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Sample records for calamares loligo plei

  1. El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico Loligo gahi D’Orbigny,1835 en aguas peruanas (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo temprano del calamar patagónico, Loligo gahi D’Orbigny, 1835 fue estudiado en el campo y en el laboratorio. Las puestas colectadas en la Isla San Lorenzo, Perú, fueron transferidas al laboratorio, e incubadas en un sistema cerrado de agua marina. Las cápsulas midieron de 88 a 169 mm de longitud y cada cápsula contenía entre 56 y 114 huevos fertilizados. Los huevos midieron de 1,7 a 2,1 mm de longitud y la longitud del manto de los individuos eclosionados varió de 1,9 a 2,8 mm. El desarrollo de las paralarvas se logró a los 20 días, a una temperatura promedio de 19 ºC. El patrón de desarrollo embrionario es similar al observado en otras especies de Loligo. Las paralarvas sobrevivieron 45 días con una dieta de zooplancton (copepódos, micidáceos y larvas de poliquetos.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Changwen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loligo opalescence. The genome was 17,370 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 3 main non-coding regions. The composition and order of genes, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of L. opalescence is A 38.62%, C 19.40%, T 32.37% and G 9.61%, with a highly A + T bias of 70.99%. All of the three control regions (CR) contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Loliginidae.

  3. Análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora

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    Francisco Javier de la Cruz-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo hacemos un análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora. Se generó una base de datos con información pesquera y se aplicó una encuesta a pescadores y a trabajadores de la industria del calamar para determinar sus principales características socioeconómicas. Los resultados muestran que esta pesquería ha tenido una participación importante en la estructura productiva del sector pesquero de la región; sin embargo, el repunte en las capturas de calamar gigante en los últimos años ha permitido el crecimiento de esta pesquería, pero no su desarrollo. El documento resalta la necesidad de orientar las políticas de manejo al aprovechamiento integral de este recurso.

  4. The South African chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii is caught ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    during the 1970s and early 1980s that official statistics started to reveal ... a South African offshore component fishing off both .... 2: Annual landings of Loligo vulgaris reynaudii, 1971–1997, by the trawl fishery, both South African and foreign ...

  5. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration, stock size and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii off the West Coast of South Africa were studied and their relationship to other regions compared by analysis of distributional, biomass, and size composition, and biological data collected from biannual research cruises from 1983-1987. Biomass ...

  6. Composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de Dosidicus gigas “ calamar gigante”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Solari - Godiño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue determinar la composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de calamar gigante ( Dosidicus gigas . Se elaboró surimi a partir de calamar gigante y fue liofilizado hasta obtener surimi en polvo para evaluar sus características y prop iedades funcionales. El contenido de proteínas fue 58,7% y carbohidratos 30,5%. La solubilidad proteica en agua y sal (3% fueron 21,1% y 40,6% respectivamente, siendo estos valores superiores a surimi en polvo de especies comerciales. La capacidad de geli ficación fue 2,4% y la capacidad emulsificante fue 79,9% a una concentración del 1,0%. El color en la escala de Hunter fue L*: 91,5; a*: 0,5; b*:7,0. El surimi en polvo de calamar gigante fue considerado como un polvo proteico funcional debido a su conteni do porcentual proteico, y tuvieron buenas características tecnológicas y de gran potencial en la industria alimentaria .

  7. Differential expression of the FMRF gene in adult and hatchling stellate ganglia of the squid Loligo pealei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Grant, P.; Hellemons, A.J.C.G.; DeGiorgis, J.A.; Li, K.W.; Pant, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    The giant fiber system of the squid Loligo pealei mediates the escape response and is an important neurobiological model. Here, we identified an abundant transcript in the stellate ganglion (SG) that encodes a FMRFamide precursor, and characterized FMRFamide and FI/LRF-amide peptides. To determine

  8. Ultrastructural damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after low frequency sound exposure.

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    Marta Solé

    Full Text Available There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii.

  9. The apparent disappearance of Loligo forbesi from the south of its range in the 1990s: Trends in Loligo spp. abundance in the northeast Atlantic and possible environmental influences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Pierce, G; Wang, J; Robin, J; Poulard, Jean-charles; Pereira, J; Zuur, A; Boyle, P; Bailey, N; Beare, D; Jereb, P; Ragonese, S; Mannini, A; Orsi-relini, L

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, Loligoforbesi has apparently disappeared from much of the southern part of its former range, with catches off the Iberian Peninsula, for example, declining dramatically during the 1990s. The present paper assembles data from fishery and research cruise databases to examine the evidence for a shift in distribution, examine the relationship between abundance of this species and that of the partially sympatric Loligo vulgaris, and identify possible environmental correlates...

  10. Characterization, localization and function of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of Aplysia and Loligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author has characterized pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia and the cephalopod Loligo using [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting with G protein specific antisera. As in vertebrates, this class of G protein is associated with membranes and enriched in nervous tissue in Aplysia. Analysis of dissected Aplysia ganglia reveal that it is enriched in neuropil, a region containing most of the central nervous system synapses. Because both Aplysia and Loligo synaptosomes are enriched in pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, it is likely that they are found in synaptic terminals. Fractionation of Aplysia synaptosomes into membrane and vesicle fractions reveals that, although the majority of G protein is recovered in the plasma membrane fraction, a small proportion is recovered in the vesicle fraction. He shows that G proteins are on intracellular membranes by ADP-ribosylating extruded axoplasm with pertussis toxin. A plausible explanation for vesicular localization of G protein in axoplasm is that G proteins are transported to terminals on vesicles. He has shown, using ligature experiments with Aplysia connectives and temperature block experiments in the giant axon of Loligo, that G proteins move by anterograde fast axonal transport. Injection of pertussis toxin into the identified Aplysia neuron L10 blocks histamine-induced presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release. This suggests that pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins play a role in modulating transmitter release at synaptic terminals. In the giant synapse of Loligo, he presents preliminary data that demonstrates that the activation of G proteins in the presynaptic terminal results in decreased transmitter release

  11. Habitat and distribution of post-recruit life stages of the squid Loligo forbesii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer M.; Macleod, Colin D.; Valavanis, Vasilis; Hastie, Lee; Valinassab, Tooraj; Bailey, Nick; Santos, M. Begoña; Pierce, Graham J.

    2013-10-01

    This study models habitat preferences of the squid Loligo forbesii through its post-recruitment life cycle in waters around Scotland (UK). Trawl survey and market sample data from 1985 to 2004 are used to model seasonal habitats of immature, maturing and mature squid (maturity being inferred from size and season). Squid presence-absence and catch rate in areas of presence were analysed using generalised additive models, relating spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and abundance to ecogeographic variables. For all maturity classes, higher abundance in winter and spring (i.e., quarters 1 and 2) was associated with deeper water while higher abundance in summer and autumn (quarters 3 and 4) was associated with shallower water, consistent with seasonal onshore-offshore migrations but suggesting that most spawning may take place in deeper waters. The preferred SST range was generally 8-8.75 °C while preferred salinity values were below 35‰ in winter and summer and above 35‰ in spring and autumn. Squid were positively associated with gravel substrate and negatively associated with mud. Seasonal changes in habitat use were more clearly evident than changes related to inferred maturity, although the two effects cannot be fully separated due to the annual life cycle. Habitat selection for this species can be satisfactorily modelled on a seasonal basis; predictions based on such models could be useful for fishers to target the species more effectively, and could assist managers wishing to protect spawning grounds. The extent to which this approach may be useful for other cephalopods is discussed.

  12. Integrative omics analysis reveals differentially distributed proteins in dimorphic euspermatozoa of the squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yamada, Lixy; Ochi, Hiroe; Iwata, Yoko; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Sawada, Hitoshi; Sauer, Warwick H H; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2014-08-01

    In the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri, each male produces one of two types of fertilization-competent spermatozoa (eusperm) that exhibit morphological and behavioral differences. Large "consort" males produce short-tailed spermatozoa that display free-swimming behavior when ejaculated into seawater. Small "sneaker" males, on the other hand, produce long-tailed spermatozoa that exhibit a self-swarming trait after ejaculation. To understand the molecular basis for adaptive traits employed by alternative male mating tactics, we performed the transcriptome deep sequencing (RNA-seq) and proteome analyses to search for differences in testicular mRNAs and sperm proteins, respectively. From mature male testes we identified a total of 236,455 contigs (FPKM ≧1) where 3789 and 2789 were preferentially (≧10-fold) expressed in consort and sneaker testes, respectively. A proteomic analysis detected 4302 proteins in the mature sperm as post-translational products. A strongly biased (≧10-fold) distribution occurred in 55 consort proteins and 61 sneaker proteins. There was no clear mRNA-protein correlation, making a ballpark estimate impossible for not only overall protein abundance but also the degree of biased sperm type expressed in the spermatozoa. A family encoding dynein heavy chain gene, however, was found to be biased towards sneakers, whereas many enzymes involving energy metabolism were heavily biased towards consort spermatozoa. The difference in flagellar length matched exactly the different amount of tubulins. From these results we hypothesize that discrete differential traits in dimorphic eusperm arose from a series of innovative alterations in the intracellular components of spermatozoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

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    Marie-Jose Naud

    Full Text Available Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1 unique sire; 2 dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3 randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires; and 4 a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  14. Biological patterns of the Argentine shortfin squid Illex argentinus in the slope trawl fishery off Brazil Patrones biológicos del calamar argentino Illex argentinus en la pesquería de arrastre en el talud continental de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial exploitation of the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus was virtually non-existent in Brazilian waters until 2000 when foreign trawlers initiated their operations on slope grounds as part of a government-induced chartering program. Since then, the species has been included among the targets of a developing slope trawl fishing off southeastern and southern Brazil. Biological samples were collected from commercial catches of 25 national and seven foreign (chartered trawlers between 23°-33°S and 170-740 m depth. These samples represent two periods of the commercial exploitation of Illex argentinus in Brazil: 2001-2003, when both chartered and national trawlers operated simultaneously, and 2006-2007, when only national vessels continued to exploit I. argentinus along with other slope stocks. Catches contained immature and ma-turing squid throughout the year, as well as at least two distinct, fully mature, spawning groups: one composed of small-sized males and females present year-round on the shelf-break/ upper slope (La explotación comercial del calamar argentino (Illex argentinus no existía en aguas brasilenas hasta el año 2000, cuando buques extranjeros iniciaron sus operaciones en el talud como parte de un programa gubernamental de arrendamiento. Desde entonces la especie forma parte de un conjunto de recursos que han motivado el desarrollo de una pesquería de arrastre en el talud del sur y sureste de Brasil. Se colectaron muestras biológicas de las capturas comerciales de 25 buques arrastreros nacionales y siete extranjeros entre los paralelos 23°-33°S y en profundidades de 170 a 740 m. Estas muestras representaron dos periodos de la explotación comercial de I. argentinus en Brasil: 2001-2003, cuando buques nacionales y extranjeros operaron simultáneamente, y 2006-2007 cuando sólo buques nacionales permanecieron explotando el calamar argentino en conjunto con otros recursos del talud. Las capturas estuvieron

  15. Therapeutic Significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink Extract: A Biomedical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Sri Kumaran; Vijayaraj, Radha; Mani, Jayaprakashvel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties. Objective: In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods. Results: In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications. Conclusion: Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. SUMMARY Squid ink is very high in a number of important nutrients. It’s particularly high in antioxidants for instance, which as well all know help to protect

  16. Intense Ultrasonic clicks from echolocating toothed whales do not elicit anti-predator responses or debilitate the squid Loligo pealeii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Maria; Hanlon, Roger; Tyack, Peter

    2007-01-01

    an evolutionary selection pressure on cephalopods to develop a mechanism for detecting and evading sound-emitting toothed whale predators. Ultrasonic detection has evolved in some insects to avoid echolocating bats, and it can be hypothesized that cephalopods might have evolved similar ultrasound detection...... as an anti-predation measure. We test this hypothesis in the squid Loligo pealeii in a playback experiment using intense echolocation clicks from two squid-eating toothed whale species. Twelve squid were exposed to clicks at two repetition rates (16 and 125 clicks per second) with received sound pressure...... levels of 199-226dBre1μPa (pp) mimicking the sound exposure from an echolocating toothed whale as it approaches and captures prey. We demonstrate that intense ultrasonic clicks do not elicit any detectable anti-predator behaviour in L. pealeii and that clicks with received levels up to 226dBre1μPa (pp...

  17. Chromatographic Characterization and GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Constituents with Antimicrobial Potential from the Pigmented Ink of Loligo duvauceli

    OpenAIRE

    Girija, Smiline; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Kuppusamy, Pandi Suba; Gajendran, Hariprasad; Rajagopal, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic characterization and the GC-MS evaluation of the black pigmented ink of Loligo duvauceli in the present study have yielded an array of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial property. Facing an alarm of antimicrobial resistance globally, a need for elucidating antimicrobial agents from natural sources will be the need for the hour. In this view, this study is aimed at characterizing the black pigmented ink of the Indian squid L. duvauceli. The squid ink was subjected to...

