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Sample records for calamares loligo plei

  1. Gladius and statolith as tools for age and growth studies of the squid Loligo plei (Teuthida: Loliginidae off southern Brazil

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    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Statolith and gladius were investigated for their suitability as tools for age and growth studies in the loliginid squid Loligo plei off southern Brazil. Statoliths when polished, revealed a series of concentric increments deposited around a nucleus. Consistent increment counts covered the squid's entire life-time and could be considered suitable for individual age estimation. Growth increments were observed on the dorsal surface as delimited by consecutive marks formed during low growth periods. Because early growth was masked during chitin deposition, total increment counts underestimated individual age. Gladius growth was highly correlated with somatic growth, and gladius increments could be used to reconstruct individual growth histories. Both statolith and gladius increments were deposited with the same, possibly daily, periodicity. It could be inferred that L. plei off southern Brazil might live up to around nine months of age.Foi avaliada a viabilidade do estatólito e do gladius como ferramentas para estudos de idade e crescimento da lula loliginídea Loligo plei no sul do Brasil. Estatólitos são estruturas calcificadas que, após polimento, revelaram uma serie de incrementos concêntricos depositados em torno de um núcleo. Contagens consistentes desses incrementos cobriram toda a vida do animal e puderam ser consideradas apropriadas para a estimativa de idade desse organismo. O gladius é a concha interna que cresce pela deposição longitudinal de camadas de quitina. Incrementos foram observados na superfície dorsal, delimitados por consecutivas marcas formadas durante períodos de crescimento lento. Ao longo da deposição de quitina o crescimento do início da vida é progressivamente mascarado fazendo com que as contagens de incrementos totais subestimem a idade da lula. Devido ao crescimento do gladius correlacionar-se fortemente com o crescimento somático, os incrementos puderam ser utilizados para a reconstrução do

  2. Aspectos biológicos del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi (Cephalopodo: Loliginidae) en Huarmey, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Cardoso; Juan Tarazona; Carlos Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la biología del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi Orbigny sobre la base de muestreos provenientes de las capturas de la pesquería artesanal de Huarmey, Perú), entre febrero y marzo de 1985. Se analizaron las características de la estructura poblacional, reproducción y alimentación.

  3. El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi D’Orbigny,1835 en aguas peruanas (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae

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    Franz Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico, Loligo gahi D’Orbigny, 1835 fue estudiado en el campo y en el laboratorio. Las puestas colectadas en la Isla San Lorenzo, Perú, fueron transferidas al laboratorio, e incubadas en un sistema cerrado de agua marina. Las cápsulas midieron de 88 a 169 mm de longitud y cada cápsula contenía entre 56 y 114 huevos fertilizados. Los huevos midieron de 1,7 a 2,1 mm de longitud y la longitud del manto de los individuos eclosionados varió de 1,9 a 2,8 mm. El desarrollo de las paralarvas se logró a los 20 días, a una temperatura promedio de 19 ºC. El patrón de desarrollo embrionario es similar al observado en otras especies de Loligo. Las paralarvas sobrevivieron 45 días con una dieta de zooplancton (copepódos, micidáceos y larvas de poliquetos.

  4. Crecimiento y reclutamiento del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Perú (1991 a 1994).

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, Juan

    1996-01-01

    Presenta las características biológicas y poblacionales del calamar gigante a fin de establecer las medidas adecuadas de explotación. Se aprecia que el calamar presenta una alta tasa de crecimiento pudiendo alcanzar tallas de 41 a 53 cm. al año de edad y se revela la presencia de dos pulsos anuales de reclutamiento, los que involucran varios meses durante primavera-verano y otoño-invierno.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Changwen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence. The genome was 17,370 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 3 main non-coding regions. The composition and order of genes, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of L. opalescence is A 38.62%, C 19.40%, T 32.37% and G 9.61%, with a highly A + T bias of 70.99%. All of the three control regions (CR) contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Loliginidae. PMID:25703845

  6. Análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora

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    Francisco Javier de la Cruz-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo hacemos un análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora. Se generó una base de datos con información pesquera y se aplicó una encuesta a pescadores y a trabajadores de la industria del calamar para determinar sus principales características socioeconómicas. Los resultados muestran que esta pesquería ha tenido una participación importante en la estructura productiva del sector pesquero de la región; sin embargo, el repunte en las capturas de calamar gigante en los últimos años ha permitido el crecimiento de esta pesquería, pero no su desarrollo. El documento resalta la necesidad de orientar las políticas de manejo al aprovechamiento integral de este recurso.

  7. Relaciones ontogénicas y espacio-temporales en la dieta del calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en Perú, utilizando un Modelo Aditivo Generalizado

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre Norza Sior, Ana Renza Paola

    2011-01-01

    El calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (d'Orbigny, 1835) es un depredador importante en el ecosistema del Perú. Se postula que el papel del calamar gigante varía teniendo en cuenta la talla, tiempo, hora, temperatura y distribución espacial. Para comprobar esta hipótesis se aplicó un modelo aditivo generalizado (GAM) en datos biológicos de alimentación de 4178 calamares gigantes capturados por la flota industrial pesquera a lo largo del litoral peruano (3ºS a 18ºS) desde 2 a 299 millas náuticas (...

  8. Rentabilidad de Unidades Representativas de Producción Pesquera del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas en el Golfo de California

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hernández-Trejo; Mauricio Ramírez-Rodríguez; Germán Ponce-Díaz; Luis Almendarez-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    La pesca del calamar gigante en México se desarrolla principalmente en el Golfo de California, en las costas de Baja California Sur (B.C.S) y Sonora (Son.), por cooperativas y empresas privadas que operan embarcaciones menores (pangas) y barcos camaroneros. Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de empresas tipo se evaluaron con los datos de ingresos y costos totales de operación en el año 2008, consensuados por representantes de empresas calamareras que definieron dos tipos de unidades represent...

  9. Composición de tallas de la captura de calamar gigante en el Golfo de California durante 1981

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Rodríguez, Mauricio; Klett Traulsen, Alexander

    1985-01-01

    La Pesquería de Calamar Gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en el Golfo de California tuvo un notable desarrollo durante los años de 1978 a 1980, pasando de una producción de 2,000 t en el primero a 22,400 t en el último. Ese marcado incremento estuvo íntimamente asociado con la aplicación de un mayor esfuerzo de pesca. En 1981 las capturas sufrieron un decrecimiento muy significativo, causando la crísis de la pesquería y desde 1982 el recurso dejó de presentarse en el área, terminando de esta manera s...

  10. Estudio preliminar del sistema reproductor del Calamar Gigante del Golfo de Baja California Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1935) Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Báez, Rosa Isabel

    1980-01-01

    El calamar gigante del Golfo California es un recurso potencial de gran importancia para México. Como base para estudiar el ciclo de madurez gonadal, se describe el sistema reproductor de ejemplares colectados durante 1980. En las hembras existe un ovario, un par de glándulas nidamentales y un par de glándulas nidamentales accesorias; en su histología presenta ovocitos de diversos estadios de maduración con células foliculares en cordones. La maduración avanzada coincide con la presencia de p...

  11. Distribución de Tallas y Condición Reproductiva del Calamar Gigante Dosidicus Gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) en el Golfo de California

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Abunader, J.I.; Nevárez Martínez, M.O.; Hernández Herrera, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    Se analizaron cambios en la distribución de tallas, número de cohortes y condición reproductiva del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas utilizando muestras provenientes de siete cruceros oceanográficos de investigación, efectuados en la región central del Golfo de California, México de 1997 a 2008. En todas las estaciones se muestrearon hasta 25 ejemplares registrando longitud del manto, sexo y fase de madurez gonádica y cuando la captura lo permitió, se realizó un muestreo masivo de 100 ejemplar...

  12. Ultrastructural damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after low frequency sound exposure.

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    Marta Solé

    Full Text Available There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients.

  14. Validación histológica de los estadios de madurez gonádica de las hembras de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en el Golfo de California, México

    OpenAIRE

    JG Díaz-Uribe; A Hernández-Herrera; E Morales-Bojórquez; S Martínez-Aguilar; MC Suárez-Higuera; A Hernández-López

    2006-01-01

    Se analizó la estructura de ovocitos en las gónadas de hembras de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas), para validar los estadios morfocromáticos de madurez sexual, basados en una escala de seis etapas. Las muestras fueron obtenidas quincenalmente en el área de Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, entre junio del 2001 y noviembre del 2002. De cada gónada se obtuvieron cortes histológicos para contar el número de ovocitos en cada nivel de desarrollo. Con la frecuencia de ovocitos en cada nivel de ...

  15. La modificación del ecosistema marino reflejada en las poblaciones de las especies de calamares Dosidicus gigas, Illex coindetii, Illex argentinus, Todarodes sagittatus, Doryteuthis gahi y Onykia ingens Dinámica y función de los calamares en los ecosistemas Marine ecosystem change in the squid populations of Dosidicus gigas, Illex coindetii, Illex argentinus, Todarodes sagittatus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens Dynamic and function of squid species in the ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Luis, Rigoberto

    2013-01-01

    [spa] En esta tesis se revisaron las relaciones que existen entre las poblaciones de dos especies de calamares ommastréfidos Dosidicus gigas y Illex argentinus con las series temporales de la temperatura superficial del mar, clorofila a y las estimaciones de biomasa zooplanctónica, lo que resultó en la comprensión de que la temperatura puede afectar directamente a las poblaciones de organismos productores primarios y a los integrantes del zooplancton, y no así a los organismos juveniles y a...

  16. Biological patterns of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in the slope trawl fishery off Brazil Patrones biológicos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en la pesquería de arrastre en el talud continental de Brasil

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    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial exploitation of the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus was virtually non-existent in Brazilian waters until 2000 when foreign trawlers initiated their operations on slope grounds as part of a government-induced chartering program. Since then, the species has been included among the targets of a developing slope trawl fishing off southeastern and southern Brazil. Biological samples were collected from commercial catches of 25 national and seven foreign (chartered trawlers between 23°-33°S and 170-740 m depth. These samples represent two periods of the commercial exploitation of Illex argentinus in Brazil: 2001-2003, when both chartered and national trawlers operated simultaneously, and 2006-2007, when only national vessels continued to exploit I. argentinus along with other slope stocks. Catches contained immature and ma-turing squid throughout the year, as well as at least two distinct, fully mature, spawning groups: one composed of small-sized males and females present year-round on the shelf-break/ upper slope (La explotación comercial del calamar argentino (Illex argentinus no existía en aguas brasilenas hasta el año 2000, cuando buques extranjeros iniciaron sus operaciones en el talud como parte de un programa gubernamental de arrendamiento. Desde entonces la especie forma parte de un conjunto de recursos que han motivado el desarrollo de una pesquería de arrastre en el talud del sur y sureste de Brasil. Se colectaron muestras biológicas de las capturas comerciales de 25 buques arrastreros nacionales y siete extranjeros entre los paralelos 23°-33°S y en profundidades de 170 a 740 m. Estas muestras representaron dos periodos de la explotación comercial de I. argentinus en Brasil: 2001-2003, cuando buques nacionales y extranjeros operaron simultáneamente, y 2006-2007 cuando sólo buques nacionales permanecieron explotando el calamar argentino en conjunto con otros recursos del talud. Las capturas estuvieron

