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Sample records for calamagrostis acutiflora

  1. [Dynamics of H2S and COS emission fluxes from Calamagrostis different calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands in Sanjiang Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Hua; Liu, Jing-Shuang; Yang, Ji-Song

    2006-11-01

    Using the static chamber and chromatogram method, H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia in Sanjiang Plain were measured during growth season(5-9 month), the results showed that the seasonal and diurnal variations of H2S and COS emission fluxes were obvious, the mean H2S and COS emission fluxes from the mash meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia were 0.34 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) and - 0.29 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) respectively, the Calamagrostis angustifolia wetlands were the sources for H2S and the sinks for COS during the growth time. The emission fluxes of H2S and COS were affected by the Calamagrostis angustifolia growth, and there were H2S emission peak and COS absorbed peak during the bloom growth time, meanwhile the integrative correlation of H2S and COS emission fluxes were observed.

  2. EFFECT OF CARBON AVAILABILITY ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN Calamagrostis angustifolia SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Feng; SONG Chang-Chun; SONG Xia; YANG Huai-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Carbon availability varies very much along soil profile and decreases from topsoil to subsoil. The effect of carbon availability index (CAI) on microbial activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia soil in the Sanjiang Plain in the Northeast China was measured. Based on the proposal about CAI and microbial respiration from Parkinson and Coleman (1999), the results showed that carbon availability limits the microbial activities in topsoil, root layer soil and subsoil initially, whereas it does not limit the microbial activity after 1.5 h incubation for recovery from the disturbance in physical, chemical and biology structure resulting from sampling, then after 5h incubation carbon availability limits mi-crobial activity again after the labile carbon was mineralized. At the same time the soil organic matter affects the carbon availability significantly when it is lower than 10%, but little when the soil organic matter is higher than 10%. The microbial biomass carbon is linearly related to carbon availability in the Calamagrostis angustifolia soil. When the CAI is lower than 0.85, the β-glucosidase activity increases along with CAI, but decreases when CAI is larger than 0.85.

  3. Taxonomic significance of leaf anatomy of Aniselytron (Poaceae) as an evidence to support its generic validity against Calamagrostis s. l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Ying; Peng, Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2005-12-01

    A comparative study of leaf anatomy on Aniselytron Merr. and Calamagrostis Adans. s. l. was conducted to review the systematic status of Aniselytron Merr. Calamagrostis s. l. exhibits wide variation in many features, but basic leaf structures of the genus remain constant: absence of a midrib-keel; median and large vascular bundles are central, with double sheaths, accompanied by girders both adaxially and abaxially; prickles have a bulbous base and are not sunken; the abaxial epidermal cells are short and wide and relatively thick-walled. Aniselytron differs from Calamagrostis s. l. in: midrib-keel is present, consisting of a large central bundle with small ones on either side; all vascular bundles are abaxially situated, with abaxial girders only, parenchyma takes the place of the adaxial sclerenchyma; the bases of the prickles are sunken and are not bulbous; the abaxial epidermal cells are tall and thin-walled. These distinct anatomical features, in combination with the differences in spikelet structure and habitat, suggest that Aniselytron should be generically separated from and not merged with Calamagrostis s. l. Due to the adaxial parenchyma in the midrib which has never been found in Pooideae, Aniselytron might have a relationship with some other subfamily.

  4. Nutrient limitation drives response of Calamagrostis epigejos to arbuscular mycorrhiza in primary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Dostálová, Magdalena; Janoušková, Martina; Frouz, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis over the course of primary succession, where soil, host plants, and AM fungal communities all undergo significant changes. Over the course of succession at the studied post-mining site, plant cover changes from an herbaceous community to the closed canopy of a deciduous forest. Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) is a common denominator at all stages, and it dominates among AM host species. Its growth response to AM fungi was studied at four distinctive stages of natural succession: 12, 20, 30, and 50 years of age, each represented by three spatially separated sites. Soils obtained from all 12 studied sites were γ-sterilized and used in a greenhouse experiment in which C. epigejos plants were (1) inoculated with a respective community of native AM fungi, (2) inoculated with reference AM fungal isolates from laboratory collection, or (3) cultivated without AM fungi. AM fungi strongly boosted plant growth during the first two stages but not during the latter two, where the effect was neutral or even negative. While plant phosphorus (P) uptake was generally increased by AM fungi, no contribution of mycorrhizae to nitrogen (N) uptake was recorded. Based on N:P in plant biomass, we related the turn from a positive to a neutral/negative effect of AM fungi on plant growth, observed along the chronosequence, to a shift in relative P and N availability. No functional differences were found between native and reference inocula, yet root colonization by the native AM fungi decreased relative to the reference inoculum in the later succession stages, thereby indicating shifts in the composition of AM fungal communities reflected in different functional characteristics of their members.

  5. Participation of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth in plant communities of the River Bytomka valley in terms of its biomass use in the power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierka Edyta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to assess the potential use of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth. as a renewable energy source. Abandonment of human management is often followed by a decrease in species richness in semi-natural grasslands, mainly due to the increased dominance of clonal grasses such as Calamagrostis epigejos which were formerly repressed by management. The biomass resource of this, and its accompanying, species, i.e. species of the Solidago genus and others e.g. Cirsium rivulare, Deschampsia caespitosa, Molinia coerulea and Filipendula ulmaria, was evaluated in the green wastelands of the River Bytomka valley (Upper Silesia, Poland. It was found that approx. 1.2 t·ha−1 of dry matter can be obtained from approx. 30% of the average share of Calamagrostis epigejos in plant communities of unmown meadows. This is 10 times less than in the case of Miscanthus giganteus, a non-native cultivated grass. An increase in the biomass component of Calamagrostis epigejos reduced that of Solidago sp. (−0.522176, p< 0.05 and other species (−0.465806, p< 0.05. The calorific value of Calamagrostis epigejos biomass is approx. 15.91 MJ·kg−1, which is comparable to the calorific value of coal and close to, inter alia, that of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (19 MJ·kg−1 as an energy crop. The presented research is in its preliminary stages and therefore, it is necessary to investigate the reaction of Calamagrostis epigejos to regular mowing and to removal of the biomass from the studied areas.

  6. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  7. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingshuang; Li, Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2 x a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2 x a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2 x a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  8. Biomass structure and nitrogen, phosphorus nutrient of Calamagrostis angustifolia populations in different communities of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhigao; QIN Shengjin; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Jinda

    2007-01-01

    Calamagrostis angustifolia is the dominant species in the typical meadow and marsh meadow communities of Sanjiang Plain.The study on its biomass,the nitrogen(N)and phosphorus(P)contents in its different organs showed that the biomass of different C.angustifolia organs in the two types of wetland communities was distinctly different,which could be described by polynomial.The biomass of aboveground part and each organ presented single peak changing,with the maximum value of the latter occurred 15 days after.The F/C values were all less than 1,which were bigger in typical meadow than those in marsh meadow.The total N and P contents in different organs of aboveground part all descended monotonically in growth season,with the order of leaf>vagina>stem.The change of total N content in roots of the two types of C.angustifolia was consistent,while that of total P was quite different.The content of total N,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N)and nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N),especially of NH4+-N and NO3--N,varied widely in different organs,with NH4+-N/NO3--N>1.Root was the important storage of N and P,but the storage of N and P in stem,leaf and vagina fluctuated greatly.The N/P ratios of the two types of C.angustifolia were all less than 14,which implied that N might be the limiting nutrient of C.angustifolia,and the limitation degree was higher in typical meadow than that in marsh meadow.

  9. Distribution and Fate of Anthropogenic Nitrogen in the Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetland Ecosystem of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gao Sun; Jing-Shuang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are important for the protection of water quality of rivers and lakes, especially those adjacent to agricultural landscapes, by intercepting and removing nutrients in runoff. In this study, the 15N tracer technique was applied to study the distribution and fate of anthropogenic nitrogen (15N-fertilizer) in Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom wetland plant-soil microcosms to identify the main ecological effects of it. 15NH415NO3 solution (14.93 mg N/L, 20.28 at.% 15N) was added to each microcosm of the first group, which was approximate to the current nitrogen concentration (CNC) of farm drainage, and 29.86 mg NIL 15NH415NO3 solution was added to another group, which was approximate to the double nitrogen concentration (DNC) of farm drainage, while no nitrogen (NN) was added to the third group. The results suggest that the Input of anthropogenic nitrogen has positive effects on the biomass and total nitrogen content of plant, and the positive effects will be elevated as the increase of its Input amount. The increase of 15N-fartilizer can also elevate its amounts and proportions in plant nitrogen. Soil nitrogen is still the main source of plant nitrogen, but its proportion will be reduced as the increase of 15N-fertilizer. The study of the fate of 15N-fartilizar indicates that, in CNC treatment, only a small proportion is water-dissolved (0.13±0.20%), a considerable proportion is soil-immobilized (17.02±8.62%), or plant-assimilated (23.70±0.92%), and most is lost by gaseous forms (59.15±8.35%). While in DNC treatment, about 0.09±0.15% is water-dissolved, 15.33±7.46% is soil-immobilized, 23.55±2.86% is plant-assimilated, and 61.01±5.59% is lost by gaseous forms. The double input of anthropogenic nitrogen can not elevate the proportions of plant-assimilation, soil-immobilization and water-dissolution,but it can enhance the gaseous losses.