  18. Cadmium content in fresh and canned squid (Loligo opalescens) from the Pacific coastal waters of California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels were determined in 70 samples of mantle tissue and 70 whole individual squid (Loligo opalescens; commercially known as California squid). Samples were collected from the coastal zones of California (USA) during the period 2007/2008. To further investigate consumer exposure to processed fishery products, cadmium concentration was also determined in 200 canned samples of squid. Cd concentrations in raw mantle were low, between 0.01 and 0.29 mg kg(-1) and below the tolerance limit of current regulations (1 mg kg(-1)). Respective concentrations in whole individuals were significantly higher, ranging from 0.51 to 1.18 mg kg(-1), attributed to the presence of the visceral portion in whole squid samples. Cd concentrations varied in relation to age and sex of squid, indicating that several physiological factors may influence accumulation. Furthermore, canning of squid substantially enhanced Cd levels. Cd concentration ranged 0.17-0.67 mg kg(-1) in canned mantle tissue and 0.86-2.07 mg kg(-1) in canned whole squid samples, due to both concentration after canning and movement of the metal between different tissues. Several biological compounds, including metallothioneins, nucleic acids and enzymes, may affect Cd concentrations in commercial fishery products.

  19. Differential impacts of ocean acidification and warming on winter and summer progeny of a coastal squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O; Repolho, Tiago

    2014-02-15

    Little is known about the capacity of early life stages to undergo hypercapnic and thermal acclimation under the future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming. Here, we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses to these climate change-related variables (2°C above winter and summer average spawning temperatures and ΔpH=0.5 units) during the early ontogeny of the squid Loligo vulgaris. Embryo survival rates ranged from 92% to 96% under present-day temperature (13-17°C) and pH (8.0) scenarios. Yet, ocean acidification (pH 7.5) and summer warming (19°C) led to a significant drop in the survival rates of summer embryos (47%, Pocean acidification and summer warming scenarios. The occurrence of prolonged embryogenesis along with lowered thermal tolerance limits under such conditions is expected to negatively affect the survival success of squid early life stages during the summer spawning period, but not winter spawning.

  20. Differential expression of the FMRF gene in adult and hatchling stellate ganglia of the squid Loligo pealei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peter H. Burbach

    2013-12-01

    The giant fiber system of the squid Loligo pealei mediates the escape response and is an important neurobiological model. Here, we identified an abundant transcript in the stellate ganglion (SG that encodes a FMRFamide precursor, and characterized FMRFamide and FI/LRF-amide peptides. To determine whether FMRFamide plays a role in the adult and hatchling giant fiber system, we studied the expression of the Fmrf gene and FMRFamide peptides. In stage 29 embryos and stage 30 hatchlings, Ffmr transcripts and FMRFamide peptide were low to undetectable in the SG, in contrast to groups of neurons intensely expressing the Fmrf gene in several brain lobes, including those that innervate the SG. In the adult SG the Fmrf gene was highly expressed, but the FMRFamide peptide was in low abundance. Intense staining for FMRFamide in the adult SG was confined to microneurons and fibers in the neuropil and to small fibers surrounding giant axons in stellar nerves. This shows that the Fmrf gene in the SG is strongly regulated post-hatching, and suggests that the FMRFamide precursor is incompletely processed in the adult SG. The data suggest that the SG only employs the Fmrf gene post-hatching and restricts the biosynthesis of FMRFamide, demonstrating that this peptide is not a major transmitter of the giant fiber system. This contrasts with brain lobes that engage FMRFamide embryonically as a regulatory peptide in multiple neuronal systems, including the afferent fibers that innervate the SG. The biological significance of these mechanisms may be to generate diversity within Fmrf-expressing systems in cephalopods.

  1. The mechanics of locomotion in the squid Loligo pealei: locomotory function and unsteady hydrodynamics of the jet and intramantle pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E J; DeMont, M E

    2000-09-01

    High-speed, high-resolution digital video recordings of swimming squid (Loligo pealei) were acquired. These recordings were used to determine very accurate swimming kinematics, body deformations and mantle cavity volume. The time-varying squid profile was digitized automatically from the acquired swimming sequences. Mantle cavity volume flow rates were determined under the assumption of axisymmetry and the condition of incompressibility. The data were then used to calculate jet velocity, jet thrust and intramantle pressure, including unsteady effects. Because of the accurate measurements of volume flow rate, the standard use of estimated discharge coefficients was avoided. Equations for jet and whole-cycle propulsive efficiency were developed, including a general equation incorporating unsteady effects. Squid were observed to eject up to 94 % of their intramantle working fluid at relatively high swimming speeds. As a result, the standard use of the so-called large-reservoir approximation in the determination of intramantle pressure by the Bernoulli equation leads to significant errors in calculating intramantle pressure from jet velocity and vice versa. The failure of this approximation in squid locomotion also implies that pressure variation throughout the mantle cannot be ignored. In addition, the unsteady terms of the Bernoulli equation and the momentum equation proved to be significant to the determination of intramantle pressure and jet thrust. Equations of propulsive efficiency derived for squid did not resemble Froude efficiency. Instead, they resembled the equation of rocket motor propulsive efficiency. The Froude equation was found to underestimate the propulsive efficiency of the jet period of the squid locomotory cycle and to overestimate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency when compared with efficiencies calculated from equations derived with the squid locomotory apparatus in mind. The equations for squid propulsive efficiency reveal that the refill

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Reveillac, E.; Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L.; Jeffree, R.; Gattuso, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO 2 . → We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. → Increasing pCO 2 affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. → Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO 2 . → Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) in the ocean, which may reach 950 μatm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO 2 ) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO 2 (380, 850 and 1500 μatm corresponding to pH T of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved 110m Ag, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 203 Hg, 54 Mn and 65 Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for 110m Ag, 203 Hg and 65 Zn were affected by the pCO 2 treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO 2 enhanced the uptake of both 110m Ag and 65 Zn while 203 Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO 2 . 65 Zn incorporation in statoliths also increased with increasing pCO 2 . Conversely, uptake of 109 Cd and 54 Mn in the embryo decreased as a function of increasing

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on trace element accumulation in the early-life stages of squid Loligo vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Reveillac, E. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs) UMR 6250 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, Institut du Littoral et de l' Environnement, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); Jeffree, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000 (Monaco); School of the Environment, Science Faculty, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007 (Australia); Gattuso, J.P. [INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie de Villefranche, B.P. 28, 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We study radiotracer uptake in squid embryo and paralarvae under relevant pCO{sub 2}. {yields} We examine metal distribution and concentration factors in egg compartments. {yields} Increasing pCO{sub 2} affects eggshell shielding properties and metal uptake in animals. {yields} Chemical signature in statoliths is modified by higher Zn incorporation under high pCO{sub 2}. {yields} Both element chemical properties and embryo physiology could account for the observed effects. - Abstract: The anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in the ocean, which may reach 950 {mu}atm by the end of the 21st century. The resulting hypercapnia (high pCO{sub 2}) and decreasing pH ('ocean acidification') are expected to have appreciable effects on water-breathing organisms, especially on their early-life stages. For organisms like squid that lay their eggs in coastal areas where the embryo and then paralarva are also exposed to metal contamination, there is a need for information on how ocean acidification may influence trace element bioaccumulation during their development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enhanced levels of pCO{sub 2} (380, 850 and 1500 {mu}atm corresponding to pH{sub T} of 8.1, 7.85 and 7.60) on the accumulation of dissolved {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn radiotracers in the whole egg strand and in the different compartments of the egg of Loligo vulgaris during the embryonic development and also in hatchlings during their first days of paralarval life. Retention properties of the eggshell for {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 203}Hg and {sup 65}Zn were affected by the pCO{sub 2} treatments. In the embryo, increasing seawater pCO{sub 2} enhanced the uptake of both {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 65}Zn while {sup 203}Hg showed a minimum concentration factor (CF) at the intermediate pCO{sub 2}. {sup 65}Zn

  4. Quantification of hydrolysis of toxic organophosphates and organophosphonates by diisopropyl fluorophosphatase from Loligo vulgaris by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäb, Jürgen; Melzer, Marco; Kehe, Kai; Richardt, André; Blum, Marc-Michael

    2009-02-15

    The enzyme diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from the squid Loligo vulgaris effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and a number of organophosphorus nerve agents, including sarin, soman, cyclosarin, and tabun. Up to now, the determination of kinetic data has been achieved by techniques such as pH-stat titration, ion-selective electrodes, and fluorogenic substrate analogs. We report a new assaying method using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR) for the real-time determination of reaction rates. The method employs changes in the P-O-R stretching vibration of DFP and nerve agent substrates when hydrolyzed to their corresponding phosphoric and phosphonic acids. It is shown that the Lambert-Beer law holds and that changes in absorbance can be directly related to changes in concentration. Compared with other methods, the use of in situ FTIR spectroscopy results in a substantially reduced reaction volume that adds extra work safety when handling highly toxic substrates. In addition, the new method allows the noninvasive measurement of buffered solutions with varying ionic strengths complementing existing methods. Because the assay is independent of the used enzyme, it should also be applicable to other phosphotriesterase enzymes such as organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA), and paraoxonase (PON).

  5. Chromatographic Characterization and GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Constituents with Antimicrobial Potential from the Pigmented Ink of Loligo duvauceli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, Smiline; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Kuppusamy, Pandi Suba; Gajendran, Hariprasad; Rajagopal, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic characterization and the GC-MS evaluation of the black pigmented ink of Loligo duvauceli in the present study have yielded an array of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial property. Facing an alarm of antimicrobial resistance globally, a need for elucidating antimicrobial agents from natural sources will be the need for the hour. In this view, this study is aimed at characterizing the black pigmented ink of the Indian squid L. duvauceli. The squid ink was subjected to crude solvent extraction and was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. TLC and HPTLC profiles were recorded. Antimicrobial bioassay of the squid ink fractions was done by agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial fraction was then characterized using GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the n-hexane extract upon column fractionation yielded a total of 8 fractions with the mobile phase of Hex/EtOAc in different gradients. TLC and HPTLC profiles showed a single spot with a retention factor of 0.76. Fraction 1 showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus and a promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial fraction upon GC-MS analysis of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) possesses the highest percentage of area normalisation (91%) with other few minor constituents. The study is concluded by stating that the antimicrobial efficacy of the squid ink might be due to the synergistic effects of the phthalate derivative and the other minor volatile compounds analysed in the squid ink.

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of epibiotic bacteria in the accessory nidamental gland and egg capsules of the squid Loligo pealei (Cephalopoda:Loliginidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, E; Paster, B J; Hughes, D; Zurek, L; Moser, D P; Teske, A; Sogin, M L

    2001-03-01

    Sexually mature female squid Loligo pealei harbour dense bacterial communities in their accessory nidamental glands (ANGs) and in their egg capsules (ECs). This study describes a molecular approach using the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) to identify bacterial populations within the ANG and the ECs of the North Atlantic squid species L. pealei. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA analysis showed that predominantly alpha- and, to a lesser extent, gamma-proteobacteria were the predominant components of the ANG and EC bacterial communities. Sequencing results showed the presence of alpha-proteobacterial populations affiliated with the Roseobacter group and additional deep-branching alpha-proteobacterial lineages. In contrast, isolates from the ANG and ECs contained only a few alpha-proteobacteria of the Roseobacter group compared with several gamma-proteobacterial isolates, mostly Shewanella and Pseudoalteromonas species. Most of the ANG-associated bacterial populations were also found within the ECs of L. pealei. The molecular approach allowed the visualization of alpha-proteobacteria as major constituents of a bacterial symbiosis within the reproductive system of the Loliginidae.

  7. The chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii is widely distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, ... The approach .... value of the threshold in the stock-recruit relation- ... for the residuals and adding a “new” residual to each .... effective spawning biomass based on the morphological .... case, current effort is well below the level generating.

  8. The biomass and ecology of chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-22

    Jan 22, 1991 ... Figure 1 The study area off the West Coast of South Africa. Depth and latitudinal ...... ground in the south of the srudy area unfOrblnately does not allow the .... school segregation between the sexes, and similar sizes schooling ...

  9. Forecasting chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii catches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... on ambient water temperature (Augustyn et al. 1992,. A. Oosthuisen, University of ..... from tagged squid and the supply of continuous environ- mental data. ... should a leak develop, and to provide insulation for the electronics.

  10. spawning grounds for chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii, using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Swimming movements in relation to egg beds have been studied using acoustic micro-electronic transmitters implanted in squid and tracked via 3-D radio-linked acoustic positioning telemetry (O'Dor et al. 1996, 1998, Sauer et al. 1997). Most of these methods are either impractical or would be severely limited on the deeper ...

  11. Loligo gahi, the Patagonian longfin squid, has been the subject of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    the FIFD by the Renewable Resources Assessment. Group (RRAG) at Imperial College, London (FIFD. 1989). Assessments of Illex argentinus around the. Falkland Islands made using Delury depletion models have proved to be complex but tractable (Beddington et al. 1990, Rosenberg et al. 1990, Basson et al. 1996).

  12. Loligo gahi d'Orbigny, 1835 is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    temperate waters (12–18°C), living in water 3 –120 m deep (Costa et al. 1990 ... examine differences in statolith shape and growth. Statolith dimensions ... *Highly significant difference HS: p < 0.01. Pineda.final ..... J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 75(3): ...