  17. Differential impacts of ocean acidification and warming on winter and summer progeny of a coastal squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O; Repolho, Tiago

    2014-02-15

    Little is known about the capacity of early life stages to undergo hypercapnic and thermal acclimation under the future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming. Here, we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses to these climate change-related variables (2°C above winter and summer average spawning temperatures and ΔpH=0.5 units) during the early ontogeny of the squid Loligo vulgaris. Embryo survival rates ranged from 92% to 96% under present-day temperature (13-17°C) and pH (8.0) scenarios. Yet, ocean acidification (pH 7.5) and summer warming (19°C) led to a significant drop in the survival rates of summer embryos (47%, Pocean acidification and summer warming scenarios. The occurrence of prolonged embryogenesis along with lowered thermal tolerance limits under such conditions is expected to negatively affect the survival success of squid early life stages during the summer spawning period, but not winter spawning.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Oka, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Yoshinori; Amiya, Noriko; Yamamori, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the brain of the cephalopod spear-squid, Loligo bleekeri, by performing a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the spear-squid brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve, indicating the existence of a cGnRH-II-like peptide in the brain. For immunohistochemistry, a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of GnRH (LRH13) and a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II were used. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (that reacted with LRH13) were mainly detected in the central part of the ventral magnocellular lobe (vmL), and a few cell bodies were also detected in the olfactory lobe and palliovisceral lobe (pvL). Bundles of GnRH-like-ir axons were observed running from the vmL to the internal brain regions. GnRH-like-ir fibers were widely distributed in almost all the brain regions. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were localized in the optic gland, outer region of the vmL, and pvL. Further, cGnRH-II-ir fibers were distributed in the wide areas of the brain. These results suggest that at least two forms of GnRH-like peptidergic neuronal systems exist in the spear-squid brain. PMID:18313672

  19. Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, T. Aran; Hanlon, Roger T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    extinguished at all frequencies if (1) water temperatures were less than 8°C, (2) statocysts were ablated, or (3) recording electrodes were placed in locations other than near the statocysts. Both the AEP response characteristics and the range of responses suggest that squid detect sound similarly to most fish......Although hearing has been described for many underwater species, there is much debate regarding if and how cephalopods detect sound. Here we quantify the acoustic sensitivity of the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) using near-field acoustic and shaker-generated acceleration stimuli. Sound field......, with the statocyst acting as an accelerometer through which squid detect the particle motion component of a sound field. The modality and frequency range indicate that squid probably detect acoustic particle motion stimuli from both predators and prey as well as low-frequency environmental sound signatures that may...

  20. Kebiasaan makan dan komposisi makanan tiga species cumi (Loligo edulis, Sepioteuthis lessoniana dan Sepia officinalis hasil tangkapan nelayan dari Perairan Pantai Utara Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Ismail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kebiasaan makan dan komposisi makanan tiga species cumi hasil tangkapan nelayan dari perairan pantai Utara Provinsi Aceh mulai April sampai Mei 2013. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode penarikan contoh secara acak sederhana yaitu dengan mengambil sampel secara acak yang mewakili semua ukuran cumi yang ad. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis makanan yang dijumpai pada lambung Loligo edulis adalah ikan (75,1%, udang (20,5% dan cumi (4,4%; pada lambung Sepia offisinalis diperoleh jenis makanan; ikan (89,9%, udang (10% dan kepiting (0,29%; dan pada Sepioteuthis lessoniana ikan (99,9% dan cacing (0,1%. Sehingga dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa ketiga species yang diteliti karnivora dengan ikan-ikan kecil dan udang sebagai makanan utama.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of calexcitin from Loligo pealei: a neuronal protein implicated in learning and memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaven, G. D. E.; Erskine, P. T.; Wright, J. N.; Mohammed, F.; Gill, R.; Wood, S. P. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Vernon, J.; Giese, K. P. [Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Cruciform Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cooper, J. B., E-mail: j.b.cooper@soton.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Recombinant squid calexcitin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The neuronal protein calexcitin from the long-finned squid Loligo pealei has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Calexcitin is a 22 kDa calcium-binding protein that becomes up-regulated in invertebrates following Pavlovian conditioning and is likely to be involved in signal transduction events associated with learning and memory. Recombinant squid calexcitin has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The unit-cell parameters of a = 46.6, b = 69.2, c = 134.8 Å suggest that the crystals contain two monomers per asymmetric unit and have a solvent content of 49%. This crystal form diffracts X-rays to at least 1.8 Å resolution and yields data of high quality using synchrotron radiation.

  2. Efecto de la calidad del agua y tamaño de partícula en la producción de quitosano a partir de B-quitina extraída de desperdicios de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rocha-Pino; Shirai, K.; L. Arias; H. Vázquez-Torres

    2008-01-01

    La pluma de calamar gigante es una fuente importante de B-quitina, la cual tiene un arreglo de cadenas en forma paralela que le da un carácter particular en sus propiedades tales como, alta reactividad, afinidad en disolventes orgánicos y retención de agua. La extracción de la B-quitina se realizó con el método químico, el cual consistió en desmineralización (DM) probando HCl 0.2M ó 1M, posteriormente se realizó la desproteinización (DP) con NaOH en concentraciones de 0.2M a 2M. La DP total, ...

  3. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

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    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.

  4. Feeding habits of the cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro

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    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the diet of the adult cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro, through stomach content analysis. The sampling included 350 specimens measuring between 100 and 163cm in total length, collected from 2004 to 2006. For each prey species, the frequency of occurrence, density and biomass, body length and weight, and Index of Relative Importance (IRI were calculated. The cannibalistic feeding behavior of the cutlassfish was also recorded. According to the IRI, the preferential prey species were the fishes T. lepturus, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Odontognathus mucronatus, Stellifer brasiliensis and Isophisthus parvipinnis, and the crustacean Pleoticus muelleri. The cephalopods Loligo sanpaulensis and L. plei occurred occasionally in the stomach contents analyzed. The diet of T. lepturus in northern Rio de Janeiro was composed of pelagic and demersal prey species, associated with estuarine and coastal areas. The fish species and one crustacean species were the most representative items in its diet.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Squid (Loligo Spp.) Tissues of Kedah-Perlis Waters, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in three different tissues collected from the ink-sac, head, and muscle of the squid. Squid samples were caught off the coastal waters of Kedah-Perlis, where only mature squids within the maturity size-range of 13 to 15 cm were used. From this study, the concentration of Zn (35.06 ± 4.06 mg/ kg in dry weight) was found significantly higher in all of the tissues, followed by Cu (15.10 ± 13.28 mg/ kg in dry weight), Cd (4.76 ± 3.77 mg/ kg in dry weight), and Pb with an average value of 4.01 ± 0.08 mg/ kg in dry weight. From this study, it was discovered that Zn and Cu concentrations in the tissues were lower than the maximum limit recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization, Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), as well as other countries. Meanwhile, both non-essential elements namely Cd and Pb recorded higher values than that of the recommended concentrations. According to the Metal Pollution Index (MPI), the ink-sac indicated medium-range contamination, while the head and muscle tissues showed low contamination levels. (author)

  6. Les étoiles de mer (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) récoltées par le M/V Calamar au large des Guyanes et du Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, Michel

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen species of starfish are recorded from the sea off the Guyanas and Venezuela. Most of them are shallow-water animals including two uncommon forms, Chaetaster nodosus Perrier and Verrillaster spinulosus (Verrill). Two interesting deep-sea starfishes were collected, viz. Cheiraster planus Verr

  7. Intense ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, Roger T.; Tyack, Peter L; Madsen, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales use intense ultrasonic clicks to echolocate prey and it has been hypothesized that they also acoustically debilitate their prey with these intense sound pulses to facilitate capture. Cephalopods are an important food source for toothed whales, and there has probably been an evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating ...

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF SQUID PARALARVAE, LOLIGO OPALESCENS (CEPHALOPODA: MYOPSIDA), IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT IN THE THREE YEARS FOLLOWING THE 1997 EL NINO. (R825381)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Intense ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, R.T.; Tyack, P.L.;

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales use intense ultrasonic clicks to echolocate prey and it has been hypothesized that they also acoustically debilitate their prey with these intense sound pulses to facilitate capture. Cephalopods are an important food source for toothed whales, and there has probably been an...... evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating bats, and it can be hypothesized that cephalopods might have evolved similar ultrasound detection as an......) do not acoustically debilitate this cephalopod species....

  10. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus) collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Piras; Giannina Chessa; Maurizio Cossu; Federica Rubattu; Gianuario Fiori

    2013-01-01

    Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; ...

  11. The everyday-life in neanderthal times: a full-immersive Pleistocene reconstruction for the Casal De' Pazzi Museum (Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Palombini

    2012-11-01

    movie in computer-graphic, to be shown to the public, explaining neanderthal man and ancient elephant's life, and an edu-game, for children's learning, the Plei-stostation, implemented by touch-screen interaction dynamics.

  12. AcEST: DK952636 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|Q17094|OPSD_LOLSU Rhodopsin (Fragment) OS=Loligo subulata GN=... 34 0.55 sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbes...QGYPPQGYPPQGYPPQ---GYPPP 419 >sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1187 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1187 ref|YP_002970996.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo opalesce...ns] gb|ACS12932.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo opalescens] YP_002970996.1 0.12 23% ...

  14. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    -colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

  15. Pedo-tephrostratigraphic context of Palaeo-Mesolithic occurrences at Frigento, Hirpinia (Campanian Apennine)

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, F.; Laboratory of Anthropology University of Naples Federico II; Giaccio, B.; Istituto di Geologia ambientale e Geoingegneria CNR Roma; Isaia, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia

    2009-01-01

    For the first time a stratigraphic framework has been provided for several Palaeolithic and possible Mesolithic occurrences of the Campanian Apennine, on the basis of the numerous manifestations recognized at Frigento (Avellino). Knowledge of the Palaeolithic peopling of the mountainous region of southern Italy was, until now, extremely poor. In 2006 a geoarchaeological project identified a stratified sequence comprising four main pedological units intercalated with no less than six Late Plei...

  16. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  17. AcEST: BP917678 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 32 2.1 sp|Q9BY76|ANGL4_HUMAN Angiopoietin-related prote...GP 6 QGY P+GYPP+ P G P PP GP Sbjct: 399 QGYPPQGYPPQGYPPQGYP---PPPQGP 423 >sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbes

  18. AcEST: DK951309 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available V=1 31 2.3 sp|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 30 6.6 sp|P09241|OPSD_OCTDO Rho...|P24603|OPSD_LOLFO Rhodopsin OS=Loligo forbesi GN=RHO PE=1 SV=1 Length = 452 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Filipa; Oliveira, Marta; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in five commercially valuable squid species from different geographical origins (Atlantic, Indic and Pacific Oceans). Out of the 18 quantified PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by US EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) only dibenz(a,h)anthracene was not detected. The total concentrations of PAHs varied by a factor of more than 100-fold, from 0.22 (Loligo gahi) to 60.9 μg/kg ww (Loligo reynaudii). Intra- and inter-specific variability of PAH levels was statistically assessed. Nine carcinogenic (probable/possible) PAHs accounted for 1% (L. reynaudii) to 26% (Loligo opalescens) of the total PAHs content being the main contributors naphthalene (in Loligo duvaucelii, L. reynaudii and Loligo vulgaris species), chrysene (in L. opalescens) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (in L. gahi). PAHs source analysis indicated that four of the five zones of capture of the different squid species are significantly affected by both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. Assessment of the target carcinogenic risks, established by the US EPA, suggested that L. gahi (Atlantic Ocean) and L. opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) may pose additional risks for consumers, if not eaten in moderation, derived from benzo(a)pyrene ingestion.

