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Sample records for calamagrostis acutiflora

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

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    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  2. EFFECT OF CARBON AVAILABILITY ON MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES IN Calamagrostis angustifolia SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Feng; SONG Chang-Chun; SONG Xia; YANG Huai-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Carbon availability varies very much along soil profile and decreases from topsoil to subsoil. The effect of carbon availability index (CAI) on microbial activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia soil in the Sanjiang Plain in the Northeast China was measured. Based on the proposal about CAI and microbial respiration from Parkinson and Coleman (1999), the results showed that carbon availability limits the microbial activities in topsoil, root layer soil and subsoil initially, whereas it does not limit the microbial activity after 1.5 h incubation for recovery from the disturbance in physical, chemical and biology structure resulting from sampling, then after 5h incubation carbon availability limits mi-crobial activity again after the labile carbon was mineralized. At the same time the soil organic matter affects the carbon availability significantly when it is lower than 10%, but little when the soil organic matter is higher than 10%. The microbial biomass carbon is linearly related to carbon availability in the Calamagrostis angustifolia soil. When the CAI is lower than 0.85, the β-glucosidase activity increases along with CAI, but decreases when CAI is larger than 0.85.

  3. Effect of exogenous phosphorus addition on soil respiration in Calamagrostis angustifolia freshwater marshes of Northeast China

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    Song, Changchun; Liu, Deyan; Song, Yanyu; Yang, Guisheng; Wan, Zhongmei; Li, Yingchen; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2011-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to wetland ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration in these ecosystems. To understand the effect of P enrichment on soil respiration, we conducted a field experiment in Calamagrostis angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes, the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. We investigated soil respiration in the first growing season after P addition at four rates (0, 1.2, 4.8 and 9.6 g P m-2 year-1). In addition, we also examined aboveground biomass, soil labile C fractions (dissolved organic C, DOC; microbial biomass C, MBC; easily oxidizable C, EOC) and enzyme activities (invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities) following one year of P addition. P addition decreased soil respiration during the growing season. Dissolved organic C in soil pore water increased after P addition at both 5 and 15 cm depths. Moreover, increased P input generally inhibited soil MBC and enzyme activities, and had no effects on aboveground biomass and soil EOC. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, soil respiration declines under P enrichment in C. angustifolia-dominated freshwater marshes of Northeast China, and its extent varies with P addition levels.

  4. Nutrient limitation drives response of Calamagrostis epigejos to arbuscular mycorrhiza in primary succession.

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    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Dostálová, Magdalena; Janoušková, Martina; Frouz, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis over the course of primary succession, where soil, host plants, and AM fungal communities all undergo significant changes. Over the course of succession at the studied post-mining site, plant cover changes from an herbaceous community to the closed canopy of a deciduous forest. Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) is a common denominator at all stages, and it dominates among AM host species. Its growth response to AM fungi was studied at four distinctive stages of natural succession: 12, 20, 30, and 50 years of age, each represented by three spatially separated sites. Soils obtained from all 12 studied sites were γ-sterilized and used in a greenhouse experiment in which C. epigejos plants were (1) inoculated with a respective community of native AM fungi, (2) inoculated with reference AM fungal isolates from laboratory collection, or (3) cultivated without AM fungi. AM fungi strongly boosted plant growth during the first two stages but not during the latter two, where the effect was neutral or even negative. While plant phosphorus (P) uptake was generally increased by AM fungi, no contribution of mycorrhizae to nitrogen (N) uptake was recorded. Based on N:P in plant biomass, we related the turn from a positive to a neutral/negative effect of AM fungi on plant growth, observed along the chronosequence, to a shift in relative P and N availability. No functional differences were found between native and reference inocula, yet root colonization by the native AM fungi decreased relative to the reference inoculum in the later succession stages, thereby indicating shifts in the composition of AM fungal communities reflected in different functional characteristics of their members.

  5. Sulfur cycle in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingshuang; LI Xinhua

    2008-01-01

    The sulfur cycle and its compartmental distribution within an atmosphere-plant-soil system was studied using a compartment model in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain Northeast China. The results showed that in the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem, soil was the main storage compartment and current hinge of sulfur in which 98.4% sulfur was accumulated, while only 1.6% sulfur was accumulated in the plant compartment. In the plant subsystem, roots and litters were the main storage compartment of sulfur and they remained 83.5% of the total plant sulfur. The calculations of sulfur turnover through the compartments of the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem demonstrated that the above-ground component took up 0.99 gS/m2 from the root, of which 0.16 gS/m2 was translocated to the roots and 0.83 gS/m2 to the litter. The roots took in 1.05 gS/m2 from the soil, subsequent translocation back to the soil accounted for 1.31 gS/m2, while there was 1.84 gS/m2 in the litter and the net transfer of sulfur to the soil was more than 0.44 gS/(m2·a). The emission of H2S from the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere was 1.83 mgS/(m2·a), while carbonyl sulfide (COS) was absorbed by the typical meadow C. angustifolia wetland ecosystem from the atmosphere at the rate of 1.76 mgS/(m2·a). The input of sulfur by the rainfall to the ecosystem was 4.85 mgS/m2 during the growing season. The difference between input and output was 4.78 mgS/m2, which indicated that sulfur was accumulated in the ecosystem and may cause wetland acidify in the future.

  6. Use of 13C and 15N mass spectrometry to study the decomposition of Calamagrostis epigeios in soil column experiments with and without ash additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, B; Heil, B; Flessa, H; Beese, F

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems are not completely understood and the use of stable isotopes may be useful to gain further insight in the pathways of CO2 emissions and leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) during decomposition of litter. Objectives were (i) to study the decomposition dynamics of Calamagrostis epigeios, a common grass species in forests, using 13C-depleted and 15N-enriched plants and (ii) to quantify the effect wood ash addition on the decomposition and leaching of DOC and DON. Decomposition was studied for 128 days under aerobic conditions at 8 degrees C and moisture close to field capacity in a spodic dystric Cambisol with mor-moder layer. Variants included control plots and additions of (i) Calamagrostis litter and (ii) Calamagrostis litter plus 4 kg ash m-2. (i) Decomposition of Calamagrostis resulted in a CO2 production of 76.2 g CO2-C m-2 (10% of added C) after 128 days and cumulative DOC production was 14.0 g C m-2 out of which 0.9 g C m-2 was Calamagrostis-derived (0.1% of added C). The specific CO2 formation and specific DOC production from Calamagrostis were 6 times higher (CO2) and 4 times smaller (DOC) than those from the organic layer. The amount of Calamagrostis-derived total N (NH4+, NO3-, DON) leached was 0.7 g N m-2 (4.8% of added N). Cumulative DON production was 0.8 g N m-2 which was slightly higher than for the control. During soil passage, much of the DOC and DON was removed due to sorption or decomposition. DOC and DON releases from the mineral soil (17 cm depth) were 6.3 g C m-2 and 0.5 g N m-2. (ii) Addition of ash resulted in a complete fixing of CO2 for 40 days due to carbonatisation. Afterwards, the CO2 production rates were similar to the variant without ash addition. Production of DOC (98.6 g C m-2) and DON (2.5 g N m-2) was marked, mainly owing to humus decay. However, Calamagrostis-derived DOC and Calamagrostis-derived total N were only 3.9 g C m-2 (0.5% of added C) and 0.5 g N

  7. Nitrogen cycling of atmosphere-plant-soil system in the typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) distribution and cycling of atmosphere-plant-soil system in the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland (TMCW) and marsh meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland (MMCW) in the Sanjiang plain were studied by a compartment model. The results showed that the N wet deposition amount was 0.757 gN/(m2·a), and total inorganic N (TIN) was the main body (0.640 gN/(m2·a)). The ammonia volatilization amounts of TMCW and MMCW soils in growing season were 0.635 and 0.687 gN/m2, and the denitrification gaseous lost amounts were 0.617 and 0.405 gN/m2, respectively. In plant subsystem, the N was mainly stored in root and litter. Soil organic N was the main N storage of the two plant-soil systems and the proportions of it were 93.98% and 92.16%, respectively. The calculation results of N turnovers among compartments of TMCW and MMCW showed that the uptake amounts of root were 23.02 and 28.18 gN/(m2·a) and the values of aboveground were 11.31 and 6.08 gN/(m2·a), the re-translocation amounts from aboveground to root were 5.96 and 2.70 gN/(m2·a), the translocation amounts from aboveground living body to litter were 5.35 and 3.38 gN/(m2·a), the translocation amounts from litter to soil were larger than 1.55 and 3.01 gN/(m2·a), the translocation amounts from root to soil were 14.90 and 13.17 gN/(m2·a), and the soil (0-15cm) N net mineralization amounts were 1.94 and 0.55 gN/(m2·a), respectively. The study of N balance indicated that the two plant-soil systems might be situated in the status of lacking N, and the status might induce the degradation of C. angustifolia wetland.

  8. The hybrid origin of Calamagrostis ×gracilescens (Poaceae in Poland inferred from morphology and AFLP data

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    Beata Paszko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Calamagrostis canescens and C. stricta recorded in the Małopolska Upland (the vicinity of Zbijów Mały, ca. 10 km northeast of the town of Skarżysko-Kamienna, Central Poland was examined due to intermediate individuals found in sympatric populations of these species. Both putative parents as well as individuals that appeared hybrid-like were found in an extensive, wet hay-meadow. Various vegetative and reproductive characteristics were studied to identify hybrids. Interestingly, Polish accessions of C. ×gracilescens exhibited some degree of morphological intermediacy but resembled C. stricta in spikelet morphology. Branching of the mid-culm, the number of nodes per culm, callus hair length and relative callus hair length are the best characters to distinguish the Polish C. ×gracilescens. AFLP analysis proved to be suitable for detecting recent hybridization events between C. canescens and C. stricta. Analysis of the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that C. ×gracilescens were subjected to gene flow from the C. canescens gene pool as well as from the C. stricta gene pool.