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Squid (Loligo Spp.) Tissues of Kedah-Perlis Waters, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, T.; Lias, K.; Norsila, D.; Syafinaz, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in three different tissues collected from the ink-sac, head, and muscle of the squid. Squid samples were caught off the coastal waters of Kedah-Perlis, where only mature squids within the maturity size-range of 13 to 15 cm were used. From this study, the concentration of Zn (35.06 ± 4.06 mg/ kg in dry weight) was found significantly higher in all of the tissues, followed by Cu (15.10 ± 13.28 mg/ kg in dry weight), Cd (4.76 ± 3.77 mg/ kg in dry weight), and Pb with an average value of 4.01 ± 0.08 mg/ kg in dry weight. From this study, it was discovered that Zn and Cu concentrations in the tissues were lower than the maximum limit recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization, Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), as well as other countries. Meanwhile, both non-essential elements namely Cd and Pb recorded higher values than that of the recommended concentrations. According to the Metal Pollution Index (MPI), the ink-sac indicated medium-range contamination, while the head and muscle tissues showed low contamination levels. (author)

  14. Feeding habits of the cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the diet of the adult cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, in northern Rio de Janeiro, through stomach content analysis. The sampling included 350 specimens measuring between 100 and 163cm in total length, collected from 2004 to 2006. For each prey species, the frequency of occurrence, density and biomass, body length and weight, and Index of Relative Importance (IRI were calculated. The cannibalistic feeding behavior of the cutlassfish was also recorded. According to the IRI, the preferential prey species were the fishes T. lepturus, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Odontognathus mucronatus, Stellifer brasiliensis and Isophisthus parvipinnis, and the crustacean Pleoticus muelleri. The cephalopods Loligo sanpaulensis and L. plei occurred occasionally in the stomach contents analyzed. The diet of T. lepturus in northern Rio de Janeiro was composed of pelagic and demersal prey species, associated with estuarine and coastal areas. The fish species and one crustacean species were the most representative items in its diet.

  15. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation.

  16. Estudio de las mariposas en la Institución Educativa Las Damas del municipio de Calamar (Guaviare, Colombia, una estrategia en la búsqueda de conciencia ambiental.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gustavo Arenas Jaramillo (Página 79-95

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo buscó generar una Conciencia Ambiental que mejorara las relaciones de los integrantes de la comunidad con su entorno, propiciando actitudes de responsabilidad, respeto y conservación del ambiente. Para ello, se propuso el estudio y cría de mariposas como estrategia en la Educación Ambiental de la escuela. Se utilizó la metodología de trabajo denominada cartografía social para identificar la forma en que los estudiantes se apropiaban de su entorno y se relacionaban con las mariposas. Durante el desarrollo de este estudio se logró poner en marcha procesos organizativos generando una dinámica de trabajo que posibilitó la sensibilización y constante participación de los diferentes actores que conforman la comunidad. Se realizaron salidas de campo las cuales fueron utilizadas como escenarios de aprendizaje donde se realizaron procesos de análisis y reflexión permitiendo a los niños, niñas y docentes reconocerse como actores principales, responsables de la transformación de su entorno, involucrando una mirada sistémica (cultural, social, política y económica.

  17. Sound detection by the longfin squid (em>Loligo pealeiiem>) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, T. Aran; Hanlon, Roger T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    of two wave types: (1) rapid stimulus-following waves, and (2) slower, high-amplitude waves, similar to some fish AEPs. Responses were obtained between 30 and 500 Hz with lowest thresholds between 100 and 200 Hz. At the best frequencies, AEP amplitudes were often >20 µV. Evoked potentials were...

  18. Modelling transport of chokka squid (Loligo reynaudii) paralarvae off South Africa: reviewing, testing and extending the ‘Westward Transport Hypothesis'

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Martins, RS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available hydrodynamic model (ROMS) to test the WTH and assessed four factors that might influence successful transport – Release Area, Month, Specific Gravity (body density) and Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) – in numerical experiments that estimated successful transport...

  19. Effect of Melanin Free Ink Extracted From Squid (Loligo sp.) on Proximate and Sensory Characteristics of Soft-Bone Milkfish (Chanos chanos) During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarni Agustini, Tri; Hadiyanto; Wijayanti, Ima; Amalia, Ulfah; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant could be extracted and isolated from squid inks. Squid ink in the form of melanin free ink (MFI) could be act as an electron donor which can stabilize free radicals in lipid oxidation. This study was carried out to assess the antioxidant activity of squid inks converted into MFI in different dilution and to optimize the extraction conditions for the application of MFI as an antioxidative agent on fish product. Three different types of MFI extracts i.e : pure squid ink, squid ink with 5 times dilution and squid ink with 10 times dilutions by using cooled ionized water (4°C). The ink was then centrifuged at 18.000 x g for 30 minutes at cooled centrifuge (4°C) followed by DPPH analysis. The results showed that the IC50 of MFI extracts were 2.84 ppm; 1.11 ppm and 0.34 ppm, respectively (p squid ink with 10 times dilution in extraction of MFI had the highest value in free radical inhibitory. Although the IC50 of three different dilutions are equally low, and are considered as very strong antioxidative agent, however, it showed that the MFI extracted from squid ink had the ability to prevent free radical

  20. 75 FR 79725 - Fall 2010 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Leatherback Sea 0648-AX06 Turtle 265 Critical Habitat Designation for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Under the... mackerel, Loligo squid, Illex squid, and butterfish (including gear impacts on Loligo squid egg EFH); and...

  1. 76 FR 40012 - Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle. 100 Critical Habitat 0648-AX50 Designation for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale... mackerel, Loligo squid, Illex squid, and butterfish (including gear impacts on Loligo squid egg EFH); and...

  2. The everyday-life in neanderthal times: a full-immersive Pleistocene reconstruction for the Casal De' Pazzi Museum (Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Palombini

    2012-11-01

    movie in computer-graphic, to be shown to the public, explaining neanderthal man and ancient elephant's life, and an edu-game, for children's learning, the Plei-stostation, implemented by touch-screen interaction dynamics.

  3. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

  4. Epithelial ingrowth following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): prevalence, risk factors, management and visual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Darren Shu Jeng; Srinivasan, Sathish; Danjoux, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The number of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures is continuing to rise. Since its first application for correcting simple refractive errors over 25 years ago, the role of LASIK has extended to treat other conditions, including postkeratoplasty astigmatism/ametropia, postcataract surgery refractive error and presbyopia, among others. The long-term effectiveness, predictability and safety have been well established by many large studies. However, due to the creation of a potential interface between the flap and the underlying stroma, interface complications such as infectious keratitis, diffuse lamellar keratitis and epithelial ingrowth may occur. Post-LASIK epithelial ingrowth (PLEI) is an uncommon complication that usually arises during the early postoperative period. The reported incidence of PLEI ranged from 0%-3.9% in primary treatment to 10%-20% in retreatment cases. It can cause a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic interface changes to severe visual impairment and flap melt requiring keratoplasty. PLEI can usually be treated with mechanical debridement of the affected interface; however, additional interventions, such as alcohol, mitomycin C, fibrin glue, ocular hydrogel sealant, neodymium:yttriumaluminum garnet laser and amniotic membrane graft, may be required for recurrent or refractory cases. The aims of this review are to determine the prevalence and risk factors of PLEI; to describe its pathogenesis and clinical features and to summarise the therapeutic armamentarium and the visual outcome of PLEI.

  5. EIA application in China's expressway infrastructure: clarifying the decision-making hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Yi; Sheate, William R

    2011-06-01

    China's EIA Law came into effect in 2003 and formally requires road transport infrastructure development actions to be subject to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). EIAs (including project EIA and plan EIA, or strategic environmental impact assessment, SEA) have been being widely applied in the expressway infrastructure planning field. Among those applications, SEA is applied to provincial level expressway network (PLEI) plans, and project EIA is applied to expressway infrastructure development 'projects' under PLEI plans. Three case studies (one expressway project EIA and two PLEI plan SEAs) were examined to understand currently how EIAs are applied to expressway infrastructure development planning. Through the studies, a number of problems that significantly influence the quality of EIA application in the field were identified. The reasons causing those problems are analyzed and possible solutions are suggested aimed at enhancing EIA practice, helping deliver better decision-making and ultimately improving the environmental performance of expressway infrastructure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1187 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1187 ref|YP_002970996.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo opalesce...ns] gb|ACS12932.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Loligo opalescens] YP_002970996.1 0.12 23% ...

  7. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total amount of RSA is not awarded, NMFS will...; 727,527 lb (330 mt) of Loligo squid; 818,790 lb (371 mt) of bluefish; and 33,069 lb (15 mt) of... stock assessment data for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Loligo squid, butterfish, bluefish...

  8. Analysis of the re-colonization of San Benito Archipelago by Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi Análisis de la recolonización del archipiélago de San Benito por el lobo fino de Guadalupe (Arctocephalus townsendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Esperón-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    -colonización y el estado actual del LFG en el ASB. También se informan los primeros nacimientos y la ocupación de la isla del Oeste del ASB. Con base en los censos de 1997 a 2007, la población creció con una tasa de incremento anual de 21,6%. Se estudió el tamaño de la población, la tendencia de crecimiento de la colonia, biología reproductiva y preferencias alimentarias. Se contaron 2,227 individuos en el ASB. Tres especies de calamar se encontraron como el principal componente de la dieta (Loligo opalescens, Onychoteuthis banksii y Dosidicus gigas. La territorialidad, los patrones de actividad y el comportamiento reproductivo, muestran una conducta similar entre los individuos de isla Guadalupe y ASB. Se calculó la tasa de crecimiento promedio de las crías del ASB y se comparó con la tasa de crecimiento de las crías de isla Guadalupe (ASB: 6.7 ± 1.4 kg y 68,9 ± 2.64 cm; isla Guadalupe 5.9 ± 0.5 kg, y 67.29 ± 4.3 cm. Se midió la duración de los viajes de alimentación de las hembras, indicando que la colonia de San Benito probablemente se encuentra cerca de una importante zona de alimentación. En cuanto a los patrones de asistencia materna, estos podrían indicar una estrategia de lactancia-viajes de alimentación diferente entre SBA e isla Guadalupe. Se puede esperar que la población de lobos finos en San Benito siga creciendo, ya que no hay limitantes en cuanto al espacio reproductivo y los recursos alimenticios disponibles en la zona.

  9. Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Turtle 92 Critical Habitat Designation for Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Under the Endangered Species 0648-AX50... (including gear impacts on Loligo squid egg EFH); and (4) possible limitations on at- sea processing of...

  10. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  11. JAMARC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP), Paseo Victoria Ocampo N° 1, 7600 Mar del ..... cia, distribución y estructura poblacional del calamar (Illex ... CARRETO, J. I., RAMIREZ, F. and C. DATO 1981 — Zooplanc-.

  12. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Guerrero-Kommritz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur.

  13. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Kommritz, Jurgen; Cantera, Jaime; Puentes, Vladimir; Leon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV) durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur.

  14. Applying ARIMA model for annual volume time series of the Magdalena River

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Amaris; Humberto Ávila; Thomas Guerrero

    2017-01-01

    Context: Climate change effects, human interventions, and river characteristics are factors that increase the risk on the population and the water resources. However, negative impacts such as flooding, and river droughts may be previously identified using appropriate numerical tools. Objectives: The annual volume (Millions of m3/year) time series of the Magdalena River was analyzed by an ARIMA model, using the historical time series of the Calamar station (Instituto de Hidrología, Meteoro...

  15. Computer Algebra-based RBES personalized menu generator

    OpenAIRE

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio; Galán-García, José Luis; Aguilera-Venegas, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    People have many constraints concerning the food they eat. These constraints can be based on religious believes, be due to food allergies or to illnesses, or can be derived just from personal preferences. Therefore, preparing menus at hospitals and restaurants can be really complex. Another special situation arise when travel- ing abroad. It is not always enough to know the brief description in the restaurant menu or the explanation of the waiter. For example, “calamares en su...

  16. A RBES for Generating Automatically Personalized Menus

    OpenAIRE

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio; Galán-García, José Luis; Aguilera-Venegas, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Food bought at supermarkets in, for instance, North America or the European Union, give comprehensive information about ingredients and allergens. Meanwhile, the menus of restaurants are usually incomplete and cannot be normally completed by the waiter. This is specially important when traveling to countries with a di erent culture. A curious example is "calamares en su tinta" (squid in its own ink), a common dish in Spain. Its brief description would be "squid with boiled rice in its own ...

  17. 75 FR 5537 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...://www.nero.noaa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carrie Nordeen, Fishery Policy Analyst, 978-281... of the initial optimum yield (IOY), allowable biological catch (ABC), domestic annual harvest (DAH... Year Specifications Loligo Illex Mackerel Butterfish Max OY 32,000 24,000 N/A 12,175 [[Page 5538

  18. Squid are important components of foodwebs in most marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    hábitos alimentares e ciclo reprodutivo de Loligo san- paulensis Brakoniecki ... 32(7): 1073–1078. CAPITOLI, R. R. and M. HAIMOVICI 1993 — Alimentacion del .... tribuição, abundância morfologia e reprodução, nas águas litorâneas do Rio ...

  19. DDT residues in fishes from the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; SenGupta, R.

    degrees E) were obtained from the commercial jetty within 2 h of landing while those from the open sea (16 degrees 30'N 69 degrees E-19 degrees 30'N 67 degrees E) such as Tylosurus sp. (longtom), Coryphaena hippurus (dolphin fish), Loligo sp. (squid...

  20. Isofocusing and immunological investigations on cephalopod lens proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Lancieri, M.

    1979-01-01

    Soluble lens proteins from Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, and Loligo vulgaris were analyzed by thin-layer isoelectric focusing and compared by various immunochemical methods using antibodies directed against total soluble lens protein antigens from the said three species. The results show

  1. Interpreting behavioural data from Radio-Acoustic Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To detect behavioural patterns of individually tagged squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii in a Radio-Acoustic Positioning Telemetry (RAPT) buoy array, trajectories reflecting the four dimensions of latitude, longitude, depth and time were plotted from data collected during field experiments in South Africa. Finding a continuous ...

