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Sample records for calamagrostis acutiflora

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  2. EFFECT OF CARBON AVAILABILITY ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN Calamagrostis angustifolia SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Feng; SONG Chang-Chun; SONG Xia; YANG Huai-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Carbon availability varies very much along soil profile and decreases from topsoil to subsoil. The effect of carbon availability index (CAI) on microbial activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia soil in the Sanjiang Plain in the Northeast China was measured. Based on the proposal about CAI and microbial respiration from Parkinson and Coleman (1999), the results showed that carbon availability limits the microbial activities in topsoil, root layer soil and subsoil initially, whereas it does not limit the microbial activity after 1.5 h incubation for recovery from the disturbance in physical, chemical and biology structure resulting from sampling, then after 5h incubation carbon availability limits mi-crobial activity again after the labile carbon was mineralized. At the same time the soil organic matter affects the carbon availability significantly when it is lower than 10%, but little when the soil organic matter is higher than 10%. The microbial biomass carbon is linearly related to carbon availability in the Calamagrostis angustifolia soil. When the CAI is lower than 0.85, the β-glucosidase activity increases along with CAI, but decreases when CAI is larger than 0.85.

  3. Srovnání ekologické funkce porostů expanzních trav Calamagrostis arundinacea a C. villosa na výškovém gradientu Beskyd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2003), s. 83-99. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA526/97/0170; GA ČR GA206/94/0385 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Calamagrostis arundinacea * Calamagrostis villosa * ecological function Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  5. Use of 13C and 15N mass spectrometry to study the decomposition of Calamagrostis epigeios in soil column experiments with and without ash additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, B; Heil, B; Flessa, H; Beese, F

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems are not completely understood and the use of stable isotopes may be useful to gain further insight in the pathways of CO2 emissions and leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) during decomposition of litter. Objectives were (i) to study the decomposition dynamics of Calamagrostis epigeios, a common grass species in forests, using 13C-depleted and 15N-enriched plants and (ii) to quantify the effect wood ash addition on the decomposition and leaching of DOC and DON. Decomposition was studied for 128 days under aerobic conditions at 8 degrees C and moisture close to field capacity in a spodic dystric Cambisol with mor-moder layer. Variants included control plots and additions of (i) Calamagrostis litter and (ii) Calamagrostis litter plus 4 kg ash m-2. (i) Decomposition of Calamagrostis resulted in a CO2 production of 76.2 g CO2-C m-2 (10% of added C) after 128 days and cumulative DOC production was 14.0 g C m-2 out of which 0.9 g C m-2 was Calamagrostis-derived (0.1% of added C). The specific CO2 formation and specific DOC production from Calamagrostis were 6 times higher (CO2) and 4 times smaller (DOC) than those from the organic layer. The amount of Calamagrostis-derived total N (NH4+, NO3-, DON) leached was 0.7 g N m-2 (4.8% of added N). Cumulative DON production was 0.8 g N m-2 which was slightly higher than for the control. During soil passage, much of the DOC and DON was removed due to sorption or decomposition. DOC and DON releases from the mineral soil (17 cm depth) were 6.3 g C m-2 and 0.5 g N m-2. (ii) Addition of ash resulted in a complete fixing of CO2 for 40 days due to carbonatisation. Afterwards, the CO2 production rates were similar to the variant without ash addition. Production of DOC (98.6 g C m-2) and DON (2.5 g N m-2) was marked, mainly owing to humus decay. However, Calamagrostis-derived DOC and Calamagrostis-derived total N were only 3.9 g C m-2 (0.5% of added C) and 0.5 g N

  6. Vliv stanovištních podmínek na růstové parametry Calamagrostis arundinacea (terénní experiment - Beskydy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůma, Ivan

    Vol. 6. 1. Nitra : SEKOS (Slovenská ekologická spoločnosť pri SAV), 2000 - (Eliáš, P.), s. 63-68 ISBN 80-967883-7-X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : aboveground biomass * Calamagrostis arundinacea * climatic and pollution impact Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on growth and physiology of the dune grassland species Calamagrostis epigeios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of Calamagrostis epigeios were exposed to four levels of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm), simulating up to 44% reduction of stratospheric ozone concentration during summertime in The Netherlands, to determine the response of this plant species to UV-B irradiation. After six weeks of UV-B treatment, total biomass of all UV-B treated plants was higher, compared to plants that had received no UV-B radiation. The increase of biomass did not appear to be the result of a stimulation of net photosynthesis. Also, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were not altered by UV-B at any exposure level. Pigment analysis of leaf extracts showed no effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on chlorophyll content and accumulation of UV absorbing pigments. UV-B irradiance, however, did reduce the transmittance of visible light (400-700 nm) of intact attached leaves, suggesting a change in anatomical characteristics of the leaves. Additionally, the importance of including an ambient UV-B treatment in indoor experiments is discussed

  8. The hybrid origin of Calamagrostis ×gracilescens (Poaceae in Poland inferred from morphology and AFLP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Paszko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Calamagrostis canescens and C. stricta recorded in the Małopolska Upland (the vicinity of Zbijów Mały, ca. 10 km northeast of the town of Skarżysko-Kamienna, Central Poland was examined due to intermediate individuals found in sympatric populations of these species. Both putative parents as well as individuals that appeared hybrid-like were found in an extensive, wet hay-meadow. Various vegetative and reproductive characteristics were studied to identify hybrids. Interestingly, Polish accessions of C. ×gracilescens exhibited some degree of morphological intermediacy but resembled C. stricta in spikelet morphology. Branching of the mid-culm, the number of nodes per culm, callus hair length and relative callus hair length are the best characters to distinguish the Polish C. ×gracilescens. AFLP analysis proved to be suitable for detecting recent hybridization events between C. canescens and C. stricta. Analysis of the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that C. ×gracilescens were subjected to gene flow from the C. canescens gene pool as well as from the C. stricta gene pool.

  9. Biomass structure and nitrogen, phosphorus nutrient of Calamagrostis angustifolia populations in different communities of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhigao; QIN Shengjin; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Jinda

    2007-01-01

    Calamagrostis angustifolia is the dominant species in the typical meadow and marsh meadow communities of Sanjiang Plain.The study on its biomass,the nitrogen(N)and phosphorus(P)contents in its different organs showed that the biomass of different C.angustifolia organs in the two types of wetland communities was distinctly different,which could be described by polynomial.The biomass of aboveground part and each organ presented single peak changing,with the maximum value of the latter occurred 15 days after.The F/C values were all less than 1,which were bigger in typical meadow than those in marsh meadow.The total N and P contents in different organs of aboveground part all descended monotonically in growth season,with the order of leaf>vagina>stem.The change of total N content in roots of the two types of C.angustifolia was consistent,while that of total P was quite different.The content of total N,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N)and nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N),especially of NH4+-N and NO3--N,varied widely in different organs,with NH4+-N/NO3--N>1.Root was the important storage of N and P,but the storage of N and P in stem,leaf and vagina fluctuated greatly.The N/P ratios of the two types of C.angustifolia were all less than 14,which implied that N might be the limiting nutrient of C.angustifolia,and the limitation degree was higher in typical meadow than that in marsh meadow.

  10. Šume bukve s trstolikom milavom –As.Calamagrosti arundinaceae-Fagetum (Ht. 1950) Cerovečki ass. nov. na planinama zapadne Hrvatske

    OpenAIRE

    Cerovečki, Zdravko

    2009-01-01

    Na graničnom području kopnenih i primorskih bukovih šuma, razvijaju se u smislu I. Horvata (1962) šume bukve s travom milavom (Calama grostis arundinacea) koje smo opisali kao as.Calamagrosti arundinaceae-Fage tum(Ht. 1950) Cerovečki. ass. nov. Asocijacija je razlučena na dvije subasocijacije, termofilniju caricetosum albae i mezofilniju abietetosum albae. Subasocijacija s bijelim šašem obuhvaća čiste bukove šume, koje na Obruču nalazimo u fizionomskom pogledu kao dva različita tipa. Jednom p...