  9. Biomass structure and nitrogen, phosphorus nutrient of Calamagrostis angustifolia populations in different communities of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhigao; QIN Shengjin; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Jinda

    2007-01-01

    Calamagrostis angustifolia is the dominant species in the typical meadow and marsh meadow communities of Sanjiang Plain.The study on its biomass,the nitrogen(N)and phosphorus(P)contents in its different organs showed that the biomass of different C.angustifolia organs in the two types of wetland communities was distinctly different,which could be described by polynomial.The biomass of aboveground part and each organ presented single peak changing,with the maximum value of the latter occurred 15 days after.The F/C values were all less than 1,which were bigger in typical meadow than those in marsh meadow.The total N and P contents in different organs of aboveground part all descended monotonically in growth season,with the order of leaf>vagina>stem.The change of total N content in roots of the two types of C.angustifolia was consistent,while that of total P was quite different.The content of total N,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N)and nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N),especially of NH4+-N and NO3--N,varied widely in different organs,with NH4+-N/NO3--N>1.Root was the important storage of N and P,but the storage of N and P in stem,leaf and vagina fluctuated greatly.The N/P ratios of the two types of C.angustifolia were all less than 14,which implied that N might be the limiting nutrient of C.angustifolia,and the limitation degree was higher in typical meadow than that in marsh meadow.

  10. Distribution and Fate of Anthropogenic Nitrogen in the Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetland Ecosystem of Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

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    Zhi-Gao Sun; Jing-Shuang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are important for the protection of water quality of rivers and lakes, especially those adjacent to agricultural landscapes, by intercepting and removing nutrients in runoff. In this study, the 15N tracer technique was applied to study the distribution and fate of anthropogenic nitrogen (15N-fertilizer) in Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom wetland plant-soil microcosms to identify the main ecological effects of it. 15NH415NO3 solution (14.93 mg N/L, 20.28 at.% 15N) was added to each microcosm of the first group, which was approximate to the current nitrogen concentration (CNC) of farm drainage, and 29.86 mg NIL 15NH415NO3 solution was added to another group, which was approximate to the double nitrogen concentration (DNC) of farm drainage, while no nitrogen (NN) was added to the third group. The results suggest that the Input of anthropogenic nitrogen has positive effects on the biomass and total nitrogen content of plant, and the positive effects will be elevated as the increase of its Input amount. The increase of 15N-fartilizer can also elevate its amounts and proportions in plant nitrogen. Soil nitrogen is still the main source of plant nitrogen, but its proportion will be reduced as the increase of 15N-fertilizer. The study of the fate of 15N-fartilizar indicates that, in CNC treatment, only a small proportion is water-dissolved (0.13±0.20%), a considerable proportion is soil-immobilized (17.02±8.62%), or plant-assimilated (23.70±0.92%), and most is lost by gaseous forms (59.15±8.35%). While in DNC treatment, about 0.09±0.15% is water-dissolved, 15.33±7.46% is soil-immobilized, 23.55±2.86% is plant-assimilated, and 61.01±5.59% is lost by gaseous forms. The double input of anthropogenic nitrogen can not elevate the proportions of plant-assimilation, soil-immobilization and water-dissolution,but it can enhance the gaseous losses.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae): response capacities of genotypes from different populations of contrasting habitats to a range of soil fertility

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    Lehmann, Cornelia; Rebele, Franz

    2005-09-01

    We investigated differences in response capacities among genotypes of six populations of Calamagrostis epigejos across three levels of soil fertility. Substrate effects were highly significant ( P environment interactions. Plastic responses of most characters were correlated to each other, indicating a high degree of phenotypic integration. Root allocation was negatively correlated with rhizome allocation, revealing an inversely related allocation pattern between roots and rhizomes. Rhizome biomass was the character with the highest mean amount of plasticity over all populations (mean CV: 48.7 ± 13.6), whereas leaf width showed lowest plasticity with a mean CV of 9.0 ± 4.6. Character means and CVs over the six populations were not correlated, except root allocation and plant height. It was striking that the population from the most stressful habitat (a copper smelter) showed the lowest amount of plasticity. The great success of C. epigejos over a variety of contrasting habitats is due to both a high degree of phenotypic plasticity of individual genotypes and a considerable amount of genotypic variability within populations.

  12. Above- and below-ground responses of Calamagrostis purpurea to UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} under phosphorus limitation

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    Bussell, J.S.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Griffith, G.W.; Scullion, J. (Aberystwyth Univ., IBERS, Wales (United Kingdom))

    2012-08-15

    UV-B radiation and elevated CO{sub 2} may impact rhizosphere processes through altered below-ground plant resource allocation and root exudation, changes that may have implications for nutrient acquisition. As nutrients limit plant growth in many habitats, their supply may dictate plant response under elevated CO{sub 2}. This study investigated UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} effects, including interactions, on plant growth, tissue chemistry and rooting responses relating to P acquisition. The sub-arctic grass Calamagrostis purpurea was subjected to UV-B (0 or 3.04 kJ m-2day-1) and CO{sub 2} (ambient 380 or 650 ppmv) treatments in a factorial glasshouse experiment, with sparingly soluble P (0 or 0.152 mg P per plant as FePO{sub 4}) a further factor. It was hypothesized that UV-B exposure and elevated CO{sub 2} would change plant resource allocation, with CO{sub 2} mitigating adverse responses to UV-B exposure and aiding P uptake. Plant biomass and morphology, tissue composition and rhizosphere leachate properties were measured. UV-B directly affected chemical composition of shoots and interacted with CO{sub 2} to give a greater root biomass. Elevated CO{sub 2} altered the composition of both shoots and roots and increased shoot biomass and secondary root length, while leachate pH decreased. Below-ground responses to CO{sub 2} did not affect P acquisition although P limitation progressively reduced leachate pH and increased secondary root length. Although direct plant growth, foliar composition and below-ground nutrient acquisition responses were dominated by CO{sub 2} treatments, UV-B modified these CO{sub 2} responses significantly. These interactions have implications for plant responses to future atmospheric conditions. (Author)

  13. 三江平原湿地典型草甸小叶章群落物种多样性的季节动态%Study on The seasonal dynamics of pecies diversity of typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community in Sanjiang Plain wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继丰; 王建波; 刘赢男; 朱道光; 付晓玲; 倪红伟

    2013-01-01

    In this study, using the Sanjiang Plain Wetlands typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community as the research object, explores the evenness and diversity index, the seasonal dynamics of species richness of it. Species richness of the typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community is the highest in July, seasonal dynamic change degree index of ecological advan-tages in“V” type; diversity index seasonal change of single-peak type. At the end of June to early July, community has the highest species diversity, distribution of individual species between the maximum uniformity; The seasonal dynamics of evenness index of typical meadow Calamagrostis angustifolia community is linear. Seasonal variation of index of diversity of the community shows consistency.%  本研究以三江平原湿地典型草甸小叶章群落为研究对象,从物种丰富度、均匀度和物种多样性指数等方面探讨其季节动态规律。典型草甸小叶章群落物种丰富度在7月份最高,生态优势度指数季节动态变化呈“V”型;多样性信息指数季节动态变化呈单峰型,6月末7月初群落群落的物种多样性最高,种类之间个体分配的均匀性最大;均匀度指数季节动态变化呈线型。群落α多样性的测度指标的季节动态变化表现出一致性。

  14. 水位对小叶章湿地CO2、CH4排放及土壤微生物活性的影响%Effects of water level on CO2 and CH4 flux and soil microbial activity in Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万忠梅

    2013-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem plays an important role in global carbon balance and climate change. The fluctuation of water level will affect biogeochemical process of wetland and further induce the variation of greenhouse gas flux. In order to determine the response of CO2, CH4 flux, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and enzyme activities in Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh on water level, field pot culture experiment was carried out under different water level treatments of-5 cm (Tl), 0 cm (T2), 5 cm(T3) and 10 cm (T4). Treatments of T1 and T2 simulated soil moisture conditions without waterlogged, while T3 and T4 simulated waterlogged conditions. The results indicated that the tendency of CO2 flux was different from CH4 along with water gradient, CO2 flux of -5 cm water level (T1) was (643.35±61.89) mg·m-2·h-1 and decreased by 6.9%, 12.1%, 40.0%respectively as the water gradient increased, when the water level increased up to10 cm, the CO2 flux declined significantly(P<0.05). However the CH4 flux increased with water gradient elevation and was in range of (1.52±0.12)~(5.34±0.61) mg·m-2·h-1. And the amount of Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh soil MBC, MBN and the activity of soil invertase and amylase under non-flooded condition were higher than those under flooded condition. And the microbial activity significantly depressed with water level increase.%  湿地生态系统对全球碳平衡和气候变化起着极其重要的作用,而水位波动将影响湿地生物地球化学过程,导致温室气体通量变化,为了明确湿地生态系统温室气体通量以及土壤微生物活性对水位梯度的生态响应,通过野外盆栽培养试验,设T1:-5 cm,T2:0 cm,T3:5 cm,T4:10 cm 4种水位梯度,T1和T2模拟湿地非淹水的水分状况,T3和T4模拟淹水状况,研究了不同水位梯度下小叶章(Calamagrostis angustifolia)湿地CO2、CH4通量、土壤微生物量碳、氮及土壤

  15. Influence of Water Level Gradient on Marsh Soil Microbial Activity of Calamagrostis angustifolia%水位梯度对小叶章湿地土壤微生物活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂生; 宋长春; 王丽; 王丽丽; 李英臣

    2010-01-01

    通过3 a野外控制试验,研究了不同水位梯度(-10~30 cm)条件下,小叶章湿地植物地上生物量和0~15 cm以及15~50 cm土壤总有机碳(TOC)、微生物量碳(MBC)、基础呼吸(BR)、微生物商(Cmic/Corg)、代谢商(qCO2)的变化规律.结果表明,不同水位条件下植物地上生物量差异显著(P<0.05),积水水位10 cm的植物地上生物量最高,且积水水位0~20 cm保持较高的生产力;积水水位变化对土壤TOC、MBC、BR、Cmic/Corg、qCO2影响显著(P<0.05).土壤TOC和BR对积水水位变化的响应趋势一致,0~15 cm土壤TOC和BR在零积水水位最高;15~50 cm土壤TOC和BR随着积水水位的升高而降低,与土壤MBC和Cmic/Cory的变化趋势相同,其中MBC变化最为明显;而qCO2随着积水水位的增加而增大.随着积水水位的增加,土壤微生物群落发生改变和土壤微生物活性降低,其中积水水位30 cm的土壤微生物活性最低,对有机碳的累积与分解过程产生影响.