  2. 76 FR 45742 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... mackerel; an update to essential fish habitat (EFH) designations for all life stages of mackerel, Loligo... limited access fisheries; Establish a 10-percent maximum volumetric fish hold upgrade for Tier 1 and Tier... fishery that occurs prior to June 1, vessels issued a mackerel permit may not fish for, possess, or land...

  3. Feeding preference of adult females of ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus through prey proximate-composition and caloric values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Trindade Bittar

    Full Text Available In the present study we analysed the proximate-composition and caloric values of the preferred prey consumed by ribbonfish, Trichiurus lepturus L. 1758 (adult females, that are distributed in the inner continental shelf from northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (~22ºS, assessing the potential of nutritional and energetic approach as a tool to understand the feeding selective pattern of this marine top carnivore. The preferred prey of this predator composed of fish co-specifics, Pellona harroweri, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Lycengraulis grossidens, Peprilus paru, squid Doryteuthis plei, and shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were collected from 2007 to 2010 for proximate-composition (water, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate and caloric value analyses. The correspondence analysis showed that protein is the main component in the prey species (61.32% of variance explained, standing out from the other nutrients. Lipid has the highest percentage related to L. grossidens, ash to X. kroyeri and carbohydrate to D. plei. The strong correlations between protein and caloric value (positive and lipid and caloric value (negative indicated that T. lepturus is attending its energy demand through the prey protein content. This work elucidated the feeding preference of adult females of T. lepturus in relation to nutritional and caloric content of their preferred prey. The species showed food selectivity to prey that provide more energy per ingested biomass, so that the feeding events can maximize the predator's caloric gain, which is obtained by a protein-based diet.

  4. Instructional designing the STEM education model for fostering creative thinking abilities in physics laboratory environment classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthala, Chumpon; Santiboon, Toansakul; Ponkham, Kamon

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of students' activity-based on learning approaching management through the STEM Education Instructional Model for fostering their creative thinking abilities of their learning achievements in physics laboratory classroom environments with the sample size consisted of 48 students at the 10th grade level in two classes in Mahasarakham University Demonstration School(Secondary Division) in Thailand. Students' creative thinking abilities were assessed with the with the 24-item GuilfordCreative Thinking Questionnaire (GCTQ). Students' perceptions of their physics classroom learning environments were obtained using the 35-item Physics Laboratory Environment Inventory (PLEI). Associations between students' learning achievements of their post-test assessment indicated that 26% of the coefficient predictive value (R2) of the variance in students' creative thinking abilities was attributable to their perceptions for the GCTQ. Students' learning outcomes of their post-test assessment, the R2value indicated that 35% of the variances for the PLEI, the R2value indicated that 63% of the variances for their creative thinking abilities were attributable to theiraffecting the activity-based on learning for fostering their creative thinking are provided.

  5. Evaluación de la toxicidad a dosis repetidas (90 días) por vía oral del concentrado de proteína de pota (Dosidicus gigas), en ratas Sprague dawley

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Hurtado, Daniel Percy

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El potencial tóxico de un concentrado de proteína de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) fue evaluado mediante el estudio de toxicidad de dosis repetidas a 90 días en ratas Sprague Dawley de ambos sexos. Los métodos empleados fueron los descritos por las normas OECD (1998). Se administró por vía oral la dosis de 500, 1000 y 2000 mg/kg/día durante 13 semanas. Se evaluaron los signos tóxicos y peso...

  6. Patrones morfológicos del otolito sagitta de algunos peces óseos del mar peruano

    OpenAIRE

    García-Godos Naveda, Ignacio

    2001-01-01

    Catálogo que contiene fotografías y descripciones del otolito sagitta de cincuenta especies de peces teleósteos. Los otolitos descritos pertenecen a especies registradas como presas frecuentes de especies marinas ictiófagas {calamares, peces, aves y mamíferos) .fi•ente a las costas del Perú. Su objetivo principal es que pueda constituir una herramienta de referencia para los análisis de la dieta de los predadores marinos y también para los estudios arqueológicos, comprendidos dentro del á...

  7. El burro cuántico de Sancho Panza (Los Nobel en Física 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Galindo Uribarri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EL premio Nobel en Física 2003 fue compartido por Leggett, Abrikosov y Ginzburg, por sus contribuciones al entendimiento de fenómenos a bajas temperaturas. Este ensayo explica, a un nivel elemental, sus teorías. Además este trabajo presenta una serie de eventos –relacionados con las teorías mencionadas– que forman una historia de tres animales cuánticos: un gato, un calamar y un burro.

  8. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA; Carlos José BOOM- URUETA; Leidys Isabel SEÑA-RAMOS; Alba Lucia ECHEVERRY-IGLESIAS; Neis José MARTÍNEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  9. Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Vargas-Zapata; Carlos José Boom-Urueta; Leidys Isabel Seña-Ramos; Alba Lucia Echeverry-Iglesias; Neis José Martínez Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  10. Elementos de colonialidad y biopolítica en una historia caribeña (ficticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cabrera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera novela colombiana, Yngermina o la hija de Calamar (Juan José Nieto, 1844, re-escritura de la historia regional cartagenera como locus de civilización con elementos utópicos, delinea un cuerpo político ideal moldeado por dinámicas particulares de raza y género y es empleada en este artículo como espacio para observar las contradicciones del discurso liberal decimonónico desde la óptica de la biopolítica y la colonialidad del poder.

  11. The different types of sperm morphology and behavior within a single species: Why do sperm of squid sneaker males form a cluster?

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Iwata, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Some coastal squids exhibit male dimorphism (large and small body size) that is linked to mating behaviors. Large “consort” males compete with other, rival males to copulate with a female, and thereby transfer their spermatophores to her internal site around the oviduct. Small “sneaker” males rush to a single female or copulating pair and transfer spermatophores to her external body surface around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. We previously found that in Loligo bleekeri, sneaker sper...

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspihana Fitrial; Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish) are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp.) with squid ink (Loligo sp.) against E. coli. Extraction and purificatio...

  13. Commercial squids: characterization, assessment of potential health benefits/risks and discrimination based on mineral, lipid and vitamin E concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrinha, A; Gomes, F; Oliveira, M; Cruz, R; Mendes, E; Delerue-Matos, C; Casal, S; Morais, S

    2014-05-01

    The most consumed squid species worldwide were characterized regarding their concentrations of minerals, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamin E. Interspecific comparisons were assessed among species and geographical origin. The health benefits derived from squid consumption were assessed based on daily minerals intake and on nutritional lipid quality indexes. Squids contribute significantly to daily intake of several macro (Na, K, Mg and P) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn and Ni). Despite their low fat concentration, they are rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentanoic (EPA) acids, with highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratios (from 5.7 to 17.7), reducing the significance of their high cholesterol concentration (140-549 mg/100g ww). Assessment of potential health risks based on minerals intake, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks indicated that Loligo gahi (from Atlantic Ocean), Loligo opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) and Loligo duvaucelii (from Indic Ocean) should be eaten with moderation due to the high concentrations of Cu and/or Cd. Canonical discriminant analysis identified the major fatty acids (C14:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:3ω-3, C20:4ω-6 and C22:5ω-6), P, K, Cu and vitamin E as chemical discriminators for the selected species. These elements and compounds exhibited the potential to prove authenticity of the commercially relevant squid species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp. with squid ink (Loligo sp. against E. coli. Extraction and purification studies were carried out on Sepia and Loligo melanin using a hydrochloric acid 0,5M treatment under mechanical.The melanins were obtained and further evaluated their activity by direct contact methods between melanin and E. coli in nutrient broth.Total microbes was counted by total plate count.Both inks also was tested their activity against E. coli. The results showed that melanin from cuttlefish and squid inks had inhibitory activity at concentrations of 10 mg / ml and 20 mg / mL, respectively reaching 99.99% against E. coli.The inks of both Cephalopods at the same concentration as melanin, did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli.  The melanin of Sepia sp. have a higher antibacterial activity than the melanin of Loligo sp.

  15. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  16. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  17. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  18. Ensayo de diferentes lecitinas en la dieta de juveniles de Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Denisse Re-Araujo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para comparar diferentes niveles y calidades de lecitina se hizo un bioensayo nutricional con dietas isoenergéticas; para medir el crecimiento, la tasa de conversión alimenticia y sobrevivencia de juveniles de P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02. Las lecitinas experimentales fueron de calamar, lecitina liquida de soya (7%, lecitina desaceitada de soya (3.48% en combinación con aceite de pescado o lípidos neutros de calamar, en una formula parcialmente desaceitada. Las cinco dietas fueron administradas ad libitum con cuatro replicas (estanques de 15 camarones cada uno (5 x 4 x 15, durante 28 días. La mayor ganancia en peso fue (191% y FCR (1.69±0.041 fueron obtenidos con la dieta que contenía 7% de lecitina cruda de soya como única fuente de lípidos, seguida por la dieta que contenía 3.94% de lecitina desaceitada y 2.24% de aceite Menhaiden (172% y 2.03±0.054 respectivamente. Como se esperaba los resultados menos propicios fueron con la dieta que no contenía lecitina (121% y 2.42±0.129. La lecitina cruda de soya, cubrió los requerimientos de fosfolípidos y de lípidos neutrales, tanto como la dieta con lecitina desaceitada de soya con aceite de pescado o aceite de calamarThe effect of different lecithin sources and presentations on growth, food conversion ratio and survival of P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02 was studied. The bioassay was designed in order to compare different dietary levels and different quality of lecithin. Squid lecithin, crude soybean (7%, deoiled soybean lecithin (3.48% in combination with fish oil or squid neutral lipids, in a partially dilapidate formula. The isoenergetic diets were fed ad libitum to four replicate groups (tanks of 15 shrimps each (5 x 4 x 15, during 28 days. The result of the bioassay with the partially dilapidate formulas was; the best growth rate (191% and FCR (1.69±0.041 were obtained with the diet containing 7% of soybean crude lecithin as the unique lipid source. Followed by the diet countering 3

  19. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  20. Identifying generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation from a numerical solution of Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Georgiev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic time series in the form of numerical solution (in an appropriate finite time interval of the Hodgkin-Huxley current clamped (HHCC system of four differential equations, well known in the neurophysiology as an exact empirical model of excitation of a giant axon of Loligo, is presented. Then we search for a second-order differential equation of generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo (GFN type, having as a solution the given single component (action potential of the numerical solution. The given time series is used as a basis for reconstructing orders, powers, and coefficients of the polynomial right-hand sides of GFN equation approximately governing the process of action potential. For this purpose, a new geometrical method for determining phase space dimension of the unknown dynamical system (GFN equation and a specific modification of least squares method for identifying unknown coefficients are developed and applied.

  1. Customizing Properties of β-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ianiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The squid pen (gladius from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of β-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The β-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the β-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the β-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between β-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these β-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications.

  2. Solid state characterization of α-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffman, Jessica D.; Schauer, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (α-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (β-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of α-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  3. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  4. PENGARUH ILUMINASI ATRAKTOR CAHAYA TERHADAP HASIL TANGKAPAN IKAN PADA BAGAN APUNG PELABUHAN RATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regi Fiji Anggawangsa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atraktor cahaya sebagai alat bantu penangkapan banyak digunakan untuk mengumpulkan ikan pada alat tangkap bagan apung. Tiga macam atraktor cahaya, yaitu petromaks minyak tanah (dengan iluminasi maksimal 80 lux, petromaks gas (dengan iluminasi maksimal 60 lux, dan lampu genset (dengan iluminasi maksimal 500 lux digunakan pada bagan apung di Palabuhanratu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan iluminasi cahaya pada ketiga macam sumber cahaya tersebut terhadap hasil tangkapan bagan apung. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimen penangkapan ikan dengan menggunakan tiga jenis atraktor cahaya pada bagan apung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan iluminasi atraktor cahaya pada bagan apung berpengaruh terhadap komposisi hasil tangkapan. Hasil tangkapan bagan pada saat menggunakan atraktor cahaya petromaks minyak tanah (80 lux didominasi oleh ikan layur (Trichiurus spp. yang mencapai lebih dari 50%, petromaks gas (60 lux didominasi oleh ikan layur (Trichiurus spp. dan cumi-cumi (Loligo spp. sedangkan untuk atraktor lampu genset (500 lux didominasi oleh layur dan cumi-cumi.   Light attractor has been used as a fishing device to gather fish schooling on lift net. There are three types of light attractors i.e. kerosene pressure lamp, gas pressure lamp and genset lamp used by Palabuhanratu’s lift net. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of those light attractors on the lift net catches. The experimental fishing method was used. The results show that illumination produced by genset lamp was higher (500 lux than the two other light attractors at all observation positions with maximum illumination obtained of 80 lux for kerosene pressure lamp and 60 lux for gas pressure lamp. Catch of lift net when using kerosene pressure lamp attractor (80 lux was dominated by hairtail fish (Trichiurus spp. that reaches more than 50%, gas kerosene lamps attractor (60 lux was dominated by fish Layur (Trichiurus spp. and squid

  5. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yoko; Shaw, Paul; Fujiwara, Eiji; Shiba, Kogiku; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-08-10

    Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  6. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

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    Shiba Kogiku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm. Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external, whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  7. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

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    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  8. Interacciones de pesquerías ribereñas en Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur

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    Miguel A. Ojeda Ruiz de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de aportar al desarrollo de un modelo conceptual sobre la pesca ribereña o artesanal en el área de Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, se jerarquizó la importancia de 14 pesquerías de la región. La calificación se basó en un análisis cualitativo por puntos y en la estimación de un índice de importancia relativa, con indicadores como los promedios de captura, valor y frecuencia de registro de especies objetivo en desembarcos de embarcaciones menores, de 1998 a 2009; entre ellas están: almeja catarina, escama, camarón, callo de hacha, tiburón, jaiba, calamar, almeja pata de mula, rayas, lisa, pulpo, abulón, langosta y caracol chino. La interacción temporal entre varias de ellas es controlada por vedas oficiales, pero cuando ocurre se reconocen posibles efectos por pesca incidental e ilegal y modificaciones al ecosistema.