  11. Distribution and Fate of Anthropogenic Nitrogen in the Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetland Ecosystem of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gao Sun; Jing-Shuang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are important for the protection of water quality of rivers and lakes, especially those adjacent to agricultural landscapes, by intercepting and removing nutrients in runoff. In this study, the 15N tracer technique was applied to study the distribution and fate of anthropogenic nitrogen (15N-fertilizer) in Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom wetland plant-soil microcosms to identify the main ecological effects of it. 15NH415NO3 solution (14.93 mg N/L, 20.28 at.% 15N) was added to each microcosm of the first group, which was approximate to the current nitrogen concentration (CNC) of farm drainage, and 29.86 mg NIL 15NH415NO3 solution was added to another group, which was approximate to the double nitrogen concentration (DNC) of farm drainage, while no nitrogen (NN) was added to the third group. The results suggest that the Input of anthropogenic nitrogen has positive effects on the biomass and total nitrogen content of plant, and the positive effects will be elevated as the increase of its Input amount. The increase of 15N-fartilizer can also elevate its amounts and proportions in plant nitrogen. Soil nitrogen is still the main source of plant nitrogen, but its proportion will be reduced as the increase of 15N-fertilizer. The study of the fate of 15N-fartilizar indicates that, in CNC treatment, only a small proportion is water-dissolved (0.13±0.20%), a considerable proportion is soil-immobilized (17.02±8.62%), or plant-assimilated (23.70±0.92%), and most is lost by gaseous forms (59.15±8.35%). While in DNC treatment, about 0.09±0.15% is water-dissolved, 15.33±7.46% is soil-immobilized, 23.55±2.86% is plant-assimilated, and 61.01±5.59% is lost by gaseous forms. The double input of anthropogenic nitrogen can not elevate the proportions of plant-assimilation, soil-immobilization and water-dissolution,but it can enhance the gaseous losses.

  12. Above- and below-ground responses of Calamagrostis purpurea to UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} under phosphorus limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussell, J.S.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Griffith, G.W.; Scullion, J. (Aberystwyth Univ., IBERS, Wales (United Kingdom))

    2012-08-15

    UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} may impact rhizosphere processes through altered below-ground plant resource allocation and root exudation, changes that may have implications for nutrient acquisition. As nutrients limit plant growth in many habitats, their supply may dictate plant response under elevated CO{sub 2}. This study investigated UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} effects, including interactions, on plant growth, tissue chemistry and rooting responses relating to P acquisition. The sub-arctic grass Calamagrostis purpurea was subjected to UV-B (0 or 3.04 kJ m-2day-1) and CO{sub 2} (ambient 380 or 650 ppmv) treatments in a factorial glasshouse experiment, with sparingly soluble P (0 or 0.152 mg P per plant as FePO{sub 4}) a further factor. It was hypothesized that UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} would change plant resource allocation, with CO{sub 2} mitigating adverse responses to UV-B exposure and aiding P uptake. Plant biomass and morphology, tissue composition and rhizosphere leachate properties were measured. UV-B directly affected chemical composition of shoots and interacted with CO{sub 2} to give a greater root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} altered the composition of both shoots and roots and increased shoot biomass and secondary root length, while leachate pH decreased. Below-ground responses to CO{sub 2} did not affect P acquisition although P limitation progressively reduced leachate pH and increased secondary root length. Although direct plant growth, foliar composition and below-ground nutrient acquisition responses were dominated by CO{sub 2} treatments, UV-B modified these CO{sub 2} responses significantly. These interactions have implications for plant responses to future atmospheric conditions. (Author)

  13. 三江平原湿地典型草甸小叶章群落物种多样性的季节动态%Study on The seasonal dynamics of pecies diversity of typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community in Sanjiang Plain wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继丰; 王建波; 刘赢男; 朱道光; 付晓玲; 倪红伟

    2013-01-01

    In this study, using the Sanjiang Plain Wetlands typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community as the research object, explores the evenness and diversity index, the seasonal dynamics of species richness of it. Species richness of the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community is the highest in July, seasonal dynamic change degree index of ecological advan-tages in“V” type; diversity index seasonal change of single-peak type. At the end of June to early July, community has the highest species diversity, distribution of individual species between the maximum uniformity; The seasonal dynamics of evenness index of typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community is linear. Seasonal variation of index of diversity of the community shows consistency.%  本研究以三江平原湿地典型草甸小叶章群落为研究对象,从物种丰富度、均匀度和物种多样性指数等方面探讨其季节动态规律。典型草甸小叶章群落物种丰富度在7月份最高,生态优势度指数季节动态变化呈“V”型;多样性信息指数季节动态变化呈单峰型,6月末7月初群落群落的物种多样性最高,种类之间个体分配的均匀性最大;均匀度指数季节动态变化呈线型。群落α多样性的测度指标的季节动态变化表现出一致性。

  14. Variation in total carbohydrates in rhizomes of two Calamagrostis species growing under different air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr

    Clemson : RhizogenMSU, 1996. s. 101. [Root Demographics and their Efficiencies in Sustainable Agriculture, Grasslands, and Forest Ecosystems. Symposium International Society of Root Research /5./. 14.07.1996-18.07.1996, Clemson] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/0385

  15. Root and rhizome biomass of Calamagrostis villosa on deforested sites under different air pollution impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel

    Clemson : RhizogenMSU, 1996. s. 53. [Root Demographics and their Efficiencies in Sustainable Agriculture, Grasslands, and Forest Ecosystems. Symposium International Society of Root Research /5./. 14.07.1996-18.07.1996, Clemson] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/0385

  16. The effect of lignin photodegradation on decomposability of Calamagrostis epigeios grass litter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, J.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Mudrák, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2011), s. 1247-1254. ISSN 0923-9820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Thermochemolysis-GC-MS * (13)C NMR * Decomposition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2011

  17. Different nutrient use strategies of expansive grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr; Tůma, I.; Záhora, J.; Fiala, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2012), s. 673-680. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/02/P023; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : competition * decomposition * dry grassland * fertilization * N:P ratio * tissue nutrient concentration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  18. Soil nutrient heterogeneity and competitive ability of three grass species (Festuca ovina, Arrhenatherum elatius and Calamagrostis epigejos) in experimental conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr; Fiala, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2009), s. 694-704. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/02/0581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nutrient concentration * nutrient uptake * relative yield Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  19. Effect of nitrogen addition and drought on above-ground biomass of expanding tall grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2011), s. 275-281. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nitrogen * drought * above-ground biomass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  20. The Effect of Different Nitrogen Availability on Growth and Nitrogen Use by Calamagrostis villosa on a Locality with a Higher Air Pollution Impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr

    Praha : Karel Matějka, 1995 - (Matějka, K.), s. 29-41 - (80-900072-8-7). [Processes in Forest Ecosystems and their External Functions. Opočno (CZ), 25.04.1995-27.04.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/94/0385

  1. Effects of nitrogen addition on nitrogen mineralization and nutrient content of expanding Calamagrostis epigejos in the Podyjí National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Petr; Záhora, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 5 (2008), s. 795-803. ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP206/02/P023; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : competition * fertilization * dry grassland Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2008

  2. Seed rain and seed persistence of Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth in extreme ecotoxicological conditions at an abandoned ore-washery sedimentation basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Petr; Kovář, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2013), s. 17-33. ISSN 1803-2427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050713; GA ČR GA206/93/2256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal plnts * primary succession * generative regeneration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. The role of the extraradical mycelium network of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the establishment and growth of Calamagrostis epigejos in industrial waste substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Albrechtová, J.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2001), s. 129-142. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/0895; GA MŠk OC 838.10; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Industrial waste substrates * edaphic stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2001

  4. 三江平原沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量季节动态规律%The seasonal dynamic law of biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia communities in swamped meadow of Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继丰; 王臣; 庄凤君; 付晓玲; 王建波; 周晓亮; 倪红伟

    2008-01-01

    对三江平原沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量进行研究;结果表明,沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量季节动态呈抛物线型,生物量最大值出现在7月末,为326.00g/m2;生物量累积生长量季节动态呈单峰型,最大积累量334.75 g/m2;生物量生长量、生物量绝对增长率和相对增长率季节动态都呈"Z"型,其最大值出现在7月末,分别为238.39 g/m2,7.95g/d,0.1825g/g·d.