  16. 三江平原小叶章湿地H2S和COS排放动态%Dynamics of H2S and COS Emission Fluxes from Different Calamagrostis angustifolia Wetlands in Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华; 刘景双; 杨继松

    2006-01-01

    利用静态箱/气相色谱法,观测了生长季(5~9月)三江平原小叶章沼泽化草甸H2S和COS的释放动态,结果表明,H2S、COS的排放通量具有季节和日变化规律,小叶章沼泽化草甸H2S的平均释放通量为0.34μg·(m2·h)-1,COS的平均释放通量为-0.29μg·(m2·h)-1;在生长季,小叶章沼泽化草甸表现为H2S的源,COS的汇小叶章的生长过程对H2S、COS的排放影响显著,在小叶章生长旺盛期,H2S出现排放峰值,COS出现吸收高峰,H2S和COS的释放通量呈负相关.

  17. 三江平原沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量季节动态规律%The seasonal dynamic law of biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia communities in swamped meadow of Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继丰; 王臣; 庄凤君; 付晓玲; 王建波; 周晓亮; 倪红伟

    2008-01-01

    对三江平原沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量进行研究;结果表明,沼泽化草甸小叶章群落生物量季节动态呈抛物线型,生物量最大值出现在7月末,为326.00g/m2;生物量累积生长量季节动态呈单峰型,最大积累量334.75 g/m2;生物量生长量、生物量绝对增长率和相对增长率季节动态都呈"Z"型,其最大值出现在7月末,分别为238.39 g/m2,7.95g/d,0.1825g/g·d.

  18. The effect of nitrogen addition on biomass production and competition in three expansive tall grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large increase of grasses Calamagrostis epigejos, Bromus inermis and Brachypodium pinnatum has often been observed in many regions enriched by higher nitrogen (N) wet deposition inputs. Competitive relationships between these grasses under enhanced N loads have not yet been studied. Therefore an outdoor experiment was established which involved monocultures of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium and their 1:1 mixtures in containers under two N treatments, i.e., unfertilized and fertilized (+50 kg N ha−1). In monocultures, the total aboveground biomass of Calamagrostis, Bromus and Brachypodium were 1.1, 3.6 and 2.5 times higher respectively due to enhanced N fertilization. Relative crowding and aggressivity coefficients indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate when mixed with Brachypodium at both levels of N availability. When mixed with Bromus, Calamagrostis is the poorer competitor at lower N loads, however, it can be dominating in N fertilized treatments. - Highlights: ► A large increase of tall grasses has often been observed in many ecosystems. ► Data on competitive relationships between grasses were investigated. ► Competition indices indicate that Calamagrostis and Bromus dominate in mixtures with Brachypodium. ► Calamagrostis is a better competitor when mixed with Bromus but only at higher N loads. ► N deposition may play a critical role in the expansion and persistence of grasses in the landscape. - Competition abilities of Calamagrostis and Bromus were greater than Brachypodium and the competitive superiority of Calamagrostis to Bromus was in N rich substrate.

  19. 大气CO2浓度升高对小叶章光合色素含量和光合参数的影响%Effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic pigments content and characteristics of Calamagrostis angustifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波; 倪红伟; 付小玲; 钟海秀; 王继丰

    2013-01-01

      研究了CO2升高对小叶章光合色素含量及相应光合参数的影响.实地条件下测定了净光合速率(PN)对光合有效辐射(PAR)的响应曲线,根据非直角双曲线模型,推算最大净光合速率(Amax)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)以及表观量子产量(AQE)等.结果表明CO2升高增加了小叶章叶片光合色素含量,但却降低了光合参数Amax、Rd以及AQE.光合色素含量和光合参数呈现不同的变化趋势.%A field experiment was carried out with treatments different CO2 concentration to investigate effects on and photosyn-thetic pigments content and photosynthetic parameters. The response curves of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) versus photosyn-thetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in situ. This response curve was then analysed using non-rectangular hyperbol-ic photosynthetic model, which calculated apparent quantum yield (AQE), dark respiration rate (Rd) and light-saturated photosynthet-ic rate (Amax). The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigment content but decreased Amax, Rd and AQE of leaves.

  20. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  1. Novedades agrostológicas (poaceae) para colombia, méxico y venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    GIRALDO-CAÑAS, DIEGO

    2012-01-01

    Se registran por primera vez para Colombia Aristida schiedeana Trin. & Rupr.,Calamagrostis guamanensis Escalona, Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene, Elionurusmuticus (Spreng.) Kuntze y Tripogon spicatus (Nees) Ekman. Por su parte, Axonopuscapillaris (Lam.) Chase es citada por primera vez para México, mientras queCalamagrostis jamesonii Steud. y Elionurus muticus se registran por primera vezpara Venezuela. Asimismo, se reporta por primera vez para la región andina a Raddiellaesenbeckii (Steud....

  2. Estudios ecológicos en el páramo de cruz verde, colombia. iv. la actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    Schnetter, Marie-Luise; Cardozo G., Hernán

    2012-01-01

    Se determinaron la respiración y la actividad de celulosólisis del suelo en las asociaciones vegetales de Diplostephium revolutum degradada, de Calamagrostis effusa, Espeletia grandiflora y Geranium santanderiense, de Calamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata y de un bosque bajo de páramo en el Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca). La mayoría de los promedios de la respiración del suelo se situaba entre 120 y 190 mg CO2/m2h. Valores menores se determinaron dos veces en la asociación degrada...

  3. GenBank blastn search result: AK059600 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059600 001-030-E05 AJ306449.1 Calamagrostis epigejos 5.8S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer... 1 (ITS1) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), specimen voucher Strenz 7.|PLN PLN 3e-79 Plus Plus ...

  4. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Gordana; Pavlović P.; Kostić Olga; Jarić Snežana; Đurđević Lola; Pavlović Dragana; Mitrović Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth.) Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years) of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia) were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo) followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measu...

  5. Search for a plant for phytoremediation--what can we learn from field and hydroponic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabłudowska, E; Kowalska, J; Jedynak, L; Wojas, S; Skłodowska, A; Antosiewicz, D M

    2009-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate the strategies for coping with arsenic toxicity developed by the mine species (Calamagrostis arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Stachys sylvatica, and Epilobium parviflorum), and to compare results obtained from plants exposed to arsenic present in contaminated soil (2000-3500 mg/kg dw) and in hydroponic solution (2 microM and 12 microM arsenate). Here we report basic differences in plant responses to arsenic depending on growth conditions (hydroponic/soil) with respect to uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, distribution, and detoxification/speciation. Calamagrostis has the highest level of As-tolerance among the tested species. When grown in soil, it accumulated the highest amount of As in roots and shoots relative to other species, however, when exposed to arsenic in hydroponics, it had lower As concentrations. The efficiency of arsenic root-to-shoot translocation was also different, being less effective in soil-grown Calamagrostis compared with hydroponics. Furthermore, in Calamagrostis exposed to arsenate in liquid medium, As(III) was the predominant arsenic form, in contrast to plants grown in As-contaminated soil, in which As(V) predominated. In addition, comparison of the level of phytochelatins showed that only PC2 was detected in plants from hydroponics, whereas in those from soil, additionally PC3 and PC4 were found. The results show that the basic components of a plant's response to arsenic, including uptake, accumulation as well as detoxification, change depending on the experimental conditions (arsenic in liquid medium or contaminated soil).

  6. [Segregation effect of purification for nitrogen and phosphate pollution in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Yan, Bai-Xing; Wang, Li-Xia

    2011-03-01

    Three minitype subsurface-horizontal flow constructed wetlands planted with Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis and filled with soil and slag were used to investigate the N, P and pH for upper layer and underlayer wetland system by intermission operation. Results demonstrated that TN removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 0.771 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 1.481 g x(m2 x d)(-1) with 10 days of the hydraulic retention, which were 1.15 and 1.31 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. Simultaneity, TP removal rates in the superstratum of Calamagrostis angustifolia and Phragmites australis wetlands were 1.655 g x (m2 x d)(-1), 6.838 g x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively, which were 1.13 and 1.28 times higher than that of underlayer wetland systems, respectively. The purification ability of upper layer in the wetland system was higher than that of underlayer. A regular trend of pH changes and upstanding buffer ability of wetland system were found. The pH values in the upper layer of soil-slag wetlands were smaller than that of underlayer which was contrary to the soil wetland. The break-point of pH curve indicates the termination of NH4(+) -N reaction in constructed wetland.

  7. DYNAMICS OF LITTER DECOMPOSITION AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PHOSPHORUS IN DECOMPOSED RESIDUA OF Calamagrotis augustifolia IN THE WETLAND OF THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the period of May to October in 1999, systematical studies were given to the rate of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter, the phosphorus content and weight in decomposed residua of litter, and phosphorus content in the corresponding soil in the Sanjiang Plain. At the same time, the simulation models were listed in the paper.The results showed that the rate of weight lost of decomposition of Calamagrostis angustifolia litter is 29. 80% and the maximum of daily rate of weight lost is 0.25%, which appeared in July. The change trend of phosphorus content and weight in the decomposed residua of litter is to reduce with the decomposing process, when it comes to the day of 157,the decrement amount of the both were respectively 57.69mg/kg and 1. 6199mg, which were 72. 80% and 76.30% of its previous amount. In addition, there is a polynomial minus correlationship of phosphorus content between the variation in corresponding soil and the decomposed residua of litter at the corresponding period. The study will be helpful to further understand the process and mechanism of biochemical cycling of nutrient elements in wetland ecosystems, in addition, it will also be helpful to the restoration and rebuilding of retrogressive wetlands and reasonable development and utilization of wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain.

  8. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  9. Vegetation of the ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve and its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krechowski Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve (forest district 206b, c and d of the Sarnaki Forest Inspectorate, situated in the area of the Podlaski Przełom Bug Landscape Park, is one of the most valuable natural assets of the central Bug river valley. The 12.98 ha reserve was established in 2010 to aid protection of the stand of xerothermic vegetation and its surrounding deciduous forest. In total, eight plant associations were identified within the reserve: Geranio-Peucedanetum cervariae, Geranio-Anemonetum sylvestris, Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris, Trifolio medii-Agrimonietum, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum, Rhamno-Cornetum sanguinei, Potentillo albae-Quercetum and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli. Furthermore, 23 protected and 31 endangered species were found in the reserve including the following examples: Cephalanthera rubra, Thesium ebracteatum, Cypripedium calceolus, Gentiana cruciata, Anemone sylvestris, Cimicifuga europaea, Viola rupestris, Crepis praemorsa, Asperula tinctoria, Stachys recta, Laserpitium latifolium. Over the last few years, a regression of the species diagnostic number for thermophilous oak forests and xerothermic grasslands has been observed as a result of succession and expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos. Active protection of xerothermic vegetation such as uprooting of trees and bushes, regular grazing or mowing has been suggested in order to prevent the expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos.

