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  1. Analysis of extreme hydrological phenomena in southern Italy (Calabria region)

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    Caloiero, Tommaso; Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is a region exposed to the effects of contrasting climatic and hydrological phenomena. In fact, due to its oblong shape, to its position in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, and for its mountainous nature, Calabria shows a high spatial variability of the climatic features and of related phenomena such as floods and drought. The present paper is based on the historical database ASICal (Historically flooded areas in Calabria), a catalogue of effects of floods and rain-related landslides that occurred in the region since the XIX Century. The catalogue has been built using the typical historical data sources as chronicles, diaries, historical books, local and regional agencies, press archives, scientific papers, and documents of civil protection offices. From these sources, we selected information on damage caused by rain related phenomena at a municipal scale and chronologically sorted by year, month and day. The analysis of the entire catalogue allows highlighting the regional Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE), defined as periods of intense rain causing damage on regional sectors conventionally selected as larger than 30% of the entire regional territory. For each event, as a measure of the magnitude of rainfall, the return period of the daily rainfall recorded during the event has been evaluated. In addition, we recently carried out a similar historical research to identify the main drought events affecting the region. In this case, due to the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, data are collected both at municipal and regional scale, and the temporal scale is generally monthly or annual. For each event, we used as climatic descriptors a drought index for monitoring drought phenomena. Among drought indices, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which can be considered the most robust and effective, since it can be calculated for different time-scales and can be used to analyse different drought categories

  2. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

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    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

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    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  4. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy).

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    Petrucci, Olga; Salvati, Paola; Aceto, Luigi; Bianchi, Cinzia; Pasqua, Angela Aurora; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-12-29

    Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy) over 37 years (1980-2016). Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed), injured (people who suffered physical harm) and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed). During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being "dragged by water/mud" and "surrounded by water/mud", respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging effect of rapid-flowing water

  5. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy

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    Olga Petrucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy over 37 years (1980–2016. Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed, injured (people who suffered physical harm and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed. During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being “dragged by water/mud” and “surrounded by water/mud”, respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging

  6. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

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    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  7. Sicily and southern Calabria focal mechanism database: a valuable tool for local and regional stress-field determination

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    Luciano Scarfì

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a new catalog of focal mechanisms calculated for earthquakes recorded in Sicily and southern Calabria. It comprises about 300 solutions, for events with magnitudes ranging from 2.7 to 4.8 that occurred from 1999 to 2011. We used P-wave polarities to compute the fault-plane solutions. Two main goals are achieved. For the first, the catalog allows the stress regime and kinematics characterizing the studied area to be depicted at a regional and more local scale. In particular, moving along the tectonic lineament that extends from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian Sea, there is a change from a regime characterized by sub-horizontal P-axes, ca. NW-SE directed, to an extensive one in the Calabro-Peloritan Arc, where T-axes striking in a NW-SE direction prevail. Our results also show that part of the seismicity is clustered along the main active seismogenic structures, of which the focal mechanisms indicate the kinematics. Finally, in the Etna volcano area, different stress fields act at different depths due to the combination of the regional tectonics, the strong pressurization of the deep magmatic system, and the dynamics of the shallower portion of the volcano. As a second goal, we highlight that the catalog also represents a valuable tool, through the data distribution on the internet, for further studies directed towards improving our understanding of the geodynamic complexity of the region, and for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

  8. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

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    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100 kyr and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥4.5. The model of the fault system upon which we applied the simulator code was obtained from the DISS 3.2.0 database, selecting all the faults that are recognized on the Calabria region, for a total of 22 fault segments. The application of our simulation algorithm provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behavior of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. The results of the physics-based simulator algorithm were compared with those obtained by an alternative method using a slip-rate balanced technique. Finally, as an example of a possible use of synthetic catalogs, an attenuation law has been applied to all the events reported in the synthetic catalog for the production of maps showing the exceedance probability of given values of PGA on the territory under investigation.

  9. Adverse drug reactions reporting in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the four-year period 2011-2014: impact of a regional pharmacovigilance project in light of the new European Legislation.

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    Leporini, Christian; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mumoli, Laura; Esposito, Stefania; Gallelli, Luca; Mangano, Giovanna; Brancati, Giacomino; De Francesco, Emanuela Adele; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-05-01

    The number of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) yearly submitted to the Italian Network of Pharmacovigilance (RNF) has progressively increased after the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation (July 2012). These results have mostly reflected the agreements between Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) and Italian Regions, enabling the implementation of active pharmacovigilance projects. A project was funded by the AIFA in Calabria region (Southern Italy) in 2010 to increase ADRs reporting and promote a safer medicines' use. Based on this background, we investigated the trend of ADRs in Calabria in 2011-2014, trying to analyze the possible entailments of the new law. Quantitative and descriptive analysis of ADRs submitted by Calabrian healthcare professionals and patients to the RNF database between 2011 and 2014. A sharp rise in regional reporting rate was observed over study period. Calabrian Pharmacovigilance system completely fulfilled the World Health Organization gold standard for ADR reporting rate, both in 2013 and 2014. However, heterogeneity was observed regarding reporting health facilities, healthcare professionals and patients among the study years. These findings reflect the success of the project performed in Calabria. However, this initiative should go on in the next future to obtain better and more homogeneous reporting behavior.