  10. Morphology of leaf epidermis of Calamagrostis s.l. (Poaceae: Pooideae) in China%禾本科广义拂子茅属的叶表皮形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海英; 彭华; 王跃华

    2006-01-01

    禾本科广义拂子茅属Calamagrostis Adans. s.l.是广布于全球温带和热带亚热带高山的一个大属, 常分为拂子茅属Calamagrostis Adans. s.s.和野青茅属Deyeuxia Beauv..对国产5种拂子茅属和26种、1变种野青茅属植物在光镜下进行了叶表皮特征的观察.发现广义拂子茅属植物的叶表皮特征为典型的狐茅型, 很多结构在种间有丰富的变异式样, 如脉间长细胞形状、大小和细胞壁的厚度与弯曲程度, 短细胞形状和分布式样, 硅质体形状和分布式样, 气孔形状和分布式样, 以及刺毛形态和分布式样等.在国产种类中首次发现微乳突结构, 在很多种类中发现刺毛硅质化现象.用UPGMA对15个叶表皮性状进行分析, 结果分为两大支: 具加厚的长细胞、密集分布的短细胞和(或)刺毛以及刺毛硅质化的种类聚为一支;具薄壁的长细胞、较稀疏的短细胞和(或)刺毛以及刺毛不发生硅质化的种类聚为另一支.这种分异与广义拂子茅属的属下系统相关性不大, 但与种的海拔分布有关.前一支的种类大多生长于高海拔(2600 m以上)地区, 而后一支的种类则大多生长在低海拔(2600 m以下)地区.%Calamagrostis Adans. s.l. is a genus with variable definition in which two genera are often recognized in China: Calamagrostis s.s. and Deyeuxia Beauv. In this study, the leaf epidermis of five species of Calamagrostis s.s. and 26 species and one variety of Deyeuxia was examined under light microscopy. Although all the species examined have a Festucoid type epidermis, a number of variations of some epidermal features exist at the species level. This includes variation in morphology and wall thickness of intercostal long cells, shape and distribution patterns of stomata, morphology and distribution patterns of short cells and silica bodies, morphology, silicification, and distribution of prickles, and presence of micropapillae. Fifteen qualitative characters

  11. 水位对小叶章湿地CO2、CH4排放及土壤微生物活性的影响%Effects of water level on CO2 and CH4 flux and soil microbial activity in Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万忠梅

    2013-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem plays an important role in global carbon balance and climate change. The fluctuation of water level will affect biogeochemical process of wetland and further induce the variation of greenhouse gas flux. In order to determine the response of CO2, CH4 flux, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and enzyme activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh on water level, field pot culture experiment was carried out under different water level treatments of-5 cm (Tl), 0 cm (T2), 5 cm(T3) and 10 cm (T4). Treatments of T1 and T2 simulated soil moisture conditions without waterlogged, while T3 and T4 simulated waterlogged conditions. The results indicated that the tendency of CO2 flux was different from CH4 along with water gradient, CO2 flux of -5 cm water level (T1) was (643.35±61.89) mg·m-2·h-1 and decreased by 6.9%, 12.1%, 40.0%respectively as the water gradient increased, when the water level increased up to10 cm, the CO2 flux declined significantly(P<0.05). However the CH4 flux increased with water gradient elevation and was in range of (1.52±0.12)~(5.34±0.61) mg·m-2·h-1. And the amount of Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh soil MBC, MBN and the activity of soil invertase and amylase under non-flooded condition were higher than those under flooded condition. And the microbial activity significantly depressed with water level increase.%  湿地生态系统对全球碳平衡和气候变化起着极其重要的作用,而水位波动将影响湿地生物地球化学过程,导致温室气体通量变化,为了明确湿地生态系统温室气体通量以及土壤微生物活性对水位梯度的生态响应,通过野外盆栽培养试验,设T1:-5 cm,T2:0 cm,T3:5 cm,T4:10 cm 4种水位梯度,T1和T2模拟湿地非淹水的水分状况,T3和T4模拟淹水状况,研究了不同水位梯度下小叶章(Calamagrostis angustifolia)湿地CO2、CH4通量、土壤微生物量碳、氮及土壤

  12. 毛乌素沙地根茎禾草拂子茅对异质性水分供应的表型可塑性%Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to the Heterogeneous Water Supply in the Rhizomatous Grass Species, Calamagrostis epigejos in the Mu Us Sandy Land of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张称意; 于飞海; 陈玉福; 董鸣

    2003-01-01

    拂子茅(Calamagrostis epigejos(L.)Roth.)为根茎型多年生禾草,具细长根茎.为了探讨拂子茅在异质性水分环境中的表型差异,在内蒙古鄂尔多斯高原的毛乌素沙地对拂子茅由母株、子株组成的分株对给予了高水、低水两种不同的异质性土壤水分处理.实验结果表明:土壤水分状况显著地影响着拂子茅分株的生长表型.在高土壤水分条件下,拂子茅的分株产生的根茎、新生后代分株较多,并使生物量主要分配于地上部分,地上生物量积累多;在低土壤水分条件下,拂子茅分株产生较少的根茎与新生后代分株,并且分配到根系的生物量明显增大.在具有一定对比度的异质性土壤水分环境中,拂子茅分株并不因相连的其他分株所处的土壤水分状况而在根茎生长、新生后代分株的产生和生物量分配等特征上,与同质环境中的具有相同土壤水分状况的分株相比,有明显差异.这些结果揭示:拂子茅仅以分株的形式对异质性水分供应发生表型反应;相连的克隆分株在向顶向和向基向这两个基本方向上,不能对另一分株的土壤水分状况在生长表型上发生反应,它们在水分关系上可能是相互相对独立的.分株的相对独立可能有利于在气候干旱、扰动强烈的沙地环境中实现风险分摊,提高基株的存活几率.%Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth. is a perennial grass with slender and long rhizome segmentsbetween interconnected neighbor ramets. To investigate the phenotypic plasticity in response to theheterogeneous soil water supply, ramet pairs of the species were subjected to heterogeneous watersupply by which either mother ramets or daughter ramets were in high or low soil water supply, respectively,in the Maowusu (Mu Us) Sandy Land of Nei Mongol. The results showed that the phenotypic characteris-tics of the individual ramets of C. epigejos were greatly influenced by the heterogeneous water

  13. 氮沉降对小叶章光合生理特性的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Calamagrostis angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波; 钟海秀; 付小玲; 王继丰; 倪红伟

    2013-01-01

    为了阐明湿地植物小叶章光合特性对氮沉降响应的变化规律,选择三江平原沼泽化小叶章为研究对象,通过野外原位控制试验,研究了3个氮水平[0 g N/m2(N1)、5 g N/m2 (N2)和10 g N/m2 (N3)]对小叶章光合色素及光合参数的影响.结果表明,随着施氮水平的增加,小叶章的全氮含量、光合色素含量、光合参数AQE和Amax均呈增加趋势,但Rd则呈现先升高后下降的趋势,表明N3处理更能促进小叶章净碳的累积;光合参数Vcmax和Jmax也呈增加趋势,这有利于小叶章在低温环境下进行光合作用,维持施氮条件下较高光合能力.%In order to determine the effect of increased nitrogen deposition on photosynthetic characteristics of C. angustifolia, a field experiment was carried out with treatments different in nitrogen supply (0, 5, 10 g/m2) to investigate the effects the photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic parameters. The response curves of net photosynthetic rate (P.) versus photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured in situ. The results showed that nitrogen deposition significantly increased nitrogen content, photosynthetic pigment content, Amax, and AQE of leaves. However, Rd declined in low N but enhanced in high N, which showed the higher carbon accumulation under high N than low N. Jmax and Vcmax enhanced under nitrogen supply, which could maintain higher photosynthetic capacity under low-temperature.