  10. [Soil Microorganism Characteristics and Soil Nutrients of Different Wetlands in Sanjinag Plain, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zhi-gang; Wu, Hai-tao; Lü, Xian-guo

    2015-05-01

    Four typical wetland types (i.e. wetlands with the following dominant plant species: Calamagrostis angustifolia + Salix brachypoda, Calamagrostis angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Phragmites australis) of the Honghe reserve in Sanjiang Plain were studied to investigate the distribution of soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that in 0-30 cm soil layer of these four wetlands: (1) Contents of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, while available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not exhibit regularly changes. Moreover, there were significantly different for soil nutrient contents among different wetland types (P actinomycetes > fungi, furthermore, the number of three microbial colonies all decreased with the increase of soil depth. Total soil microbial number of C. angustifolia wetland was the highest and that of C. lasiocarpa wetland was the lowest. (3) Soil invertase and cellulase activities decreased with soil depth, while soil catalase activity showed no consistent changes. Three kinds of enzyme activities in C. angustifolia + S. brachypoda and C. angustifolia wetlands were significantly higher than those of C. lasiocarpa and P. australis wetlands (P activity had a significant correlation with indicators of soil nutrients. But there was no correlation between actinomyces, invertase and available potassium, as well as between catalase and available potassium, available phosphorus. Overall, soil microorganism and enzyme activities are important indicators for reflecting the status of soil nutrients. PMID:26314138

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN TYPICAL WETLAND PLANTS IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-hai; WANG Qi-chao; WANG Yan; ZHANG Lei; SHAO Zhi-guo

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury concentration of typical wetland plants was analyzed in this paper. There were great differences of total mercury concentration among different plants: moss>hydrophyte>sedge>herbage>shrub. Total mercury concentrations show an increasing trend from vascular plants to bryophytes, and from dry to wet lands. The mercury concentration of wetland plants was higher than that of crops. The wetland soil was the source of mercury in the air close to the ground, so it affected the concentration of mercury in the plant. In different parts of a plant, mer-cury concentration was in the order of: dead stand>root>leaf>stem. Mercury concentration increased at the initial stage and decreased in the end of the growing season. According to the mercury content and biomass, mercury stock of plants was 39.4μg/m2 above ground in Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland and 35.8μg/m2 in Carex lasiocarpa wet-land.

  12. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments. PMID:22647548

  13. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V.; Hajduk, J.

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  14. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  15. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  16. Metal immobilization and soil amendment efficiency at a contaminated sediment landfill site: a field study focusing on plants, springtails, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Valérie; Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Caron, Lucie; Biaz, Asmaa; Dazy, Marc; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Metal immobilization may contribute to the environmental management strategy of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated by metals. In a field experiment, amendment effects and efficiency were investigated, focusing on plants, springtails and bacteria colonisation, metal extractability and sediment ecotoxicity. Conversely to hydroxylapatite (HA, 3% DW), the addition of Thomas Basic Slag (TBS, 5% DW) to a 5-yr deposited sediment contaminated with Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and As resulted in a decrease in the 0.01 M Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable concentrations of Cd and Zn. Shoot Cd and Zn concentration in Calamagrostis epigejos, the dominant plant species, also decreased in the presence of TBS. The addition of TBS and HA reduced sediment ecotoxicity and improved the growth of the total bacterial population. Hydroxylapatite improved plant species richness and diversity and decreased antioxidant enzymes in C. Epigejos and Urtica dïoica. Collembolan communities did not differ in abundance and diversity between the different treatments.

  17. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m2), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m2), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  18. Almacenamiento de carbono en pastos naturales de la subcuenca del Canipaco, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quispe Navarro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la correlación de pesos de biomasa aérea y radicular de las especies Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla y Muhlenbergia ligularis y sus capacidades de almacenamiento de carbono. La recolección de datos se realizó en tres zonas representativas tomando en cuenta factores como la fisonomía vegetativa, fisiografía, topografía y exposición hacia los puntos cardinales, denominándolas zonas I, II y III, equivalentes a tres poblaciones diferentes, las que fueron evaluadas aplicando el método de muestreo simple con distribución sistemática. Las unidades muestrales fueron parcelas cuadradas de 4m². La extracción de muestras vegetativas fueron tomadas al azar desde las parcelas, luego lavadas y oreadas a temperatura ambiente bajo techo antes de su traslado a laboratorios para el secado final, pesajes de biomasa y análisis del contenido de carbono. El procesamiento de datos del inventario para la estimación de la Biomasa y correlaciones fue por especie y zonas, luego a partir de los resultados de biomasa y mediante el factor de conversión se calcularon el contenido de carbono almacenado. Entre los resultados podemos mencionar que los promedios de carbono almacenados son: Calamagrostis vicunarum: 0,754 tC/ha; Festuca dolicophylla: 1,638 tC/ha y Muhlenbergia ligularis: 0,743 tC/ha. En conclusión, por la significancia de la correlación, el peso de la biomasa aérea puede permitir la estimación del peso de la biomasa radicular. El promedio de carbono almacenado por las tres especies juntas alcanza a 3,14 tC/ha.

  19. Vegetation of spoil banks as a reclamation and soil formation factor in the North Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, J.; Volf, F.

    1983-01-01

    Vegetation at spoil banks significantly influences soil formation process and positively influences land reclamation. During the initial stage vegetation is most intensive at places with optimum water conditions at slopes and at the top of spoil banks in zones of water accumulation. During the first, second and the third year waste rock weathering causes more intensive plant growth. The following plants are most active at spoil banks in North Bohemia: Atriplex nitens, Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum maritimum, Polygonum aviculare, Senecio viscosus, Tussilago farfara, Acetosella vulgaris and Carduus acanthoides. Three to five years after a spoil bank was formed perennial plants made up the prevailing part of the vegetation. The following plants play a significant role at this stage: Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Calamagrostis epigeios, Tanacetum vulgaris, Elytrigia repens, Melandrium album, Sambucus nigra, Achillea millefolium and Cardaria draba. At this stage grass vegetation also starts: e.g. Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Poa pratensis or Festuca pratensis. When a spoil bank already covered by perennial vegetation is reclaimed and the initial vegetation is covered by wastes during levelling, the secondary vegetation should not be treated as a continuation of the initial process but as an independent one. Plants used during the secondary phase of spoil bank reclamation should be characterized by a well developed root system and high humus production. Plants used for land reclamation are characterized. (15 refs.)

  20. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  1. The dynamics of the population of a steppe perennial Senecio macrophyllus M.BIEB. during xerothermic grassland overgrowing

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    Bożena Czarnecka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the long-term changes of the Senecio macrophyllus M.BIEB. population traits: the abundance, reproduction mode, individual fecundity, seed rain and recruitment of new genets in the course of xerothermic grassland overgrowing. The study had also the applied goal: to estimate the chances of "special care" species to survive in the changing environment without management regime for the maintenance of grassland. The model object was the island population of large-leaved ragwort on Biała Góra (the White Mountain near Tomaszów Lubelski, South-East Poland. To achieve these aims I used the following sets of data: phytosociological relev,s made in plant communities in an interval of 16-18 years; repeated elaboration of the numbers and life-stage structure of the population, both by non-surface and surface method; observation of plants, life cycle in 50 labelled genets; population reproduction and seed rain amounts. The area of an open xerothermic grassland decreased due to the process of overgrowing by bushes which was accompanied by the increasing coverage of forest and meadow herbs as well as monocotyledons, mainly Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis epigejos. The abundance of the S. macrophyllus population noticable diminished. The flowering mode has been changing during years from an oscillation to a chaotic type which caused the significant decreasing of the individual fecundity, population reproduction and seed rain. In last years it was reflected in the interruption of juveniles’ recruitment.

  2. FLORISTIC CHANGES ALONG THE TOPOGRAPHICAL GRADIENT IN MONTANE GRASSLANDS IN MONTI PICENTINI (CAMPANIA, SW ITALY

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    M. CUTINI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of xerotolerant species (Achnatherum calamagrostis, Stipa crassiculmis subsp. picentina, are scattered along a wide altitudinal gradient on slopes at mid- and high elevation in Monti Picentini, a subcoastal mesozoic limestone ridge in Tyrrhenian Southern Italy. Their stands are widespread in grasslands of mostly secondary origin. At lower altitudes these grasslands replace former deciduous forest communities dominated by oaks or beech, while at higher altitudes they reach the summits, where they apparently merge into the remnants of the still partially grazed, zonal climatogenic, grasslands ranging above the local tree-line. Nevertheless primary stands of these grasslands are to be found around the many clusters of highly dynamic sites of the montane and sub-alpine levels, scattered around screes and rocky outcrops of the prevalently dolomitic morphology of the slopes. This virtual continuity of non arboreal communities across more than 1000 metres of the local topographical gradient, where azonal, relic stands of Pinus nigra s.l. are transitional between the grasslands and the surrounding zonal broadleaved forest vegetation, stresses patterns of the coenological changes between Festuco-Brometea and Elyno-Seslerietea along the catena, which suggest fragmentary persistence of a paleozonation.

  3. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands.

  4. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

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    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  5. Influence of environment and substrate quality on the decomposition of wetland plant root in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuelian; LU Xianguo; TONG Shouzheng; DAI Guohua

    2008-01-01

    The litterbag method was used to study the decomposition of wetland plant root in three wetlands along a water level gradient in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. These wetlands are Calamagrostis angustifolia ( C.aa), Carex meyeriana (C.ma) and Carex lasiocarpa (C.la). The objective of our study is to evaluate the influence of environment and substrate quality on decomposition rates in the three wetlands. Calico material was used as a standard substrate to evaluate environmental influences. Roots native to each wetland were used to evaluate decomposition dynamics and substrate quality influences. Calico mass loss was statistically different among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm). Hydrology, temperature and pH all influence calico decomposition rates in different ways at different depths of the soil profiles. The decomposition rates of native roots declined differentially with the increase of depth in the soil profiles. The mass loss of native roots showed a statistical decrease among the three wetlands in the upper soil profile (0-10 cm) and in the lower depth range (10-20 cm) as C.ma wetland C.aa wetland C.la wetland. Both the C:P ratio and N:P ratio were positively interrelated with decomposition rates. Decomposition rates were negatively related to initial P concentration in all three wetlands, indicating that P concentration seems to be an important factor controlling the fitter loss.