  9. Ingermina, de Juan José Nieto: antagonismo y alegoría en los orígenes de la novela caribeña.

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    Idelber Avelar.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a pioneering novel in the literary tradition of the Colombian Caribbean: Ingermina, published by Juan José Nieto during his exile to Jamaica in 1844, and practically forgotten for a century and a half, until it was reedited in 1998. Ingermina tells of the conquest of the Kingdom of Calamar and its conversion into the colonial Cartagena of the New Granada. The text revolves around the love between an Indian woman and a Spanish colonist. In contrast to other stories (such as the Mexican Malinche, Iracema in Brazil, etc., Nieto’s novel offers a notably diverse view of the indigenous population, which is divided between radical and moderate anti-colonialists. My article analyzes the subsumption made by Nieto, of a political antagonism under a moral antagonism. Firmly planted within the context of Colombia in the 19th century, I refer this subsumption to the limits of Nieto’s liberalism, one of the most radical of his time.

  10. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

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    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of commercial vessels in survey augmentation: the size-frequency distribution

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    Eric N. Powell

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards use of commercial vessels to enhance survey data requires assessment of the advantages and limitations of various options for their use. One application is to augment information on size-frequency distributions obtained in multispecies trawl surveys where stratum boundaries and sampling density are not optimal for all species. Analysis focused on ten recreationally and commercially important species: bluefish, butterfish, Loligo squid, weakfish, summer flounder, winter flounder, silver hake (whiting, black sea bass, striped bass, and scup (porgy. The commercial vessel took 59 tows in the sampled domain south of Long Island, New York and the survey vessel 18. Black sea bass, Loligo squid, and summer flounder demonstrated an onshore-offshore gradient such that smaller fish were caught disproportionately inshore and larger fish offshore. Butterfish, silver hake, and weakfish were characterized by a southwest-northeast gradient such that larger fish were caught disproportionately northeast of the southwestern-most sector. All sizes of scup, striped bass, and bluefish were caught predominately inshore. Winter flounder were caught predominately offshore. The commercial vessel was characterized by an increased frequency of large catches for most species. Consequently, patchiness was assayed to be higher by the commercial vessel in nearly all cases. The size-frequency distribution obtained by the survey vessel for six of the ten species, bluefish, butterfish, Loligo squid, summer flounder, weakfish, and silver hake, could not be obtained by chance from the size-frequency distribution obtained by the commercial vessel. The difference in sample density did not significantly influence the size-frequency distribution. Of the six species characterized by significant differences in size-frequency distribution between boats, all but one was patchy at the population level and all had one or more size classes so characterized. Although the

  12. Composición y superposición de dietas en cuatro especies de Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae en el Pacífico central mexicano

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    Bernabé Aguilar Palomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para comprender las interacciones tróficas en un ecosistema, es imprescindible conocer bien la composición y superposición de las dietas de las especies que coexisten en un mismo hábitat y presentan una morfología general muy similar. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de 397 ejemplares de cuatro especies de Diplectrum, capturados con redes camaroneras frente a las costas de Jalisco y Colima, México. D. eumelum consumió principalmente peces del orden Pleuronectiformes, seguido por camarones del género Metapenaeopsis y estomatópodos. D. euryplectrum registró en su contenido estomacal, estomatópodos (Squilla mantoidea, seguido por camarones y braquiuros. D. labarum consumió crustáceos, moluscos y peces. El estomatópodo Eurysquilla veleronis registró un alto porcentaje, seguido por camarones (principalmente Solenocera florea y braquiuros, así como el calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae. Los peces (género Ophidion principalmente constituyeron un componente importante de la dieta de esta especie. En la dieta de D. rostrum se identificaron crustáceos, moluscos, poliquetos y peces. El calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae y los peces del género Ophidion tuvieron una alta representación. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los índices de amplitud de dietas de las especies analizadas. El número de entidades consumidas disminuyó desde 16 en D. euryplectrum hasta seis en D. eumelum. El valor medio de superposición (0.247 no resultó significativamente diferente (p=0.118 del esperado para un modelo nulo (0.174. La varianza observada de los índices de superposición (0.071 fue significativamente mayor (V=0.025, p=0.0004 que el valor medio obtenido en la simulación basada en un modelo nulo.Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem

  13. Avistamientos del delfín manchado, Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica, 1999-2000

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    Karina Rodríguez Sáenz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paralelo a un estudio de zooplancton (1999-2000, se hicieron observaciones a bordo de un bote inflable, sobre la presencia o ausencia de delfines a lo largo de un transecto (~8 km long en la parte central de Bahía Culebra (24 km² , Golfo de Papagayo. Se realizaron 34 muestreos en total y hubo avistamientos de delfines en 20 de ellos. La única especie de cetáceo observado en la Bahía fue el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata. Estos avistamientos fueron más frecuentes durante la época lluviosa, en particular durante el mes de mayo de ambos años. La presencia de S. attenuata en Bahía Culebra podría estar asociada a la abundancia de presas potenciales como peces y moluscos (calamares, como se evidencia por las estadísticas pesqueras disponibles para la zona Pacífica de Costa RicaParallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000 observations were made (from an inflatable boat, on the presence of dolphins along a transect (~8 km long on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km² , Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids, as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  14. Hábitos alimenticios y migratorios del tiburón blanco Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae de Isla Guadalupe inferidos por el análisis de isótopos estables de δ15N and δ13C

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    Mario Jaime-Rivera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La composición isotópica de los tejidos de los depredadores tope en el ambiente marino provee información sobre su ecología trófica y su comportamiento migratorio. Estudios previos han mostrado que el tejido dérmico puede registrar patrones largos de movimiento y caza. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los hábitos tróficos y migratorios de los tiburones blancos de Isla Guadalupe realizando un análisis de isótopos estables de su tejido dérmico. Consideramos un pequeño grupo de muchos posibles taxa que los tiburones pudieron haber comido a lo largo de su migración: pinípedos, calamares y atunes. Estas presas fueron agrupadas en cinco áreas focales: Golfo de California, Isla Guadalupe, Costa de California, SOFA y Hawái. Realizamos un modelo de mezcla bayesiano para estudiar la ecología trófica de este depredador tope. Los promedios del valor isotópico de la dermis del tiburón blanco fueron δ13C (-14.5‰ y δ15N (19.1‰. Los promedios del valor isotópico de la dermis transformada para semejar músculo fueron δ13C (-16.6 ‰ y δ15N (21.2‰. El modelo de mezcla mostró una probable depredación de los tiburones en áreas oceánicas como el SOFA y confirmó la importancia de los pinnípedos como presa principal del tiburón blanco en Isla Guadalupe.

  15. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

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    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  16. Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia

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    María Angélica Vargas-Zapata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de la vegetación por punto, para lo cual se tomaron datos de diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, altura y tamaño de la copa para todas aquellas plantas leñosas con DAP mayor o igual a 2,5 cm. Se capturaron 76 individuos agrupados en seis especies y cuatro géneros; destacándose Hamadryas februa (Hübner como la más dominante con 32 individuos. El mes de marzo presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia (6 especies y 25 individuos durantes las primeras lluvias en la zona. El punto 3 presentó los valores más altos de diversidad y abundancia de Biblidinae (5 especies y 37 individuos y la mayor densidad de árboles (D= 0,28 individuos/m2. Se demuestra que la estructura de este grupo de mariposas presenta un patrón temporal y espacial en esta reserva. El análisis de componentes principales demostró que el área basal total (ABT y la Densidad (D de plantas leñosas, pueden considerarse como un factor determinante en la distribución y abundancia de las especies de la subfamilia Biblidinae en la RCM.

  17. Diversidad de escarabajos necrófilos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae y Trogidae en una región semiárida del valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla, México

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    Esteban Jiménez-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas áridas y semiáridas ocupan más de la mitad del territorio de México, sin embargo, son ambientes donde los escarabajos necrófilos han sido escasamente estudiados. En esta investigación se presenta la diversidad y fenología de Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae y Trogidae en el valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año de abril de 1998 a marzo de 1999 empleando trampas tipo NTP-80 cebadas con calamar, distribuidas en un mezquital y matorral espinoso, en cactáceas columnares y vegetación alterada. Se capturaron 613 individuos de 12 géneros y 15 especies. Staphylinidae tuvo la mayor riqueza (9 especies y abundancia (74.2%, le siguieron Scarabaeidae (21.9%, Silphidae (2.9% y Trogidae (1% con dos especies cada una. La fauna para las dos primeras fue inferior a la observada en otras zonas de México. La máxima abundancia y riqueza estuvieron en la época seca y las comunidades de escarabajos necrófilos prefirieron los sitios con mezquital y matorral, donde permanecieron más tiempo y se registraron todas las especies, por lo tanto los tipos de vegetación presentes fueron el factor más importante que determinó las variaciones locales de abundancia, diversidad y riqueza y no la época de lluvias.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN LAMPU BAWAH AIR SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PADA BAGAN TANCAP DI DESA TAMBAK LEKOK KECAMATAN LEKOK PASURUAN

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    F Fuad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DEVELOPMENT OF UNDER WATER LAMP AS A TOOL TO LIFT NET IN TAMBAK LEKOK VILLAGE PASURUANBagan is one type of fishing gear that uses light to collect fish. The lights are expected to stimulate the fish to come and stay around the light and than arrested with net. The use of light for fishing is growing rapidly, almost all fishing gear to use light as a tool for collecting fish. Application of this technology aims to increase fish catch fishermen in District Lekok through the application of technology underwater lamp with LED. Underwater lamp applied to the bagan tancap with a certain intensity and color to find the intensity of light and color that give the best catches. Best catches in the light of 450 lux is capable of delivering the highest total catch of 254 kg, it is supported by the values of illumination of 1.5 lux at a distance of 5 m. Types of fish that were caught on as much as 23 step chart types where the type of Stolephorus spp, Selaroides spp, Leiognathus spp, Loligo sp, Rastrelliger spp is a type of fish that always caught each fishing operation. Keywords: auxilary, development, lamp, Lekok, lift net  ABSTRAK Bagan merupakan salah satu jenis alat tangkap yang menggunakan lampu sebagai alat bantu pengunpul ikan. Cahaya lampu diharapkan dapat merangsang ikan untuk datang dan berkumpul disekitar sumber cahaya sampai pada suatu catchable area tertentu, lalu penangkapan dilakukan dengan alat jaring maupun pancing. Penggunaan lampu untuk penangkapan ikan saat ini berkembang pesat, hampir semua alat tangkap menggunakan lampu sebagai alat bantu pengumpul ikan. Aplikasi teknologi ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hasil tangkapan ikan nelayan bagan tancap di Kecamatan Lekok melalui penerapan teknologi lampu celup bawah air berbasis lampu LED. Lampu celup bawah air diterapkan pada bagan tancap dengan intensitas dan warna tertentu untuk mencari intensitas cahaya dan warna yang memberikan hasil tangkapan yang terbaik. Hasil tangkapan ikan yang

  19. DNA barcoding commercially important aquatic invertebrates of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre; Atar, Hasan Hüseyin

    2013-08-01

    DNA barcoding was used in order to identify aquatic invertebrates sampled from fisheries bycatch and discards. A total of 440 unique cytochrome c oxidase sub unit I (COI) barcodes were generated for 22 species from three important phyla (Arthropoda, Cnidaria, and Mollusca). All the species were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) databases using 654 bp-long fragment of mitochondrial COI gene. Two of them (Pontastacus leptodactylus and Rapana bezoar) were first records of the species for the BOLD database and six of them (Carcinus aestuarii, Loligo vulgaris, Melicertus kerathurus, Nephrops norvegicus, Scyllarides latus, and Scyllarus arctus) were first standard (>648 bp) COI barcode records for the GenBank database. COI barcodes were analyzed for nucleotide composition, nucleotide pair frequencies, and Kimura's two-parameter genetic distance. Mean genetic distance among species was found increasing at higher taxonomic levels. Neighbor-joining trees generated were congruent with morphometric-based taxonomic classification. Findings of this study clearly demonstrate that DNA barcodes could be used as an efficient molecular tool in identification of not only target species from fisheries but also bycatch and discard species, and so it could provide us leverage for a better understanding in monitoring and management of fisheries and biodiversity.

  20. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

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    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  1. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural waste materials containing chitin as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs: batch and continuous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, S A; Loureiro, J M; Boaventura, R A

    2005-10-01

    In this work three natural waste materials containing chitin were used as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs, namely the Anodonta (Anodonta cygnea) shell, the Sepia (Sepia officinalis) and the Squid (Loligo vulgaris) pens. The selected dyestuffs were the Cibacron green T3G-E (CI reactive green 12), and the Solophenyl green BLE 155% (CI direct green 26), both from CIBA, commonly used in cellulosic fibres dyeing, the most used fibres in the textile industry. Batch equilibrium studies showed that the materials' adsorption capacities increase after a simple and inexpensive chemical treatment, which increases their porosity and chitin relative content. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of a high internal resistance in both systems. Fixed bed column experiments performed showed an improvement in adsorbents' behaviour after chemical treatment. However, in the column experiments, the biodegradation was the main mechanism of dyestuff removal, allowing the materials' bioregeneration. The adsorption was strongly reduced by the pore clogging effect of the biomass. The deproteinised Squid pen (grain size 0.500-1.41 mm) is the adsorbent with highest adsorption capacity (0.27 and 0.037 g/g, respectively, for the reactive and direct dyestuffs, at 20 degrees C), followed by the demineralised Sepia pen and Anodonta shell, behaving like pure chitin in all experiments, but showing inferior performances than the granular activated carbon tested in the column experiments.