  14. 三江平原小叶章湿地H2S和COS排放动态%Dynamics of H2S and COS Emission Fluxes from Different Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetlands in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 刘景双; 杨继松

    2006-01-01

    利用静态箱/气相色谱法,观测了生长季(5~9月)三江平原小叶章沼泽化草甸H2S和COS的释放动态,结果表明,H2S、COS的排放通量具有季节和日变化规律,小叶章沼泽化草甸H2S的平均释放通量为0.34μg·(m2·h)-1,COS的平均释放通量为-0.29μg·(m2·h)-1;在生长季,小叶章沼泽化草甸表现为H2S的源,COS的汇小叶章的生长过程对H2S、COS的排放影响显著,在小叶章生长旺盛期,H2S出现排放峰值,COS出现吸收高峰,H2S和COS的释放通量呈负相关.

  15. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  16. 大气CO2浓度升高对小叶章光合色素含量和光合参数的影响%Effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic pigments content and characteristics of Calamagrostis angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波; 倪红伟; 付小玲; 钟海秀; 王继丰

    2013-01-01

      研究了CO2升高对小叶章光合色素含量及相应光合参数的影响.实地条件下测定了净光合速率(PN)对光合有效辐射(PAR)的响应曲线,根据非直角双曲线模型,推算最大净光合速率(Amax)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)以及表观量子产量(AQE)等.结果表明CO2升高增加了小叶章叶片光合色素含量,但却降低了光合参数Amax、Rd以及AQE.光合色素含量和光合参数呈现不同的变化趋势.%A field experiment was carried out with treatments different CO2 concentration to investigate effects on and photosyn-thetic pigments content and photosynthetic parameters. The response curves of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) versus photosyn-thetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in situ. This response curve was then analysed using non-rectangular hyperbol-ic photosynthetic model, which calculated apparent quantum yield (AQE), dark respiration rate (Rd) and light-saturated photosynthet-ic rate (Amax). The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigment content but decreased Amax, Rd and AQE of leaves.

  17. Identification, Development, and Release of Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    for wildlife value include species of Typha, Spartina, Carex , Scirpus, Eleocharis, Juncus, Zizania, Arundinaria, and Calamagrostis. Experimental...Agropyron cristatum Crested wheatgrass 2. Andropogon gerardii Big bluestem 3. Arundinaria gigantea subsp. tecta Switch cane 4. Carex lurida Shallow... sedge 5. Cortaderia selloana Pampas grass 6. Dactylis glomerata Orchardgrass 7. Distichlis spicata Saltgrass 8. Elymus virginicus Virginia wildrye 9

  18. Search for a plant for phytoremediation--what can we learn from field and hydroponic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłudowska, E; Kowalska, J; Jedynak, L; Wojas, S; Skłodowska, A; Antosiewicz, D M

    2009-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate the strategies for coping with arsenic toxicity developed by the mine species (Calamagrostis arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Stachys sylvatica, and Epilobium parviflorum), and to compare results obtained from plants exposed to arsenic present in contaminated soil (2000-3500 mg/kg dw) and in hydroponic solution (2 microM and 12 microM arsenate). Here we report basic differences in plant responses to arsenic depending on growth conditions (hydroponic/soil) with respect to uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, distribution, and detoxification/speciation. Calamagrostis has the highest level of As-tolerance among the tested species. When grown in soil, it accumulated the highest amount of As in roots and shoots relative to other species, however, when exposed to arsenic in hydroponics, it had lower As concentrations. The efficiency of arsenic root-to-shoot translocation was also different, being less effective in soil-grown Calamagrostis compared with hydroponics. Furthermore, in Calamagrostis exposed to arsenate in liquid medium, As(III) was the predominant arsenic form, in contrast to plants grown in As-contaminated soil, in which As(V) predominated. In addition, comparison of the level of phytochelatins showed that only PC2 was detected in plants from hydroponics, whereas in those from soil, additionally PC3 and PC4 were found. The results show that the basic components of a plant's response to arsenic, including uptake, accumulation as well as detoxification, change depending on the experimental conditions (arsenic in liquid medium or contaminated soil).

  19. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Midwest Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    blue-joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), bog reed-grass (C. stricta), and big bluestem. Sedges ( Carex spp.), such as woolly sedge (C. pellita...communities are dominated by sedges (e.g., Carex spp., Eleocharis spp.) as opposed to the native grasses of wet prairie communities. Soil saturation and...Sparganium eurycarpum), broad-leaved arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), slough sedge ( Carex atherodes), lake sedge (C. lacustris), three-square bulrush

  20. [Segregation effect of purification for nitrogen and phosphate pollution in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Yan, Bai-Xing; Wang, Li-Xia

    2011-03-01

    Three minitype subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands planted with Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis and filled with soil and slag were used to investigate the N, P and pH for upper layer and underlayer wetland system by intermission operation. Results demonstrated that TN removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 0.771 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 1.481 g x(m2 x d)(-1) with 10 days of the hydraulic retention, which were 1.15 and 1.31 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. Simultaneity, TP removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 1.655 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 6.838 g x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, which were 1.13 and 1.28 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. The purification ability of upper layer in the wetland system was higher than that of underlayer. A regular trend of pH changes and upstanding buffer ability of wetland system were found. The pH values in the upper layer of soil-slag wetlands were smaller than that of underlayer which was contrary to the soil wetland. The break-point of pH curve indicates the termination of NH4(+) -N reaction in constructed wetland.

  1. de la Argentina y notas nomenclaturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma E. Rúgolo de Agrasar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera revisión del género Deyeuxia para la Argentina se reconocen 58 taxones nativos de América, tres de ellos son endémicos de la Argentina, y los restantes también crecen en Bolivia, Brasil y Chile. Se describen tres nuevos taxones para la ciencia: Deyeuxia alba subsp. breviaristata (Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay; Deyeuxia heterophylla var. puberilemma (Perú; Deyeuxia trichodonta var. hirsuta (Argentina: Salta. Se establece un nuevo nombre: Deyeuxia nana, para en Agrostis caespitosa. Las siguientes once entidades constituyen nuevas citas para Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Ecuador: Deyeuxia brevifolia var. brevifolia y Deyeuxia brevifolia var. expansa (Chile; Deyeuxia cabrerae var. cabrerae, D. cabrerae var. aristulata (Chile; D. cabrerae var. trichopoda (Chile; Deyeuxia curta (Ecuador; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; D. diemii (Chile; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; Deyeuxia hackelii (Chile; Deyeuxia minima (Argentina y Ecuador; Deyeuxia sclerantha (Ecuador; Deyeuxia spicigera var. spicigera (Chile; Deyeuxia spicigera var. cephalotes (Argentina y Deyeuxia trichodonta var. trichodonta (Bolivia. Se establecen cinco nuevas combinaciones: Deyeuxia reitzii, Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa., Deyeuxia rupestris var. minor, D. tarmensis var. macrochaeta y Deyeuxia velutina var. nardifolia. Se adicionan nuevos sinónimos en las siguientes entidades: Deyeuxia heterophylla (Calama grostis mulleri, Calamagrostis macbridei; Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa (Calamagrostis leonardii, Calamagrostis longearistata f. pilosa y Calamagrostis epigeios (Calamagrostis chilensis. Esta revisión incluye una evaluación crítica de los caracteres morfológicos (algunos estudiados con MEB con valor taxonómico para Deyeuxia y sus especies aquí estudiadas, como también una discusión de las relaciones de Deyeuxia con sus géneros más afines. Se presentan en detalle consideraciones nomenclaturales sobre taxones problemáticos, claves dicotómicas para distinguir Deyeuxia de

  2. DYNAMICS OF LITTER DECOMPOSITION AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PHOSPHORUS IN DECOMPOSED RESIDUA OF Calamagrotis augustifolia IN THE WETLAND OF THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the period of May to October in 1999, systematical studies were given to the rate of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter, the phosphorus content and weight in decomposed residua of litter, and phosphorus content in the corresponding soil in the Sanjiang Plain. At the same time, the simulation models were listed in the paper.The results showed that the rate of weight lost of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter is 29. 80% and the maximum of daily rate of weight lost is 0.25%, which appeared in July. The change trend of phosphorus content and weight in the decomposed residua of litter is to reduce with the decomposing process, when it comes to the day of 157,the decrement amount of the both were respectively 57.69mg/kg and 1. 6199mg, which were 72. 80% and 76.30% of its previous amount. In addition, there is a polynomial minus correlationship of phosphorus content between the variation in corresponding soil and the decomposed residua of litter at the corresponding period. The study will be helpful to further understand the process and mechanism of biochemical cycling of nutrient elements in wetland ecosystems, in addition, it will also be helpful to the restoration and rebuilding of retrogressive wetlands and reasonable development and utilization of wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain.