  20. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy of the central western continental margin of India: late-Quaternary evolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Veerayya, M.; Vora, K.H.

    continen- tal margin: an update. J. Geol. Soc. India 46, 157^162. Hernandez-Molina, F.J., Somoza, L., Rey, J., Pomar, L., 1994. Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments on the Spanish conti- nental shelves: Models for very high-resolution sequence stratigraphy.... Mar. Geol. 120, 129^174. Hernandez-Molina, F.J., Somoza, L., Rey, J., 1996. Late Pleis- tocene-Holocene high-resolution sequence analysis on the Alboran Sea continental shelf. In: De Batist, M., Jacobs, P. (Eds.), Geology of Siliciclastic Shelf Seas...

  1. 完形填空精练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孝文豪

    2005-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh is often remem bered asthe painter who cut off his ear in a fit ofpassion.He was a lonely man who often 1 without food in order to buy paints,am an with few friends and a 2 temper.Van Gogh’s strongemotions not only 3 hislife,but his paintings.Many of van Gogh’s paintings were 4 by warm,yellow sunlight because he lovedhow it could 5 the world in differentways.His painting Sunflowers,for exam ple,is 6 yellows and browns.These colors givethe painting a 7 of warmth.However,the sunflowers are 8 ...

  2. 76 FR 8306 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... management measures was published on November 17, 2010 (75 FR 70187), and the public comment period for the... catch) represents a reduction from status quo (115,000 mt). Despite the reduction, the specified IOY is... the status quo (19,000 mt). Loligo landings for 2007-2009 averaged 11,019 mt. This provides...

  3. Biology and meso-scale distribution patterns of North Sea cephalopods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oesterwin, D.; Hofstede, ter R.; Harley, B.; Brendelberger, H.; Piatkowski, U.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, 132,178 cephalopods were sampled in the North Sea during ICES International Bottom Trawl Surveys. Most abundant were the long-finned squids Alloteuthis subulata (124,751 animals) and Loligo forbesii (3415 animals). Short-finned squids such as Todaropsis eblanae, Todarodes sagi

  4. 50 CFR 648.13 - Transfers at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers at sea. 648.13 Section 648.13... sea. (a) Only vessels issued a Loligo and butterfish moratorium or Illex moratorium permit under § 648... purchased at sea. (c) All persons are prohibited from transferring or attempting to transfer NE...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03215-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available from clone CH242-290P9 on chromo... 44 8.9 1 ( X79583 ) L.forbesi mitochondria lrRNA gene. 44 8.9 1 ( CU4678...07 ) H.melpomene DNA sequence from clone AEHM-27I5. 44 8.9 1 ( AF110075 ) Loligo forbesi 16S ribosomal RNA g

  6. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AC11 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 328525 |pid:none) Gekko gecko photoreceptor transduc... 53 7e-06 protein update 2009. 4.14 PSORT psg: 0.58 g...AF521583 |pid:none) Loligo pealei visual iGq-alpha pro... 54 5e-06 AY328525_1( AY

  7. Isofocusing and immunological investigations on cephalopod lens proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Lancieri, M.

    1979-01-01

    Soluble lens proteins from Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, and Loligo vulgaris were analyzed by thin-layer isoelectric focusing and compared by various immunochemical methods using antibodies directed against total soluble lens protein antigens from the said three species. The results show clos

  8. Elementos de colonialidad y biopolítica en una historia caribeña (ficticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cabrera

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La primera novela colombiana, Yngermina o la hija de Calamar (Juan José Nieto, 1844, re-escritura de la historia regional cartagenera como locus de civilización con elementos utópicos, delinea un cuerpo político ideal moldeado por dinámicas particulares de raza y género y es empleada en este artículo como espacio para observar las contradicciones del discurso liberal decimonónico desde la óptica de la biopolítica y la colonialidad del poder.

  9. Aislamiento de Microsatélites y flujo Genético en Dosidicus Gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) entre el Golfo de California y La Costa Occidental de La Península de Baja California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Millán, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    El calamar gigante, Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) es una especie semioceánica y nerítica endémica del Pacífico Oriental, distribuida desde el norte de California E.U.A (43º N) hasta el sur de Chile (20°S), incluyendo el Golfo de California. Habita aguas desde la superficie hasta 1000 metros de profundad. Particularmente dentro del Golfo de California (México), es considerado uno de los recursos pesqueros más importantes, sin embargo el manejo de la pesquería de éste cefalóp...

  10. Feeding of Blue Marlin Makaira Nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Arizmendi Rodríguez, Dana; Gudiño González, Napoleón; Galván Magaña, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlín azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes), de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI), fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52%) y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%).ABSTRACTWe analyzed the stomach content...

  11. Reestructuración en frío de músculo de pescado mediante la incorporación de alginato sódico y transglutaminasa microbiana

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Conde, Helena María

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo general de la presente Memoria consiste en abordar, a través de diversos estudios parciales, el desarrollo tecnológico de la reestructuración en frío a partir de recortes de músculo picado de merluza congelada (Merluccius capensis), músculo picado de merluza fresca (Merluccius merluccius), trucha fresca (Oncorhynchis mykiss) y surimi de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas). Para ello se emplearán diferentes técnicas de procesado que incluyen el empleo de Alginato sódic...

  12. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the central-south coast off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIO ULLOA; MARTA FUENTEALBA; VÍCTOR RUIZ

    2006-01-01

    Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848) y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para ...

  13. Food Habits of the Yeloow Snapper Lutjanus Argentiventris (Peters, 1869) (Pericoidei: Lutjanidae) in La Paz Bay, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa I. Vázquez; Rodríguez, Jesús; Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Se analizaron cambios en la distribución de tallas, número de cohortes y condición reproductiva del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas utilizando muestras provenientes de siete cruceros oceanográficos de investigación, efectuados en la región central del Golfo de California, México de 1997 a 2008. En todas las estaciones se muestrearon hasta 25 ejemplares registrando longitud del manto, sexo y fase de madurez gonádica y cuando la captura lo permitió, se realizó un muestreo masivo de 100 ejemplar...

  14. Pesca con anzuelos en barcos palangreros del Océano Pacífico mexicano: efectos en la captura y peso de tiburones y otras especies

    OpenAIRE

    Galeana-Villaseñor, Ildefonso; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Santana Hernández, Heriberto

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de dos tipos de anzuelos y dos tipos de carnada en la tasa de captura de barcos palangreros en el noroeste del Océano Pacífico mexicano. Se realizaron cuatro viajes de pesca comercial con un total de 47 lances, entre marzo de 2005 y agosto de 2006. Los dos tipos de anzuelos usados fueron: recto 11º de inclinado 9/0 de uso tradicional y circular plano 16/0 (experimental). Se utilizaron dos tipos de carnada: calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) y peces juveniles de lisa (Mugil ...

  15. El burro cuántico de Sancho Panza (Los Nobel en Física 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Galindo Uribarri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EL premio Nobel en Física 2003 fue compartido por Leggett, Abrikosov y Ginzburg, por sus contribuciones al entendimiento de fenómenos a bajas temperaturas. Este ensayo explica, a un nivel elemental, sus teorías. Además este trabajo presenta una serie de eventos –relacionados con las teorías mencionadas– que forman una historia de tres animales cuánticos: un gato, un calamar y un burro.

  16. Seasonal Survey of Contaminants (Cd and Hg) and Micronutrients (Cu and Zn) in Edible Tissues of Cephalopods from Tunisia: Assessment of Risk and Nutritional Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Rjeibi, Moncef; Metian, Marc; Hajji, Tarek; Guyot, Thierry; Rafika, Ben Chaouacha-Chekir; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    International audience Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the muscle tissues (arms and mantle) of three commercial cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis) caught in three different Tunisian coastal regions. The highest concentrations found correspond to the essential elements Cu and Zn. Octopuses and cuttlefish showed the highest levels of those elements while squid ...

  17. Interspecific and geographical variations of trace metal concentrations in cephalopods from Tunisian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Rjeibi, Moncef; Metian, Marc; Hajji, Tarek; Guyot, Thierry; Chaouacha-Chekir, Rafika Ben; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience The concentrations of 6 metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were investigated and compared in three tissues (arms, digestive gland and mantle) of three cephalopod species from the Tunisian waters: the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Whatever the species or the sites, the digestive gland displayed the highest concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn highlighting its major role in the...

  18. Composition in essential and non-essential elements of early stages of cephalopods and dietary effects on the elemental profiles of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Roger; Bustamante, Paco

    2006-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed at providing a first look at the elemental composition of the early stages of cephalopods as an approach to their elemental requirements in culture. Essential and non-essential elemental profiles of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the European squid Loligo vulgaris and the common octopus Octopus vulgaris laboratory hatchlings and wild juveniles were analysed. In addition, for O. vulgaris we determined elemental profiles of mature ovary, eggs in di...

  19. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  20. Conceptual Tools for Managing Two Monterey Bay Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Ish, Teresa Lin

    2003-01-01

    I developed two conceptual models addressing fishery questions in the Monterey Bay motivated by 1) the California Market Squid (Loligo opalescens) and 2) marine reserves as a recovery and management tool. The model for California Market Squid incorporates the close ties between environmental variability and squid life history. Inclusion of environmental factors in the model provides a biological mechanism contributing to the large fluctuations that occur in the fishery. Furthermore, I predict...

  1. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  2. Simultaneous measurements of magnesium, calcium and sodium influxes in perfused squid giant axons under membrane potential control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1975-10-01

    1. Giant axons from the squids Dosidicus gigas, Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris were internally perfused with 550 or 275 mM KF plus sucrose and bathed in artificial sea water containing 45Ca, 28Mg or mixtures of 45Ca-28Mg or 45Ca-22Na. Resting influxes and extra influxes during voltage-clamp pulses were measured by collecting and counting the internal perfusate. 2. For Dosidicus axons in 10 mM-CaCl2 the resting influx of calcium was 0-016 +/- 0-007 p-mole/cm2 sec and a linear function of external concentration. For two experiments in 10 and 84-7 mM-CaCl2, 100 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. Resting calcium influx in 10 mM-CaCl2 was 0-017 +/- 0-013 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. 3. With 55 mM-MgCl2 outside the average resting magnesium influx was 0-124 +/- 0-080 p-mole/cm2 sec for Loligo axons. Discarding one aberrant point the value is 0-105 +/- 0-046 which is not significantly different from the resting calcium influx for Dosidicus fibres in 55 mM-CaCl2, given as 0-094 p-mole/cm2 sec by the regression line shown in Fig. 1. In two experiments 150 nM tetrodotoxin had no effect. 4. With 430 mM-NaCl outside 100 nM tetrodotoxin reduced the average resting influx of sodium in Dosidicus axon from 27-7 +/- 4-5 to 25-1 +/- 6-2 p-mole/cm2 sec and for Loligo fibres in 460 mM-NaCl from 50-5 +/- 4 to 20 +/- 8 p-mole/cm2 sec. 5. Using depolarizing pulses of various durations, the extra calcium influx occurred in two phases. The early phase was eliminated by external application of tetrodotoxin. The results of analysis are consistent with, but do not rigorously demonstrate, the conclusion that the tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium entry is flowing through the normal sodium channels (cf. Baker, Hodgkin & Ridgway, 1971). 6. Measurements of extra influxes using 22Na and 45Ca simultaneously indicate that the time courses of tetrodotoxin sensitive calcium and sodium entry are similar but not necessarily identical. It is very doubtful that any significant calcium entry occurs before