  3. The different types of sperm morphology and behavior within a single species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Iwata, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Some coastal squids exhibit male dimorphism (large and small body size) that is linked to mating behaviors. Large “consort” males compete with other, rival males to copulate with a female, and thereby transfer their spermatophores to her internal site around the oviduct. Small “sneaker” males rush to a single female or copulating pair and transfer spermatophores to her external body surface around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. We previously found that in Loligo bleekeri, sneaker sperm are ~50% longer than consort sperm, and only the sneaker sperm, once ejaculated from the spermatophore (sperm mass), form a cluster because of chemoattraction toward their own respiratory CO2. Here, we report that sperm clusters are able to move en masse. Because a fraction of ejaculated sperm from a sneaker’s spermatophore are eventually located in the female’s seminal receptacle, we hypothesize that sperm clustering facilitates collective migration to the seminal receptacle or an egg micropyle. Sperm clustering is regarded as a cooperative behavior that may have evolved by sperm competition and/or physical and physiological constraints imposed by male mating tactics. PMID:24567779

  4. Sperm from sneaker male squids exhibit chemotactic swarming to CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Alvarez, Luis; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujiwara, Eiji; Iwata, Yoko; Mohri, Tatsuma; Inaba, Kazuo; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Ochi, Hiroe; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kotzur, Nico; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Baba, Shoji A

    2013-05-06

    Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies. Previously, we reported that males of the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri produce two morphologically different euspermatozoa that are linked to distinctly different mating behaviors. Consort and sneaker males use two distinct insemination sites, one inside and one outside the female's body, respectively. Here, we show that sperm release a self-attracting molecule that causes only sneaker sperm to swarm. We identified CO2 as the sperm chemoattractant and membrane-bound flagellar carbonic anhydrase as its sensor. Downstream signaling results from the generation of extracellular H(+), intracellular acidosis, and recovery from acidosis. These signaling events elicit Ca(2+)-dependent turning behavior, resulting in chemotactic swarming. These results illuminate the bifurcating evolution of sperm underlying the distinct fertilization strategies of this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The different types of sperm morphology and behavior within a single species: Why do sperm of squid sneaker males form a cluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Iwata, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    Some coastal squids exhibit male dimorphism (large and small body size) that is linked to mating behaviors. Large "consort" males compete with other, rival males to copulate with a female, and thereby transfer their spermatophores to her internal site around the oviduct. Small "sneaker" males rush to a single female or copulating pair and transfer spermatophores to her external body surface around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. We previously found that in Loligo bleekeri, sneaker sperm are ~50% longer than consort sperm, and only the sneaker sperm, once ejaculated from the spermatophore (sperm mass), form a cluster because of chemoattraction toward their own respiratory CO2. Here, we report that sperm clusters are able to move en masse. Because a fraction of ejaculated sperm from a sneaker's spermatophore are eventually located in the female's seminal receptacle, we hypothesize that sperm clustering facilitates collective migration to the seminal receptacle or an egg micropyle. Sperm clustering is regarded as a cooperative behavior that may have evolved by sperm competition and/or physical and physiological constraints imposed by male mating tactics.

  6. Trawl catch composition during different fishing intensity periods in two Mediterranean demersal fishing grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sánchez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in two fishing grounds on the Mediterranean continental shelf: one in the Adriatic Sea and one in the Catalan Sea. Samplings on board otter trawlers were performed from November 2002 to December 2003 in the Catalan Sea and from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic fishing ground was affected by high fishing intensity from January to June, while the Catalan area was highly exploited from September to February. Fishing activity in the Adriatic area was closed for 45 days, and 62 days in the Catalan area; both periods were in summer. Totals of 92 and 88 species were collected in the Adriatic and Catalan fishing grounds respectively. The species composition of the retained and discarded fractions showed close agreement between the two areas. Mullus barbatus showed very low discard rates in both areas, as well as Loligo vulgaris in the Catalan Sea and Merluccius merluccius in the Adriatic Sea. In both fishing grounds Squilla mantis showed high catch rates with low discards, except in March in the Catalan area. In the Adriatic Sea Liocarcinus depurator was characterized by large discard fractions. In both fishing grounds the retained fraction was slightly higher in the high fishing intensity periods than in the low intensity ones (Adriatic Sea: 0.613 vs 0.524; Catalan Sea: 0.597 vs 0.539, even though the Kruskall Wallis test revealed significant differences (p

  7. Biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in squid giant nerve fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Gould, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The giant nerve fiber of squid 3 (loligo pealel) was incubated with [1- 14 C]acetate and ( 3 H)myristate. Fifty-five percent of the radioactivity incorporated from acetate was recovered in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The FAME was fractionated by AgNO 3 -impregnated TLC plate; and 52%, 31%, 0.3%, 5%, and 11% of the radioactivity was recovered in spots associated with saturated, monoenes, dienes, trienes, and polyenes, respectively. The saturated FAME was further fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC; and 4, 47, 1, and 48% of the radioactivity was recovered in 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, and 18:0, respectively. Most radioactivity from polyenes migrated to the spot containing saturated FAME, after catalytical hydrogenation. Cholesterol was isolated and converted to dibromoderivative and the derivative was recrystallized. No radioactivity was found in purified dibromocholesterol. Nearly all radioactivity from myristate-labeled tissue was recovered in saturated FAME. Reverse-phase HPLC showed that 71%, 25%, and 3% of radioactivity was associated with 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0, respectively. These results indicate that the squid giant nerve fibers can synthesize fatty acids by de novo and also by chain elongation and desaturation, though at a slower rate

  8. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  9. New Eocene Coleoid (Cephalopoda Diversity from Statolith Remains: Taxonomic Assignation, Fossil Record Analysis, and New Data for Calibrating Molecular Phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Neige

    Full Text Available New coleoid cephalopods are described from statolith remains from the Middle Eocene (Middle Lutetian of the Paris Basin. Fifteen fossil statoliths are identified and assigned to the Sepiidae (Sepia boletzkyi sp. nov.,? Sepia pira sp. nov., Loliginidae (Loligo clarkei sp. nov., and Ommastrephidae (genus indet. families. The sediments containing these fossils indicate permanent aquatic settings in the infralittoral domain. These sediments range in age from 46 Mya to 43 Mya. Analysis of the fossil record of statoliths (from findings described here, together with a review of previously published data indicates marked biases in our knowledge. Fossil statoliths are known from as far back as the Early Jurassic (199.3 to 190.8 Mya but surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, no record occurs in the Cretaceous. This is a "knowledge bias" and clearly calls for further studies. Finally, we attempt to compare findings described here with fossils previously used to constrain divergence and/or diversification ages of some coleoid subclades in molecular phylogenies. This comparison clearly indicates that the new records detailed here will challenge some estimated divergence times of coleoid cephalopod subclades.

  10. β-Chitin and chitosan from squid gladius: Biological activities of chitosan and its application as clarifying agent for apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Haddar, Anissa; Bougatef, Ali; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in biomass after cellulose and the term chitosan usually refers to a family of polymers obtained after chitin deacetylation. The aim of this work was the preparation and the characterization of chitin and chitosan from the gladius (pen) of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). A high level of deproteinization (more than 80%) was recorded using Alcalase ® with an enzyme/protein ratio of 10U/mg. The demineralization of the gladius was completely achieved within 8h at room temperature in HCl. 13 C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms of prepared chitin and chitosan were taken and then degree of deacetylation of chitosan was calculated using 13 C CP/MAS-NMR Spectroscopic. Further, in vitro antioxidant capacity of chitosan was evaluated on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method (IC 50 =3.2mgmL -1 ) and the β-carotene bleaching assay (IC 50 =3.3mgmL -1 ). Antimicrobial activity was also investigated and assays indicated that prepared chitosan exhibited marked inhibitory activity against all microbial strains tested. Additionally, chitosan was tested such as clarifying agent for apple juice and showed powerful clarification capability, without affecting nutritional value. Furthermore, the results suggested that prepared chitosan could be used as alternative additive in pharmaceutical preparations and food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  12. New Eocene Coleoid (Cephalopoda) Diversity from Statolith Remains: Taxonomic Assignation, Fossil Record Analysis, and New Data for Calibrating Molecular Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neige, Pascal; Lapierre, Hervé; Merle, Didier

    2016-01-01

    New coleoid cephalopods are described from statolith remains from the Middle Eocene (Middle Lutetian) of the Paris Basin. Fifteen fossil statoliths are identified and assigned to the Sepiidae (Sepia boletzkyi sp. nov.,? Sepia pira sp. nov.), Loliginidae (Loligo clarkei sp. nov.), and Ommastrephidae (genus indet.) families. The sediments containing these fossils indicate permanent aquatic settings in the infralittoral domain. These sediments range in age from 46 Mya to 43 Mya. Analysis of the fossil record of statoliths (from findings described here, together with a review of previously published data) indicates marked biases in our knowledge. Fossil statoliths are known from as far back as the Early Jurassic (199.3 to 190.8 Mya) but surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, no record occurs in the Cretaceous. This is a "knowledge bias" and clearly calls for further studies. Finally, we attempt to compare findings described here with fossils previously used to constrain divergence and/or diversification ages of some coleoid subclades in molecular phylogenies. This comparison clearly indicates that the new records detailed here will challenge some estimated divergence times of coleoid cephalopod subclades.

  13. Sampling necrophagous and predatory insects using different lures in a Mexican pine forest Muestreo de insectos necrófagos y depredadores utilizando diferentes cebos en un bosque de pino en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sánchez-Rojas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sampling with a single bait as a lure is a commonly used practice in studies of necrophilous insect communities. Here, we determined if there were differences in necrophilous insect species richness and abundance when attracted to 4 types of carrion: squid, bird, lizard, and mouse. A comparison between necrophagous and predatory insects was also made to detect whether they differ in their abundance, depending on the bait used. Thirteen species of Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae (Diptera were collected in the baited traps; no single bait was able to attract all species. The abundances of 5 species varied significantly depending on the type of bait used. Predatory insects were less abundant than necrophagous insects in lizard and mouse baits. These results show that an evaluation of the structure of a necrophilous insect community can depend on the bait used for sampling.La utilización de un solo tipo de cebo es una práctica común en los estudios de comunidades de insectos necrófilos. En este trabajo determinamos si existen diferencias en la riqueza y abundancia de especies de insectos necrófilos atraídos a 4 tipos de carroña: calamar, ave, lagartija y ratón. También se determinó si la abundancia de insectos necrófagos y depredadores difiere dependiendo del tipo de cebo que se utilice. Se recolectaron 13 especies de Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, Calliphoridae y Sarcophagidae (Diptera; ningún tipo de cebo logró atraer a todas las especies. Se encontró que la abundancia de 5 de las especies difirió significativamente dependiendo del cebo utilizado. La abundancia de los insectos depredadores fue menor que la de los carroñeros en los cebos de lagartija y ratón. Estos resultados muestran que la evaluación de la estructura de una comunidad de insectos necrófilos puede depender del tipo de cebo que se utilice.

  14. Ultrastructure of the optic gland of the squid Sepiotheutis sepioidea (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae

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    Dwight Arrieche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I describe the fine structure of the optic gland (OG in the tropical squid Sepiotheutis sepioidea at different sexual maturity stages. Squids were collected in Mochima National Park, Venezuela (10°; 20' 22 " - 10°; 24' N; 64° 19' - 64 ° 22' W. Morphometric characteristics and the development of reproductive organs at different sexual maturity stages (female n = 101; male n = 105, were significantly different (ANOVA, p Se examinó la ultraestructura fina de la glándula óptica (GO en varios estadios de desarrollo sexual del calamar tropical Sepiotheutis sepioidea, proveniente de las costas de la Bahía de Mochima, Venezuela (10° 20' 22 " - 10° 24' N; 64° 19' - 64° 22' W. Los parámetros morfométricos y de los órganos reproductivos (hembras n = 101; machos n = 105, presentaron diferencias significativas entre los estados de maduración sexual (ANOVA, p < 0.001, el índice gonadal promedio en las hembras osciló entre 0.1 - 2.95 %, y en los machos entre 0.22 - 1.38 %. La GO son un par de órganos ovales ubicados en el borde posterior del tracto óptico en el cerebro de los cefalópodos, ésta posee los mismos tipos de células descritos en otros cefalópodos con algunas leves diferencias. La célula principal en el estadio de maduración juvenil posee un perfil dendrítico con delgados procesos del citoplasma, abundantes ribosomas, mitocondrias circulares con crestas tubulares, y un núcleo prominente eucromatínico; en el estadio de adulto las células principales presentan las cisternas del retículo endoplasmático rugoso dilatadas concéntricamente en la célula, el aparato de Golgi es activo con abundantes gránulos electron densos de secreción, las mitocondrias son escasas, y el gránulo de lipofucsina es de mayor tamaño. La dimensión del núcleo de la célula principal y la abundancia de organelos, presentaron oscilaciones en las etapas del ciclo de vida.