  3. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  4. Vegetation of the ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve and its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krechowski Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve (forest district 206b, c and d of the Sarnaki Forest Inspectorate, situated in the area of the Podlaski Przełom Bug Landscape Park, is one of the most valuable natural assets of the central Bug river valley. The 12.98 ha reserve was established in 2010 to aid protection of the stand of xerothermic vegetation and its surrounding deciduous forest. In total, eight plant associations were identified within the reserve: Geranio-Peucedanetum cervariae, Geranio-Anemonetum sylvestris, Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris, Trifolio medii-Agrimonietum, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum, Rhamno-Cornetum sanguinei, Potentillo albae-Quercetum and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli. Furthermore, 23 protected and 31 endangered species were found in the reserve including the following examples: Cephalanthera rubra, Thesium ebracteatum, Cypripedium calceolus, Gentiana cruciata, Anemone sylvestris, Cimicifuga europaea, Viola rupestris, Crepis praemorsa, Asperula tinctoria, Stachys recta, Laserpitium latifolium. Over the last few years, a regression of the species diagnostic number for thermophilous oak forests and xerothermic grasslands has been observed as a result of succession and expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos. Active protection of xerothermic vegetation such as uprooting of trees and bushes, regular grazing or mowing has been suggested in order to prevent the expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos.

  5. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  6. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  8. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  9. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments.

  10. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  11. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  12. Farmer decision making and its effect on subalpine grassland succession in the Giant Mts., Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hejcman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition is generally considered as a main reason for many recent plant expansions, but management changes are often not taken into account. Understanding the effects of agriculture management in the past can be decisive in the explanation of plant expansions at present. In order to understand the spread of Molinia caerulea and Calamagrostis villosa into Nardus stricta dominated subalpine grassland in the Giant Mts. (Krkonoše, Karkonosze, we undertook an experiment to explain farmer decision making and we discussed its effect on grassland succession. We measured mowing productivity, yields, biomass quality and nutrient removal in N. stricta, M. caerulea, and C. villosa dominated swards. With regard to defoliation management performed on the subalpine grasslands for at least 500 years and cancelled after the Second World War, we found the following results and conclusions. 1. Mowing productivity, yield and forage quality were lowest in the N. stricta sward, therefore farmers preferred to harvest C. villosa and M. caerulea stands if they had the possibility to select a sward for mowing. 2. Removal of all nutrients was the lowest in the N. stricta sward. With respect to these facts, the competitive advantage of N. stricta is obvious under long-term scything without fertilization. Consequently, the recent increase of defoliation sensitive species M. caerulea and C. villosa above the timber line must be evaluated with respect to both: termination of agricultural activities and recent nitrogen deposition.

  13. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands.

  14. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  15. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site.

  16. Vegetation of spoil banks as a reclamation and soil formation factor in the North Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, J.; Volf, F.

    1983-01-01

    Vegetation at spoil banks significantly influences soil formation process and positively influences land reclamation. During the initial stage vegetation is most intensive at places with optimum water conditions at slopes and at the top of spoil banks in zones of water accumulation. During the first, second and the third year waste rock weathering causes more intensive plant growth. The following plants are most active at spoil banks in North Bohemia: Atriplex nitens, Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum maritimum, Polygonum aviculare, Senecio viscosus, Tussilago farfara, Acetosella vulgaris and Carduus acanthoides. Three to five years after a spoil bank was formed perennial plants made up the prevailing part of the vegetation. The following plants play a significant role at this stage: Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Calamagrostis epigeios, Tanacetum vulgaris, Elytrigia repens, Melandrium album, Sambucus nigra, Achillea millefolium and Cardaria draba. At this stage grass vegetation also starts: e.g. Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Poa pratensis or Festuca pratensis. When a spoil bank already covered by perennial vegetation is reclaimed and the initial vegetation is covered by wastes during levelling, the secondary vegetation should not be treated as a continuation of the initial process but as an independent one. Plants used during the secondary phase of spoil bank reclamation should be characterized by a well developed root system and high humus production. Plants used for land reclamation are characterized. (15 refs.)

  17. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  18. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

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    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  19. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low.

  20. 汾河中上游地区禾本科植物调查%Investigation of Gramineae in the Middle and the Upper Reaches of the Fenhe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建英; 郭春燕; 李晋川; 卢宁; 王翔; 李倩冉

    2015-01-01

    禾本科(Gramineae)是种子植物中最有经济价值的科.报道了汾河中上游地区禾本科植物42属78种(含种下等级7个),其中,含种数最多的属为鹅观草属RoegneriaC.Koch.(7种,1变种),其次为早熟禾属Poa L.(6种),含有4种的属为狗尾草属Setaria Beauv.、披碱草属Elymus L.,含有3种的属有芨芨草属Achnatherum Beauv.、马唐属Digitaria Hall.、画眉草属Eragrostis Beauv.、隐子草属Cleistogenes Keng(1变种)、稗属Echinochloa Beauv.(1变种)、针茅属Stipa L(1变种),含有2种的属有荩草属Arthraxon Beauv.、拂子茅属Calamagrostis Adans.、羊草属Leymus Hochst.、棒头草属Polypogon Desf.、高粱属Sorghum Moench、野青茅属Deyeuxia Clartion(3变种),含有1种的属最多,达25属.

  1. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

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    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  2. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  3. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  4. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  5. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  6. Changes in the structure and floristic composition of the limestone grasslands after cutting trees and shrubs and mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bąba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcareous grasslands belong to the species-rich plant communities in Poland. Most of them are of anthropogenic origin and they need specific management (i.e. periodical cutting suckers of trees and shrubs, grazing or mowing in order to protect their floristic diversity. Many of calcareous grasslands have been overgrown by shrubs as a result of cessation of traditional management. The aim of this study was to compare the structure and dynamics of xerothermic hazel shrub patches, which were undergoing secondary succession with patches where different management practices aiming at restoration of species-rich limestone grassland were applied. The managed plots had a significantly higher species richness than the control one. However, they strongly differed in their floristic composition from well-preserved limestone grasslands. There were also significant differences observed between both the managed plots. Too intensive management, particularly frequent mowing of herbs resulted in expansion of grass species such as Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis arundinacea and caused a sharp decline in species richness. The species composition and turnover rate strongly depended on succesional stage (soil layer thickness of plots at the start of the experiment. The deeper was the soil, the higher was the rate of species turnover and the smaller was the share of xerothermic and thermophilous species. The last mentioned group was dominated by species with a persistent seed bank in the soil, frequently colonizing anthropogenic habitats.

  7. FLORISTIC CHANGES ALONG THE TOPOGRAPHICAL GRADIENT IN MONTANE GRASSLANDS IN MONTI PICENTINI (CAMPANIA, SW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SPADA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Populations of xerotolerant species (Achnatherum calamagrostis, Stipa crassiculmis subsp. picentina, are scattered along a wide altitudinal gradient on slopes at mid- and high elevation in Monti Picentini, a subcoastal mesozoic limestone ridge in Tyrrhenian Southern Italy. Their stands are widespread in grasslands of mostly secondary origin. At lower altitudes these grasslands replace former deciduous forest communities dominated by oaks or beech, while at higher altitudes they reach the summits, where they apparently merge into the remnants of the still partially grazed, zonal climatogenic, grasslands ranging above the local tree-line. Nevertheless primary stands of these grasslands are to be found around the many clusters of highly dynamic sites of the montane and sub-alpine levels, scattered around screes and rocky outcrops of the prevalently dolomitic morphology of the slopes. This virtual continuity of non arboreal communities across more than 1000 metres of the local topographical gradient, where azonal, relic stands of Pinus nigra s.l. are transitional between the grasslands and the surrounding zonal broadleaved forest vegetation, stresses patterns of the coenological changes between Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Seslerietea along the catena, which suggest fragmentary persistence of a paleozonation.

  8. FLORISTIC CHANGES ALONG THE TOPOGRAPHICAL GRADIENT IN MONTANE GRASSLANDS IN MONTI PICENTINI (CAMPANIA, SW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CUTINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of xerotolerant species (Achnatherum calamagrostis, Stipa crassiculmis subsp. picentina, are scattered along a wide altitudinal gradient on slopes at mid- and high elevation in Monti Picentini, a subcoastal mesozoic limestone ridge in Tyrrhenian Southern Italy. Their stands are widespread in grasslands of mostly secondary origin. At lower altitudes these grasslands replace former deciduous forest communities dominated by oaks or beech, while at higher altitudes they reach the summits, where they apparently merge into the remnants of the still partially grazed, zonal climatogenic, grasslands ranging above the local tree-line. Nevertheless primary stands of these grasslands are to be found around the many clusters of highly dynamic sites of the montane and sub-alpine levels, scattered around screes and rocky outcrops of the prevalently dolomitic morphology of the slopes. This virtual continuity of non arboreal communities across more than 1000 metres of the local topographical gradient, where azonal, relic stands of Pinus nigra s.l. are transitional between the grasslands and the surrounding zonal broadleaved forest vegetation, stresses patterns of the coenological changes between Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Seslerietea along the catena, which suggest fragmentary persistence of a paleozonation.