  10. Assessment of the impact of climate change on the olive flowering in Calabria (southern Italy)

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    Avolio, Elenio; Orlandi, Fabio; Bellecci, Carlo; Fornaciari, Marco; Federico, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    In phenological studies, plant development and its relationship with meteorological conditions are considered in order to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the characteristics of many crop species. In this work, the impact of climate change on the flowering of the olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) in Calabria, southern Italy, has been studied. Olive is one of the most important plant species in the Mediterranean area and, at the same time, Calabria is one of the most representative regions of this area, both geographically and climatically. The work is divided into two main research activities. First, the behaviour of olive tree in Calabria and the influence of temperature on phenological phases of this crop are investigated. An aerobiological method is used to determine the olive flowering dates through the analysis of pollen data collected in three experimental fields for an 11-year study period (1999-2009). Second, the study of climate change in Calabria at high spatial and temporal resolution is performed. A dynamical downscaling procedure is applied for the regionalization of large-scale climate analysis derived from general circulation models for two representative climatic periods (1981-2000 and 2081-2100); the A2 IPCC scenario is used for future climate projections. The final part of this work is the integration of the results of the two research activities to predict the olive flowering variation for the future climatic conditions. In agreement with our previous works, we found a significant correlation between the phenological phases and temperature. For the twenty-first century, an advance of pollen season in Calabria of about 9 days, on average, is expected for each degree of temperature rise. From phenological model results, on the basis of future climate predictions over Calabria, an anticipation of maximum olive flowering between 10 and 34 days is expected, depending on the area. The results of this work are useful for adaptation and

  11. Seismological investigations in the Gioia Tauro Basin (southern Calabria, Italy

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    S. Gresta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides new seismological information to characterize the seismically active area of the Gioia Tauro basin (southern Calabria, Italy. Seismic activity recorded by a temporary network from 1985 to 1994 was analyzed for focal mechanisms, stress tensor inversion, P-wave seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters estimation. Fault plane solutions of selected events showed a variety of different mechanisms, even if a prevalence of normal dip-slip solutions with prevalent rupture orientations occurring along ca. NE-SW directions was observed. Stress tensor inversion analysis disclosed a region governed mainly by a NW-SE extensional stress regime with a nearly vertical ?1. These results are consistent with the structure movements affecting the studied area and with geodetic data. Furthermore, evaluation of P-waves seismic attenuation and earthquake source parameters of a subset of events highlighted a strong heterogeneity of the crust and the presence of fault segments and/or weakened zones where great stress accumulation or long-rupture propagation are hindered.

  12. Stochastic analysis of long dry spells in Calabria (Southern Italy)

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    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2017-02-01

    A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, streamflow, groundwater and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to investigate this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this study, a non-homogeneous Poisson model has been applied to a set of high-quality daily rainfall series, recorded in southern Italy (Calabria region) during the period 1981-2010, for the stochastic analysis of dry spells. Firstly, some statistical details of the Poisson models were presented. Then, the proposed model has been applied to the analysis of long dry spells. In particular, a Monte Carlo technique was performed to reproduce the characteristics of the process. As a result, the main characteristics of the long dry spells have shown patterns clearly related to some geographical features of the study area, such as elevation and latitude. The results obtained from the stochastic modelling of the long dry spells proved that the proposed model is useful for the probability evaluation of drought, thus improving environmental planning and management.

  13. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

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    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  14. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

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    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-09-18

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  15. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Tagarelli Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy. The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  16. Regional Policies For Social Housing. An experience in Regione Calabria

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    Corrado Trombetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social housing is again a dynamic sector of construction. European «cohesion» and «convergence» programs aim to promote Mediterranean housing in order to improve competitiveness, innovation and employment in under-developed regions. The whole SH planning and implementing process implies criticalities that often damage local initiatives. This study of the Calabria Case has pointed out that both public and private entrepreneurs perceive the cumbersome requirements and procedures as ‘unfriendly’ and tend to renounce the incentives. Process management information instruments together with simpler evaluation and certification systems seem to encourage suitable and flexible solutions, reliable results as well as transparency and quality of action.

  17. Temporal properties of rainfall events in Calabria (southern Italy)

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    Terranova, O. G.; Iaquinta, P.