  5. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large increase of grasses Calamagrostis epigejos, Bromus inermis and Brachypodium pinnatum has often been observed in many regions enriched by higher nitrogen (N) wet deposition inputs. Competitive relationships between these grasses under enhanced N loads have not yet been studied. Therefore an outdoor experiment was established which involved monocultures of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium and their 1:1 mixtures in containers under two N treatments, i.e., unfertilized and fertilized (+50 kg N ha−1). In monocultures, the total aboveground biomass of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium were 1.1, 3.6 and 2.5 times higher respectively due to enhanced N fertilization. Relative crowding and aggressivity coefficients indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate when mixed with Brachypodium at both levels of N availability. When mixed with Bromus, Calamagrostis is the poorer competitor at lower N loads, however, it can be dominating in N fertilized treatments. - Highlights: ► A large increase of tall grasses has often been observed in many ecosystems. ► Data on competitive relationships between grasses were investigated. ► Competition indices indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate in mixtures with Brachypodium. ► Calamagrostis is a better competitor when mixed with Bromus but only at higher N loads. ► N deposition may play a critical role in the expansion and persistence of grasses in the landscape. - Competition abilities of Calamagrostis and Bromus were greater than Brachypodium and the competitive superiority of Calamagrostis to Bromus was in N rich substrate.

  6. Novedades agrostológicas (poaceae) para colombia, méxico y venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    GIRALDO-CAÑAS DIEGO

    2012-01-01

    Se registran por primera vez para Colombia Aristida schiedeana Trin. & Rupr.,Calamagrostis guamanensis Escalona, Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene, Elionurusmuticus (Spreng.) Kuntze y Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman. Por su parte, Axonopuscapillaris (Lam.) Chase es citada por primera vez para México, mientras queCalamagrostis jamesonii Steud. y Elionurus muticus se registran por primera vezpara Venezuela. Asimismo, se reporta por primera vez para la región andina a Raddiellaesenbeckii (Steud.) C....

  7. Estudios ecológicos en el páramo de cruz verde, colombia. iv. la actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetter, Marie-Luise; Cardozo G., Hernán

    2012-01-01

    Se determinaron la respiración y la actividad de celulosólisis del suelo en las asociaciones vegetales de Diplostephium revolutum degradada, de Calamagrostis effusa, Espeletia grandiflora y Geranium santanderiense, de Calamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata y de un bosque bajo de páramo en el Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca). La mayoría de los promedios de la respiración del suelo se situaba entre 120 y 190 mg CO2/m2h. Valores menores se determinaron dos veces en la asociación degrada...

  8. Effect of grass sward on the chemistry of lysimetric water on altitudinal gradient of deforested mountain area affected by acid depositions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Karel; Tůma, Ivan; Holub, Petr; Jandák, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2008), s. 386-400. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/97/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : acid depozition * Calamagrostis villosa * altitud Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Gordana; Pavlović P.; Kostić Olga; Jarić Snežana; Đurđević Lola; Pavlović Dragana; Mitrović Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth.) Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years) of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia) were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo) followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measu...

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of ground vegetation dominants in mountain spruce forests damaged by sulphur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chumanová-Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, Ondřej; Cudlín, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2015), s. 620-636. ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14039; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0265 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * simulated acid - rain * picea abies * Krkonoše Mountains * Calamagrostis-Villosa * natural regeneration * bark beetles Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2014

  11. Response of planted beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings to herbaceous and small shrubs control on clearcuts

    OpenAIRE

    Petriţan, Ion; Lüpke, Burghard; Petriţan, Any

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of young beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings on competition of two types of vegetation—(1) gramineous with mainly Agrostis capillaries, Calamagrostis epigejos, Deschampsia flexuosa, and (2) small shrubs with mainly Rubus fruticosus and R. idaeus—on clear cuts on two sites was studied for 2 years. Half the sample saplings were released from competing vegetation by repeated herbicide applications. This treatment significantly ra...

  12. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition) on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their r...

  13. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Paúl Gonzáles; Eduardo Navarro; María I. La Torre; Asunción Cano

    2011-01-01

    Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú) (zona baja y media) un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos rep...

  14. DIVERSIDAD DE LAS GRAMÍNEAS (POACEAE) DE LIRCAY (ANGARAES, HUANCAVELICA, PERÚ)

    OpenAIRE

    Harol Gutiérrez Peralta; Roxana Castañeda Sifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Para el distrito de Lircay se reporta un total de 46 especies y una subespecie de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 21géneros, 11 tribus y 6 subfamilias. El género Calamagrostis es el más diverso con 9 especies, seguido por Poa con 5 especies. Asimismo, Aciachne acicularis “paccupaccu”, Arundo donax “carrizo”, Cortaderia hieronymi y Ortachne erectifolia “iruichu” constituyen nuevos registros para la región Huancavelica. Además, se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de las especi...

  15. Vegetable recovery of paramo ecosystems, on substrates of the limestone mining exploitation, Palacio Mines. Guasca (Cundinamarca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was based on the evaluation in the described area, of the survival, vigor and covering of the plantation of five species selected through the study carried out by Figueredo (1993) and the investigation of micorrizas carried out in the mine, by Zequera (1994) The selected species were: chusquea tesellata (chusque), spread by stakes; clear Cortaderia (cortadera), spread by stolons; lachemilla orbiculata (folder), for grass; Ageratina baccharoides (Chilco) for stakes and Calamagrostis efusa (moor straw) for stolons. Parallelly the invasion of Taraxacum officinale was evaluated (Dienteleon) and Tripholium repens (Clover) on the grass planted of the folder specie

  16. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  18. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on coastal dune grassland: A mesocosm study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesocosms filled with dune sand were planted with graminoid (Calamagrostis epigejos, Carex arenaria) and herbaceous species (Carlina vulgaris, Galium verum). Strong effects of nitrogen addition on the vegetation were found within two to three years. The above-ground biomass of C. epigejos and C. arenaria increased at deposition rates between 10 and 80 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Both grasses were limited by N. In latter stages P limitation was suggested for C. arenaria. At high N-levels, C. epigejos dominated the vegetation within two years. C. vulgaris and G. verum declined drastically as a result of increased competition for light by the highly competitive grass C. epigejos. It is concluded that increased (ambient) N inputs are of major importance for the increased dominance of tall grasses in stable dune grasslands. - Grass encroachment as a result of increased nitrogen deposition threaten stable dune grasslands in Western Europe

  19. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on coastal dune grassland: A mesocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Leon J.L. van den [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.vandenberg@science.ru.nl; Tomassen, Hilde B.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bobbink, Roland [Landscape Ecology, Department of Geobiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 800.84, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.bobbink@bio.uu.nl

    2005-11-15

    Mesocosms filled with dune sand were planted with graminoid (Calamagrostis epigejos, Carex arenaria) and herbaceous species (Carlina vulgaris, Galium verum). Strong effects of nitrogen addition on the vegetation were found within two to three years. The above-ground biomass of C. epigejos and C. arenaria increased at deposition rates between 10 and 80 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Both grasses were limited by N. In latter stages P limitation was suggested for C. arenaria. At high N-levels, C. epigejos dominated the vegetation within two years. C. vulgaris and G. verum declined drastically as a result of increased competition for light by the highly competitive grass C. epigejos. It is concluded that increased (ambient) N inputs are of major importance for the increased dominance of tall grasses in stable dune grasslands. - Grass encroachment as a result of increased nitrogen deposition threaten stable dune grasslands in Western Europe.