  9. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

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    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  10. Composition and diversity of High Andean in the Fauna Production Reserve Chimborazo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study inquire the floristic diversity of 9 sampling in four plots of 1 m² of high andean in several locations in the “Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo”. For the development of this study, we used an adaptation of the method of plots “Gloria”. With coverage (% in each of the plots, Further the diversity indices and similarity with respective analysis were obtained. The data obtained reflect a diversity that can range from medium to low, believe that this is due to anthropogenic activities that have taken place in these ecosistems. With the presence mostly Calamagrostis intermedia, it could establish that the type of vegetation is herbaceous in high andean is higher percentage; is the species that is almost always present in most types of vegetation of the RPF Chimborazo and high dominance that influences the results of low floristic diversity indices was found in the analysis. As a result the most abundant family Asteraceae is well Poaceae.

  11. 黄河兰州段湿地典型植物群落物种多样性研究%Study on species diversity of typical plant community in wetland along Yellow River in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2016-01-01

    以黄河兰州段分布最广泛的芦苇-假苇拂子茅群落和酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群落为研究对象,研究2个群落的植物物种组成和多样性特征。结果表明:芦苇群落有植物22种,隶属于13科20属,酸模叶蓼群落有植物24种,隶属于11科22属,2个群落的共种有10种,相似性系数为43.48%,菊科、禾本科、藜科、蓼科是该植物区系的优势科。物种多样性的分析说明2个群落的 Pielou 指数(J )波动比较小,Simpson 指数(D )和 Shannon-Wiener 指数(H )均波动都比较大,并且 H 指数与 J 指数存在明显的正比例关系,而与 D 指数呈显著的反比例关系。方差分析表现出两群落 S ,H ,D 和 J 指数的差异并不明显,说明组成两群落的物种有一定的相似性和连续性,也存在着差异。%The typical plant communities (Phragmites australis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites and Po-lygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum )along Yellow River in Lanzhou were selected to investigate the plant species and composition characteristics.The results indicated that there are 22 species in Phragmites aust-ralis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites community,which belongs to 13 families and 20 genera,and 24 species in Polygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum community,which belongs to 1 1 families and 22 genera.To-tally 10 common species were found in 2 communities.The similarity coefficient between 2 communities was 43.48%,Asteraceae,Poaceae,Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae were the dominant families.Species diversity analysis showed that in 2 communities,Shannon-Wiener index(H)and Simpson index(D)varied greatly,while Pielou index (J)showed much less variation.The diversity index was positively correlated with the evenness in-dex and negatively correlated with the ecological dominance index.H,D,J and S values were not significantly different in 2 communities.

  12. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  13. Levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria-RS, Brasil

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    Quadros Fernando Luiz Ferreira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se obter um levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria, a qual foi subdividida, para este objetivo, em quatro localidades: Dilermando de Aguiar, Pains, Santa Flora e São Martinho. O levantamento utilizou estimativas visuais da freqüência de espécies através do método BOTANAL e permitiu a identificação de 61 espécies, dentre as quais 45 apresentaram contribuição significativa para a biomassa aérea da vegetação. No distrito de Pains, encontrou-se maior freqüência das espécies Axonopus affinis, Eragrostis plana, Desmodium barbatum e Aristida spp.. Em Dilermando de Aguiar, houve maior contribuição de Calamagrostis viridiflavescens, Schizachyrium microstachyum e Paspalum notatum a qual foi, também, uma espécie abundante em Santa Flora, assim como Desmodium incanum. As espécies mais freqüentes em São Martinho foram: Baccharis trimera, Paspalum plicatulum e Erianthus angustifolius. O teste de aleatorização mostrou que, em todas as localidades, ocorreu diferença significativa na sua composição florística (P= 0,0058, evidenciando a inexistência de associação entre os tipos fisionômico-florísticos e os tipos de solo. A partir disto, este levantamento permite que se estabeleçam prioridades quanto à pesquisa e manejo das pastagens naturais dos diferentes grupos fisionômico-florísticos da região.

  14. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  15. Spontaneous and initiated succession on unvegetated slopes in the abandoned lignite-mining area of Goitsche, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirmer, A.; Mahn, E.G. [Hsch Anhalt, Bernburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The colonization of unvegetated, dry slopes in the lignite-mining area of Goitsche, Germany was examined. The plots, characterized by different habitat conditions, were studied from 1994-2000. The vegetation development on treated plots was compared to untreated plots showing spontaneous succession. For initial treatments the authors used fresh plant clippings from a species-rich sandy grassland (Armerion elongatae) mowed at the end of July. Soil seed bank samples, taken at the beginning of the experiments and cultivated for 18 months, confirmed that the vegetation development on the slopes started with primary succession. The hospitable Quaternary substrate of Site I (pH = 4.1-4.7, 92% sand) supports fast vegetation development on treated and untreated plots. On treated plots, we have identified plant assemblages similar to initial stages of the Armerion elongatae community were identified. On control plots, Coryne-phorion communities have established spontaneously. At Site II (mixed Quaternary and Tertiary substrate, pH = 3.0-3.5, 40% sand) the total cover and number of psammophytic species was low. Treated plots showed development towards ruderal sandy grassland, but the establishment of Calamagrostis epigejos would eventually lead to monodominant stands. Untreated control plots showed basically the same pattern, however the development was slower. At Site III (pH = 1.8-2.8, 34% sand), the hostile Tertiary substrate impeded the succession on both treated and untreated plots because low pH and therefore high amounts of Al{sup 3+} produced elemental toxicity to plants. The application of plant clippings accelerated the vegetation development in sites with a pH exceeding 3. On plots with the initial treatment, vegetation cover and total number of species were higher than on untreated plots. The application of fresh plant clippings from areas with similar habitat conditions appears to be a viable alternative to traditional restoration methods.

  16. Flora y vegetación de suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en la Cordillera Blanca, Ancash, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2006 y 2008, se llevaron a cabo estudios florístico y de vegetación de los suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en cuatro localidades de la Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, Perú localizadas por encima de los 4500 m. Se realizaron recolectas botánicas además de transectos de intersección-línea, en los cuales se midió el espacio (en cm ocupado por cada especie. Fueron determinadas 136 especies de plantas vasculares, agrupadas en 65 géneros y 26 familias. Las Magnoliópsida (dicotiledóneas fueron las más diversas con 97 especies, seguidas de las Liliópsidas (Monocotiledóneas con 36. La mayor diversidad está concentrada en las familias Asteraceae y Poaceae (40,63%. Los géneros con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Senecio (18 y Calamagrostis (12. Se registraron 76 especies (54,82% en suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados; mientras que 60 especies (44,11% fueron colectadas en la vegetación adyacente. El 95,56% de las especies reportadas fueron hierbas perennes. Se caracterizaron cuatro tipos de comunidades vegetales: a comunidad de suelos crioturbados propiamente dicha, b comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a pajonal, c comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a roquedal seco y d comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociadas a roquedal húmedo. Se indícan las especies características de cada comunidad.

  17. Impacts of Soil Fauna on Litter Decomposition at Different Succession Stages of Wetland in Sanjiang Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Haitao; LU Xianguo; JIANG Ming; BAO Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Litter decomposition is the key process in nutrient recycling and energy flow. The present study examined the impacts of soil fauna on decomposition rates and nutrient fluxes at three succession stages of wetland in the Sanji-ang Plain, China using different mesh litterbags. The results show that in each succession stage of wetland, soil fauna can obviously increase litter decomposition rates. The average contribution of whole soil fauna to litter mass loss was 35.35%. The more complex the soil fauna group, the more significant the role of soil fauna. The average loss of three types of litter in the 4mm mesh litterbags was 0.3-4.1 times that in 0.058mm ones. The decomposition function of soil fauna to litter mass changed with the wetland succession. The average contribution of soil fauna to litter loss firstly de-creased from 34.96% (Carex lasiocapa) to 32.94% (Carex meyeriana), then increased to 38.16% (Calamagrosties an-gustifolia). The contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition rates vary according to the litter substrata, soil fauna communities and seasons. Significant effects were respectively found in August and July on C angustifolia and C lasiocapa, while in June and August on C. Meyeriana. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the C/N and C/P ratios of decaying litter can be influenced by soil fauna. At different wetland succession stages, the effects of soil fauna on nutrient elements also differ greatly, which shows the significant difference of in-fluencing element types and degrees. Soil fauna communities strongly influenced the TC and TP concentrations of C meyeriana litter, and TP content of C lasiocapa. Our results indicate that soil fauna have important effects on litter decomposition and this influence will vary with the wetland succession and seasonal variation.

