.结果表明,茎柔鱼耳石含有54种元素,其中Ca、Na和Sr为主要元素.总体耳石Sr/Ca大于太平洋褶柔鱼、巴塔哥尼亚枪乌贼和黵乌贼.胚胎期耳石Sr/Ca最

  20. Structure and diversity of invertebrate resources in the Yellow Sea%黄海无脊椎动物资源结构及多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程济生

    2005-01-01

    根据1998~2000年在黄海进行的生物资源底拖网定点试捕调查,所取得的春、夏、秋、冬4季347个样方的无脊椎动物资料,分析了黄海无脊椎动物的资源结构及多样性.调查捕获无脊椎动物53种、2 336.896 kg、1 385 397尾.运用相对重要性指数(IRI)作为生态优势度的度量指标,依此来划定每个种在群落中的作用.IRI大于1 000的种类定为优势种,全年只有1种,即冷温性的脊腹褐虾(Crangon affinis),该种的渔获量占总渔获量的61.4%;IRI值在1 000~100的种类定为重要种,有3种(类),即枪乌贼(Loligo sp.)、太平洋褶柔鱼(Todarodes pacificus)和鹰爪虾(Trachypenaeus curvirostris),它们的渔获量占总渔获量的25.8%.使用物种丰富度指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)和种类均匀性指数(J′)剖析了该水域无脊椎动物群落的多样性特征.群落各样方指数D=0.000~2.347,H′=0.000~2.140,J′=0.006~1.000.此外还采用Bray-Curis指数CN来比较黄海不同区域无脊椎动物群落之间物种组成的相似性.研究结果表明,黄海北部无脊椎动物群落与黄海南部无脊椎动物群落之间的种类组成相似性最高,CN=0.846,黄海中部无脊椎动物群落与黄海南部无脊椎动物群落之间的种类组成相似性最低,CN=0.478.经分析,黄海现有无脊椎动物群落的优势种及多样性具有比较好的稳定性.

  1. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Haimovici

    2009-01-01

    ños 2001 y 2002 sobre la plataforma externa y talud superior, 100 a 600 m de profundidad, a lo largo del extremo sur de la costa brasilera, como parte de un programa nacional de evaluación del potencial pesquero de la Zona Económica Exclusiva (Programa REVIZEE. Del total de 228 especies de peces y cefalópodos capturados, sólo 27 especies y géneros fueron considerados de interés comercial. Los tamaños comercializables de estas especies representaron 52,3% de la captura total. La biomasa total estimada fue de 167.193 ton (± 22%> y 165.460 ton (± 25%> en los muéstreos de invierno-primavera y verano-otoño respectivamente. Las especies más abundantes fueron el calamar argentino Illex argentinus, especie de reclutamiento muy variable, seguido de la merluza argentina Merluccius hubbsi, la brotóla de profundidad Urophycis mystacea, el pez sapo o rapé Lophius gastrophysus, estas últimas intensamente explotadas en la época de los levantamientos, así como también Polymixia lowei y Zenopsis conchifera, ambas relativamente abundantes pero de escaso valor comercial. El rendimiento potencial de especies demersales excluido Illex argentinus, estimado a través de la ecuación de Gulland para un coeficiente de mortalidad natural medio de M = 0,31, fue de 20.460 ton. Cuando sólo Merluccius hubbsi, Urophycis mystacea y Lophius gastrophysus fueron considerados, el potencial disminuye a 6.625 ton. Los mustreos mostraron que el potencial pesquero de la plataforma continental externa y el talud superior es substancialmente inferior al de la plataforma interna, por lo tanto, este ambiente debe ser cuidadosamente controlado para evitar la sobrepesca y rápida depleción.

  2. ANALYSIS ON THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FISHERY ANIMALS IN DAIQUYANG%岱衢洋渔业动物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东

    2012-01-01

    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  3. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO ANALYZE FEEDING HABITS AND TROPHIC POSITION OF HAIRTAIL (TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS) FROM THE BEIBU GULF, SOUTH CHINA SEA%应用碳、氮稳定同位素研究北部湾带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)食性及营养级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 张武科; 卢伙胜; 王学锋; 赖金养

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained from monthly sampling in the main fishing ports of the Beibu Gulf from October 2008 to September 2009 and the data obtained from the fishery-dependent trawl survey in February 2010, in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea were using stable isotope analysis and stomach contents analysis to study the prey category, trophic position and ontogenetic feeding habit shifts of Trichiurus lepturus. The results showed that small pelagic fish, Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella jussieu, Stolephorus heteroloba, benthic Bregmaceros rarisquamosus, and cephalopoda, Loligo chinensis, were relatively important in the diet of T. lepturus, with the weight percentages of 26.19%, 10.21%, 9.94%, 7.20% and 6.07%, respectively, whereas the other prey species were presence in lower percentages. The δ13C signatures went from relatively low (depleted) values for pelagic species to high values for benthic species. As expected, D. maruadsi displayed the lowest value (-17.830‰) while benthic Leiognathus lineolatus displayed the highest value (-14.925‰). The absence of a significant linear correlation between the preanal length and δ13C leads to the conclusion that T. lepturus are feeding from all the water layers during the majority part of their biological life cycle. Both the average trophic level and its annual mean value were calculated by prey weight percentages and δ15N were 3.7. The trophic level of T. lepturus varied not significantly with the preanal length, despite the fact that T. margarites and T. minor increased notably in the same sea area. Two samples of dehydration were undertaken prior to the analytical determination of stable isotope ratios were tested and the results showed that vacuum freeze-drying and drying with oven at constant temperature had significant variance in δ15N but not in δ13C. Undoubtedly, SIA will play an import role in evaluating the fish feeding habits and trophic positions. At the same time, the following three key points

  4. PREDICTION OF LONG TERM CHANGE OF ABUNDANCE OF LARGE INVERTEBRATES IN THE JIAOZHOU BAY, YELLOW SEA%胶州湾大型无脊椎动物数量的多年变化与趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞玉; 黄勃; 徐凤山; 李笑红

    2001-01-01

    The shallow waters along the Yellow Sea coast are rich in large economic invertebrates such as the decapod and stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs which are main catches of local fisheries. Most species of these groups spawn in shallow coastal waters in late spring or early summer by May, the new born juveniles feed and grow fast in summer and autumn when water temperature is comparatively high. Some of them migrate to offshore waters where food organisms are rich. Most of them may grow up into the recruitment stock and the peak of their abundance appeared generally in August. Recent over-exploitation of coastal fishery resources by growing fishing effort resulted in great change of abundance and stock size of most species of these invertebrates. The stock size of most of these economic species decreased obviously in recent years as compared with those data obtained in the 1980′s excepting certain species whose stock size seems to be increased. The present paper predicts the trend of the long term change in abundance of the main species of large invertebrates by the functions based upon the trawling data obtained in May and August of 1981,1985,1989 and 1993. The functions simulating the trend of this change in May, model (1), and in August, model (2), are developed as follows: X=-4275.244e-0.4302066t+5527.244 (1) X=-11266.9e-1.202198t+14456.9 (2) Where X is individual number, t is time (year).   According to model (1) and Fig.1, the number of individuals of these invertebrates show a declining trend since 1985, when an average catch of 1480 ind./(net*h) in 1989 decreased to 1076, in 1993 to a low of 556. The most obviously decreased number may be seen in Charybdis japonica, Sepiella maindroni, Sepia esculenta and Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The decrease of brood stock of Sepiella in May resulted in the decrease of its number of individuals in August.   Based on the model (2) and Fig.2, similar results have been seen with the exception of Loligo