  20. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  1. Effects of point source atmospheric pollution on boreal forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance

  2. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

  3. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  4. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  5. Almacenamiento de carbono en pastos naturales de la subcuenca del Canipaco, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quispe Navarro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la correlación de pesos de biomasa aérea y radicular de las especies Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla y Muhlenbergia ligularis y sus capacidades de almacenamiento de carbono. La recolección de datos se realizó en tres zonas representativas tomando en cuenta factores como la fisonomía vegetativa, fisiografía, topografía y exposición hacia los puntos cardinales, denominándolas zonas I, II y III, equivalentes a tres poblaciones diferentes, las que fueron evaluadas aplicando el método de muestreo simple con distribución sistemática. Las unidades muestrales fueron parcelas cuadradas de 4m². La extracción de muestras vegetativas fueron tomadas al azar desde las parcelas, luego lavadas y oreadas a temperatura ambiente bajo techo antes de su traslado a laboratorios para el secado final, pesajes de biomasa y análisis del contenido de carbono. El procesamiento de datos del inventario para la estimación de la Biomasa y correlaciones fue por especie y zonas, luego a partir de los resultados de biomasa y mediante el factor de conversión se calcularon el contenido de carbono almacenado. Entre los resultados podemos mencionar que los promedios de carbono almacenados son: Calamagrostis vicunarum: 0,754 tC/ha; Festuca dolicophylla: 1,638 tC/ha y Muhlenbergia ligularis: 0,743 tC/ha. En conclusión, por la significancia de la correlación, el peso de la biomasa aérea puede permitir la estimación del peso de la biomasa radicular. El promedio de carbono almacenado por las tres especies juntas alcanza a 3,14 tC/ha.

  6. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m2), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m2), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  9. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  10. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  11. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  12. Equine Grazing in Managed Subalpine Wetlands: Effects on Arthropods and Plant Structure as a Function of Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing management necessarily emphasizes the most spatially extensive vegetation assemblages, but landscapes are mosaics, often with more mesic vegetation types embedded within a matrix of drier vegetation. Our primary objective was to contrast effects of equine grazing on both subalpine vegetation structure and associated arthropods in a drier reed grass ( Calamagrostis muiriana) dominated habitat versus a wetter, more productive sedge habitat ( Carex utriculata). A second objective was to compare reed grass and sedge as habitats for fauna, irrespective of grazing. All work was done in Sequoia National Park (CA, USA), where detailed, long-term records of stock management were available. We sampled paired grazed and control wet meadows that contained both habitats. There were moderate negative effects of grazing on vegetation, and effects were greater in sedge than in reed grass. Conversely, negative grazing effects on arthropods, albeit limited, were greater in the drier reed grass, possibly due to microhabitat differences. The differing effects on plants and animals as a function of habitat emphasize the importance of considering both flora and fauna, as well as multiple habitat types, when making management decisions. Sedge supported twice the overall arthropod abundance of reed grass as well as greater diversity; hemipteran and dipteran taxa were particularly abundant in sedge. Given the greater grazing effects on sedge vegetation, greater habitat provision for terrestrial arthropods, and value as aquatic arthropod habitat, the wetter sedge assemblage is worthy of additional consideration by managers when planning for grazing and other aspects of land usage.

  13. FLORISTIC CHANGES ALONG THE TOPOGRAPHICAL GRADIENT IN MONTANE GRASSLANDS IN MONTI PICENTINI (CAMPANIA, SW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CUTINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of xerotolerant species (Achnatherum calamagrostis, Stipa crassiculmis subsp. picentina, are scattered along a wide altitudinal gradient on slopes at mid- and high elevation in Monti Picentini, a subcoastal mesozoic limestone ridge in Tyrrhenian Southern Italy. Their stands are widespread in grasslands of mostly secondary origin. At lower altitudes these grasslands replace former deciduous forest communities dominated by oaks or beech, while at higher altitudes they reach the summits, where they apparently merge into the remnants of the still partially grazed, zonal climatogenic, grasslands ranging above the local tree-line. Nevertheless primary stands of these grasslands are to be found around the many clusters of highly dynamic sites of the montane and sub-alpine levels, scattered around screes and rocky outcrops of the prevalently dolomitic morphology of the slopes. This virtual continuity of non arboreal communities across more than 1000 metres of the local topographical gradient, where azonal, relic stands of Pinus nigra s.l. are transitional between the grasslands and the surrounding zonal broadleaved forest vegetation, stresses patterns of the coenological changes between Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Seslerietea along the catena, which suggest fragmentary persistence of a paleozonation.

  14. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  15. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  16. Changes in the structure and floristic composition of the limestone grasslands after cutting trees and shrubs and mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bąba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcareous grasslands belong to the species-rich plant communities in Poland. Most of them are of anthropogenic origin and they need specific management (i.e. periodical cutting suckers of trees and shrubs, grazing or mowing in order to protect their floristic diversity. Many of calcareous grasslands have been overgrown by shrubs as a result of cessation of traditional management. The aim of this study was to compare the structure and dynamics of xerothermic hazel shrub patches, which were undergoing secondary succession with patches where different management practices aiming at restoration of species-rich limestone grassland were applied. The managed plots had a significantly higher species richness than the control one. However, they strongly differed in their floristic composition from well-preserved limestone grasslands. There were also significant differences observed between both the managed plots. Too intensive management, particularly frequent mowing of herbs resulted in expansion of grass species such as Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis arundinacea and caused a sharp decline in species richness. The species composition and turnover rate strongly depended on succesional stage (soil layer thickness of plots at the start of the experiment. The deeper was the soil, the higher was the rate of species turnover and the smaller was the share of xerothermic and thermophilous species. The last mentioned group was dominated by species with a persistent seed bank in the soil, frequently colonizing anthropogenic habitats.

  17. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  18. Petroleum coke and plants : impact on growth and physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum coke, a by-product of the oil sand processing industry in Alberta, contains fairly significant concentrations of arsenic, boron, iron, nickel, sulphur, titanium, and vanadium embedded in a carbon matrix. Through weathering and biological degradation, these components may be released from coke and absorbed by plant tissues where they may restrict growth and interfere with physiological activities. In order to study the effects of petroleum coke on plants, several greenhouse experiments were conducted by growing Agropyron trachycaulum, Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis canadensis, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Triticum aestivum, Cornus sericea and Fragaria virginiana for 3 months in control soil, Syncrude Canada Ltd. coke; and Suncor Energy Inc.coke. It was found that in all coke treated plants, shoot biomass was lower than controls. Root biomass followed this same trend, with the exception of Triticum aestivum. Several results were presented in this study abstract. It was concluded that the short term effects of coke on plants are most likely due to water stress and nutrient deficiency and that further research is needed

  19. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

  20. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Giraldo, Juan C; Henao-Zuluaga, Kelly; Gallardo, Cecilia; Atehortúa, Lucia; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA-UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB-UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc ) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73 ± 0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. PMID:26481216

  1. The dynamics of the population of a steppe perennial Senecio macrophyllus M.BIEB. during xerothermic grassland overgrowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Czarnecka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the long-term changes of the Senecio macrophyllus M.BIEB. population traits: the abundance, reproduction mode, individual fecundity, seed rain and recruitment of new genets in the course of xerothermic grassland overgrowing. The study had also the applied goal: to estimate the chances of "special care" species to survive in the changing environment without management regime for the maintenance of grassland. The model object was the island population of large-leaved ragwort on Biała Góra (the White Mountain near Tomaszów Lubelski, South-East Poland. To achieve these aims I used the following sets of data: phytosociological relev,s made in plant communities in an interval of 16-18 years; repeated elaboration of the numbers and life-stage structure of the population, both by non-surface and surface method; observation of plants, life cycle in 50 labelled genets; population reproduction and seed rain amounts. The area of an open xerothermic grassland decreased due to the process of overgrowing by bushes which was accompanied by the increasing coverage of forest and meadow herbs as well as monocotyledons, mainly Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis epigejos. The abundance of the S. macrophyllus population noticable diminished. The flowering mode has been changing during years from an oscillation to a chaotic type which caused the significant decreasing of the individual fecundity, population reproduction and seed rain. In last years it was reflected in the interruption of juveniles’ recruitment.