  3. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  4. Strigolactones are a new-defined class of plant hormones which inhibit shoot branching and mediate the interaction of plant-AM fungi and plant-parasitic weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAITLIN; David

    2009-01-01

    Because plants are sessile organisms,the ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is critical for their survival.As a consequence,plants use hormones to regulate growth,mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses,and to communicate with other organisms.Many plant hormones function plei-otropically in vivo,and often work in tandem with other hormones that are chemically distinct.A newly-defined class of plant hormones,the strigolactones,cooperate with auxins and cytokinins to control shoot branching and the outgrowth of lateral buds.Strigolactones were originally identified as compounds that stimulated the germination of parasitic plant seeds,and were also demonstrated to induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi.AM fungi form symbioses with higher plant roots and mainly facilitate the absorption of phosphate from the soil.Conforming to the classical definition of a plant hormone,strigolactones are produced in the roots and translocated to the shoots where they inhibit shoot outgrowth and branching.The biosynthesis of this class of compounds is regulated by soil nutrient availability,i.e.the plant will increase its production of strigolactones when the soil phosphate concentration is limited,and decrease production when phosphates are in ample supply.Strigolactones that affect plant shoot branching,AM fungal hyphal branching,and seed germination in parasitic plants facilitate chemical synthesis of similar compounds to control these and other biological processes by exogenous application.

  5. Mass spectrometric survey of peptides in cephalopods with an emphasis on the FMRFamide-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweedler, J V; Li, L; Floyd, P; Gilly, W

    2000-12-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) survey of the major peptides in the stellar, fin and pallial nerves and the posterior chromatophore lobe of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo opalescens and Dosidicus gigas has been performed. Although a large number of putative peptides are distinct among the three species, several molecular masses are conserved. In addition to peptides, characterization of the lipid content of the nerves is reported, and these lipid peaks account for many of the lower molecular masses observed. One conserved set of peaks corresponds to the FMRFamide-related peptides (FRPs). The Loligo opalescens FMRFa gene has been sequenced. It encodes a 331 amino acid residue prohormone that is processed into 14 FRPs, which are both predicted by the nucleotide sequence and confirmed by MALDI MS. The FRPs predicted by this gene (FMRFa, FLRFa/FIRFa and ALSGDAFLRFa) are observed in all three species, indicating that members of this peptide family are highly conserved across cephalopods. PMID:11060217

  6. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  7. Feeding habits of the atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis, in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xênia Moreira Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new information on the feeding habits of the Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, in the Western South Atlantic. Nine stomach contents of S. frontalis incidentally caught in fishing operations conducted by the gillnet fleet based on main harbour of Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. These specimens were captured between 2005 and 2007. A total of 1 422 cephalopod beaks, 147 otoliths and three crustaceans were recovered from the stomach contents. The dolphins assessed preyed on at least eight different fish species of the families Trichiuridae, Carangidae, Sparidae, Merluccidae, Engraulidae, Sciaenidae, Congridae and Scombridae, five cephalopod species of the families Loliginidae, Sepiolidae, Tremoctopodidae and Thysanoteuthidae, and one shrimp species of the Penaeidae family. Based on the analysis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI, the Atlantic cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, was the most important fish species represented. Of the cephalopods, the squid Doryteuthis plei was by far the most representative species. Several items were reported for the first time as prey of the S. frontalis: Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Tremoctopus violaceus, Semirossia tenera, Merluccius hubbsi, Pagrus pagrus and Paralonchurus brasiliensis. S. frontalis presented teuthophagous and ichthyofagous feeding habits, with apparent predominance of the first, and preyed mainly on pelagic and demersal items.O presente estudo apresenta novas informações sobre os hábitos alimentares de golfinhos-pintados-do-Atlântico, Stenella frontalis, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados nove conteúdos estomacais de S. frontalis acidentalmente capturados em operações de pesca entre 2005 e 2007 pela frota pesqueira do município de Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, sudeste do Brasil. Foram recuperados dos conteúdos estomacais 1 422 bicos de cefalópodes, 147 otólitos e três camarões. Dos itens analisados, foram

  8. Interacciones de pesquerías ribereñas en Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ojeda Ruiz de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de aportar al desarrollo de un modelo conceptual sobre la pesca ribereña o artesanal en el área de Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, se jerarquizó la importancia de 14 pesquerías de la región. La calificación se basó en un análisis cualitativo por puntos y en la estimación de un índice de importancia relativa, con indicadores como los promedios de captura, valor y frecuencia de registro de especies objetivo en desembarcos de embarcaciones menores, de 1998 a 2009; entre ellas están: almeja catarina, escama, camarón, callo de hacha, tiburón, jaiba, calamar, almeja pata de mula, rayas, lisa, pulpo, abulón, langosta y caracol chino. La interacción temporal entre varias de ellas es controlada por vedas oficiales, pero cuando ocurre se reconocen posibles efectos por pesca incidental e ilegal y modificaciones al ecosistema.

  9. Dieta del lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus Lesson, 1828, en la Isla San Jorge, en el norte del Golfo de California, México, 1998–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El lobo marino de California, Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828, es el único pinnípedo residente en el Golfo de California, donde sus mayores poblaciones están en el cinturón de las Grandes Islas y en el norte del golfo. La Isla San Jorge, en el golfo norte, tiene la segunda colonia reproductiva, que también es genéticamente diferente de otras colonias del Golfo (Schramm-Urrutia, 2002. Se estudió la dieta de los lobos marinos de esta isla por medio del análisis de excretas, entre febrero de 1998 y marzo de 1999. El componente más importante de la dieta fue Porichthys sp. (principalmente P. analis Hubbs y Schultz, 1939, seguido de Pomadasys panamensis (Steindachner, 1875 y el calamar Lolliguncula panamensis Berry, 1911. Aparentemente, los lobos forrajearon principalmente en el fondo del mar. Las presas consumidas por los lobos marinos en la Isla San Jorge no son de valor comercial. Hubo poco traslapo en las dietas entre los lobos marinos y el bobo café, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, el ave ictiófaga mas abundante en la isla.

  10. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  11. Identifying generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation from a numerical solution of Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Georgiev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic time series in the form of numerical solution (in an appropriate finite time interval of the Hodgkin-Huxley current clamped (HHCC system of four differential equations, well known in the neurophysiology as an exact empirical model of excitation of a giant axon of Loligo, is presented. Then we search for a second-order differential equation of generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo (GFN type, having as a solution the given single component (action potential of the numerical solution. The given time series is used as a basis for reconstructing orders, powers, and coefficients of the polynomial right-hand sides of GFN equation approximately governing the process of action potential. For this purpose, a new geometrical method for determining phase space dimension of the unknown dynamical system (GFN equation and a specific modification of least squares method for identifying unknown coefficients are developed and applied.

  12. Structural Protein-based Flexible Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Shreiner, Robert; Szwejkowski, Chester J; Jung, Huihun; Hopkins, Patrick; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-01-01

    Nature provides a set of solutions for photonic structures that are finely tuned, organically diverse and optically efficient. Exquisite knowledge of structure-property relationships in proteins aids in the design of materials with desired properties for building devices with novel functionalities, which are difficult to achieve or previously unattainable. Recent bio-inspired photonic platforms made from proteinaceous materials lay the groundwork for many functional device applications, such as electroluminescence in peptide nucleic acids1, multiphoton absorption in amyloid fibers2 and silk waveguides and inverse opals3-5. Here we report whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators fabricated entirely from semi-crystalline structural proteins (i.e., squid ring teeth, SRT, from Loligo vulgaris and its recombinant, and silk from Bombyx mori) with unconventional thermo-optic response. We present a striking example of how small modifications at the molecular level lead to structural changes and alter macroscopic...

  13. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  14. Analyses on fishing ground and catch composition of large-scale light falling-net fisheries in South China Sea%南海区大型灯光罩网渔场渔期和渔获组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 曾晓光; 杨吝; 彭昌瀚; 张旭丰; 杨生; 谭永光; 杨炳忠; 晏磊

    2013-01-01

    根据2005年8月~2010年5月“琼文昌33180”渔船的生产监测记录,分析了南海区大型灯光罩网渔业的渔场渔期分布和主要渔获组成.结果显示,鸢乌贼(Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis)、鲹科(Carangidae)、带鱼(Trichiurus japonicus)、枪乌贼(Loligo)和舵鲣(Auxis)等为主要渔获种类,分别占总产量的40.94%、21.92%、13.56%、10.17%和6.21%;作业渔场可分为西、中沙邻近深水海域(Ⅰ区)、珠江口外大陆架海域(Ⅱ区)、北部湾大陆架海域(Ⅲ区)3个区域;Ⅰ区主捕鸢乌贼(91.10%),大型金枪鱼类也占0.83%的比例;Ⅱ区主捕鲹科(42.88%)、枪乌贼(20.34%)和带鱼(14.52%);Ⅲ区主捕带鱼(45.06%)、鲹科(22.16%)和枪乌贼(14.58%).3月~5月主要在Ⅰ区生产,8月~9月和12月~翌年2月主要在Ⅱ区生产,10月~11月主要在Ⅲ区生产.外海(Ⅰ区)作业天数的年度波动较大,建议调整罩网外海休渔制度.%Based on the monitoring data of “QIONG WEN CHANG NO · 33180” from August 2005 to May 2010,we analyzed the fishing grounds,fishing season and dominant species of large-scale light falling-net fisheries in South China Sea.Results show that the dominant species are Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis,Carangidae,Trichiurns japonicus,Loligo and Auxis,which account for 40.94%,21.92%,13.56%,10.17% and 6.21% of the total,respectively.We divide the fishing grounds into three areas:area Ⅰ,which is located in deep waters close to Xisha & Zhongsha Islands ; area Ⅱ,located in continental shelf waters outside Pearl River estuary ;and area Ⅲ,located in continental shelf waters in Beibu Gulf.Dominant species of area Ⅰ is S.oualaniensi,which account for 91.10% of total landings,and the second most species is large tunas (Thunnus albacares,T.obesus),making up 0.83%.Dominant species of area Ⅱ are Carangidae,Loligo and T.japonicus,which account for 42.88%,20.34% and 14.52%,respectively.Dominant species of

  15. Comparison on trace elements in squid statoliths of different species' origin: as available key for taxonomic and phylogenetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in squid statoliths were analyzed by PIXE for the following fourteen species in five families of different habit origin: Ommastrephidae, Ommastrephes bartrami, Dosidicus gigas, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis; Gonatidae, Gonatopsis makko, G. borealis, Berryteuthis magister; Loliginidae, Loligo bleekeri, L. duvaucelii, L. chinensis, L. edulis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana; Sepiidae, Sepia aculeata and Sepiella inermis; Sepiolidae, Rossia pacifica. Manganese, iron, copper, zinc and strontium were detected from statoliths of all species examined. Among these trace elements, Sr is the highest in concentration. Variation of statoliths Sr concentration reflects taxonomic position and the habitat of specimens. In Ommastrephids and Gonatids, that have oceanic habitat, statoliths Sr concentration is relatively high whereas that of Loliginids and Sepiids, that have coastal habitat, is comparatively low. This fact supports our previous report on this subject. R pacifica exceptionally shows high statoliths Sr concentration although this species inhabits in coastal water. (author)

  16. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  17. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  18. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  19. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  20. Practicality of solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products as income generating for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and technical efficiency of a polythene solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products was investigated. Four popular tropical fruits were studied, namely: mango, langka (jackfruit), papaya and banana. These four fruits are generally popular on the market. In this study, the results of a polythene solar drier are compared to those of direct sun drying and it was found that the drier products had the more appealing color and texture. Also, a 25 to 40% reduction in drying time was obtained when the above fruits were dried using the solar drier as compared to direct sun drying. The solar drier was also found to be highly practical and efficient for the drying of marine products, namely: striped mackerel (Rastrelliger chrysozonus), short-bodied mackerel (R. brachysomus) and squid (Loligo opalescens). The drying time was reduced from 20 to 14 hours using the solar drier as compared to direct sun-drying. A reduction of 40% of the required salt resulted from the use of the solar drier, since microbial contamination from the environment was totally arrested. Solar technology is considered practical for rural communities because of the following advantages: low investment, labor cost savings, low delivery costs, products free from insect and mold contamination, longer product shelf life and better organoleptic characteristics. Solar drying provides a processing technology which results in higher profits and more savings for rural processors. 20 references.