  18. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  19. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degraders' food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this regions' dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, mainly the amount of N stored in the litter material and its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and bulk soil. Whereas the degradation process of the L. corniculatus litter which had a low C/N ratio was fast and most pronounced changes in the microbial community structure were observed 1–4 weeks after litter addition, the degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred at between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However for both litter materials a clear indication for the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both on the abundance level as well as on the level of 13C incorporation (activity.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply on biomass and active carbon of freshwater marsh after two growing seasons in Sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangying; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang; DOU Jingxin; DONG Xiaoyong

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with treatments differing in nitrogen supply (0, 5 and 15 g N/m2) and CO2 level (350 and 700 μmol/mol) using OTC (open top chamber) equipment to investigate the biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia and soil active carbon contents after two years. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration increased the biomass of C. angustifolia and the magnitude of response varied with each growth period. Elevated CO2 concentration has increased aboveground biomass by 16.7% and 17.6% during the jointing and heading periods and only 3.5% and 9.4% during dough and maturity periods. The increases in belowground biomass due to CO2 elevation was 26.5%, 34.0% and 28.7% during the heading, dough and maturity periods, respectively. The response of biomass to enhanced CO2 concentration differed in N levels. Both the increase of aboveground biomass and belowground biomass were greater under high level of N supply (15 g N/m2). Elevated CO2 concentration also increased the allocation of biomass and carbon in root. Under elevated CO2 concentration, the average values of active carbon tended to increase. The increases of soil active soil contents followed the sequence of Microbial biomass carbon (10.6%) > dissolved organic carbon (7.5%) > oxidable labile carbon (6.6%) > carbohydrate carbon (4.1%). Stepwise regressions indicated there were significant correlations between the soil active carbon contents and plant biomass. Particularly, microbial carbon, oxidable labile carbon and carbohydrate carbon were found to be correlated with belowground biomass, while dissolved organic carbon has correlation with aboveground biomass. Therefore, increased biomass was regarded as the main driving force for the increase in soil active organic carbon under elevated CO2 concentration.

  1. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  2. Carbon Mineralization and the Related Enzyme Activity of Soil in Wetland%湿地根际土壤碳矿化及相关酶活性分异特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小锋; 宋长春; 宋霞; 宋新山

    2004-01-01

    研究了中国三江平原小叶章湿地根际土壤基础呼吸速率及相关酶活性,以了解碳矿化及其相关酶活性空间分异特征.结果表明,β-葡萄糖苷酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶均为碳循环的良好指示酶,它们均存在着显著的空间分异.从表层土向下,由根表土向外,碳矿化速率及其相关的各种酶活性均呈下降趋势.当从田间取出土壤样品时,土壤样品在取出后的最初阶段碳矿化速率较高,2.5 h以后达到一个较为平稳的水平,然后呈平缓降低的趋势.β-葡萄糖苷酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶是碳循环的真正催化剂,而土壤有机碳则是此反应的低物.%The enzyme activity and carbon mineralization in the Calamagrostis angustifolia rhizosphere of soil in Sanjiang Plain, China, were investigated in order to understand the microbial effect on carbon mineralization in wetland soil. The results suggest that the β-Glucosidase, amylase and cellulase activities should be nice indicators for carbon cycling. The activities are high in the topsoil and low in the subsoil, decrease from rhizoplane soil to root-free soil for all three enzymes. Carbon is mineralized rapidly once separated from field, then decrease in a short term, and stable after 2.5 h. The enzymes in microorganism are real catalysts for carbon cycling.

  3. Microcosm experiments to study the interaction of solid and solute phases during initial soil development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, C.; Chabbi, S.; Schaaf, W.

    2009-04-01

    During the initial phase of soil formation mineral weathering, interactions between the solid and liquid phases as well as accumulation of organic matter play an important role for the development of soil properties and for the establishment of vegetation and the colonization of soil biota. Our study is part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre (SFB/TRR 38) ‘Patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development in an artificial catchment' funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The catchment ´Chicken Creeḱ close to Cottbus (Germany) has a size of 6 ha and is composed of a 3-4 m layer of Quaternary loamy to sandy sediments overlying a 1-2 m clay layer. To connect interactions between the soil solid phase and soil solution at the micro-scale with observed processes at the catchment scale we perform microcosm experiments with soil samples from the catchment under controlled laboratory conditions. The microcosm experiments are carried out in a climate chamber at constant 10 °C corresponding to the mean annual temperature of the region. In total 48 soil columns with a diameter of 14.4 cm and height of 30 cm were filled with substrates of two textural compositions reflecting the gradients observed at the catchment and a bulk density of 1.4-1.5 g*cm3. Within the microcosms it is possible to control the gaseous phase and the water fluxes by artificial irrigation. The irrigation runs automated and quasi-continuously four times a day with 6.6 ml each (in total 600 mm*yr-1). Irrigation amount and chemical composition of the artificial rainwater are based on the annual mean at the field site. Litter of two different plant species occurring at the catchment site (Lotus corniculatus, Calamagrostis epigejos) labelled with stable isotopes (δ13C; δ15N) is used for the experiments. All treatments including a control run with four replicates. The gaseous phase in the headspace of the microcosms is analysed continuously for CO2 and N2O contents

  4. 沟稃草属叶表皮微形态的研究%Study on the micromorphology of leaf lower epidermis of Aniselytron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕红; 张学杰; 樊守金

    2015-01-01

    The micromorphology of the leaf lower epidermis for 19 species belonging to Aniselytron and its related genera of Poaceae were observed by scanning electron microscope. The result showed that the epidermal structure of Aniselytron and its related genera contained long cells, short cells, subsidiary cells and prickle⁃hairs et al. The appearance and distribution of them were inconsistent. The intercostal long cells in Aniselytron were rhomboid, and the long cell outlines were straight. The intercostal short cells occurred solitary or together with prickles. The shapes of silica cells in costal zones were nodular. Parallel⁃shaped subsidiary cells were found, and prickles frequently occurred both in costal and intercostal zones. The micromorphology characteristics of leaf epidermis revealed that Aniselytron was closely related to Poeae, and a distantly related to Calamagrostis s. l. , Agrostideae and Aveneae. According to the micromorphology of the leaf lower epidermis, we draw the conclusion that Aniselytron should be placed in Poeae.%利用扫描电子显微镜对禾本科沟稃草属及其近缘类群8属19种植物叶下表皮微形态进行比较研究。结果显示,所研究的沟稃草属及其近缘属叶下表皮结构由长细胞、短细胞、气孔器和刺毛等组成,但各类细胞在叶面的出现与分布情形不一致。沟稃草属脉间长细胞长菱形,细胞壁边缘平直,脉间短细胞单生或与刺细胞并生,脉上硅细胞结节形,气孔副卫细胞平行形,脉上及脉间刺细胞常见。根据叶表皮微形态特征,沟稃草属可能与早熟禾族早熟禾属植物亲缘关系较近,与广义拂子茅属、剪股颖族和燕麦族等的亲缘关系较远,叶表皮微形态证据支持将沟稃草属置于早熟禾族。

  5. Rasgos de historia de vida de especies en una comunidad vegetal alterada principalmente por pastoreo en un páramo húmedo (Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Jesús Orlando

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron once rasgos de historia de vida (morfológicos y de regeneración de plantas vasculares, en
    cuatro sitios con diferente grado de alteración, que hacen parte de una misma unidad de paisaje y condiciones
    topográficas similares. Ubicados en los valles de los ríos Tunjo y Piedras Gordas, páramo de Palacio, parque nacional natural Chingaza, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Entre 3.400-3.600 m de altitud, a los 4º45’03’’N, 73º50’50’’W. Estos valles, principalmente el valle del río Tunjo tienen una larga historia de disturbio por quema y pastoreo de ganado vacuno. La comunidad natural es de Espeletia killipii, Chusquea tessellata y Calamagrostis effusa. Mediante un análisis de clasificación y un procedimiento de componentes principales (ACP se agruparon las especies de acuerdo a rasgos similares y se analizó su abundancia de acuerdo con el grado de alteración. Se identificaron tres grupos de especies, diferenciados principalmente por los rasgos morfológicos: tipo de planta, forma de crecimiento, hábito y altura. El grupo uno se caracteriza principalmente por especies graminoides (73%, erectas (100% en macolla (68% con alturas mayores a 5 cm (60%; el grupo dos por hierbas rastreras o postradas (76 % que forman cojines o tapetes (86% con alturas menores a 5 cm (79% y el grupo tres por hierbas (88% en roseta (100% que no forman cojines o tapetes. Cada uno de estos grupos, presentaron una máxima abundancia-cobertura a un grado de alteración en particular; el grupo uno, no es favorecido en su abundancia-cobertura al aumentar el grado de
    alteración, presenta su mayor abundancia en los sitios con alteración leve y sin alteración (33 y 30%; el grupo dos es característico del sitio con alteración alta, donde presento la mayor abundancia (44% y el grupo tres presentó su menor abundancia en el sitio con mayor grado de alteración (8%.