  2. Associations of dominant plant species with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during vegetation development on coal mine spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydlova, J.; Vosatka, M. [Academy of Science. Pruhonice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    Among plants colonizing mine spoil banks in Northern Bohemia the first colonizers, mainly ruderal annuals from Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were found not to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These species cultivated in pots with soil from four sites in different succession stages of the spoil bank did not respond to the presence of native or non-native AMF. All grass species studied (Elytrigia repens, Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius) were found moderately colonized in the field. Carduus acanthoides was found to be highly colonized in the field; however, it did not show growth response to AMF in the pot experiment. The AMF native in four sites on the spoil banks showed high infectivity but low effectiveness in association with colonizing plants compared to the non-native isolate G. fistulosum BEG23. In general, dependence on AMF in the cultivation experiment was rather low, regardless of the fact that plants were found to be associated with AMF either in the field or in pots. Occurrence and effectiveness of mycorrhizal associations might relate primarily to the mycotrophic status of each plant species rather than to the age of the spoil bank sites studied.

  3. Recolonization and development of vegetation on mine spoils following brown coal mining in Lusatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of primary colonization and succession of vegetation on various deposited substrates, littoral and shallow water areas of mining lakes and residual waters of the Lusatian lignite mining district is presented. Dumped substrates are characterized by a high acid potential which is caused by pyrite and marcasite of Tertiary origin. In the process of pyrite oxidation free mineral acids and large quantities of sulphate and bivalent iron are liberated. Residual waters are characterized by extreme acidity with pH values between 1.9 and 3.1 and by extremely high iron contents. Non-linear positive correlations are demonstrated between pH values and free mineral acids and between pH values and free carbonic acids (CO2) and bivalent iron. In aquatic, semi-aquatic and in terrestrial areas the succession of vegetation can be described by the following five main stages: stage of primary colonization and spontaneous vegetation; stage of monodominant species stands; stage of the formation of vegetation mosaics; stage of the formation of plant associations; final stage of succession. Index species of the terrestrial colonization are Corynephorus canescens and Calamagrostis epigejos, while Juncus bulbosus is the indicator species of aquatic colonization. The succession of vegetation develops in the direction of close-to-nature vegetation conditions which are typical for the heath areas of the Lusatian Lowlands. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Natural regeneration ecology of a secondary altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural regeneration of altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol is retarded due to many factors. In autumn 2003, gaps of different size and parts of the surrounding stand were covered with a 5 x 5 grid m to define sampling plots. A total of 227 plots with 1,5 x 1,5 m in size were installed to analyse general regeneration conditions and inhibitors. The following ecological parameters were estimated on each plot: micro relief, inclination, soil depth,ground cover, direct and diffuse solar radiation. Woody regeneration (density, height, height increment) and ground vegetation were recorded at each plot. Considering that N-S and E-W radiation asymmetry was explicit, the distribution of direct and diffuse radiation was divided into four groups among the plots. Spruce regeneration (28.,605 per ha) was mainly found at the edge of the large gap, though total regeneration density and radiation were not correlated. However, in both the stand and the small gaps, the lack of radiation hindered further development. This study showed that light conditions were not the only factors affecting the regeneration success at an altitude of 1,500 m. The presence of woody debris was important, while the influence of the herb layer (predominant species were Festuca altissima All. and Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth.) and soil depth proved to be negative. The impact of browsing, however, remained the main problem. (author)

  5. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  6. The fluxes and controlling factors of N2O and CH4 emissions from freshwater marsh in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured using a static chamber method in two adjacent plots of freshwater marsh predominated by Calamagrostis angustifolia, one is seasonal waterlogged (SW) and the other without surface water accumulation (NW), in Sanjiang Plain wetland (47°35′N, 133°31′E), northeast China, during 2002-2004. The diurnal and seasonal flux variations of both gases were significantly correlated with 5-cm-soil temperature. The NW marsh is a source of N2O and sink of CH4, while the SW marsh is sink of N2O and source of CH4. Remarkably, we observed a N2O emission peak under Eh of +300 to +100 mV, and CH4 emission peak under Eh of +300 to +400 mV, which indicate additional sources of N2O and CH4 for the freeze-thaw induced emission peaks of N2O and CH4 observed between late July and early August. Further study shows that the additional N2O and CH4 were emitted under the frozen soil after thawing.

  7. A greenhouse study of grass response on composite tailings discharged from Alberta oil sands mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shihong; Wang, Bing [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd (Canada); Sego, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Naeth, Anne [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the survival and growth of five plant species directly seeded using hydro seeding with mulch, modified broadcast seeding and fresh discharged composite tailings (CT) slurry seeding techniques. The study discusses a greenhouse experiment on grass response that was conducted on composite tailings discharged from an Alberta oil sands mine. The five grass species: bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra), hairy wild rye (Elymus innovatus beal), northern wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum) and slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum) were selected for the study based on plant growth and site climatic conditions. The CT mixture was paced in a 4L plastic pail with no drainage at the bottom to prevent water loss. The experimental results indicated broadcast seeding and hydro seeding with mulch and discharge of CT slurry containing seeds can be applied for seeding grass on vast CT deposits. The results also showed a substantial benefit from dewatering CT as a first step towards sustainable development and environmental protection.

  8. Farmer decision making and its effect on subalpine grassland succession in the Giant Mts., Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hejcman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition is generally considered as a main reason for many recent plant expansions, but management changes are often not taken into account. Understanding the effects of agriculture management in the past can be decisive in the explanation of plant expansions at present. In order to understand the spread of Molinia caerulea and Calamagrostis villosa into Nardus stricta dominated subalpine grassland in the Giant Mts. (Krkonoše, Karkonosze, we undertook an experiment to explain farmer decision making and we discussed its effect on grassland succession. We measured mowing productivity, yields, biomass quality and nutrient removal in N. stricta, M. caerulea, and C. villosa dominated swards. With regard to defoliation management performed on the subalpine grasslands for at least 500 years and cancelled after the Second World War, we found the following results and conclusions. 1. Mowing productivity, yield and forage quality were lowest in the N. stricta sward, therefore farmers preferred to harvest C. villosa and M. caerulea stands if they had the possibility to select a sward for mowing. 2. Removal of all nutrients was the lowest in the N. stricta sward. With respect to these facts, the competitive advantage of N. stricta is obvious under long-term scything without fertilization. Consequently, the recent increase of defoliation sensitive species M. caerulea and C. villosa above the timber line must be evaluated with respect to both: termination of agricultural activities and recent nitrogen deposition.