  1. IRBP-like proteins in the eyes of six cephalopod species--immunochemical relationship to vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) and cephalopod retinal-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S L; Lee, P G; Ozaki, K; Hara, R; Hara, T; Bridges, C D

    1988-01-01

    SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were used to examine soluble proteins from the eyes of six species of cephalopods i.e. Lolliguncula brevis, Sepia officinalis, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides, Rossia pacifica and Loligo opalescens. All species had a protein ("IRBP") with molecular weight virtually identical with vertebrate interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) averaging 132,400 +/- 700 (n = 6). "IRBP" reacted on nitrocellulose blot transfers with rabbit antibovine IRBP and rabbit antifrog IRBP antibodies. Unlike vertebrate IRBP, cephalopod "IRBP" (from L. brevis) did not bind exogenous retinol or concanavalin A. The N-terminal amino acid appeared to be blocked in samples electroeluted from SDS gels. The antifrog IRBP antibodies also reacted with a series of proteins with molecular weights between 46,000 and 47,000, identified as retinal-binding protein (RALBP) with anti-RALBP antibodies. Anti-IRBP also reacted with pure RALBP prepared from Todarodes pacificus. Occasionally, anti-RALBP antibodies were seen to react weakly with "IRBP" in some cephalopods. We conclude that RALBP, cephalopod "IRBP" and vertebrate IRBP share a common but distant ancestry, and that a protein resembling IRBP appeared before the vertebrates diverged from the invertebrates. Both RALBP and IRBP appear to have analogous functions in shuttling retinoids between rhodopsin and the corresponding isomerizing system, retinochrome in the cephalopods and retinol isomerase in the vertebrates. The function of cephalopod "IRBP" is unknown. PMID:3195063

  2. 中国近海习见头足类DNA条形码及其分子系统进化%DNA Barcoding for Cephalopoda in classification and phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤; 林琳; 柳淑芳; 姜志强; 庄志猛

    2011-01-01

    应用DNA条形码通用引物扩增了11种中国近海习见头足类(Cephalopoda)共计97个个体的线粒体细胞色素C氧化酶亚基I(Cytochrome Coxidase I,COI)基因片段,与GenBank收录的19种95条头足类同源序列进行比对.结果表明,头足类COI基因存在碱基插人缺失现象,杜氏枪乌贼(Uroteuthis duvauceli)插人缺失位点数多达33个;碱基组成偏倚明显,A+T含量(66.70%)显著高子G+C(33.30%)含量.基于Kimura双参数模型计算,29个物种的种内平均遗传距离为0.0072,种间平均遗传距离(0.20-2 4)是种内遗传距离的28.11倍.针对剑尖枪乌贼(Loligo edulis,Uroteuthis edulis,Photololigo edulis)分类和命名的分歧,DNA条形码分类结果显示,该物种与枪乌贼属(Loligo)和尾枪乌贼属(Uroteuthis)的COI基因同源性较低,不支持将其划归到Lolig.或Uroteuthis.近爱尔斗蛸属(Pareledone)6个代表物种的种间遗传距离较小(0.0120-0.0385),对于此类变异程度较低的物种,DNA条形码仍可准确区分,但其种间遗传距离的阈值尚待深人探讨.系统发育树的聚类分析结果表明,COI基因在种、属水平的分类鉴定及其系统进化关系与传统方法所得结果一致性较高,分别为100%,91.67%;科、目水平的一致性略低,分别为80%和66.67%.可见,线粒体COI基因作为头足类DNA条形码在物种鉴定中适用性较高,亦适用于种属水平的系统进化分析,是形态学分类系统的必要补充和佐证.%The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes (CO I) were sequenced from 97 individuals out of 11 common species of Cephalopoda in China by using the universal barcoding primers. The 97 sequences were compared with the other 95 homologous sequences belonging to 19 species of Cephalopoda obtained from the GenBank. As a result, 23.33% of the Cephalopoda species' COI sequences included Insert-Deletion sites. The indels of COI sequences in Uroteuthis duvauceli counted up to 33. The COI sequences of

  3. Fast and slow activation kinetics of voltage-gated sodium channels in molluscan neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilly, W F; Gillette, R; McFarlane, M

    1997-05-01

    Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of Na current (I(Na)) were made under identical experimental conditions from isolated neurons from cephalopod (Loligo, Octopus) and gastropod (Aplysia, Pleurobranchaea, Doriopsilla) species to compare properties of activation gating. Voltage dependence of peak Na conductance (gNa) is very similar in all cases, but activation kinetics in the gastropod neurons studied are markedly slower. Kinetic differences are very pronounced only over the voltage range spanned by the gNa-voltage relation. At positive and negative extremes of voltage, activation and deactivation kinetics of I(Na) are practically indistinguishable in all species studied. Voltage-dependent rate constants underlying activation of the slow type of Na channel found in gastropods thus appear to be much more voltage dependent than are the equivalent rates in the universally fast type of channel that predominates in cephalopods. Voltage dependence of inactivation kinetics shows a similar pattern and is representative of activation kinetics for the two types of Na channels. Neurons with fast Na channels can thus make much more rapid adjustments in the number of open Na channels at physiologically relevant voltages than would be possible with only slow Na channels. This capability appears to be an adaptation that is highly evolved in cephalopods, which are well known for their high-speed swimming behaviors. Similarities in slow and fast Na channel subtypes in molluscan and mammalian neurons are discussed. PMID:9163364

  4. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanilla, F; Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1970-12-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 musec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential.2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential.3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current-voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939).4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential. PMID:5505231

  5. Squid rocket science: How squid launch into air

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dor, Ron; Stewart, Julia; Gilly, William; Payne, John; Borges, Teresa Cerveira; Thys, Tierney

    2013-10-01

    Squid not only swim, they can also fly like rockets, accelerating through the air by forcefully expelling water out of their mantles. Using available lab and field data from four squid species, Sthenoteuthis pteropus, Dosidicus gigas, Illex illecebrosus and Loligo opalescens, including sixteen remarkable photographs of flying S. pteropus off the coast of Brazil, we compared the cost of transport in both water and air and discussed methods of maximizing power output through funnel and mantle constriction. Additionally we found that fin flaps develop at approximately the same size range as flight behaviors in these squids, consistent with previous hypotheses that flaps could function as ailerons whilst aloft. S. pteropus acceleration in air (265 body lengths [BL]/s2; 24.5m/s2) was found to exceed that in water (79BL/s2) three-fold based on estimated mantle length from still photos. Velocities in air (37BL/s; 3.4m/s) exceed those in water (11BL/s) almost four-fold. Given the obvious advantages of this extreme mode of transport, squid flight may in fact be more common than previously thought and potentially employed to reduce migration cost in addition to predation avoidance. Clearly squid flight, the role of fin flaps and funnel, and the energetic benefits are worthy of extended investigation.

  6. Chemical composition of inks of diverse marine molluscs suggests convergent chemical defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Charles D; Kicklighter, Cynthia E; Johnson, P M; Zhang, Xu

    2007-05-01

    Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, sensory disruption, and phagomimicry. The latter two mechanisms are facilitated by millimolar concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) in sea hare ink and opaline, which stimulate the chemosensory systems of predators, ultimately leading to escape by sea hares. We hypothesize that other inking molluscs use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense. To investigate this, we examined concentrations of 21 FAA and ammonium in the defensive secretions of nine species of inking molluscs: three sea hares (Aplysia californica, Aplysia dactylomela, Aplysia juliana) and six cephalopods (cuttlefish: Sepia officinalis; squid: Loligo pealei, Lolliguncula brevis, Dosidicus gigas; octopus: Octopus vulgaris, Octopus bimaculoides). We found millimolar levels of total FAA and ammonium in these secretions, and the FAA in highest concentration were taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and lysine. Crustaceans and fish, which are major predators of these molluscs, have specific receptor systems for these FAA. Our chemical analysis supports the hypothesis that inking molluscs have the potential to use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense. PMID:17393278

  7. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  8. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  9. Acoustic mapping of squid egg clusters and their bottom habitat in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2004-10-01

    Clusters of gelatinous egg capsules, known as mops or beds, of the market squid (Loligo opalescens) were mapped in a shallow-water, sandy habitat of Monterey Bay, California. The benthic egg clusters were imaged using an EdgeTech 272-TD dual-frequency sidescan sonar towed from R/V MACGINITIE, an 8-m-long survey vessel, with data recorded on a Triton Elics International Isis digital data acquisition system. Verification of target identity was accomplished independently by video photography from a remotely operated vehicle. The survey area included a 4-km stretch of sandy seafloor between Lover's Point and Cannery Row in Monterey at depths of 15-30 m. The study area had previously been mapped using the RESON SeaBat 8101 240-kHz multibeam sonar. Resulting high-resolution bathymetric data, with 1-m resolution, were used during the survey planning and execution. Squid egg clusters were clearly visible in the very-high-resolution, 400-kHz backscatter imagery, with pixel size 10-20 cm, recorded from the towed sidescan sonar. The concentration of egg clusters was greatest along a sloping feature believed to be a submarine fault. Egg mops with diameter as small as 0.5 m were distinguishable. [Support by Sea Grant is acknowledged.

  10. Radioisotopes demonstrate the contrasting bioaccumulation capacities of heavy metals in embryonic stages of cephalopod species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe

    Full Text Available Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic food webs and also constitute alternative fishery resources in the context of the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Most coastal cephalopod species of commercial importance migrate into shallow waters during the breeding season to lay their eggs, and are consequently subjected to coastal contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, European squid Loligo vulgaris, common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the sepiolid Rossia macrosoma were exposed during embryonic development to dissolved (110mAg, (109Cd, (60Co, (54Mn and (65Zn in order to determine their metal accumulation efficiencies and distribution among different egg compartments. Cuttlefish eggs, in which hard shells enclose the embryos, showed the lowest concentration factor (CF values despite a longer duration of exposure. In contrast, octopus eggs, which are only protected by the chorionic membrane, accumulated the most metal. Uptake appears to be linked to the selective retention properties of the egg envelopes with respect to each element. The study also demonstrated that the octopus embryo accumulated (110mAg directly from the dissolved phase and also indirectly through assimilation of the contaminated yolk. These results raise questions regarding the potential contrasting vulnerability of early life stages of cephalopods to the metallic contamination of coastal waters.