  6. Research on dynamics of tundra ecosystems and their potential response to energy resource development. Progress report, May 1, 1978-April 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological effects (costs and benefits) of impacts that can be expected from the development and utilization of energy resources in the arctic. The impacts selected for study are: altered nutrient availability (nitrogen and phosphorus); altered patterns of soil water drainage; and vehicle tracks. The general ecosystem characteristics chosen to provide integrative measures of the possible ecological effects include annual primary production and the relative aboveground growth of the different species or growth forms comprising the vegetation. Plant growth forms are defined by height, leaf longevity, position of the perennating bud, and rooting pattern. The growth forms and species selected are: erect deciduous shrubs (Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, Salix pulchra); erect evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre); prostrate evergreen shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea); tussock graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum); rhizomatous graminoid (Carex bigelowii, Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum angustifolium); forb (Artemisia arctica); grass (Calamagrostis or Arctagrostis); cushion moss (Dicranum sp.); Sphagnum sp.; and Polytrichum commune. Progress is reported in field and laboratory studies. The main conclusion of the research is that species respond individually in terms of nutrient and total nonstructural carbohydrates accumulation to fertilization, and that the growth forms studied are not distinctive from each other on the basis of plant nutrition or growth. The explicit mechanism for integrating and guiding this research and for extrapolating the existing data base to make quantitative predictions of the effects of perturbations is a simulation model of arctic tundra vegetation and soil processes called ARTUS (Arctic Tundra Simulator). (JGB)

  7. Changes in the structure and floristic composition of the limestone grasslands after cutting trees and shrubs and mowing

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    Wojciech Bąba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcareous grasslands belong to the species-rich plant communities in Poland. Most of them are of anthropogenic origin and they need specific management (i.e. periodical cutting suckers of trees and shrubs, grazing or mowing in order to protect their floristic diversity. Many of calcareous grasslands have been overgrown by shrubs as a result of cessation of traditional management. The aim of this study was to compare the structure and dynamics of xerothermic hazel shrub patches, which were undergoing secondary succession with patches where different management practices aiming at restoration of species-rich limestone grassland were applied. The managed plots had a significantly higher species richness than the control one. However, they strongly differed in their floristic composition from well-preserved limestone grasslands. There were also significant differences observed between both the managed plots. Too intensive management, particularly frequent mowing of herbs resulted in expansion of grass species such as Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis arundinacea and caused a sharp decline in species richness. The species composition and turnover rate strongly depended on succesional stage (soil layer thickness of plots at the start of the experiment. The deeper was the soil, the higher was the rate of species turnover and the smaller was the share of xerothermic and thermophilous species. The last mentioned group was dominated by species with a persistent seed bank in the soil, frequently colonizing anthropogenic habitats.

  8. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  9. Associations of dominant plant species with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during vegetation development on coal mine spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydlova, J.; Vosatka, M. [Academy of Science. Pruhonice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    Among plants colonizing mine spoil banks in Northern Bohemia the first colonizers, mainly ruderal annuals from Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were found not to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These species cultivated in pots with soil from four sites in different succession stages of the spoil bank did not respond to the presence of native or non-native AMF. All grass species studied (Elytrigia repens, Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius) were found moderately colonized in the field. Carduus acanthoides was found to be highly colonized in the field; however, it did not show growth response to AMF in the pot experiment. The AMF native in four sites on the spoil banks showed high infectivity but low effectiveness in association with colonizing plants compared to the non-native isolate G. fistulosum BEG23. In general, dependence on AMF in the cultivation experiment was rather low, regardless of the fact that plants were found to be associated with AMF either in the field or in pots. Occurrence and effectiveness of mycorrhizal associations might relate primarily to the mycotrophic status of each plant species rather than to the age of the spoil bank sites studied.

  10. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

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    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  11. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  12. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  13. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  14. Responses of Carbon Dynamics to Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Freshwater Wetland of Sanjiang Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nitrogen deposition (N-deposition on the carbon dynamics in typical Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland of Sanjiang Plain were studied by a pot-culture experiment during two continuous plant growing seasons. Elevated atmospheric N-deposition caused significant increases in the aboveground net primary production and root biomass; moreover, a preferential partition of carbon to root was also observed. Different soil carbon fractions gained due to elevated N-deposition and their response intensities followed the sequence of labile carbon > dissolved organic carbon > microbial biomass carbon, and the interaction between N-deposition and flooded condition facilitated the release of different carbon fractions. Positive correlations were found between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and liable carbon contents with N-deposition, and flooded condition also tended to facilitate CH4 fluxes and to inhibit the CO2 fluxes with N-deposition. The increases in soil carbon fractions occurring in the nitrogen treatments were significantly correlated with increases in root, aboveground parts, total biomass, and their carbon uptake. Our results suggested that N-deposition could enhance the contents of active carbon fractions in soil system and carbon accumulation in plant of the freshwater wetlands.

  15. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

  16. Natural regeneration ecology of a secondary altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural regeneration of altimontane spruce forests at Jelendol is retarded due to many factors. In autumn 2003, gaps of different size and parts of the surrounding stand were covered with a 5 x 5 grid m to define sampling plots. A total of 227 plots with 1,5 x 1,5 m in size were installed to analyse general regeneration conditions and inhibitors. The following ecological parameters were estimated on each plot: micro relief, inclination, soil depth,ground cover, direct and diffuse solar radiation. Woody regeneration (density, height, height increment) and ground vegetation were recorded at each plot. Considering that N-S and E-W radiation asymmetry was explicit, the distribution of direct and diffuse radiation was divided into four groups among the plots. Spruce regeneration (28.,605 per ha) was mainly found at the edge of the large gap, though total regeneration density and radiation were not correlated. However, in both the stand and the small gaps, the lack of radiation hindered further development. This study showed that light conditions were not the only factors affecting the regeneration success at an altitude of 1,500 m. The presence of woody debris was important, while the influence of the herb layer (predominant species were Festuca altissima All. and Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth.) and soil depth proved to be negative. The impact of browsing, however, remained the main problem. (author)

  17. Succession dynamics of vegetation in the Slovak Karst Biosphere Reserve Landscape (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vološčuk Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results acquired by an ecological analysis of vegetation succession on the field of the Slovak Karst in south-east Slovakia over the past 25 years. The data were collected on permanent research plots etsablished in 1983−1985 on the Plešivská Plateau (part of the Slovak Karst National Park and Biosphere Reserve. Changes in mesic and dry grassland vegetation of permanent field plots were evaluated in the same way both times according to the Central European method. Due to cessation of non-forest vegetationmanagement the majority, permanent plots isgradually overgrownby woody plants. Succession of vegetation runs faster on karst plateaux where the trees and shrubs invasion is accompanied by overgrowing of grassland vegetation with Brachypodium pinnatum and Calamagrostis epigejos, which are completly change their species composition. On the steep limestone slopes and karst rocky fields of the lower altitudes the secondary succession is ongoing slower and is subjected mainly to accumulation of soil. Succession of herb layer is firstly reflected in changes of species abundance and later in exchanges of dominant species and plant communities. It was also evaluated succession in two forest habitats. In the community Fagetum typicum was evaluated succession after the artificial spruce wind calamity.

  18. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Giraldo, Juan C; Henao-Zuluaga, Kelly; Gallardo, Cecilia; Atehortúa, Lucia; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. Specifically, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (Sphagnum meridense, Calamagrostis effusa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Morella parvifolia, Baccharis antioquensis, Pentacalia pulchella, Castilleja fissifolia, Hesperomeles ferruginea and Hypericum juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA-UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB-UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc ) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73 ± 0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. PMID:26481216

  19. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  20. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  1. Composition and diversity of High Andean in the Fauna Production Reserve Chimborazo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study inquire the floristic diversity of 9 sampling in four plots of 1 m² of high andean in several locations in the “Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo”. For the development of this study, we used an adaptation of the method of plots “Gloria”. With coverage (% in each of the plots, Further the diversity indices and similarity with respective analysis were obtained. The data obtained reflect a diversity that can range from medium to low, believe that this is due to anthropogenic activities that have taken place in these ecosistems. With the presence mostly Calamagrostis intermedia, it could establish that the type of vegetation is herbaceous in high andean is higher percentage; is the species that is almost always present in most types of vegetation of the RPF Chimborazo and high dominance that influences the results of low floristic diversity indices was found in the analysis. As a result the most abundant family Asteraceae is well Poaceae.

  2. A greenhouse study of grass response on composite tailings discharged from Alberta oil sands mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shihong; Wang, Bing [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd (Canada); Sego, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Naeth, Anne [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the survival and growth of five plant species directly seeded using hydro seeding with mulch, modified broadcast seeding and fresh discharged composite tailings (CT) slurry seeding techniques. The study discusses a greenhouse experiment on grass response that was conducted on composite tailings discharged from an Alberta oil sands mine. The five grass species: bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra), hairy wild rye (Elymus innovatus beal), northern wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum) and slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum) were selected for the study based on plant growth and site climatic conditions. The CT mixture was paced in a 4L plastic pail with no drainage at the bottom to prevent water loss. The experimental results indicated broadcast seeding and hydro seeding with mulch and discharge of CT slurry containing seeds can be applied for seeding grass on vast CT deposits. The results also showed a substantial benefit from dewatering CT as a first step towards sustainable development and environmental protection.

  3. The fluxes and controlling factors of N2O and CH4 emissions from freshwater marsh in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions were measured using a static chamber method in two adjacent plots of freshwater marsh predominated by Calamagrostis angustifolia, one is seasonal waterlogged (SW) and the other without surface water accumulation (NW), in Sanjiang Plain wetland (47°35′N, 133°31′E), northeast China, during 2002-2004. The diurnal and seasonal flux variations of both gases were significantly correlated with 5-cm-soil temperature. The NW marsh is a source of N2O and sink of CH4, while the SW marsh is sink of N2O and source of CH4. Remarkably, we observed a N2O emission peak under Eh of +300 to +100 mV, and CH4 emission peak under Eh of +300 to +400 mV, which indicate additional sources of N2O and CH4 for the freeze-thaw induced emission peaks of N2O and CH4 observed between late July and early August. Further study shows that the additional N2O and CH4 were emitted under the frozen soil after thawing.