  15. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

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    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  16. RIQUEZA Y ABUNDANCIA DE HESPEREOIDEA Y PAPILIONOIDEA (LEPIDOPTERA EN LA RESERVA NATURAL LAS DELICIAS, SANTA MARTA, MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neis José Martínez Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las formaciones de bosque seco tropical secundario que se encuentran en las estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, albergan una fauna representativa de lepidópteros. Este grupo es usado ampliamente como bioindicador del estado de conservación de bosques, por su sensibilidad a la intervención y especificidad en el uso de recursos. En el presente estudio se evaluó la variación de la riqueza y abundancia de las mariposas Papilionoidea y Hespereoidea en la reserva natural Las Delicias. Se seleccionaron dos sitios de muestreo con diferentes grados de intervención, ubicados a 200 msnm y entre los 400 y 550 msnm. Se realizaron cuatro faenas de registro y capturas, de abril a julio de 2008; se utilizaron dos redes entomológicas, con un esfuerzo muestral de 16 horas por faenas y 10 trampas Van Someren- Rydon cebadas con macerado de frutas y calamar. Se capturaron 432 adultos que corresponden a géneros y 66 especies. La familia Nymphalidae presentó mayor riqueza (42 y abundancia (250, destacándose la especie sombrófila Mechanitis lysimnia Fabricius (año con 41 ejemplares, la cual es común en bosques con amplia cobertura vegetal .El sitio 2, presentó mayor riqueza (48 y abundancia (236; que coincide con el espacio donde se presenta la cobertura arbórea más amplia y mayor variación en la estratificación vertical. Además, en este lugar la presencia del recurso hídrico fue permanente durante los muestreos. Con el aumento de las lluvias en junio y julio, se observó una mayor floración y fructificación de la vegetación en la zona; aumentando la disponibilidad de recursos y por consiguiente, una mayor riqueza y abundancia de Papilionoidea y Hespereoidea en el área de estudio.

  17. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  18. Reproducción y alimentación del tiburón enano Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica: Elementos para un manejo sostenible

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    José Rodrigo Rojas M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron aspectos reproductivos y alimentarios del tiburón enano Mustelus dorsalis, a partir de 311 ejemplares capturados con línea y anzuelo en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica, durante marzo de 1999 y mayo de 2000. Se reconocieron 250 hembras y 61 machos. Las hembras son más grandes (550 a 660 mm vs. (500-585 mm y más pesadas (400-1 000 g vs. (200-300 g que los machos. Todos los ejemplares estaban maduros, la talla mínima de especimenes maduros fue de 500 y 541 mm para hembras y machos respectivamente. Entre septiembre y marzo todas las hembras y machos estaban maduras, e inmaduras entre abril y agosto. Se estudiaron 1 259 embriones, con una variación entre dos y seis embriones por litera. La longitud total de los embriones es entre 130 y 205 mm y el peso entre 6 y 35 g. Este tiburón es carnívoro polífago oportunista que consume crustáceos (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Farfantepenaeus sp., peces (Anchoa sp. Caranx, sp, Lujanus sp., Engraulis y Ophistonema sp., y moluscos (Loligo sp. y Octopus sp.. Squilla hancocki es el ítem alimentario mas importante. La presencia de tiburones maduros de ambos sexos a lo largo del año en aguas poco profundas, y el consumo de presas bentónicas que viven en fondos rocosos costeros, sugiere la posibilidad de que este sector del Golfo de Nicoya esté funcionando como una zona de crianza y hábitat esencial. Con base en estos resultados se propone el establecimiento de un plan de manejo integral.Reproduction and feeding habits of Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: Elements for a sustainable management. A total of 311 sharptooth smooth-hound Mustelus dorsalis were collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica from March 1999 to May 2000 to determine reproduction and feeding habits. The fishes were collected using hook and line. 250 females and 61 males were identified. The females are bigger (550-660 mm and heavier (400-1 000 g than males (500-585 mm and 200-300 g

  19. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, A. S.; Bandekar, J. R.M.; Karani, S.; Jadhav, R.; Shashidhar, A.; Kakatkar, S.; Pingulkar, K.; Ghadge, N; Warrier, S. B.R.; Venugopal, V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Panda, K. [Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai (India); Bhat, A. [Vikram University, Ujjain (India)

    2005-01-15

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  20. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  1. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Connan

    Full Text Available Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa. These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  2. Evidence that glutamate mediates axon-to-Schwann cell signaling in the squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, E M; Abbott, N J; Hassan, S

    1989-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation (100 Hz) of isolated giant axons of the small squid Alloteuthis subulata and the large squid Loligo forbesi caused the periaxonal Schwann cell resting potential (Em = -40 mV) to hyperpolarize up to 11 mV in direct proportion to train duration and action potential amplitude. In both species, the Schwann cell also hyperpolarized up to 17 mV with the application of L-glutamate (10(-9) to 10(-6) M), in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in the presence of 10(-8) M d-tubocurarine (d-TC) to block the cholinergic component of the Schwann cell response, Schwann cells depolarized 8-9 mV during electrical stimulation of the axon or application of L-glutamate. In the presence of 10(-5) M 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (2-APB), the hyperpolarization to glutamate and to axon stimulation was blocked, whereas the cholinergic (carbachol-induced) hyperpolarization was unaffected. In experiments with Alloteuthis, L-aspartate (10(-7) M) also caused a Schwann cell hyperpolarization, but this was not blocked by 2-APB. In tests with glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, quisqualate (10(-5) M) produced a hyperpolarization blocked by 10(-4) M L-glutamic acid diethylester (GDEE), which also blocked the response to axonal stimulation. Kainic acid (10(-4) M) also caused a hyperpolarization, but n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 10(-4) M), ibotenate (10(-5) M), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole proprionate (AMPA; (10(-4) M), and isethionate (10(-5) M) had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  4. Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Salvatore; Spinelli, Patrizia; Ferrandino, Gabriele; Peterson, Kevin; Tsesarskia, Mara; Fisher, George; D'Aniello, Antimo

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8+/-0.2 micromol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5+/-0.4 micromol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5+/-0.4 micromol/g in retina and 16.2+/-1.5 micromol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01-0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision.

  5. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World's Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G J Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin's diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin.

  6. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, Maëlle; Hofmeyr, G. J. Greg; Pistorius, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the African continent, are threatened with extinction. The world population of the endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. Determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. By and large, African penguin dietary studies have relied on the identification of prey remains from stomach contents. Despite all the advantages of this method, it has well known biases. We therefore assessed the African penguin’s diet, using stable isotopes, at two colonies in Algoa Bay (south-east coast of South Africa). These represent over 50% of the world population. Various samples (blood, feathers, egg membranes) were collected for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Results indicate that the trophic ecology of African penguins is influenced by colony, season and age class, but not adult sex. Isotopic niches identified by standard Bayesian ellipse areas and convex hulls, highlighted differences among groups and variability among individual penguins. Using Bayesian mixing models it was for the first time shown that adults target chokka squid Loligo reynaudii for self-provisioning during particular stages of their annual cycle, while concurrently feeding their chicks primarily with small pelagic fish. This has important ramifications and means that not only pelagic fish, but also squid stocks, need to be carefully managed in order to allow population recovery of African penguin. PMID:27434061

  7. Identification of highly brominated analogues of Q1 in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Pedler, Byron E. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: bpedler@whoi.edu; Hangsterfer, Alexandra N. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: ahangsterfer@whoi.edu; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2006-11-15

    Three novel halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal New England with the molecular formulae C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7}, and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. They were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of Q1, a heptachlorinated HOC suspected to be naturally produced. These compounds were found in Atlantic white sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and a potential food source (Loligo pealei) with concentrations as high as 2.7 {mu}g/g (lipid weight). The regiospecificity of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl is suggestive of a biogenic origin. Debromination of C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl may be significant in the formation of C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl. - Three novel bioaccumulated compounds were identified as C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 6}Cl, C{sub 9}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}Br{sub 7} and C{sub 9}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}Br{sub 5}Cl.

  8. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  9. Business Profile of Boat Lift Net and Stationary Lift Net Fishing Gear in Morodemak Waters Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Trisnani D.; Jayanto, Bogi B.; Fitri, Aristi D. P.; Triarso, I.

    2018-02-01

    Lift net is one of the fishing gears that is used widely in the Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) for catching pelagic fish. The yield of fish captured by these fishing gear has high economic value, such as fish belt (Trichiurus sp), squids (Loligo sp) and anchovies (Stelophorus sp). The aims of this research were to determine the technical aspects of boat lift net and stationary lift net fishing gear in Morodemak Waters Demak Regency; to find out the financial aspect of those fishing gears and to analyze the financial feasibility by counting PP, NPV, IRR, and B/C ratio criteria. This research used case study method with descriptive analysis. The sampling method was purposive sampling with 22 fishermen as respondents. The result of the research showed that the average of boat lift net acceptance was Rp 388,580,000. The financial analysis of fisheries boat lift net with the result of NPV Rp 836,149,272, PP 2.44 years, IRR value 54%, and B/C ratio 1.73. The average of stationary lift net acceptance was Rp 27,750,000. The financial analysis lift net with the result of NPV Rp 37,937,601; PP 1.96 years, IRR value 86%, and B/C ratio 1.32. This research had a positive NPV value, B/C ratio >1, and IRR > discount rate (12 %). This study concluded that the fishery business of boat lift net and stationary lift net in Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) was worth running.

  10. The decline of Falkland Islands penguins in the presence of a commercial fishing industry La disminución de los pingüinos de las Islas Falklands en la presencia de actividades de pesca comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKE BINGHAM

    2002-12-01

    Islands Government to exclude large-scale commercial fishing close to penguin breeding sitesLas islas Falklands son un lugar importante para tres especies de pingüinos, pingüino papua (Pygoscelis papua, pingüino de penacho amarillo (Eudyptes c.chrysocome y pingüino de Magallanes (Spheniscus magallanicus. Recientemente estas especies han disminuido 84 % en estas islas. En la costa de Sudamérica los pingüinos no disminuyeron. Se sospecha que la causa es una reducción de peces y calamares debido a los barcos de pesca comercial que operan en aguas de las Islas Falklands. En 1995 el pingüino papua y el pingüino penacho amarillo terminaron sus disminuciones y ya parece que sus poblaciones están en equilibrio, pero en un número mucho mas bajo que antes que los pescadores comenzaron 20 años atrás. El pingüino de Magallanes todavía disminuye en las Islas Falklands. El pingüino de Magallanes depende más de especies de calamares y peces capturados por barcos de pesca comercial. Avisos de protección de la fauna no fueron suficientes para impedir que 1998 comenzaras exploraciones petroleras en las Islas Falklands. Tres derrames de petróleo ocurrieron en cinco meses, y cientos de pingüinos murieron. La torre de perforación se fue después de cinco meses, y no ocurrieron más derrames de petróleo. Nuevamente van a comenzar a buscar petróleo, sin mejorar la protección para la fauna. El turismo ha crecido rápidamente en las Islas Falklands, y la mayoría de los turistas llegan para ver los pingüinos. Investigaciones de poblaciones y éxito reproductivo indican que aún no hay efectos perjudiciales para los pingüinos por esta actividad. En este trabajo se investigan las causas potenciales de la disminución de pingüinos en las Islas Falklands y se hacen compariciones con poblaciones en Chile que parecen saludables

  11. PATTERNS OF PREY BIOMASS CONSUMPTION BY SMALL ODONTOCETES IN THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin E. Oviedo Correa

    2011-07-01

    ón natural a un esquema potencial de manejo de un recurso alimentario estratégico. Por medio de la herramienta de análisis geoestadístico del software ArcGIS 9.2, se elaboraron mapas de densidad en consumo de biomasa de presas para las especies con un índice de avistamiento (SPUE > 0.15. El consumo de biomasa de presas enfatiza en el uso diferencial de hábitat por especie. La tendencia en la distribución de la remoción de biomasa de presas por cetáceos odontocetos principalmente sugiere la estratificación del habitat, primeramente en el ámbito de la plataforma continental, con un biomasa de presas que estaría constituida por peces demersales y pequeños pelágicos (entre estos S. aurita.  Así como en profundidades Transicionales - Oceánicas, donde la mayoría de los patrones de depredación dependerían de organismos pelágicos - mesopelágicos, como calamares y peces mictófidos. Las tendencias espaciales en regionalización, como las que se presentan en es reporte, representan una línea base clave para evaluar la salud de los ecosistemas y escenarios de manejo.

  12. Aspectos Históricos y Sociales del Transplante Hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Moreno González

    1999-12-01

    la Concepción y de San Francisco o en el Templo de Santo Domingo y en el extraordinario claustro del Convento de la Popa en Cartagena

    Para mí Cartagena no es la sombra del poblado Calamarí, ni aquella reunión de chozas grandes edificadas por Pedro de Heredia en 1533 en la Bahía de Cartagena. Para mí esta “Ciudad Heroica” como la llamó Simón Bolívar es el recuerdo de los paseos por el Castillo de San Felipe, el Fuerte de Manzanillo y el de Pastelillo; de la misa en la Iglesia de San Pedro Claver o de las conversaciones en la sombra refrescante del Convento de la Popa...