  11. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C9H3N2Br6Cl, C9H3N2Br7, and C9H4N2Br5Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 μg/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C9H3N2Br6Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C9H3N2Br6Cl may be significant in the formation of C9H4N2Br5Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C9H3N2Br6Cl, C9H3N2Br7 and C9H4N2Br5Cl

  12. Hydrolysis of DFP and the Nerve Agent (S)-Sarin by DFPase Proceeds Along Two Different Reaction Pathways: Implica-tions for Engineering Bioscavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wymore, Troy W [ORNL; Langan, Paul [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Field, Martin J. [Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents such as (S)-sarin are among the most highly toxic compounds that have been synthesized. Engineering enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nerve agents ( bioscavengers ) is an emerging prophylactic approach to diminishing their toxic effects. Although its native function is not known, diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from Loligo vulgaris catalyzes the hydrolysis of OP compounds. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and (S)-sarin hydrolysis by DFPase with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) umbrella sampling simulations. We find that the mechanism for hydrolysis of DFP involves nucleophilic attack by Asp229 on phosphorus to form a pentavalent intermediate. P F bond dissociation then yields a phosphoacyl enzyme intermediate in the rate-limiting step. The simulations suggest that a water molecule, coordinated to the catalytic Ca2+, donates a proton to Asp121 and then attacks the tetrahedral phosphoacyl intermediate to liberate the diisopropylphosphate product. In contrast, the calculated free energy barrier for hydrolysis of (S)-sarin by the same mechanism is highly unfavorable, primarily due to the instability of the pentavalent phosphoenzyme species. Instead, simulations suggest that hydrolysis of (S)-sarin proceeds by a mechanism in which Asp229 could activate an intervening water molecule for nucleophilic attack on the substrate. These findings may lead to improved strategies for engineering DFPase and related six-bladed -propeller folds for more efficient degradation of OP compounds.

  13. Sampling necrophagous and predatory insects using different lures in a Mexican pine forest Muestreo de insectos necrófagos y depredadores utilizando diferentes cebos en un bosque de pino en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sánchez-Rojas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sampling with a single bait as a lure is a commonly used practice in studies of necrophilous insect communities. Here, we determined if there were differences in necrophilous insect species richness and abundance when attracted to 4 types of carrion: squid, bird, lizard, and mouse. A comparison between necrophagous and predatory insects was also made to detect whether they differ in their abundance, depending on the bait used. Thirteen species of Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae (Diptera were collected in the baited traps; no single bait was able to attract all species. The abundances of 5 species varied significantly depending on the type of bait used. Predatory insects were less abundant than necrophagous insects in lizard and mouse baits. These results show that an evaluation of the structure of a necrophilous insect community can depend on the bait used for sampling.La utilización de un solo tipo de cebo es una práctica común en los estudios de comunidades de insectos necrófilos. En este trabajo determinamos si existen diferencias en la riqueza y abundancia de especies de insectos necrófilos atraídos a 4 tipos de carroña: calamar, ave, lagartija y ratón. También se determinó si la abundancia de insectos necrófagos y depredadores difiere dependiendo del tipo de cebo que se utilice. Se recolectaron 13 especies de Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, Calliphoridae y Sarcophagidae (Diptera; ningún tipo de cebo logró atraer a todas las especies. Se encontró que la abundancia de 5 de las especies difirió significativamente dependiendo del cebo utilizado. La abundancia de los insectos depredadores fue menor que la de los carroñeros en los cebos de lagartija y ratón. Estos resultados muestran que la evaluación de la estructura de una comunidad de insectos necrófilos puede depender del tipo de cebo que se utilice.

  14. RIQUEZA Y ABUNDANCIA DE HESPEREOIDEA Y PAPILIONOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LAS DELICIAS, SANTA MARTA, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Hernández Neis José

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Las formaciones de bosque seco tropical secundario que se encuentran en las estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, albergan una fauna representativa de lepidópteros. Este grupo es usado ampliamente como bioindicador del estado de conservación de bosques, por su sensibilidad a la intervención y especificidad en el uso de recursos. En el presente estudio se evaluó la variación de la riqueza y abundancia de las mariposas Papilionoidea y Hespereoidea en la reserva natural Las Delicias. Se seleccionaron dos sitios de muestreo con diferentes grados de intervención, ubicados a 200 msnm y entre los 400 y 550 msnm. Se realizaron cuatro faenas de registro y capturas, de abril a julio de 2008; se utilizaron dos redes entomológicas, con un esfuerzo muestral de 16 horas por faenas y 10 trampas Van Someren- Rydon cebadas con macerado de frutas y calamar. Se capturaron 432 adultos que corresponden a géneros y 66 especies. La familia Nymphalidae presentó mayor riqueza (42 y abundancia (250, destacándose la especie sombrófila Mechanitis lysimnia Fabricius (año con 41 ejemplares, la cual es común en bosques con amplia cobertura vegetal .El sitio 2, presentó mayor riqueza (48 y abundancia (236; que coincide con el espacio donde se presenta la cobertura arbórea más amplia y mayor variación en la estratificación vertical. Además, en este lugar la presencia del recurso hídrico fue permanente durante los muestreos. Con el aumento de las lluvias en junio y julio, se observó una mayor floración y fructificación de la vegetación en la zona; aumentando la disponibilidad de recursos y por consiguiente, una mayor riqueza y abundancia de Papilionoidea y Hespereoidea en el área de estudio.

  15. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  16. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  17. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry La disminución de los pingüinos de las Islas Falklands en la presencia de actividades de pesca comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKE BINGHAM

    2002-12-01

    Islands Government to exclude large-scale commercial fishing close to penguin breeding sitesLas islas Falklands son un lugar importante para tres especies de pingüinos, pingüino papua (Pygoscelis papua, pingüino de penacho amarillo (Eudyptes c.chrysocome y pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magallanicus. Recientemente estas especies han disminuido 84 % en estas islas. En la costa de Sudamérica los pingüinos no disminuyeron. Se sospecha que la causa es una reducción de peces y calamares debido a los barcos de pesca comercial que operan en aguas de las Islas Falklands. En 1995 el pingüino papua y el pingüino penacho amarillo terminaron sus disminuciones y ya parece que sus poblaciones están en equilibrio, pero en un número mucho mas bajo que antes que los pescadores comenzaron 20 años atrás. El pingüino de Magallanes todavía disminuye en las Islas Falklands. El pingüino de Magallanes depende más de especies de calamares y peces capturados por barcos de pesca comercial. Avisos de protección de la fauna no fueron suficientes para impedir que 1998 comenzaras exploraciones petroleras en las Islas Falklands. Tres derrames de petróleo ocurrieron en cinco meses, y cientos de pingüinos murieron. La torre de perforación se fue después de cinco meses, y no ocurrieron más derrames de petróleo. Nuevamente van a comenzar a buscar petróleo, sin mejorar la protección para la fauna. El turismo ha crecido rápidamente en las Islas Falklands, y la mayoría de los turistas llegan para ver los pingüinos. Investigaciones de poblaciones y éxito reproductivo indican que aún no hay efectos perjudiciales para los pingüinos por esta actividad. En este trabajo se investigan las causas potenciales de la disminución de pingüinos en las Islas Falklands y se hacen compariciones con poblaciones en Chile que parecen saludables

  18. 山东半岛南部近岸海域渔业资源群落结构的季节变化%Seasonal Variation on Community Structure of Fishery Resources in the Coastal Waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张秀梅; 张沛东; 黄国强

    2011-01-01

    Based on the bottom trawl surveys in the coastal waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular during summer and winter in 2006, spring and autumn in 2007, the community structure of fishery resources was analyzed preliminarily. Survey results indicated that there were 72 species. The mean catch rates in summer, winter, spring and autumn were 18.1, 6.9, 1.3 and 10. 3 kg/h, respectively. The seasonal variation of biomass in weight followed the order of summer>winter >autumn>spring. The dominant species were Thryssa kammalensis, Saurida elongate, Rachypenaeus curvirostris and some invertebrates including Oratosquilla oratoria, Loligo edulis and Rachypenaeus curvirostris etc. Based on the survey data, the species richness R, Shannon-Weiner diversity index H' and evenness index J' were calculated respectively. Cluster analysis, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and similarity of percentage (SIMPER) showed that fishery resources in this area were decreased compared with original data. The study provided a scientific basis on protection of fishery biology diversities and resources restoration in the coastal waters of Southern Shandong Peninsular.%根据2006年夏、冬季和2007年春、秋季在山东半岛南部近岸海域进行的渔业资源底拖网调杏资料,初步分析了该海域渔业资源群落结构特征.结果表明,该海域4个航次的调查共捕获渔业资源种类72种.2006年夏、冬,2007年春、秋4个航次的单化网次渔获量分别为18.1、6.9、1.3、10.3 kg/h.生物量的季节变化,依次呈夏季>冬季>秋季>春季.优势种类主要为赤鼻棱鲲(Thryssa kammalensis)、长蛇鲻(Saurida elongate)、方氏云鳚(Enedrias fangi)及口虾蛄(Oratosquilla orato-ria)、剑尖枪乌贼(Loligo edulis)、鹰爪虾(Rachypenaeus curvirostris)等.根据4个航次的调查数据,分别计算了渔业生物群落的种类丰度指数R、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数H'、Pielou均匀度指数J'.通过聚类分析、单因子相似性分

  19. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

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    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  20. Ocean warming enhances malformations, premature hatching, metabolic suppression and oxidative stress in the early life stages of a keystone squid.