  4. 黄河兰州段湿地典型植物群落物种多样性研究%Study on species diversity of typical plant community in wetland along Yellow River in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2016-01-01

    以黄河兰州段分布最广泛的芦苇-假苇拂子茅群落和酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群落为研究对象,研究2个群落的植物物种组成和多样性特征。结果表明:芦苇群落有植物22种,隶属于13科20属,酸模叶蓼群落有植物24种,隶属于11科22属,2个群落的共种有10种,相似性系数为43.48%,菊科、禾本科、藜科、蓼科是该植物区系的优势科。物种多样性的分析说明2个群落的 Pielou 指数(J )波动比较小,Simpson 指数(D )和 Shannon-Wiener 指数(H )均波动都比较大,并且 H 指数与 J 指数存在明显的正比例关系,而与 D 指数呈显著的反比例关系。方差分析表现出两群落 S ,H ,D 和 J 指数的差异并不明显,说明组成两群落的物种有一定的相似性和连续性,也存在着差异。%The typical plant communities (Phragmites australis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites and Po-lygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum )along Yellow River in Lanzhou were selected to investigate the plant species and composition characteristics.The results indicated that there are 22 species in Phragmites aust-ralis-Calamagrostis pseudophragmites community,which belongs to 13 families and 20 genera,and 24 species in Polygonum lapathifolium-Chenopodium glaucum community,which belongs to 1 1 families and 22 genera.To-tally 10 common species were found in 2 communities.The similarity coefficient between 2 communities was 43.48%,Asteraceae,Poaceae,Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae were the dominant families.Species diversity analysis showed that in 2 communities,Shannon-Wiener index(H)and Simpson index(D)varied greatly,while Pielou index (J)showed much less variation.The diversity index was positively correlated with the evenness in-dex and negatively correlated with the ecological dominance index.H,D,J and S values were not significantly different in 2 communities.

  5. Flora y vegetación de suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en la Cordillera Blanca, Ancash, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2006 y 2008, se llevaron a cabo estudios florístico y de vegetación de los suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados en cuatro localidades de la Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, Perú localizadas por encima de los 4500 m. Se realizaron recolectas botánicas además de transectos de intersección-línea, en los cuales se midió el espacio (en cm ocupado por cada especie. Fueron determinadas 136 especies de plantas vasculares, agrupadas en 65 géneros y 26 familias. Las Magnoliópsida (dicotiledóneas fueron las más diversas con 97 especies, seguidas de las Liliópsidas (Monocotiledóneas con 36. La mayor diversidad está concentrada en las familias Asteraceae y Poaceae (40,63%. Los géneros con mayor riqueza de especies fueron Senecio (18 y Calamagrostis (12. Se registraron 76 especies (54,82% en suelos crioturbados y hábitats asociados; mientras que 60 especies (44,11% fueron colectadas en la vegetación adyacente. El 95,56% de las especies reportadas fueron hierbas perennes. Se caracterizaron cuatro tipos de comunidades vegetales: a comunidad de suelos crioturbados propiamente dicha, b comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a pajonal, c comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociada a roquedal seco y d comunidad de suelos crioturbados asociadas a roquedal húmedo. Se indícan las especies características de cada comunidad.

  6. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits. PMID:16418890

  7. Environmental and Physiological Controls on Plant Leaf Wax δD from Western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Bush, R. T.; Cartagena Sierra, A.; Cheah, D.; Costello, C.; Muldoon, T.; Tillema, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, but the interpretation of these signatures from ancient sedimentary archives relies on a thorough understanding of the drivers of isotope variability in modern environments. These studies are particularly valuable in the arctic and subarctic, regions particularly vulnerable to rapid climate change, but where modern vegetation is understudied compared to proxy applications reliant on vegetation. Here we present δD values from leaf wax compounds of tundra vegetation in the Kangerlussuaq area of western Greenland. We collected samples along a transect that follows 12 sites from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet, around a small lake ('Bird Lake') and to the town of Kangerlussuaq, along the Sandflugtdalen ('Flying Sand Valley'). We collected a variety of common tundra species in these locations including dwarf shrubs (e.g. Betula nana, Rhododendron lapponica, and Salix glauca), forbs and graminoids (e.g. Calamagrostis lapponica and Eriophorum angustifolium), and horsetails (Equisetum arvense) to study possible interspecies isotopic variability. We measured leaf and stem waters of these plants to help constrain potential drivers of leaf wax n-alkane δD values across this transect. Results are discussed relative to local climate parameters and modelled precipitation values to elucidate source water contributions modified by evaporation and transpiration. This survey of δD values from leaf wax compounds and plant waters in western Greenland will extend stable isotope calibrations to tundra vegetation and provide insights into the use of sedimentary leaf wax compounds for reconstruction of paleohydroclimate.

  8. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degraders' food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this regions' dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, mainly the amount of N stored in the litter material and its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and bulk soil. Whereas the degradation process of the L. corniculatus litter which had a low C/N ratio was fast and most pronounced changes in the microbial community structure were observed 1–4 weeks after litter addition, the degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred at between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However for both litter materials a clear indication for the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both on the abundance level as well as on the level of 13C incorporation (activity.

  9. Impacts of Soil Fauna on Litter Decomposition at Different Succession Stages of Wetland in Sanjiang Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Haitao; LU Xianguo; JIANG Ming; BAO Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Litter decomposition is the key process in nutrient recycling and energy flow. The present study examined the impacts of soil fauna on decomposition rates and nutrient fluxes at three succession stages of wetland in the Sanji-ang Plain, China using different mesh litterbags. The results show that in each succession stage of wetland, soil fauna can obviously increase litter decomposition rates. The average contribution of whole soil fauna to litter mass loss was 35.35%. The more complex the soil fauna group, the more significant the role of soil fauna. The average loss of three types of litter in the 4mm mesh litterbags was 0.3-4.1 times that in 0.058mm ones. The decomposition function of soil fauna to litter mass changed with the wetland succession. The average contribution of soil fauna to litter loss firstly de-creased from 34.96% (Carex lasiocapa) to 32.94% (Carex meyeriana), then increased to 38.16% (Calamagrosties an-gustifolia). The contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition rates vary according to the litter substrata, soil fauna communities and seasons. Significant effects were respectively found in August and July on C angustifolia and C lasiocapa, while in June and August on C. Meyeriana. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the C/N and C/P ratios of decaying litter can be influenced by soil fauna. At different wetland succession stages, the effects of soil fauna on nutrient elements also differ greatly, which shows the significant difference of in-fluencing element types and degrees. Soil fauna communities strongly influenced the TC and TP concentrations of C meyeriana litter, and TP content of C lasiocapa. Our results indicate that soil fauna have important effects on litter decomposition and this influence will vary with the wetland succession and seasonal variation.

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply on biomass and active carbon of freshwater marsh after two growing seasons in Sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangying; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang; DOU Jingxin; DONG Xiaoyong

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with treatments differing in nitrogen supply (0, 5 and 15 g N/m2) and CO2 level (350 and 700 μmol/mol) using OTC (open top chamber) equipment to investigate the biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia and soil active carbon contents after two years. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration increased the biomass of C. angustifolia and the magnitude of response varied with each growth period. Elevated CO2 concentration has increased aboveground biomass by 16.7% and 17.6% during the jointing and heading periods and only 3.5% and 9.4% during dough and maturity periods. The increases in belowground biomass due to CO2 elevation was 26.5%, 34.0% and 28.7% during the heading, dough and maturity periods, respectively. The response of biomass to enhanced CO2 concentration differed in N levels. Both the increase of aboveground biomass and belowground biomass were greater under high level of N supply (15 g N/m2). Elevated CO2 concentration also increased the allocation of biomass and carbon in root. Under elevated CO2 concentration, the average values of active carbon tended to increase. The increases of soil active soil contents followed the sequence of Microbial biomass carbon (10.6%) > dissolved organic carbon (7.5%) > oxidable labile carbon (6.6%) > carbohydrate carbon (4.1%). Stepwise regressions indicated there were significant correlations between the soil active carbon contents and plant biomass. Particularly, microbial carbon, oxidable labile carbon and carbohydrate carbon were found to be correlated with belowground biomass, while dissolved organic carbon has correlation with aboveground biomass. Therefore, increased biomass was regarded as the main driving force for the increase in soil active organic carbon under elevated CO2 concentration.

  11. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  12. Levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria-RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Fernando Luiz Ferreira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o intuito de se obter um levantamento das pastagens naturais da região de Santa Maria, a qual foi subdividida, para este objetivo, em quatro localidades: Dilermando de Aguiar, Pains, Santa Flora e São Martinho. O levantamento utilizou estimativas visuais da freqüência de espécies através do método BOTANAL e permitiu a identificação de 61 espécies, dentre as quais 45 apresentaram contribuição significativa para a biomassa aérea da vegetação. No distrito de Pains, encontrou-se maior freqüência das espécies Axonopus affinis, Eragrostis plana, Desmodium barbatum e Aristida spp.. Em Dilermando de Aguiar, houve maior contribuição de Calamagrostis viridiflavescens, Schizachyrium microstachyum e Paspalum notatum a qual foi, também, uma espécie abundante em Santa Flora, assim como Desmodium incanum. As espécies mais freqüentes em São Martinho foram: Baccharis trimera, Paspalum plicatulum e Erianthus angustifolius. O teste de aleatorização mostrou que, em todas as localidades, ocorreu diferença significativa na sua composição florística (P= 0,0058, evidenciando a inexistência de associação entre os tipos fisionômico-florísticos e os tipos de solo. A partir disto, este levantamento permite que se estabeleçam prioridades quanto à pesquisa e manejo das pastagens naturais dos diferentes grupos fisionômico-florísticos da região.

  13. Contemporary floristic changes in the Karkonosze Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transformations of species composition in the main plant communities of the Karkonosze Mts. subalpine and alpine belts during the last 35 years. The investigations of floristic changes were performed in associations: Carici (rigidae-Nardetum, Carici-Festucetum supinae, Crepidi-Calamagrostietum villose and Empetro-Vaccinietum. Signalized are also some vegetation transformations in the remaining belts. The progressing floristic degradation of plant communities in the subalpine and alpine belts consists in: (a expansion of grasses, (b decline of rare vascular plants, and (c elimination of terricolous bryophytes and lichens. In spruce forest belts declining are species connected with old-growth spruce forests like: Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora. The changes of plant communities of low mountain swards (Nardetalia caused by cessation of pasture and mowing in the cause of retreat of many rare plants, like e.g., Arnica montana. The main cause of the still lasting in the Karkonosze Mts. community transformations is the changes in soil environment connected with anthropogenic nitrogen fertilization. The large inflow of mineral nitrogen from the atmosphere (1138 mg/m2 sum for vegetation season is the reason of accelerated rate of decomposition of organic matter and intensified nitrification. The high content of nitrates in soil (5 times higher than in the Tatra Mts. swards is the reason of expansion of graminoids, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa, Calamagrostis villosa and Carex bigelowii subsp. rigida. The overfertilisation of habitats causes the retreat of rare high mountain vascular plants and the decline of terricolous bryophytes and lichens.