  9. Impact of radionuclides on formation of structure of plants of polluted areas of the Semipalatinsk test sites territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Scales of dozes provoking damages of plants cover wide range of values. Lethal doze of acute irradiation for herbaceous plants fluctuates from 600 till 75 000 R. Radiosensitivity of plants depends on numerous cytological and genetic indicators, biological and chemical composition of plants, peculiarities of physiological processes. Ionising irradiation provokes decrease of accretion, loss of reproductive functions and sterility of pollen, delay or complete oppression of blooming, significant delay of growth. It was revealed that teratological transformations of meadow plants occur more often. Morphological and anatomical transformations of overground organs of Lepidium latifolium, Melilotus albus, Berteroa incana, Calamagrostis epigeios, Potentilla virgata, Odontites serotina, Linaria altaica, Rosa laxa were revealed in mesophyte communities (com.) of forb + Phragmites australis + Elytrigia repens (1998), com. of Calamagrostis epigeios + Galatella biflora + Sanguisorba offlcinalis (1998), com. of Elytrigia repens + Inula britannica (1999) under PED of gamma irradiation of 100-150 μR/H. Comparative analysis of morphological structure of 8 plants (annuals, biennials, perennials, dwarf semishrabs, shrubs) from the polluted and control plots revealed following changes: inhibition of growth (Berteroa incana,. Melilotus albus, Koch ia sieversiana, Rosa laxa); coiled stem (Phlomis tuberosa); change of direction of stem growth (Lepidium latifolium, Melilotus albus, Phlomis tuberosa); shortening of internodes (Rosa laxa); change of type of branching of stem (Rosa laxa) and dichotomy of stem (Lepidium latifolium); congestence of offshoots (Rosa laxa); change of section of stem (Melilotus albus, Phlomis tuberosa); change of shape of blade (Lepidium latifolium, Kochia sieversiana); change of dimensions of blade (Rosa laxa, Lepidium latifolium, Kochia sieversiana); chlorosis of leafs (Rosa laxa, Lepidium latifolium); wrinkled leafs (Lepidium latifolium); formation

  10. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  11. Environmental and Physiological Controls on Plant Leaf Wax δD from Western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Bush, R. T.; Cartagena Sierra, A.; Cheah, D.; Costello, C.; Muldoon, T.; Tillema, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, but the interpretation of these signatures from ancient sedimentary archives relies on a thorough understanding of the drivers of isotope variability in modern environments. These studies are particularly valuable in the arctic and subarctic, regions particularly vulnerable to rapid climate change, but where modern vegetation is understudied compared to proxy applications reliant on vegetation. Here we present δD values from leaf wax compounds of tundra vegetation in the Kangerlussuaq area of western Greenland. We collected samples along a transect that follows 12 sites from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet, around a small lake ('Bird Lake') and to the town of Kangerlussuaq, along the Sandflugtdalen ('Flying Sand Valley'). We collected a variety of common tundra species in these locations including dwarf shrubs (e.g. Betula nana, Rhododendron lapponica, and Salix glauca), forbs and graminoids (e.g. Calamagrostis lapponica and Eriophorum angustifolium), and horsetails (Equisetum arvense) to study possible interspecies isotopic variability. We measured leaf and stem waters of these plants to help constrain potential drivers of leaf wax n-alkane δD values across this transect. Results are discussed relative to local climate parameters and modelled precipitation values to elucidate source water contributions modified by evaporation and transpiration. This survey of δD values from leaf wax compounds and plant waters in western Greenland will extend stable isotope calibrations to tundra vegetation and provide insights into the use of sedimentary leaf wax compounds for reconstruction of paleohydroclimate.

  12. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khitun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in late 1950s or early 1960s and an ancient landslide back scarp dated with radiocarbon method as ca 1000 year old. Botanical survey was performed in 1991 and repeated in 2012, phytosociological study on the same landslides and their surroundings was performed in 1997–2002. Correlation between different syntaxa, age and morphological element of landslide is shown. Both projective cover and species composition change gradually on young and old landslides, though vegetation on the ancient ones did not change during the last 20 years. Pioneer communities on Yamal landslides are dominated by grasses (Deschampsia borealis, Puccinellia sibirica, Calamagrostis holmii, Poa alpigena ssp. colpodea, Dupontia fisheri . Proportion of various species differs both between years and different sections of the shear surface. Сarex glareosa indicating saline deposits was recorded on landslides of all stages. Mosses play important role in the recovery and formation of organic horizon on the young landslides. Geochemical properties of the groundwater were analyzed and correlation of different communities with different levels of mineralization of groundwater is shown. Vegetation allows estimate the age of younger landslides and indicates the sites of possible ancient detachment.

  13. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  14. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  15. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs. ► Contribution of 137Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  16. Levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria-RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Fernando Luiz Ferreira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se obter um levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria, a qual foi subdividida, para este objetivo, em quatro localidades: Dilermando de Aguiar, Pains, Santa Flora e São Martinho. O levantamento utilizou estimativas visuais da freqüência de espécies através do método BOTANAL e permitiu a identificação de 61 espécies, dentre as quais 45 apresentaram contribuição significativa para a biomassa aérea da vegetação. No distrito de Pains, encontrou-se maior freqüência das espécies Axonopus affinis, Eragrostis plana, Desmodium barbatum e Aristida spp.. Em Dilermando de Aguiar, houve maior contribuição de Calamagrostis viridiflavescens, Schizachyrium microstachyum e Paspalum notatum a qual foi, também, uma espécie abundante em Santa Flora, assim como Desmodium incanum. As espécies mais freqüentes em São Martinho foram: Baccharis trimera, Paspalum plicatulum e Erianthus angustifolius. O teste de aleatorização mostrou que, em todas as localidades, ocorreu diferença significativa na sua composição florística (P= 0,0058, evidenciando a inexistência de associação entre os tipos fisionômico-florísticos e os tipos de solo. A partir disto, este levantamento permite que se estabeleçam prioridades quanto à pesquisa e manejo das pastagens naturais dos diferentes grupos fisionômico-florísticos da região.

  17. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: A field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. - Highlights: ► Thomas Basic Slag and hydroxylapatite were added to a metal-contaminated sediment. ► Plant metal content and (CaNO3)2 extractable sediment fraction decreased with TBS. ► The growth of the total bacterial population was improved in the presence of TBS. ► Hydroxylapatite favored plant diversity and physiological plant welfare. ► No significant difference was pointed out in collembolan colonization. - In-situ incorporation of Thomas Basic Slag into a landfilled metal-contaminated sediment decreases metal mobility and ecotoxicity and increases bacterial activity.

  18. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degraders' food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this regions' dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, mainly the amount of N stored in the litter material and its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and bulk soil. Whereas the degradation process of the L. corniculatus litter which had a low C/N ratio was fast and most pronounced changes in the microbial community structure were observed 1–4 weeks after litter addition, the degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred at between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However for both litter materials a clear indication for the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both on the abundance level as well as on the level of 13C incorporation (activity.