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    Rui Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The knowledge about the capacity of organisms' early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70 and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular

  1. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  2. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  3. Efficient Surface Display of Diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase) in E. coli for Biodegradation of Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds (DFP and Cp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Karami, Ali; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-10-01

    Compounds including organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and chemical nerve agents are toxic compounds synthesized recently which disrupt the mechanisms of neural transmission. Therefore, a critical requirement is the development of a bio-refining technology to facilitate the biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants. The diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2) from the ganglion and brain of Loligo vulgaris acts on P-F bonds present in some OPs. Intracellular production of OPs-degrading enzymes or the use of native bacteria and fungi leads to a low degradation rate of OPs due to a mass transfer issue which reduces the overall catalytic efficiency. To overcome this challenge, we expressed DFPase on the surface of E. coli for the first time by employing the N-terminal domain of the ice nucleation protein (InaV-N) as an anchoring motif. Tracking the recombinant protein confirmed that DFPase is successfully located on the outer membrane. Further studies on its activity to degrade diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) showed its significant ability for the biodegradation of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with a specific activity of 500 U/mg of wet cell weight. Recombinant cells could also degrade chlorpyrifos (Cp) with an activity equivalent to a maximum value of 381.44 U/ml with a specific activity of 476.75 U/mg of cell, analyzed using HPLC technique. The optimum activity of purified DFPase was found at 30 °C. A more increased activity was also obtained in the presence of glucose-mineral-salt (GMS) supplemented with tryptone and 100 mg/L Co(2+) ion. These results highlight the high potential of the InaV-N anchoring domain to produce an engineered bacterium that can be used in the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:26239441

  4. Localization of ion-regulatory epithelia in embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Charmantier, Guy; Lucassen, Magnus; Himmerkus, Nina; Melzner, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The tissue distribution and ontogeny of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been examined as an indicator for ion-regulatory epithelia in whole animal sections of embryos and hatchlings of two cephalopod species: the squid Loligo vulgaris and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This is the first report of the immunohistochemical localization of cephalopod Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the polyclonal antibody alpha (H-300) raised against the human alpha1-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity was observed in several tissues (gills, pancreatic appendages, nerves), exclusively located in baso-lateral membranes lining blood sinuses. Furthermore, large single cells in the gill of adult L. vulgaris specimens closely resembled Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells described in fish. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that the amount and distribution of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in late cuttlefish embryos was similar to that found in juvenile and adult stages. The ion-regulatory epithelia (e.g., gills, excretory organs) of the squid embryos and paralarvae exhibited less differentiation than adults. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities for whole animals were higher in hatchlings of S. officinalis (157.0 +/- 32.4 micromol g (FM) (-1) h(-1)) than in those of L. vulgaris (31.8 +/- 3.3 micromol g (FM) (-1) h(-1)). S. officinalis gills and pancreatic appendages achieved activities of 94.8 +/- 18.5 and 421.8 +/- 102.3 micromol(ATP) g (FM) (-1) h(-1), respectively. High concentrations of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in late cephalopod embryos might be important in coping with the challenging abiotic conditions (low pH, high pCO(2)) that these organisms encounter inside their eggs. Our results also suggest a higher sensitivity of squid vs. cuttlefish embryos to environmental acid-base disturbances. PMID:20127256

  5. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Connan

    Full Text Available Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa. These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  6. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  7. Efficient Surface Display of Diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase) in E. coli for Biodegradation of Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds (DFP and Cp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Karami, Ali; Khodi, Samaneh

    2015-10-01

    Compounds including organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and chemical nerve agents are toxic compounds synthesized recently which disrupt the mechanisms of neural transmission. Therefore, a critical requirement is the development of a bio-refining technology to facilitate the biodegradation of organophosphorus pollutants. The diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2) from the ganglion and brain of Loligo vulgaris acts on P-F bonds present in some OPs. Intracellular production of OPs-degrading enzymes or the use of native bacteria and fungi leads to a low degradation rate of OPs due to a mass transfer issue which reduces the overall catalytic efficiency. To overcome this challenge, we expressed DFPase on the surface of E. coli for the first time by employing the N-terminal domain of the ice nucleation protein (InaV-N) as an anchoring motif. Tracking the recombinant protein confirmed that DFPase is successfully located on the outer membrane. Further studies on its activity to degrade diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) showed its significant ability for the biodegradation of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with a specific activity of 500 U/mg of wet cell weight. Recombinant cells could also degrade chlorpyrifos (Cp) with an activity equivalent to a maximum value of 381.44 U/ml with a specific activity of 476.75 U/mg of cell, analyzed using HPLC technique. The optimum activity of purified DFPase was found at 30 °C. A more increased activity was also obtained in the presence of glucose-mineral-salt (GMS) supplemented with tryptone and 100 mg/L Co(2+) ion. These results highlight the high potential of the InaV-N anchoring domain to produce an engineered bacterium that can be used in the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments.

  8. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de la vegetación por punto, para lo cual se tomaron datos de diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, altura y tamaño de la copa para todas aquellas plantas leñosas con DAP mayor o igual a 2,5 cm. Se capturaron 76 individuos agrupados en seis especies y cuatro géneros; destacándose Hamadryas februa (Hübner como la más dominante con 32 individuos. El mes de marzo presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia (6 especies y 25 individuos durantes las primeras lluvias en la zona. El punto 3 presentó los valores más altos de diversidad y abundancia de Biblidinae (5 especies y 37 individuos y la mayor densidad de árboles (D= 0,28 individuos/m2. Se demuestra que la estructura de este grupo de mariposas presenta un patrón temporal y espacial en esta reserva. El análisis de componentes principales demostró que el área basal total (ABT y la Densidad (D de plantas leñosas, pueden considerarse como un factor determinante en la distribución y abundancia de las especies de la subfamilia Biblidinae en la RCM.Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, ColombiaThe abundance and spatio-temporal variation of butterflies of the Biblidinae subfamily (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a fragment of Tropical dry forest at the Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; from January until August 2011, was analyzed. Within the study area four

  9. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    intensificaron en la década del 90. Sin embargo, entre 2000 y 2001 empezaron a operar buques arrendados para la pesca con palangre, red de enmalle, nasas y arrastre en aguas brasileras y lideraron el proceso de ocupación del talud superior (250-500 m dirigido principalmente a la captura del rape (Lophyus gastrophysus, merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi, brotóla de profundidad (Urophycis mystacea, chernia (Polyprion americanus, calamar argentino (Illex argentinus, cangrejo rojo (Chaceon notialis y cangrejo real (Chaceon ramosae. Entre 2004 y 2007, buques arrendados establecieron una valorada pesquería de langostinos de profundidad (Familia Aristeidae y explotaron intensamente los fondos del talud inferior (500-1000 m. Las capturas totales de recursos de aguas profundas variaron anualmente de 5.756 ton en 2000 a un máximo de 19.923 ton in 2002, decayendo a cerca de 11.000 ton en 2006. No obstante, que fueron recolectados datos pesqueros en forma intensas, estuviesen disponibles oportunamente evaluaciones de stock y se haya llevado a cabo un proceso formal de discusión participativa de planes de manejo para estas pesquerías, los stocks de aguas profundas han sido considerado en situación de sobrepesca debido a limitaciones de gobernabilidad.

  10. Tamaño de Parcela Experimental y Número de Repeticiones para Ensayos de Rendimiento con Caupi, Vigna ungiculata (l Walp

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    Escobar Soto Carlos

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de estimar el tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental y el número de repeticiones para ensayos de rendimiento con caupl Vigna ungiculata (L Walp. El ensayo de campo, ensayo en blanco de 20 surcos de 25 m cada uno, se sembró durante el segundo semestre de 1990, en el Centro de Investigación Cotové, municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia, propiedad de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Medellín. La zona de vida corresponde a la de bosque seco tropical (bs -T. Se sembró la variedad experimental Licatur-1 OCA Calamar, a 0,60 m entre surcos y 0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos. La unidad básica se consideró de un surco de un metro de longitud. Para la estimación del tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se combinaron las unidades básicas para obtener arreglos de diferentes tamaños y formas, a los que se determinó el coeficiente de variación GVij: CVij –Sij/Yij i:1,2, ... L;j = 1, 2, ... A Con el conjunto de los CVij se obtuvo un modelo de regresión cuya expresión real se asume que es un modelo cuadrático en (largo y r (ancho, esto es: CVij= β12+β1α +β2γ+β21αˆ2+β22γˆ2+β12αγ El tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se estimó en unidades de 6 surcos (a 0,60 m. entre sí de 5 m de longitud (0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos, con un coeficiente de variación del 16%. El número de repeticiones estimado, para lograr un coeficiente de variación de 16% y una precisión razonable del 25% es de 4, asumiendo que las pruebas de comparación se hagan con un nivel de significancia de 0,05. A partir del modelo de regresión encontrado, para valores constantes del coeficiente de variación y número de surcos se estimó longitud de los mismos y con todos estos datos se generó una familia de curvas, de tal suerte que para un valor deseado de CV se puede escoger entre varias alternativas de tamaño de

  11. RIQUEZA Y ABUNDANCIA DE HESPERIOIDEA Y PAPILIONOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LAS DELICIAS, SANTA MARTA, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA Species Richness and Abundance of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera in Las Delicias Natural Reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA A VARGAS-ZAPATA

    Full Text Available Las formaciones de bosque seco tropical secundario que se encuentran en las estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, albergan una fauna representativa de lepidópteros. Este grupo es usado ampliamente como bioindicador del estado de conservación de bosques, por su sensibilidad a la intervención y especificidad en el uso de recursos. En el presente estudio se evaluaron la variación de la riqueza y abundancia de las mariposas Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea en la reserva natural Las Delicias. Se seleccionaron dos sitios de muestreo con grados de intervención diferentes, ubicados a 200 msnm y entre los 400 y 550 msnm. Se realizaron cuatro faenas de registro y capturas, de abril a julio de 2008; se utilizaron dos redes entomológicas, con un esfuerzo muestral de 16 horas por faenas y 10 trampas van Someren-Rydon cebadas con macerado de frutas y calamar. Se capturaron 432 adultos que corresponden a 52 géneros y 66 especies. La familia Nymphalidae presentó mayor riqueza (42 y abundancia (250, destacándose la especie sombrófila Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius, 1793 con 41 ejemplares, la cual es común en bosques con amplia cobertura vegetal. El sitio 2, presentó mayor riqueza (48 y abundancia (236; que coincide con el espacio donde se presenta la cobertura arbórea más amplia y mayor variación en la estratificación vertical. Además, en este lugar la presencia del recurso hídrico fue permanente durante los muestreos. Con el aumento de las lluvias en junio y julio, se observaron mayor floración y fructificación de la vegetación en la zona; aumentando la disponibilidad de recursos y por consiguiente, una mayor riqueza y abundancia de Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea en el área de estudio.In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of Lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity

  12. 珠江入海口海产品中总汞与甲基汞含量特征及食用风险%Concentration Characteristics and Edible Risk of Total Mercury and Methylmercury in Marine Products from the Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志强; 张毅强; 李杰; 陈来国; 刘明; 赵伟; 许振成

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is one of the bioaccumulation environmental contaminants and eating marine products is the main source to expose to methylmercury. Thus, 11 different kinds of marine products were captured from the Pearl River Estuary in spring, 2015. The concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were determined using direct combustion-atomic absorption spectrometry and KOH/CH3OH digestion-gas chromatography (GC)-cold atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) to study the distribution characteristics of mercury in different kinds of marine products and to evaluate the risk of mercury exposure. The results showed that the concentrations of THg and MeHg in the marine products were 27.1μg·kg-1 to 231.4μg·kg-1 (dry weight, the same here after in this paper) and the THg ranged from 21.7μg·kg-1 to 197.0μg·kg-1 (dry weight, the same here after in this paper), and the proportion of MeHg in THg ranged from 70.2 % to 92.9%. Compared to marine products of other domestic districts, the THg and MeHg concentrations in fish of the Pearl River Estuary were significantly higher, while the THg and MeHg concentrations in shellfish presented in an intervallic way, and in crustacean were similar. The MeHg and THg concentrations in different marine products decreased as fish (152±75.1 μg·kg-1, 127±58.0 μg·kg-1) > crustacean (87.7±44.2 μg·kg-1, 63.4±34.1 μg·kg-1) > shellfish (29.7±7.2μg·kg-1, 24.3±3.2 μg·kg-1), probably because they were in different levels of the food chain. The results indicated that the concentrations of MeHg and THg in the same kinds of marine products were related to the water layer in which their preys lived, with a tendency that the fish which preyed in the lower-middle layer or bottom layer>the loligo (Loligo chinensis) which preyed in the upper-middle layer. The MeHg and THg concentrations in marine products did not exceed the maximum allowed level set by domestic or international organizations. By the consumption of marine products