  14. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  15. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90Sr bioavailability than that of 137Cs. ► Contribution of 137Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  16. Substrate sources regulate spatial variation of metabolically active methanogens from two contrasting freshwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongxin; Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Yuan, Junji; Xiang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    There is ample evidence that methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands exhibit large spatial variations at a field scale. However, little is known about the metabolically active methanogens mediating these differences. We explored the spatial patterns in active methanogens of summer inundated Calamagrostis angustifolia marsh with low CH4 emissions and permanently inundated Carex lasiocarpa marsh with high CH4 emissions in Sanjiang Plain, China. In C. angustifolia marsh, the addition of (13)C-acetate significantly increased the CH4 production rate, and Methanosarcinaceae methanogens were found to participate in the consumption of acetate. In C. lasiocarpa marsh, there was no apparent increase in the CH4 production rate and no methanogen species were labeled with (13)C. When (13)CO2-H2 was added, however, CH4 production was found to be due to Fen Cluster (Methanomicrobiales) in C. angustifolia marsh and Methanobacterium Cluster B (Methanobacteriaceae) together with Fen Cluster in C. lasiocarpa marsh. These results suggested that CH4 was produced primarily by hydrogenotrophic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from plant litter in C. lasiocarpa marsh and by both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens using substrates mainly derived from root exudate in C. angustifolia marsh. The significantly lower CH4 emissions measured in situ in C. angustifolia marsh was primarily due to a deficiency of substrates compared to C. lasiocarpa marsh. Therefore, we speculate that the substrate source regulates both the type of active methanogens and the CH4 production pathway and consequently contributes to the spatial variations in CH4 productions observed in these freshwater marshes. PMID:26286511

  17. Research on Relationship Among CO2, CH4 and N2O Emission Fluxes in Freshwater Marsh Ecosystem%沼泽湿地生态系统CO2、CH4和N2O排放通量的相互关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢妍; 徐洪文; 宋长春

    2011-01-01

    利用静态暗箱/气相色谱法连续两个生长季(2003 -2004年)对三江平原小叶章草甸和毛果苔草沼泽CO2、CH4和N2O的排放通量进行野外原位观测.结果表明:两种类型湿地的生长季均为温室气体的排放源,三种温室气体排放通量之间的关系是,CO2和CH4、CO2和N2O、CH4和N2O排放通量之间均为正相关,但显著性水平视不同湿地类型以及不同年份而异.表明它们之间的相互关系受湿地类型以及环境因素的影响,本研究结果迸一步证明了植物在沼泽湿地温室气体排放中的关键性作用.%CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured using the technique of closed opaque chamber and gas chromatography system. The experiment was carried out during 2003-2004 growing seasons in field of Calamagrostis angustifoli meadow and Carex lasiocarpa marsh in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that the two wetlands both were emission sources of greenhouse gases during growing seasons. There was a positively significant correlation between CO2 and CH4 emission fluxes, CO2 and N2O emission fluxes, and CH4 and N2O emission fluxes. But the level was different in various wetlands or years. It indicated that the relationship was influenced by wetland types and environmental factors. It was proved further that plants played a key role in greenhouse gases emission in freshwater marsh ecosystem.

  18. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  19. The vegetation types and species diversity in Lanzhou section of the Yellow River wetland%黄河兰州段湿地物种多样性及保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 吴永华; 赵峰

    2014-01-01

    Based on investigating the wetland resources of Yellow River in Lanzhou on,analysis the wetland flora composition,species diversity and ecological characteristics systematicly.The results show that:there are 132 plants in wetland plant along the Yellow River,belonging to 33 families and 90 genera.Asteraceae,Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae,Cyperaceae and Fabaceae species is the number of families accounted for the top five,share to 59.85% of the total amount,Artemisia,Chenopodium,Polygonum spec and mariqueter is the number of genera accounted for the top four,dominant families,single-species phenomenon obviously.wetland vegetation at Lanzhou section of the Yellow river is divided into 9 associations.Including 2 woody associations,there are Salix matsudana Ass.Tamarix chinensis + Lycium chinense ,and 7 herbaceous associations,there are Phrag-mites + Polygonum aviculare Ass.Artemisia anethoides Ass.Polygonum lapathifolium +Chenopodium glau-cum Ass.Calamagrostis pseudophragmites + Phragmites Ass.Roegneria nustans +Lepidium latifolium Ass. Suaeda glauca Ass.Kochia scoparia +Agropyron cristatum. And proposed countermeasures of wetland vegeta-tion protection and utilization of the Yellow River in Lanzhou.%对黄河兰州段湿地植物区系组成、生态特征和物种多样性进行了系统分析。结果表明:黄河兰州段湿地共有植物132种,隶属于33科90属,菊科、禾本科、藜科、莎草科和蝶形花科是物种数占前5位的科,占总种数的59.85%;蒿属、藜属、蓼属和藨草属是含物种数占前4位的属,优势科、单种属现象明显。湿地植被分为9个群丛,包括木本群丛2个(旱柳群丛、柽柳-枸杞群丛),草本群丛7个(芦苇-萹蓄群丛、莳萝蒿群丛、酸模叶蓼-灰绿藜群丛、垂穗鹅观草-宽叶独荇菜群丛、碱蓬群丛和地肤-冰草群丛);并提出了对黄河兰州段湿地植被保护利用的对策。

  20. Rasgos de historia de vida de especies en una comunidad vegetal alterada principalmente por pastoreo en un páramo húmedo (Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Jesús Orlando

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron once rasgos de historia de vida (morfológicos y de regeneración de plantas vasculares, en
    cuatro sitios con diferente grado de alteración, que hacen parte de una misma unidad de paisaje y condiciones
    topográficas similares. Ubicados en los valles de los ríos Tunjo y Piedras Gordas, páramo de Palacio, parque nacional natural Chingaza, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Entre 3.400-3.600 m de altitud, a los 4º45’03’’N, 73º50’50’’W. Estos valles, principalmente el valle del río Tunjo tienen una larga historia de disturbio por quema y pastoreo de ganado vacuno. La comunidad natural es de Espeletia killipii, Chusquea tessellata y Calamagrostis effusa. Mediante un análisis de clasificación y un procedimiento de componentes principales (ACP se agruparon las especies de acuerdo a rasgos similares y se analizó su abundancia de acuerdo con el grado de alteración. Se identificaron tres grupos de especies, diferenciados principalmente por los rasgos morfológicos: tipo de planta, forma de crecimiento, hábito y altura. El grupo uno se caracteriza principalmente por especies graminoides (73%, erectas (100% en macolla (68% con alturas mayores a 5 cm (60%; el grupo dos por hierbas rastreras o postradas (76 % que forman cojines o tapetes (86% con alturas menores a 5 cm (79% y el grupo tres por hierbas (88% en roseta (100% que no forman cojines o tapetes. Cada uno de estos grupos, presentaron una máxima abundancia-cobertura a un grado de alteración en particular; el grupo uno, no es favorecido en su abundancia-cobertura al aumentar el grado de
    alteración, presenta su mayor abundancia en los sitios con alteración leve y sin alteración (33 y 30%; el grupo dos es característico del sitio con alteración alta, donde presento la mayor abundancia (44% y el grupo tres presentó su menor abundancia en el sitio con mayor grado de alteración (8%.

  1. Species Diversity of Pant Communities of Xingkai Lake Wetlands under Different Levels of Disturbance%不同干扰下兴凯湖湿地植物群落的物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李融; 张庆忠; 姜炎彬; 张林; 邵小明

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of plant communities had been executed by setting 90 quadrats of 100 cm × 100 cm in 18 plots around the croplands of Xingkai Lake State Farm and the wetlands of Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in August,2009.Numbers of species,the height,cover and abundance of every species,and several environmental factors of each quadrat were recorded.The evident specimens of every species found in the investigation were conserved in the herbarium of China Agricultural University.Importance values were calculated from relative cover,relative density and relative frequency for each species.Depending on the level of protection and development of local natural vegetation,the plant communities were divided into three types: the plant communities in natural wetlands,the plant communities in the unwatered wetlands,the plant commu-nities around croplands.The top 5 dominant species were Calamagrostis angustifolia,Carex rigescens,Menyan-tehes trifolia,Iris sanguinea,Phragmites australis in natural wetlands; Calamagrostis angustifolia,Cyperus glom-eratus,Iris sanguine,Zizania latifolia,Bidens pilosa in the unwatered wetlands; Echinochloa crusgalli,Equise-tum arvense,Setaria viridis,Phragmites australis,Arthraxon hispidus around croplands.Species diversity analysis was processed by Bio-dap software.The results indicated that the performance of alpha diversity of the community around croplands was the maximum,the next in the unwatered wetlands,the minimum in natural wetlands.In detail,there were 69 species,53 species and 33 species in the surrounding place of croplands of many years,the unwatered and natural wetlands respectively and they shared the same trend with Shannon-Wiener Index and Pielou Evenness Index,but the trend of Simpson Index was contrary.The P diversity in study area was estimated by several similarity indexes,analysis results revealed that there were more commonspecies between natural wetlands and the unwatered wetlands,which mean that plant community

  2. Potential phytotoxic and shading effects of invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae taxa on the germination of native dominant species

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    Lenka Moravcová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of knotweeds (genus Fallopia, Polygonaceae, native to Asia (Fallopia sachalinensis, F. japonica and their hybrid (F. ×bohemica belong to the most noxious plant invaders in Europe and exert a high impact on invaded plant communities that are therefore typically extremely poor in species. The remarkable paucity of invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing germinating populations of native species in invaded stands. In this pilot study we assessed, under laboratory conditions, whether there are phytotoxic effects of the three Fallopia congeners on seed germination of three target species: two native species commonly growing in habitats that are often invaded by knotweeds (Urtica dioica, Calamagrostis epigejos, and Lepidium sativum, a species commonly used in allelopathic bioassay as a control. Since knotweeds generally form stands with a high cover, we included varying light conditions as an additional factor, to simulate the effects on germination of shading by leaf canopy. The effects of aqueous extracts (2.5, 5.0%, and 0% as a control from dry leaves and rhizomes of the Fallopia congeners on germination of the target species were thus studied under two light regimes, simulating full daylight (white light and light filtered through canopy (green light, and in dark as a control regime. Rhizome extracts did not affect germination. Light treatments yielded inconclusive results, indicating that poor germination and establishment of species in invaded stands is unlikely to be caused by shading alone, but we found a pronounced phytotoxic effect of leaf extracts of Fallopia taxa, more so at 5.0% than 2.5% extract concentration. Fallopia sachalinensis exerted the largest negative effect on the germination of Urtica dioica, F. ×bohemica on that of C.epigejos, and F. japonica had invariably the lowest inhibitory effect. In the field in Central Europe, F. sachalinensis often invades less disturbed, moist