  19. Substrate sources regulate spatial variation of metabolically active methanogens from two contrasting freshwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongxin; Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Yuan, Junji; Xiang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    There is ample evidence that methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands exhibit large spatial variations at a field scale. However, little is known about the metabolically active methanogens mediating these differences. We explored the spatial patterns in active methanogens of summer inundated Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh with low CH4 emissions and permanently inundated Carex lasiocarpa marsh with high CH4 emissions in Sanjiang Plain, China. In C. angustifolia marsh, the addition of (13)C-acetate significantly increased the CH4 production rate, and Methanosarcinaceae methanogens were found to participate in the consumption of acetate. In C. lasiocarpa marsh, there was no apparent increase in the CH4 production rate and no methanogen species were labeled with (13)C. When (13)CO2-H2 was added, however, CH4 production was found to be due to Fen Cluster (Methanomicrobiales) in C. angustifolia marsh and Methanobacterium Cluster B (Methanobacteriaceae) together with Fen Cluster in C. lasiocarpa marsh. These results suggested that CH4 was produced primarily by hydrogenotrophic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from plant litter in C. lasiocarpa marsh and by both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from root exudate in C. angustifolia marsh. The significantly lower CH4 emissions measured in situ in C. angustifolia marsh was primarily due to a deficiency of substrates compared to C. lasiocarpa marsh. Therefore, we speculate that the substrate source regulates both the type of active methanogens and the CH4 production pathway and consequently contributes to the spatial variations in CH4 productions observed in these freshwater marshes. PMID:26286511

  20. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  1. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  2. The vegetation types and species diversity in Lanzhou section of the Yellow River wetland%黄河兰州段湿地物种多样性及保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2014-01-01

    Based on investigating the wetland resources of Yellow River in Lanzhou on,analysis the wetland flora composition,species diversity and ecological characteristics systematicly.The results show that:there are 132 plants in wetland plant along the Yellow River,belonging to 33 families and 90 genera.Asteraceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,Cyperaceae and Fabaceae species is the number of families accounted for the top five,share to 59.85% of the total amount,Artemisia,Chenopodium,Polygonum spec and mariqueter is the number of genera accounted for the top four,dominant families,single-species phenomenon obviously.wetland vegetation at Lanzhou section of the Yellow river is divided into 9 associations.Including 2 woody associations,there are Salix matsudana Ass.Tamarix chinensis + Lycium chinense ,and 7 herbaceous associations,there are Phrag-mites + Polygonum aviculare Ass.Artemisia anethoides Ass.Polygonum lapathifolium +Chenopodium glau-cum Ass.Calamagrostis pseudophragmites + Phragmites Ass.Roegneria nustans +Lepidium latifolium Ass. Suaeda glauca Ass.Kochia scoparia +Agropyron cristatum. And proposed countermeasures of wetland vegeta-tion protection and utilization of the Yellow River in Lanzhou.%对黄河兰州段湿地植物区系组成、生态特征和物种多样性进行了系统分析。结果表明:黄河兰州段湿地共有植物132种,隶属于33科90属,菊科、禾本科、藜科、莎草科和蝶形花科是物种数占前5位的科,占总种数的59.85%;蒿属、藜属、蓼属和藨草属是含物种数占前4位的属,优势科、单种属现象明显。湿地植被分为9个群丛,包括木本群丛2个(旱柳群丛、柽柳-枸杞群丛),草本群丛7个(芦苇-萹蓄群丛、莳萝蒿群丛、酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群丛、垂穗鹅观草-宽叶独荇菜群丛、碱蓬群丛和地肤-冰草群丛);并提出了对黄河兰州段湿地植被保护利用的对策。

  3. Rasgos de historia de vida de especies en una comunidad vegetal alterada principalmente por pastoreo en un páramo húmedo (Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Jesús Orlando

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron once rasgos de historia de vida (morfológicos y de regeneración de plantas vasculares, en
    cuatro sitios con diferente grado de alteración, que hacen parte de una misma unidad de paisaje y condiciones
    topográficas similares. Ubicados en los valles de los ríos Tunjo y Piedras Gordas, páramo de Palacio, parque nacional natural Chingaza, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Entre 3.400-3.600 m de altitud, a los 4º45’03’’N, 73º50’50’’W. Estos valles, principalmente el valle del río Tunjo tienen una larga historia de disturbio por quema y pastoreo de ganado vacuno. La comunidad natural es de Espeletia killipii, Chusquea tessellata y Calamagrostis effusa. Mediante un análisis de clasificación y un procedimiento de componentes principales (ACP se agruparon las especies de acuerdo a rasgos similares y se analizó su abundancia de acuerdo con el grado de alteración. Se identificaron tres grupos de especies, diferenciados principalmente por los rasgos morfológicos: tipo de planta, forma de crecimiento, hábito y altura. El grupo uno se caracteriza principalmente por especies graminoides (73%, erectas (100% en macolla (68% con alturas mayores a 5 cm (60%; el grupo dos por hierbas rastreras o postradas (76 % que forman cojines o tapetes (86% con alturas menores a 5 cm (79% y el grupo tres por hierbas (88% en roseta (100% que no forman cojines o tapetes. Cada uno de estos grupos, presentaron una máxima abundancia-cobertura a un grado de alteración en particular; el grupo uno, no es favorecido en su abundancia-cobertura al aumentar el grado de
    alteración, presenta su mayor abundancia en los sitios con alteración leve y sin alteración (33 y 30%; el grupo dos es característico del sitio con alteración alta, donde presento la mayor abundancia (44% y el grupo tres presentó su menor abundancia en el sitio con mayor grado de alteración (8%.

  4. Research on Relationship Among CO2, CH4 and N2O Emission Fluxes in Freshwater Marsh Ecosystem%沼泽湿地生态系统CO2、CH4和N2O排放通量的相互关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢妍; 徐洪文; 宋长春

    2011-01-01

    利用静态暗箱/气相色谱法连续两个生长季(2003 -2004年)对三江平原小叶章草甸和毛果苔草沼泽CO2、CH4和N2O的排放通量进行野外原位观测.结果表明:两种类型湿地的生长季均为温室气体的排放源,三种温室气体排放通量之间的关系是,CO2和CH4、CO2和N2O、CH4和N2O排放通量之间均为正相关,但显著性水平视不同湿地类型以及不同年份而异.表明它们之间的相互关系受湿地类型以及环境因素的影响,本研究结果迸一步证明了植物在沼泽湿地温室气体排放中的关键性作用.%CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured using the technique of closed opaque chamber and gas chromatography system. The experiment was carried out during 2003-2004 growing seasons in field of Calamagrostis angustifoli meadow and Carex lasiocarpa marsh in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the two wetlands both were emission sources of greenhouse gases during growing seasons. There was a positively significant correlation between CO2 and CH4 emission fluxes, CO2 and N2O emission fluxes, and CH4 and N2O emission fluxes. But the level was different in various wetlands or years. It indicated that the relationship was influenced by wetland types and environmental factors. It was proved further that plants played a key role in greenhouse gases emission in freshwater marsh ecosystem.

  5. Species Diversity of Pant Communities of Xingkai Lake Wetlands under Different Levels of Disturbance%不同干扰下兴凯湖湿地植物群落的物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李融; 张庆忠; 姜炎彬; 张林; 邵小明

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of plant communities had been executed by setting 90 quadrats of 100 cm × 100 cm in 18 plots around the croplands of Xingkai Lake State Farm and the wetlands of Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in August,2009.Numbers of species,the height,cover and abundance of every species,and several environmental factors of each quadrat were recorded.The evident specimens of every species found in the investigation were conserved in the herbarium of China Agricultural University.Importance values were calculated from relative cover,relative density and relative frequency for each species.Depending on the level of protection and development of local natural vegetation,the plant communities were divided into three types: the plant communities in natural wetlands,the plant communities in the unwatered wetlands,the plant commu-nities around croplands.The top 5 dominant species were Calamagrostis angustifolia,Carex rigescens,Menyan-tehes trifolia,Iris sanguinea,Phragmites australis in natural wetlands; Calamagrostis angustifolia,Cyperus glom-eratus,Iris sanguine,Zizania latifolia,Bidens pilosa in the unwatered wetlands; Echinochloa crusgalli,Equise-tum arvense,Setaria viridis,Phragmites australis,Arthraxon hispidus around croplands.Species diversity analysis was processed by Bio-dap software.The results indicated that the performance of alpha diversity of the community around croplands was the maximum,the next in the unwatered wetlands,the minimum in natural wetlands.In detail,there were 69 species,53 species and 33 species in the surrounding place of croplands of many years,the unwatered and natural wetlands respectively and they shared the same trend with Shannon-Wiener Index and Pielou Evenness Index,but the trend of Simpson Index was contrary.The P diversity in study area was estimated by several similarity indexes,analysis results revealed that there were more commonspecies between natural wetlands and the unwatered wetlands,which mean that plant community