  6. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  7. 基质和覆盖对观赏草容器苗越冬的影响%Effect of Substrates and Covering on Winter Survival of Ornamental Grasses Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 滕文军; 杨学军; 武菊英

    2011-01-01

    越冬是观赏草容器苗生产的关键环节,选择北京地区有代表性的5种观赏草,研究了基质和覆盖对其容器苗越冬的影响.试验结果表明,草炭改善了基质的物理性质,随着草炭含量增加,基质的含水量、田间持水量和孔隙度升高,容重降低.覆盖有效提高了基质的含水量,使观赏草容器苗提前萌芽,促进效果从大到小依次为塑料、覆膜无纺布、无纺布.5种观赏草的耐寒性从强到弱为拂子茅、狼尾草、野古草和须芒草、细叶芒.拂子茅、狼尾草、野古草和须芒草的容器苗不需覆盖可越冬,基质对其萌芽没有明显影响.对于耐寒性较差的细叶芒,基质影响裸露容器苗的越冬萌芽率,采取园土与草炭同体积配制的基质有利于细叶芒种苗越冬.细叶芒的容器苗需要采取覆盖防寒措施.因为揭开塑料后萌出的叶片可能凋萎,建议采取覆膜无纺布或无纺布作为覆盖材料.%Ornamental grasses are a kind of new landscape plant. Recently lots of ornamental grasses cultivars have been introduced and developed for greening. Winter survival is an important sector for production of ornamental grasses container seedlings. Five representative ornamental grasses of Beijing area are singled to study the effect of substrates and covering on winter survival of their container seedlings. Results showed that peat improved the physical characteristics of substrates. With peat content increased,water content, field moisture capacity and porosity increased,and bulk density decreased. Covering increased water content of substrates and advanced sprouting of the container seedlings ,with the order of plastic ,laminated non woven and non woven. Five ornamental grasses were sorted by cold resistance as Calamagrostis brachytricha, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Arundinella hirta and Andropogon scoparius, and Miscanthus sinensis' Gracillimus'. Container seedlings of C. brachytricha ,P. alopecuroides ,A

  8. Quantitative analysis of riparian herbaceous community in Liaohe River Conservation Area and its tributaries%辽河保护区及其支流河岸草本植物群落数量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔维静; 夏会娟; 张远; 侯利萍

    2015-01-01

    研究河岸草本植物群落特征是河岸植被生态修复的前提.采用样线法调查辽河保护区及其支流的河岸带草本植物群落,分析物种多样性特征,利用组平均聚类法和除趋势对应分析(DCA)对群落进行分类和排序,并探讨影响河岸草本植物群落分布的主要环境因子.结果显示:辽河保护区及其支流河岸共有草本植物154种,分属40科96属.山区河流的河岸草本植物物种多样性低于平原地区河流,支流的河岸物种多样性高于辽河保护区;群落物种多样性与河流坡降、蜿蜒度以及河流等级显著相关(P<0.01).聚类分析结果显示,辽河保护区及其支流河岸带草本植物群落可划分为23种类型,其中湿生植物群落占据优势,包括无芒稗(Echinochloa crusgalli)群落、水芹(Oenanthejavanica群落、水蓼(Polygonum hydropiper)群落、疣草(Murdannia keisak)群落、蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis群落、藨草(Scirpus triqueter)群落、卵穗荸荠(Heleocharis soloniensis群落、红鳞扁莎(Pycreus sanguinolentus)群落、褐穗莎草(Cyperusfuscus)群落、芦苇(Phragmites australis)群落、两栖蓼(P.amphibium群落、圆锥薹草(Carexdiandra)+萎蒿群落和圆锥薹草十沼生蔊菜(Rorippa islandica)群落.DCA排序轴与环境因子的相关性分析表明,海拔、坡降、蜿蜒度和河流等级对辽河保护区及其支流河岸带草本植物群落的分布具有影响,其中河流等级的贡献率最大,其次为海拔和坡降,蜿蜒度贡献率最小.本研究中拂子茅(Calamagrostis epigeios)、荻(Triarrhena sacchariflora)和芦苇是恢复河岸植被的优良物种.

  9. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of White-napped Crane on Spring in Qixinghe, Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江七星河春季白枕鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景海; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2013-01-01

    White-napped Crane (Grus vipio)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. White -napped Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species ) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also list-ed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During April to May 2011, the foraging habitat of White-napped Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Qixinghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 70 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus vipio mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp., Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40cm to 80cm, the density was higher than 600 plants per square meter, vegetation cover was mainly between 0 and 25%, and the depth of the foraging place water was 5~15cm, the distance of human disturbance was greater than 1500m. Human activity greatly affects Grus vipio foraging. In spring, Grus vipio sometimes foraging in the burns down.%  白枕鹤(Grus vipio)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家II级重点保护鸟类;2011年4~5月,笔者在七星河自然保护区对白枕鹤春季觅食地生境进行了调查;采用GPS定位技术和直接观察法对白枕鹤栖息生境进行测定,共获取70个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其春季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:白枕鹤春季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度高于600株/m2,植被盖度为0

  10. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of Red-crowned Crane in Summer in Honghe Wetland%洪河湿地夏季丹顶鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2014-01-01

    Red-crowned Crane(Grus japonensis)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. Red-crowned Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also listed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During June 2012, the foraging habitat of Red-crowned Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Honghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 80 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus japonensis mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp.,Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40 to 80cm,the density was between 400 to 800 plants per square meter,vegetation cover less than 25%,and the depth of the foraging place water was between 10 to 15cm,the distance of human disturbance was between 0.4 to 0.8km. Human activity greatly affects Grus japonensis foraging.%丹顶鹤(Grus japonensis)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家I级重点保护鸟类;2012年6月,笔者在洪河自然保护区对丹顶鹤夏季觅食地生境进行了调查;共获取80个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其夏季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:丹顶鹤夏季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度400~800株/m2,植被盖度为<25%,觅食地水深多为10~15cm,人为干扰距离为0.4~0.8km;人为活动严重影响着丹顶鹤夏季的觅食。

  11. Paleoseismology at high latitudes: Seismic disturbance of upper Quaternary deposits along the Castle Mountain fault near Houston, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, P.J.; Best, T.C.; Waythomas, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    thrust motion since deposition of the oldest deposits in the trenches at ca. 13,500 yr B.P. We found liquefaction ejecta on paleosols at only one other trench, where there were bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis) tussocks that lacked an extensive root mat. From crosscutting relationships, we interpret three paleoliquefaction events on the main trace of the Castle Mountain fault: 2145-1870, 1375-1070, and 730-610 cal. yr B.P. These four earthquakes on the Castle Mountain fault in the past ???2700 yr indicate an average recurrence interval of ???700 yr. As it has been 600-700 yr since the last significant earthquake, a significant (magnitude 6-7) earthquake in the near future may be likely. Paleoseismic data indicate that the timing and recurrence interval of megathrust earthquakes is similar to the timing and recurrence interval of Castle Mountain fault earthquakes, suggesting a possible link between faulting on the megathrust and on "crustal" structures.