  13. Composición química de la fauna de acompañamiento del camarón de Veracruz (Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Castro-González

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La composición química aproximada y la energía de las especies acompañantes del camarón utilizadas para consumo humano y animal se estudió en Alvarado, Vereacruz (Golfo de México. Cinco muestreos se realizaron entre septiembre de 1994 y marzo de 1995 en barcos camaroneros. Las muestras se congelaron a bordo para los análisis de laboratorio de la porción comestible. Los resultados indicaron 16 familias, 22 especies de peces y 1 molusco (calamar. Después de la humedad, la fracción química más abundante fue la proteína cruda con valores entre 14.3 y 19.6%. Los hidratos de carbono fueron desde 2.1 a 7.4%. El extracto etéreo (lípidos fue menos abundante pero variable numéricamente (0.5 a 3.8%, las cenizas se cuantificaron entre 0.10 y 0.24%. La energía presentó la menor variación numérica (4.5 a 5.2 kcal/g. 12 especies son empleadas como alimento animal y solo Pristipomoides aquilonaris se reportó como de uso exclusivo para este propósito; la composición química fue similar a la de las especies de consumo humano. Anchoa hepsetus, Synodus foetens, Cynoscion arenarius, Upeneus parvus y Trichiurus lepturus, se recomiendan para alimentación humana, especialmento por su bajo costo en la costa del Golfo de México.Chemical composition and energy content of the shrimp by-catch used for human and livestock consumption were studied in Alvarado, Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico. Five on-board samplings were done between September 1994 and March 1995 on shrimp ships off Veracruz. The samples were frozen on board for laboratory analysis of the edible portion, they included 16 families and 22 species of fishes and 1 mollusc (squid. After moisture, the crude protein was the most abundant chemical fraction (14.3 and 19.6%; carbohydrates were numerically variable in all groups (2.1 to 7.4%; ether extract (lipids was less abundant but variable (0.5 to 3.8%, ashes were 0.10 to 0.24%. Crude energy was less variable numerically (4.5 to 5.2 kcal/g; 12

  14. Cólera en Bolívar de 1991 a 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Urbina

    1997-12-01

    , Montecristo, María la Baja, Pinillos, Achi, Magangué, Arjona, Turbana, Calamar, Mompox, Santa Catalina, Hatillo de Loba, Turbaco, San Martín de Loba, Carmen de Bolívar, Villanueva, Zambrano, Morales, Talaigua Nuevo y Río Viejo, entre otros.

  15. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2009-01-01

    intensificaron en la década del 90. Sin embargo, entre 2000 y 2001 empezaron a operar buques arrendados para la pesca con palangre, red de enmalle, nasas y arrastre en aguas brasileras y lideraron el proceso de ocupación del talud superior (250-500 m dirigido principalmente a la captura del rape (Lophyus gastrophysus, merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi, brotóla de profundidad (Urophycis mystacea, chernia (Polyprion americanus, calamar argentino (Illex argentinus, cangrejo rojo (Chaceon notialis y cangrejo real (Chaceon ramosae. Entre 2004 y 2007, buques arrendados establecieron una valorada pesquería de langostinos de profundidad (Familia Aristeidae y explotaron intensamente los fondos del talud inferior (500-1000 m. Las capturas totales de recursos de aguas profundas variaron anualmente de 5.756 ton en 2000 a un máximo de 19.923 ton in 2002, decayendo a cerca de 11.000 ton en 2006. No obstante, que fueron recolectados datos pesqueros en forma intensas, estuviesen disponibles oportunamente evaluaciones de stock y se haya llevado a cabo un proceso formal de discusión participativa de planes de manejo para estas pesquerías, los stocks de aguas profundas han sido considerado en situación de sobrepesca debido a limitaciones de gobernabilidad.

  16. Tamaño de Parcela Experimental y Número de Repeticiones para Ensayos de Rendimiento con Caupi, Vigna ungiculata (l Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar Soto Carlos

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de estimar el tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental y el número de repeticiones para ensayos de rendimiento con caupl Vigna ungiculata (L Walp. El ensayo de campo, ensayo en blanco de 20 surcos de 25 m cada uno, se sembró durante el segundo semestre de 1990, en el Centro de Investigación Cotové, municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia, propiedad de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Medellín. La zona de vida corresponde a la de bosque seco tropical (bs -T. Se sembró la variedad experimental Licatur-1 OCA Calamar, a 0,60 m entre surcos y 0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos. La unidad básica se consideró de un surco de un metro de longitud. Para la estimación del tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se combinaron las unidades básicas para obtener arreglos de diferentes tamaños y formas, a los que se determinó el coeficiente de variación GVij: CVij –Sij/Yij i:1,2, ... L;j = 1, 2, ... A Con el conjunto de los CVij se obtuvo un modelo de regresión cuya expresión real se asume que es un modelo cuadrático en (largo y r (ancho, esto es: CVij= β12+β1α +β2γ+β21αˆ2+β22γˆ2+β12αγ El tamaño óptimo de parcela experimental se estimó en unidades de 6 surcos (a 0,60 m. entre sí de 5 m de longitud (0,10 m entre plantas dentro de surcos, con un coeficiente de variación del 16%. El número de repeticiones estimado, para lograr un coeficiente de variación de 16% y una precisión razonable del 25% es de 4, asumiendo que las pruebas de comparación se hagan con un nivel de significancia de 0,05. A partir del modelo de regresión encontrado, para valores constantes del coeficiente de variación y número de surcos se estimó longitud de los mismos y con todos estos datos se generó una familia de curvas, de tal suerte que para un valor deseado de CV se puede escoger entre varias alternativas de tamaño de

  17. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  18. Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; van der Schaar, Mike; André, Michel

    2013-10-01

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400Hz sweep (RL=157±5dB re 1μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175dB re 1μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles

  19. Cs-137 Concentration in Seawater from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea and Radiation Doses in Marine Biota After the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Nakkaew, N.; Khrautongkieo, C.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2014-01-01

    Shortly after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was severely damaged in March 2011 by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunami, large amounts of radionuclides including 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 90 Sr were released into the atmosphere and the marine environ- ment. These artificial radionuclides widely dispersed causing radioactive contaminations in several areas and concerns on the marine biota. In this study, a total of 52 seawater samples (10 stations) and 66 marine animals (9 stations) were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea between March 2012 and July 2013 for 137 Cs analysis. An ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) method was used in conjunction with gammaspectrometry to measure 137 Cs in the seawater. 137 Cs was moreover extracted from the marine biota using a radiochemical technique followed by a measurement using low background proportional counters. The results showed 137 Cs concentrations in seawater ranging from 0.59 to 3.75 mBq/L (1.65±0.74 mBq/L). 137 Cs concentrations in benthic fish including Nemipterus hexodon and Saurida elongate were 0.06-1.23 Bq/kgww (0.24±0.26 Bq/kgww) and 0.07-0.64 Bq/kgww (0.16±0.12 Bq/kgww), respectively. Whereas, 137 Cs levels in squid (Loligo duvauceli) ranged between 0.03 and 0.15 Bq/kgww (0.08±0.04 Bq/kgww). An increase of 137 Cs concentrations in seawater and marine biota was not found when compared to those collected from the Gulf of Thailand and measured during 1989-1991. ERICA model was used to estimate radiation doses in the studied animals. Our results revealed that radiation doses of 137 Cs in N. hexodon and S. elongate were 0.7-4.2 nGy/hr (1.6±0.6 nGy/hr) and 0.7-3.4 nGy/hr (1.7±0.9 nGy/hr), respectively. While, a range of 0.7-3.2 nGy/hr (1.5±0.6 nGy/hr) was found in L. duvauceli. These radiation doses are well below the dose limit for aquatic organisms (10±Gy/hr). It can be concluded that Thai marine environment and animals have not been contaminated and not under a

  20. Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası (Ege Denizi Kıyı Balıkçılığı ve Sorunları Üzerine Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Akyol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Datça-Bozburun Yarımadası’nın kıyı balıkçılık aktiviteleri, hedef balık türleri, balıkçılık sorunları, balıkçı kooperatiflerinin özellikleri, balıkçı tekneleri ve barınakları araştırılmıştır. Örneklemeler iki balıkçı kooperatifi (Datça ve Karaköy ve 8 balıkçılık barınağında 2005-2006 yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Bölgede toplam 32 kooperatif üyesi ile yaklaşık 170 balıkçı teknesi kaydedilmiştir. Üye sayılarına göre en büyük balıkçı kooperatifi Datça’dır. Bölgede kıyı balıkçılığı yoğun olarak paragat, sade ve fanyalı uzatma ağlarıyla yürütülmektedir. Uzatma ağı ve paragat balıkçılığında yakalanan balık ve omurgasızlar Ege ve Akdeniz’in yerleşik tipik balıklarıdır. Mullus barbatus, Sphyraena sphyraena, Seriola dumerilii, Pagellus erythrinus, Dentex dentex, Mullus surmuletus, Sarda sarda, Xiphias gladius, Epinephelus aeneus, Loligo vulgaris, Octopus vulgaris vb. ticari avdaki hedef türlerdir. Fakat bölgedeki balıkçılık aktiviteleri kısa balıkçılık sezonu, düşük balıkçılık kapasitesi ve az sayıdaki balıkçı nedeniyle göreceli olarak oldukça zayıf bulunmuştur

  1. Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doç.Dr. Fatih Başaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı. Bu araştırmada, doğal ortamdan yakalanan dil balığının (Solea solea, kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı incelenmiştir. Dil balıkları, 2007 Mart-Nisan döneminde, İzmir Körfezi’nden trol ve uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanmıştır. 270 adet dil balığının ön adaptasyonu sırasında, ilk beş gün boyunca, karanlık ortamda antibiyotik (100 ppm fruzolidon ilavesi, 60 dak/gün uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kültür şartlarında ilk besleme için, kalamar (Loligo vulgaris, boru kurdu (Diopatra neopolitana, kara midye (Mytilus galloprovincialis, sülünes (Solen marginatus, istiridye (Ostrea edulis, japon şapkası (Patella spp., deniz salyangozu (Monodonta turbinata ve taze sardalya (Sardina pilchardus kullanılmıştır. Dil balıkları 0-2 gün içinde beslenmeye başlamıştır ve boru kurdu, en çok tercih ettikleri tür olmuştur. Bir aylık adaptasyon dönemi sonunda, uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanan dil balıklarının yaşama oranının (%58, trol ile yakalananların yaşama oranından (%29 önemli düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur (p

  2. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Haimovici

    2009-01-01

    ños 2001 y 2002 sobre la plataforma externa y talud superior, 100 a 600 m de profundidad, a lo largo del extremo sur de la costa brasilera, como parte de un programa nacional de evaluación del potencial pesquero de la Zona Económica Exclusiva (Programa REVIZEE. Del total de 228 especies de peces y cefalópodos capturados, sólo 27 especies y géneros fueron considerados de interés comercial. Los tamaños comercializables de estas especies representaron 52,3% de la captura total. La biomasa total estimada fue de 167.193 ton (± 22%> y 165.460 ton (± 25%> en los muéstreos de invierno-primavera y verano-otoño respectivamente. Las especies más abundantes fueron el calamar argentino Illex argentinus, especie de reclutamiento muy variable, seguido de la merluza argentina Merluccius hubbsi, la brotóla de profundidad Urophycis mystacea, el pez sapo o rapé Lophius gastrophysus, estas últimas intensamente explotadas en la época de los levantamientos, así como también Polymixia lowei y Zenopsis conchifera, ambas relativamente abundantes pero de escaso valor comercial. El rendimiento potencial de especies demersales excluido Illex argentinus, estimado a través de la ecuación de Gulland para un coeficiente de mortalidad natural medio de M = 0,31, fue de 20.460 ton. Cuando sólo Merluccius hubbsi, Urophycis mystacea y Lophius gastrophysus fueron considerados, el potencial disminuye a 6.625 ton. Los mustreos mostraron que el potencial pesquero de la plataforma continental externa y el talud superior es substancialmente inferior al de la plataforma interna, por lo tanto, este ambiente debe ser cuidadosamente controlado para evitar la sobrepesca y rápida depleción.

  3. Las Sinapsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    1997-12-01

    nervios (por ende de sus axones de manera efectiva, especialmente en el calamar, animal que presenta fibras nerviosas grandes de hasta 0.5 mm de diámetro (28.

    También se han realizado extensos estudios sobre bioelectroconducción, bioelectrogénesis, sinapsis y electroplacas, estas últimas consistentes en columnas de fibras musculares especializadas a cada lado del cuerpo de las múltiples especies de peces eléctricos (37.

    En 1860, Wilhelm Krause y Wilhelm Kuhne, propusieron que la corriente producida por el impulso nervioso excitaba las fibras musculares (37; treinta y siete años después, Du Bois Reymond sugirió que la transmisión nerviosa podría ser de naturaleza química o eléctrica, en el primer caso el nervio podría secretar algún agente químico excitador del músculo (9, 37.

    Aunque la teoría eléctrica dominó durante mucho tiempo, como razón para fundamentar el paso de los potenciales de acción del axón al nervio, fue sólo hasta 1922 cuando atto Loewi, demostró que el nervio vago producía una sustancia, más tarde identificada como acetilcolina (37.

    Posteriormente se estableció el concepto de contacto o continuidad anatómica con continuidad funcional, y se creó el nombre de sinapsis, del griego, que traduce broche, corchete o unión, propuesto por Verral, aceptado y propagado por Sir Charles Sherrington (17 en 1897, idea explicatoria del retardo en la conducción de los impulsos nerviosos (2 (varía entre 0.3 y 1 milisegundo de duración (2, 29, 45, 46.

    A partir de 1857, Claude Bernard estudió experimentalmente el efecto paralizante del curare, demostrando en sus lecciones sobre los efectos de substancias tóxicas y medicamentosas, que éste actúa sobre el sistema nervioso periférico y produce muerte por asfixia, al bloquear la acción de los nervios motores de los músculos respiratorios (11.

    En 1952 Fatt y Katz demostraron la existencia de las vesículas sinápticas, organelas que acumulan, transportan