  3. Quantitative analysis of riparian herbaceous community in Liaohe River Conservation Area and its tributaries%辽河保护区及其支流河岸草本植物群落数量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔维静; 夏会娟; 张远; 侯利萍

    2015-01-01

    研究河岸草本植物群落特征是河岸植被生态修复的前提.采用样线法调查辽河保护区及其支流的河岸带草本植物群落,分析物种多样性特征,利用组平均聚类法和除趋势对应分析(DCA)对群落进行分类和排序,并探讨影响河岸草本植物群落分布的主要环境因子.结果显示:辽河保护区及其支流河岸共有草本植物154种,分属40科96属.山区河流的河岸草本植物物种多样性低于平原地区河流,支流的河岸物种多样性高于辽河保护区;群落物种多样性与河流坡降、蜿蜒度以及河流等级显著相关(P<0.01).聚类分析结果显示,辽河保护区及其支流河岸带草本植物群落可划分为23种类型,其中湿生植物群落占据优势,包括无芒稗(Echinochloa crusgalli)群落、水芹(Oenanthejavanica群落、水蓼(Polygonum hydropiper)群落、疣草(Murdannia keisak)群落、蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis群落、藨草(Scirpus triqueter)群落、卵穗荸荠(Heleocharis soloniensis群落、红鳞扁莎(Pycreus sanguinolentus)群落、褐穗莎草(Cyperusfuscus)群落、芦苇(Phragmites australis)群落、两栖蓼(P.amphibium群落、圆锥薹草(Carexdiandra)+萎蒿群落和圆锥薹草十沼生蔊菜(Rorippa islandica)群落.DCA排序轴与环境因子的相关性分析表明,海拔、坡降、蜿蜒度和河流等级对辽河保护区及其支流河岸带草本植物群落的分布具有影响,其中河流等级的贡献率最大,其次为海拔和坡降,蜿蜒度贡献率最小.本研究中拂子茅(Calamagrostis epigeios)、荻(Triarrhena sacchariflora)和芦苇是恢复河岸植被的优良物种.

  4. 基质和覆盖对观赏草容器苗越冬的影响%Effect of Substrates and Covering on Winter Survival of Ornamental Grasses Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 滕文军; 杨学军; 武菊英

    2011-01-01

    越冬是观赏草容器苗生产的关键环节,选择北京地区有代表性的5种观赏草,研究了基质和覆盖对其容器苗越冬的影响.试验结果表明,草炭改善了基质的物理性质,随着草炭含量增加,基质的含水量、田间持水量和孔隙度升高,容重降低.覆盖有效提高了基质的含水量,使观赏草容器苗提前萌芽,促进效果从大到小依次为塑料、覆膜无纺布、无纺布.5种观赏草的耐寒性从强到弱为拂子茅、狼尾草、野古草和须芒草、细叶芒.拂子茅、狼尾草、野古草和须芒草的容器苗不需覆盖可越冬,基质对其萌芽没有明显影响.对于耐寒性较差的细叶芒,基质影响裸露容器苗的越冬萌芽率,采取园土与草炭同体积配制的基质有利于细叶芒种苗越冬.细叶芒的容器苗需要采取覆盖防寒措施.因为揭开塑料后萌出的叶片可能凋萎,建议采取覆膜无纺布或无纺布作为覆盖材料.%Ornamental grasses are a kind of new landscape plant. Recently lots of ornamental grasses cultivars have been introduced and developed for greening. Winter survival is an important sector for production of ornamental grasses container seedlings. Five representative ornamental grasses of Beijing area are singled to study the effect of substrates and covering on winter survival of their container seedlings. Results showed that peat improved the physical characteristics of substrates. With peat content increased,water content, field moisture capacity and porosity increased,and bulk density decreased. Covering increased water content of substrates and advanced sprouting of the container seedlings ,with the order of plastic ,laminated non woven and non woven. Five ornamental grasses were sorted by cold resistance as Calamagrostis brachytricha, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Arundinella hirta and Andropogon scoparius, and Miscanthus sinensis' Gracillimus'. Container seedlings of C. brachytricha ,P. alopecuroides ,A

  5. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    , where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and,respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa ,Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and bestrepresented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site.The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the allianceswhere these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neitheras frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surfaceand time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.

  6. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of White-napped Crane on Spring in Qixinghe, Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江七星河春季白枕鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景海; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2013-01-01

    White-napped Crane (Grus vipio)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. White -napped Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species ) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also list-ed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During April to May 2011, the foraging habitat of White-napped Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Qixinghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 70 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus vipio mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp., Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40cm to 80cm, the density was higher than 600 plants per square meter, vegetation cover was mainly between 0 and 25%, and the depth of the foraging place water was 5~15cm, the distance of human disturbance was greater than 1500m. Human activity greatly affects Grus vipio foraging. In spring, Grus vipio sometimes foraging in the burns down.%  白枕鹤(Grus vipio)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家II级重点保护鸟类;2011年4~5月,笔者在七星河自然保护区对白枕鹤春季觅食地生境进行了调查;采用GPS定位技术和直接观察法对白枕鹤栖息生境进行测定,共获取70个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其春季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:白枕鹤春季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度高于600株/m2,植被盖度为0

  7. A Preliminary Study on Foraging Habitat of Red-crowned Crane in Summer in Honghe Wetland%洪河湿地夏季丹顶鹤觅食生境初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 赵国辉; 李晓民

    2014-01-01

    Red-crowned Crane(Grus japonensis)is a large wader. Because of habitat loss, its global population is declining and is now endangered. Red-crowned Crane is listed in CITES Appendix I (which bans all international trade in the species) is categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red list, and is also listed in the First Category of Protected Birds in China. During June 2012, the foraging habitat of Red-crowned Crane was investigated using GPS and direct observation at Honghe National Nature Reserve, Helongjiang Province. 80 plots (1m ×1m) were established for sampling vegetation. Factors of its foraging habitat including vegetation species, height, coverage, density, water depth and human disturbance were measured and analyzed by quadrate sampling and factor analysis methods. Results indicated that Grus japonensis mainly foraging in the wetlands which have Carex spp.,Calamagrostis angustifolia. The height of these plants was between 40 to 80cm,the density was between 400 to 800 plants per square meter,vegetation cover less than 25%,and the depth of the foraging place water was between 10 to 15cm,the distance of human disturbance was between 0.4 to 0.8km. Human activity greatly affects Grus japonensis foraging.%丹顶鹤(Grus japonensis)为大型涉禽,由于栖息地丧失,数量减少,已被CITES列为附录I,IUCN红皮书列为全球濒危物种,并被列为国家I级重点保护鸟类;2012年6月,笔者在洪河自然保护区对丹顶鹤夏季觅食地生境进行了调查;共获取80个1m×1m的样方,利用样方法和因子测定法测定其夏季觅食地植物的类型、高度、盖度、植物密度、水深、人为干扰距离等。结果显示:丹顶鹤夏季主要在以苔草、小叶章为主的沼泽湿地中觅食;最佳觅食地植被高度为40~80cm,植被密度400~800株/m2,植被盖度为<25%,觅食地水深多为10~15cm,人为干扰距离为0.4~0.8km;人为活动严重影响着丹顶鹤夏季的觅食。

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT COMMUNITY AND SOIL ON THE INTER-DUNE LOWLAND IN THE MIDDLE OF OTINGDAG SAND LAND%浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地植物群落分布与土壤环境关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋创业; 郭柯

    2007-01-01

    为了研究浑善达克沙地丘间低地植物群落类型及其分布与土壤环境因子的关系,于2004年7~8月对浑善达克沙地丘间低地进行了植物群落学调查,共获取群落样方102个,其中草本植物群落样方99个,灌木样方3个.同时对每一个样方均取了土样,并分析了土壤的全氮、有机质、可溶性钾、钠的含量和土壤溶液的pH值.对在浑善达克沙地中部丘间低地获取的102个植物群落样方进行了分析,按照样方中建群种和优势种的重要值把它们归属于28个植物群落类型,分别以黄花蒿(Artemisia annua)、褐沙蒿(A. intramongolica)、沙地雀麦(Bromus ircutensis)、尖头叶藜(Chenopodium acuminatum)、大籽蒿(Artemisia sieversiana)、砂珍棘豆(Oxytropis gracilima)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)、猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)、冷蒿(Artemisia frigida)、寸草苔(Carex duriuscula)、糙隐子草(Cleistogenes squarrosa)、冰草(Agropyron cristatum)、克氏针茅(Stipa krylovii)、羊草(Leymus chinensis)、赖草(L. secalinus)、无芒雀麦(Bromus inermis)、草地风毛菊(Saussurea amara)、菊叶委陵菜(Potentilla tanacetifolia)、芨芨草(Achnatherum splendens)、马蔺(Iris lactea)、小红柳 (Salix microstachya)、芦苇(Phragmites australis)、拂子茅 (Calamagrostis epigejos)、鹅绒委陵菜(Potentilla anserine)、金戴戴(Halerpestes ruthenica)、星星草(Puccinellia tenuiflora)、水葱(Scirpus tabernaemontani)、碱篷(Suaeda glauca)为建群种.黄花蒿、沙地雀麦、猪毛蒿、褐沙蒿、尖头叶藜、大籽蒿、砂珍棘豆和狗尾草等群落分布于沙生环境,地下水位低,土壤溶液为中性,全氮和有机质平均含量低;冷蒿、糙隐子草、冰草、克氏针茅、寸草苔、羊草、赖草和菊叶委陵菜等群落分布于固定沙地,土壤的水分、全氮和有机质的含量都较高;无芒雀麦、草地风毛菊、鹅绒委陵菜、星星草和芦苇等群落分布于中生环境,地下

  9. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.