  6. Potential phytotoxic and shading effects of invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae taxa on the germination of native dominant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Moravcová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of knotweeds (genus Fallopia, Polygonaceae, native to Asia (Fallopia sachalinensis, F. japonica and their hybrid (F. ×bohemica belong to the most noxious plant invaders in Europe and exert a high impact on invaded plant communities that are therefore typically extremely poor in species. The remarkable paucity of invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing germinating populations of native species in invaded stands. In this pilot study we assessed, under laboratory conditions, whether there are phytotoxic effects of the three Fallopia congeners on seed germination of three target species: two native species commonly growing in habitats that are often invaded by knotweeds (Urtica dioica, Calamagrostis epigejos, and Lepidium sativum, a species commonly used in allelopathic bioassay as a control. Since knotweeds generally form stands with a high cover, we included varying light conditions as an additional factor, to simulate the effects on germination of shading by leaf canopy. The effects of aqueous extracts (2.5, 5.0%, and 0% as a control from dry leaves and rhizomes of the Fallopia congeners on germination of the target species were thus studied under two light regimes, simulating full daylight (white light and light filtered through canopy (green light, and in dark as a control regime. Rhizome extracts did not affect germination. Light treatments yielded inconclusive results, indicating that poor germination and establishment of species in invaded stands is unlikely to be caused by shading alone, but we found a pronounced phytotoxic effect of leaf extracts of Fallopia taxa, more so at 5.0% than 2.5% extract concentration. Fallopia sachalinensis exerted the largest negative effect on the germination of Urtica dioica, F. ×bohemica on that of C.epigejos, and F. japonica had invariably the lowest inhibitory effect. In the field in Central Europe, F. sachalinensis often invades less disturbed, moist

  7. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of Red-crowned Crane in Summer in Honghe Wetland%洪河湿地夏季丹顶鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2014-01-01

    Red-crowned Crane(Grus japonensis)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. Red-crowned Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also listed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During June 2012, the foraging habitat of Red-crowned Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Honghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 80 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus japonensis mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp.,Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40 to 80cm,the density was between 400 to 800 plants per square meter,vegetation cover less than 25%,and the depth of the foraging place water was between 10 to 15cm,the distance of human disturbance was between 0.4 to 0.8km. Human activity greatly affects Grus japonensis foraging.%丹顶鹤(Grus japonensis)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家I级重点保护鸟类;2012年6月,笔者在洪河自然保护区对丹顶鹤夏季觅食地生境进行了调查;共获取80个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其夏季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:丹顶鹤夏季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度400~800株/m2,植被盖度为<25%,觅食地水深多为10~15cm,人为干扰距离为0.4~0.8km;人为活动严重影响着丹顶鹤夏季的觅食。

  8. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of White-napped Crane on Spring in Qixinghe, Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江七星河春季白枕鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景海; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2013-01-01

    White-napped Crane (Grus vipio)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. White -napped Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species ) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also list-ed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During April to May 2011, the foraging habitat of White-napped Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Qixinghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 70 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus vipio mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp., Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40cm to 80cm, the density was higher than 600 plants per square meter, vegetation cover was mainly between 0 and 25%, and the depth of the foraging place water was 5~15cm, the distance of human disturbance was greater than 1500m. Human activity greatly affects Grus vipio foraging. In spring, Grus vipio sometimes foraging in the burns down.%  白枕鹤(Grus vipio)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家II级重点保护鸟类;2011年4~5月,笔者在七星河自然保护区对白枕鹤春季觅食地生境进行了调查;采用GPS定位技术和直接观察法对白枕鹤栖息生境进行测定,共获取70个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其春季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:白枕鹤春季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度高于600株/m2,植被盖度为0

  9. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    , where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and,respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa ,Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and bestrepresented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site.The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the allianceswhere these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neitheras frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surfaceand time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.

  10. Estructura de dos comunidades de Espeletia grandiflora Kunth y Espeletia killipii Cuatr. Sobre laderas y valle del río Tunjo, Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Ramírez Silvio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Cundinamarca, sitio de la quebrada de Piedras Gordas y valles y laderas del río Tunjo, se realizó un estudio de la estructura de dos comunidades vegetales pertenecientes a las especies dominantes de Espeletia grandiflora y Espeletia killipii durante los días de noviembre de 2000. La estructura se analiza paralelamente a la composición química de los macro y nicronutrientes del suelo mediante un análisis de correspondencias canónicas (CCA. Se analizan especialmente los gradientes y parches tanto en la composición florística como factores químicos del suelo, así como las correspondencias en los factores de la estructura de la comunidad con los factores edáficos. Se presenta como síntesis un modelo de las estrategias de las comunidades del área. Se encontraron tres asociaciones nuevas aún no descritas en la literatura como Espeletia killipii y Chusquea tessellata, Espeletia
    grandiflora y Calamagrostis effussa, Espeletia killipii y C. effussa. Las variables estructurales como la cobertura, cuyos aumentos o disminuciones, separan las comunidades por la influencia determinante del contenido de agua del suelo. La densidad influye en las etapas juveniles la comunidad de E.grandiflora, la comunidad de E. killipii no se ve afectada por la densidad. El patrón espacial coincide con los lineamientos de la literatura en establecer distribuciones aleatorias para las especies dominantes y menores en los gradientes. La riqueza y diversidad son expresivas por su ausencia o falta notoria de gradientes. Una variable como la altura de Espeletias se encuentra en relación con las características habitacionales respectivas de cada comunidad. La variable "Proporción de muertos" induce a sospechar la importancia de mecanismos de densodependencia para la comunidad de E.grandiflora, mientras que la comunidad de E.killipii se encuentra más sometida a factores abióticos. Los factores edáfocos para ambas

  11. Analysis of landslide overgrowing rates at Vaskiny Dachi key site, Central Yamal, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.

    2009-04-01

    An estimation of overgrowing of landslide-affected slopes by vegetation at three main landslide elements: shear surface, landslide body and "frontal zone" at Vaskiny Dachi key site is presented. Vaskiny Dachi key site is located in the watershed of Se-Yakha and Mordy-Yakha rivers on Central Yamal, Russia. The area is represented by highly-dissected alluvial-lacustrine-marine plains and terraces. The closest to Vaskiny Dachi climate station is Marresale, about 90 km southwest of Vaskiny Dachi, at the Kara sea coast. The weather here is probably somewhat cooler than at Vaskiny Dachi. The average annual (summer) air temperature at Marresale is -8.3° C (4.3° C) ("Russia's Weather" Server). To estimate vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi", data published by O.Rebristaya and others (1995) were used. Their observations were done in 1991-1993, and were supplemented by further field observations (Leibman et al., 2000, Khomutov & Leibman 2007) and by field and remote sensing observations in 2008. An estimation of vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi" leads to the following results. Immediately after landsliding in 1989, landslide shear surface was bare without any vegetation, landslide body had initial vegetation, and "frontal zone" was under liquefied sediment masses. "Frontal zone" formed in front of a landslide body, appears as a result of damming of drainage routes by a landslide body with flooding of the shear surface "upstream" of the landslide body, formation of a sedge-cottongrass meadow there, and swamping downstream (Khomutov & Leibman 2007). By 1993, landslide shear surface got overgrown by species subordinate in surrounding initial landscapes (Alopecurus alpinus, Festuca ovina, Calamagrostis neglecta, Poa alpigena ssp. Alpigena, etc.). Landslide body was covered by initial communities which got depressed: vitality of Salix polaris, Vaccinium vitis-idaea was reduced, dead off moss cover and overgrown

  12. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.