  12. Characterization of interactions between soil solid phase and soil solution in the initial ecosystem development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Claudia; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In the initial phase of soil formation interactions between solid and liquid phases and processes like mineral weathering, formation of reactive surfaces and accumulation of organic matter play a decisive role in developing soil properties. As part of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre (SFB/TRR 38) 'Patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development' in an artificial catchment, these interactions are studied at the catchment 'Chicken Creek' (Gerwin et al. 2009). To link the interactions between soil solid phase and soil solution at the micro-scale with observed processes at the catchment scale, microcosm experiments under controlled laboratory conditions were carried out. Main objectives were to determine the transformation processes of C and N from litter decomposition within the gaseous, liquid and solid phase, the interaction with mineral surfaces and its role for the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. The microcosm experiments were established in a climate chamber at constant 10 ° C. In total 48 soil columns (diameter: 14.4 cm; height: 30 cm) were filled with two different quaternary substrates (sand and loamy sand) representing the textural variation within the catchment at a bulk density of 1.4-1.5 g*cm-3. The columns were automatically irrigated four times a day with 6.6 ml each (corresponding to 600 mm*yr-1). The gaseous phase in the headspace of the microcosms was analysed continuously for CO2 and N2O contents. C and N transformation processes were studied using 13C and 15N labelled litter of two different plant species occurring at the catchment (Lotus corniculatus, Calamagrostis epigejos) that was incorporated into the microcosm surface. All treatments including a control ran with four replicates over a period of 40 weeks. Two additional microcosms act as pure litter controls where substrate was replaced by glass pearls. Litter and substrate were analysed before and after the experiment. Percolate was continuously collected and

  13. Effect of pattern formation on C and N turnover heterogeneity in initial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    The formation of vegetation patterns and hydrological processes, among others, result in soil heterogeneity in newly exposed land surfaces. We studied the effect of these developling structures on carbon and nitrogen trunover in soils of the artificial catchment Chicken Creek (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2012). Substrates with different physical and geochemical properties in combination with different labelled plant litter materials were studied in a microcosm experiment over a period of 80 weeks. Main objectives of the microcosm experiment were to determine the transformation processes of C and N from litter decomposition within the gaseous, liquid and solid phase, the interaction with mineral surfaces and its role for the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. The microcosm experiments were established in a climate chamber at constant 10 °C. In total, 48 soil columns (diameter: 14.4 cm; height: 30 cm) were filled with two different quaternary substrates (sand and loamy sand) representing the textural variation within the catchment at a bulk density of 1.4-1.5 g cm-3. The columns were automatically irrigated with artificial rainwater four times a day with 6.6 ml each (corresponding to 600 mm yr-1). The gaseous phase in the headspace of the microcosms was analyzed continuously for CO2 and N2O concentrations. C and N transformation processes were studied using 13C and 15N labelled litter of two different plant species occurring at the catchment (Lotus corniculatus, Calamagrostis epigejos) that was incorporated into the microcosm surface. By including litter from species with wide distribution within the catchment and soil substrates representing the main variation types of the sediments used for catchment construction we were able to characterize the general function of these sub-patches within the catchment with respect to litter decomposition, soil solution composition, DOC and nutrient leaching, and impact on the mineral soil phase. The results suggest that initial

  14. Potential phytotoxic and shading effects of invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae taxa on the germination of native dominant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Moravcová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of knotweeds (genus Fallopia, Polygonaceae, native to Asia (Fallopia sachalinensis, F. japonica and their hybrid (F. ×bohemica belong to the most noxious plant invaders in Europe and exert a high impact on invaded plant communities that are therefore typically extremely poor in species. The remarkable paucity of invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing germinating populations of native species in invaded stands. In this pilot study we assessed, under laboratory conditions, whether there are phytotoxic effects of the three Fallopia congeners on seed germination of three target species: two native species commonly growing in habitats that are often invaded by knotweeds (Urtica dioica, Calamagrostis epigejos, and Lepidium sativum, a species commonly used in allelopathic bioassay as a control. Since knotweeds generally form stands with a high cover, we included varying light conditions as an additional factor, to simulate the effects on germination of shading by leaf canopy. The effects of aqueous extracts (2.5, 5.0%, and 0% as a control from dry leaves and rhizomes of the Fallopia congeners on germination of the target species were thus studied under two light regimes, simulating full daylight (white light and light filtered through canopy (green light, and in dark as a control regime. Rhizome extracts did not affect germination. Light treatments yielded inconclusive results, indicating that poor germination and establishment of species in invaded stands is unlikely to be caused by shading alone, but we found a pronounced phytotoxic effect of leaf extracts of Fallopia taxa, more so at 5.0% than 2.5% extract concentration. Fallopia sachalinensis exerted the largest negative effect on the germination of Urtica dioica, F. ×bohemica on that of C.epigejos, and F. japonica had invariably the lowest inhibitory effect. In the field in Central Europe, F. sachalinensis often invades less disturbed, moist

  15. CATÁLOGO DE LA FAMILIA POACEAE EN COLOMBIA

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    Diego Giraldo-Cañas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un inventario de las especies de Poaceae de Colombia junto con un análisis de la diversidad específica de esta familia según las regiones naturales colombianas, los gradientes de altitud y de precipitaciones, y la distribución sistemática. Se realizaron 96 expediciones de campo a las diez grandes regiones naturales de Colombia (Amazonia, Andes, Caribe, Chocó Biogeográfico, Guayana, islas caribeñas, Orinoquia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, valle del río Cauca y valle del río Magdalena con un muestreo total de alrededor de 5800 ejemplares. Además, se consultaron colecciones de los herbarios CAUP, COAH, COL, CUVC, CHOCO, HFAB, HUA, HUQ, JAUM, MEDEL, MEXU, MO, NY, PSO, RSA, SI, UDBC, UIS, US, VALLE y VEN, y se realizó una investigación bibliográfica exhaustiva. Las Poaceae están representadas en Colombia por 840 especies y 173 géneros. Se reconocieron 74 especies y un género (Agrostopoa endémicos. Por otra parte, se documentaron 83 especies introducidas-naturalizadas y 50 introducidas-cultivadas. Los géneros más ricos en especies son Paspalum (89 especies, Panicum (42, Festuca (36, Eragrostis (29, Calamagrostis (25, Chusquea (25, Digitaria (24, Axonopus (21, Setaria (20, Cenchrus (18, Poa (17, Muhlenbergia (16, Andropogon (15, Aristida (15, Agrostis (14, Lasiacis (12, Urochloa (12, Pariana (11, Sporobolus (11, Arthrostylidium (10, Cortaderia (10, Nassella (10, Neurolepis (10 y Schizachyrium (10. Durante el desarrollo de esta investigación, se descubrieron 10 nuevos registros para la flora colombiana. La regiones Andina, Orinocense, Caribe y Guayanesa son las más ricas en especies, con 583, 233, 186 y 179 especies, respectivamente. La Región Andina presenta el mayor número de especies endémicas (57 especies. Los gradientes altitudinales más diversos corresponden a los de las tierras bajas (por debajo de 1200 m s.m.. Al igual que en otras áreas tropicales, en Colombia las subfamilias de Poaceae muestran una

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT COMMUNITY AND SOIL ON THE INTER-DUNE LOWLAND IN THE MIDDLE OF OTINGDAG SAND LAND%浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地植物群落分布与土壤环境关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋创业; 郭柯

    2007-01-01

    为了研究浑善达克沙地丘间低地植物群落类型及其分布与土壤环境因子的关系,于2004年7~8月对浑善达克沙地丘间低地进行了植物群落学调查,共获取群落样方102个,其中草本植物群落样方99个,灌木样方3个.同时对每一个样方均取了土样,并分析了土壤的全氮、有机质、可溶性钾、钠的含量和土壤溶液的pH值.对在浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地获取的102个植物群落样方进行了分析,按照样方中建群种和优势种的重要值把它们归属于28个植物群落类型,分别以黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)、褐沙蒿(A. intramongolica)、沙地雀麦(Bromus ircutensis)、尖头叶藜(Chenopodium acuminatum)、大籽蒿(Artemisia sieversiana)、砂珍棘豆(Oxytropis gracilima)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)、冷蒿(Artemisia frigida)、寸草苔(Carex duriuscula)、糙隐子草(Cleistogenes squarrosa)、冰草(Agropyron cristatum)、克氏针茅(Stipa krylovii)、羊草(Leymus chinensis)、赖草(L. secalinus)、无芒雀麦(Bromus inermis)、草地风毛菊(Saussurea amara)、菊叶委陵菜(Potentilla tanacetifolia)、芨芨草(Achnatherum splendens)、马蔺(Iris lactea)、小红柳 (Salix microstachya)、芦苇(Phragmites australis)、拂子茅 (Calamagrostis epigejos)、鹅绒委陵菜(Potentilla anserine)、金戴戴(Halerpestes ruthenica)、星星草(Puccinellia tenuiflora)、水葱(Scirpus tabernaemontani)、碱篷(Suaeda glauca)为建群种.黄花蒿、沙地雀麦、猪毛蒿、褐沙蒿、尖头叶藜、大籽蒿、砂珍棘豆和狗尾草等群落分布于沙生环境,地下水位低,土壤溶液为中性,全氮和有机质平均含量低;冷蒿、糙隐子草、冰草、克氏针茅、寸草苔、羊草、赖草和菊叶委陵菜等群落分布于固定沙地,土壤的水分、全氮和有机质的含量都较高;无芒雀麦、草地风毛菊、鹅绒委陵菜、星星草和芦苇等群落分布于中生环境,地下

  17. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.