  13. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400Hz sweep (RL=157±5dB re 1μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175dB re 1μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles

  14. 山西晚新生代古地理环境变迁与新构造运动响应%Evolution of Late Cenozoic Geography and Environment in Shanxi Province and the Neotectonic Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小兵; 李自红; 郭瑾; 赵晋泉; 陈文; 扈桂让; 苏宗正

    2014-01-01

    large-scale rift lake because of the intense tectonic movement.The neighboring mountains were uplifted significantly.From then on,the basic geomorphological pat-tern was consistent with that of the current basin.In the late Pliocene,the rift basin subsided sig-nificantly,the climate became cooler,and large lakes began to appear in the rift basin.The early Pleistocene is characterized by wide-spread lakes in rift basins.In general,the climate at this time was a temperate forest and grassland monsoon climate alternating between wet and dry.It was moister and cooler than the Pliocene period,warm and humid in the earlier part,and cool and hu-mid later.Loess deposition began,but mainly in the west of the Luliang Mountain watershed;the Yellow River developed in the early Pleistocene,during which five terraces formed.In the middle Pleistocene the lakes in the first basins began to recede,and loess deposits up to 200 m thick were deposited throughout the province,indicating a fairly arid climate.During this time,large-scale ba-salt flooding and eruptions occurred in the Datong Basin,caused by Himalayan orogenic move-ments.In the middle Pleistocene the climate was temperate humid and semi-arid forest steppe, warm and humid in the early part of this interval,cold and drought-prone later,and in general col-der and drier than the early Pleistocene.Middle Pleistocene hominid cultural sites have been found at the He River in Ruicheng,containing mainly stone and also burned bones.In the Middle Pleis-tocene,loess was deposited almost throughout the province which formed the thickest deposits are still preserved today.The most prominent event in the late Pleistocene was the demise of the lakes,and the geography became much closer to its current form.During this time,the mountains were being uplifted and undergoing erosion and sedimentation occurred in the rift basin,with ac-cumulation of thick lacustrine,fluvial-lacustrine and fluvial-alluvial deposits,which formed the present-day plain

  15. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Haimovici

    2009-01-01

    ños 2001 y 2002 sobre la plataforma externa y talud superior, 100 a 600 m de profundidad, a lo largo del extremo sur de la costa brasilera, como parte de un programa nacional de evaluación del potencial pesquero de la Zona Económica Exclusiva (Programa REVIZEE. Del total de 228 especies de peces y cefalópodos capturados, sólo 27 especies y géneros fueron considerados de interés comercial. Los tamaños comercializables de estas especies representaron 52,3% de la captura total. La biomasa total estimada fue de 167.193 ton (± 22%> y 165.460 ton (± 25%> en los muéstreos de invierno-primavera y verano-otoño respectivamente. Las especies más abundantes fueron el calamar argentino Illex argentinus, especie de reclutamiento muy variable, seguido de la merluza argentina Merluccius hubbsi, la brotóla de profundidad Urophycis mystacea, el pez sapo o rapé Lophius gastrophysus, estas últimas intensamente explotadas en la época de los levantamientos, así como también Polymixia lowei y Zenopsis conchifera, ambas relativamente abundantes pero de escaso valor comercial. El rendimiento potencial de especies demersales excluido Illex argentinus, estimado a través de la ecuación de Gulland para un coeficiente de mortalidad natural medio de M = 0,31, fue de 20.460 ton. Cuando sólo Merluccius hubbsi, Urophycis mystacea y Lophius gastrophysus fueron considerados, el potencial disminuye a 6.625 ton. Los mustreos mostraron que el potencial pesquero de la plataforma continental externa y el talud superior es substancialmente inferior al de la plataforma interna, por lo tanto, este ambiente debe ser cuidadosamente controlado para evitar la sobrepesca y rápida depleción.

  16. Trace elements in the statoliths of jumbo flying squid off the Costa Rica waters%哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 陈新军; 刘必林; 方舟

    2013-01-01

    Jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, is the most important commercial fishery in east Pacific Ocean, and the statolith in statocyst is widely applied in the field of population identification, life history analysis and habitat environment. In this paper, we studied the trace element composition of statolith in Dosidicus gigas and its relationship with the corresponding sea surface temperature ( SST) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( LA-ICP-MS) , then deduced the habitat in different life stages. The results showed that 54 kinds of elements were found in statolith of Dosidicus gigas, calcium ( Ca) ,sodium( Na) and strontium( Sr) are the major elements. Sr/Ca ratio in total statolith is higher than that in Todarodes pacificus ,Loligo gahi and Gonatus fabricii. Sr/Ca ratio is the highest in embryonic phase and declined by the age,and its relationship with SST shows a reciprocal ratio. There is no significant difference of Sr/Ca ratio between different hatching months in every life stage. Ba/Ca ratio shows a "U"form from larva to adult,this could be seen as the indicator of vertical movement with larva living in the surface and deep layer for adult. Nucleus is higher than peripheral zone in Mg/Ca ratio which presents positive correlation with SST, and this might be possible with the gradua decrease of growth rate in statolith. Meanwhile, this study also shows that Dosidicus gigas in embryonic phase used its own vitellicle as the nutrient substance, so the trace elements in this phase are related with genetic factor in parent rather than the water environment.%实验通过激光剥蚀电感等离子质谱法分析哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素,了解其微量元素组成及其与表温关系,推测其不同生活史阶段的栖息环境.结果表明,茎柔鱼耳石含有54种元素,其中Ca、Na和Sr为主要元素.总体耳石Sr/Ca大于太平洋褶柔鱼、巴塔哥尼亚枪乌贼和黵乌贼.胚胎期耳石Sr/Ca最

  17. Structure and diversity of invertebrate resources in the Yellow Sea%黄海无脊椎动物资源结构及多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程济生

    2005-01-01

    根据1998~2000年在黄海进行的生物资源底拖网定点试捕调查,所取得的春、夏、秋、冬4季347个样方的无脊椎动物资料,分析了黄海无脊椎动物的资源结构及多样性.调查捕获无脊椎动物53种、2 336.896 kg、1 385 397尾.运用相对重要性指数(IRI)作为生态优势度的度量指标,依此来划定每个种在群落中的作用.IRI大于1 000的种类定为优势种,全年只有1种,即冷温性的脊腹褐虾(Crangon affinis),该种的渔获量占总渔获量的61.4%;IRI值在1 000~100的种类定为重要种,有3种(类),即枪乌贼(Loligo sp.)、太平洋褶柔鱼(Todarodes pacificus)和鹰爪虾(Trachypenaeus curvirostris),它们的渔获量占总渔获量的25.8%.使用物种丰富度指数(D)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)和种类均匀性指数(J′)剖析了该水域无脊椎动物群落的多样性特征.群落各样方指数D=0.000~2.347,H′=0.000~2.140,J′=0.006~1.000.此外还采用Bray-Curis指数CN来比较黄海不同区域无脊椎动物群落之间物种组成的相似性.研究结果表明,黄海北部无脊椎动物群落与黄海南部无脊椎动物群落之间的种类组成相似性最高,CN=0.846,黄海中部无脊椎动物群落与黄海南部无脊椎动物群落之间的种类组成相似性最低,CN=0.478.经分析,黄海现有无脊椎动物群落的优势种及多样性具有比较好的稳定性.

  18. ANALYSIS ON THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FISHERY ANIMALS IN DAIQUYANG%岱衢洋渔业动物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东

    2012-01-01

    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  19. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO ANALYZE FEEDING HABITS AND TROPHIC POSITION OF HAIRTAIL (TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS) FROM THE BEIBU GULF, SOUTH CHINA SEA%应用碳、氮稳定同位素研究北部湾带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)食性及营养级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 张武科; 卢伙胜; 王学锋; 赖金养

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained from monthly sampling in the main fishing ports of the Beibu Gulf from October 2008 to September 2009 and the data obtained from the fishery-dependent trawl survey in February 2010, in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea were using stable isotope analysis and stomach contents analysis to study the prey category, trophic position and ontogenetic feeding habit shifts of Trichiurus lepturus. The results showed that small pelagic fish, Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella jussieu, Stolephorus heteroloba, benthic Bregmaceros rarisquamosus, and cephalopoda, Loligo chinensis, were relatively important in the diet of T. lepturus, with the weight percentages of 26.19%, 10.21%, 9.94%, 7.20% and 6.07%, respectively, whereas the other prey species were presence in lower percentages. The δ13C signatures went from relatively low (depleted) values for pelagic species to high values for benthic species. As expected, D. maruadsi displayed the lowest value (-17.830‰) while benthic Leiognathus lineolatus displayed the highest value (-14.925‰). The absence of a significant linear correlation between the preanal length and δ13C leads to the conclusion that T. lepturus are feeding from all the water layers during the majority part of their biological life cycle. Both the average trophic level and its annual mean value were calculated by prey weight percentages and δ15N were 3.7. The trophic level of T. lepturus varied not significantly with the preanal length, despite the fact that T. margarites and T. minor increased notably in the same sea area. Two samples of dehydration were undertaken prior to the analytical determination of stable isotope ratios were tested and the results showed that vacuum freeze-drying and drying with oven at constant temperature had significant variance in δ15N but not in δ13C. Undoubtedly, SIA will play an import role in evaluating the fish feeding habits and trophic positions. At the same time, the following three key points

  20. PREDICTION OF LONG TERM CHANGE OF ABUNDANCE OF LARGE INVERTEBRATES IN THE JIAOZHOU BAY, YELLOW SEA%胶州湾大型无脊椎动物数量的多年变化与趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞玉; 黄勃; 徐凤山; 李笑红

    2001-01-01

    The shallow waters along the Yellow Sea coast are rich in large economic invertebrates such as the decapod and stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs which are main catches of local fisheries. Most species of these groups spawn in shallow coastal waters in late spring or early summer by May, the new born juveniles feed and grow fast in summer and autumn when water temperature is comparatively high. Some of them migrate to offshore waters where food organisms are rich. Most of them may grow up into the recruitment stock and the peak of their abundance appeared generally in August. Recent over-exploitation of coastal fishery resources by growing fishing effort resulted in great change of abundance and stock size of most species of these invertebrates. The stock size of most of these economic species decreased obviously in recent years as compared with those data obtained in the 1980′s excepting certain species whose stock size seems to be increased. The present paper predicts the trend of the long term change in abundance of the main species of large invertebrates by the functions based upon the trawling data obtained in May and August of 1981,1985,1989 and 1993. The functions simulating the trend of this change in May, model (1), and in August, model (2), are developed as follows: X=-4275.244e-0.4302066t+5527.244 (1) X=-11266.9e-1.202198t+14456.9 (2) Where X is individual number, t is time (year).   According to model (1) and Fig.1, the number of individuals of these invertebrates show a declining trend since 1985, when an average catch of 1480 ind./(net*h) in 1989 decreased to 1076, in 1993 to a low of 556. The most obviously decreased number may be seen in Charybdis japonica, Sepiella maindroni, Sepia esculenta and Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The decrease of brood stock of Sepiella in May resulted in the decrease of its number of individuals in August.   Based on the model (2) and Fig.2, similar results have been seen with the exception of Loligo