    2011-03-01

    Temporal properties of 152 575 rainfall events, recorded at time steps of 5 min, having different durations and occurring between 1989 and 2008 at 155 localities of Calabria (Italy), have been analysed in this paper. Samples from 45 533 storms have been selected to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes. The samples are representative of a wide variety of situations in terms of duration, total rainfall, intensity, etc. The use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP) is proposed to describe the within-storm temporal pattern. The main attraction of this method lies in the fact that it is based on actual data of regional precipitation. Its weak point is that large samples of data are required to obtain regional profiles. The research necessities for improving the use of Huff curves for storm disaggregation and its the potential use are summarized in this paper on the basis of the specific literature. A new criterion - based on the comparison of the areas A1, A2, A3 and A4 that underlie the four 25% of durations of a given SRP, and the corresponding four values of the "uniform" SRP (USRP), is suggested here with the aim of improving the use of the information content of SRP. Some interesting results concerning the sample frequency and the characterization of parameters for hydrological applications are commented on. The study conducted so far has produced important, albeit preliminary, results for different contexts of Calabria concerning the use of SRP among the methods for constructing design storm hyetographs.

  18. Temporal properties of rainfall events in Calabria (southern Italy

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    O. G. Terranova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal properties of 152 575 rainfall events, recorded at time steps of 5 min, having different durations and occurring between 1989 and 2008 at 155 localities of Calabria (Italy, have been analysed in this paper. Samples from 45 533 storms have been selected to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes. The samples are representative of a wide variety of situations in terms of duration, total rainfall, intensity, etc.

    The use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP is proposed to describe the within-storm temporal pattern. The main attraction of this method lies in the fact that it is based on actual data of regional precipitation. Its weak point is that large samples of data are required to obtain regional profiles. The research necessities for improving the use of Huff curves for storm disaggregation and its the potential use are summarized in this paper on the basis of the specific literature.

    A new criterion – based on the comparison of the areas A1, A2, A3 and A4 that underlie the four 25% of durations of a given SRP, and the corresponding four values of the "uniform" SRP (USRP, is suggested here with the aim of improving the use of the information content of SRP. Some interesting results concerning the sample frequency and the characterization of parameters for hydrological applications are commented on.

    The study conducted so far has produced important, albeit preliminary, results for different contexts of Calabria concerning the use of SRP among the methods for constructing design storm hyetographs.

  19. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

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    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  20. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Maurizio Polemio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  1. FIRST RECORD OF DUGONGIDAE (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM THE FLORESTA CALCARENITES FORMATION (LATE BURDIGALIAN – EARLY LANGHIAN, REGGIO CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    GIUSEPPE CARONE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sirenian rib has been recovered at Motta San Giovanni (Reggio Calabria in the “Floresta Calcarenites”, a Formation cropping out in Sicily and Calabria and dated late Burdigalian-Langhian. Although the rib is not a diagnostic bone for taxonomy, its presence in southern Calabria extends the knowledge about the paleobiogeography of the Family Dugongidae in the Mediterranean basin. The find is hitherto the only record of sirenians in the Floresta calcarenites. Moreover, the specimen extends back to the Early-Middle Miocene (late Burdigalian-Langhian the occurrence of sirenians in Calabria, previously determined thanks to substantial material from the Late Miocene (Tortonian of the Monte Poro area (Vibo Valentia.  The paleoenvironment of the Floresta calcarenites was a warm and shallow sea, consistent with the paleoecology of Dugongidae.

  2. Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian continental margin (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

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    Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.; Bertotti, G.; Cella, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Present evolution of the Calabria Tyrrhenian Continental Margin (CTCM, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) are reconstructed using two ENE-WSW oriented, near-vertical seismic profiles (CROP-M27 and SISTER 11 lines). The interpreted profiles were time-to-depth converted, merged and translated in a geological section, which was also extended to the Tyrrhenian bathial plain and the Calabrian arc using wide-angle seismic data [Scarascia et al., 1994], and tested with gravity modelling. Across the CTCM, top of KCU is laterally variable in depth forming basins filled by Oligo-Miocene clastic to terrigenous deposits up to 1500m thick. Basins are separated by major structures with contractional or transcurrent kinematics, where faults are arranged in a positive flower structure fashion, affecting the KCU as well as lower Oligocene to Miocene deposits. The Messinian evaporites display essentially a constant thickness of ~-400m with the exception of the Paola Basin where deep-water Messinian evaporites are up to 1000 m thick. Plio-Quaternary deposits display a remarkable variation in thickness from ~-4.5 km in the Paola Basin to less then 400m in the central sector of the margin. Plio-Quaternary sediments are internally sub-divisible into four sub-units separated by tectonics enhanced angular unconformities. W-ward vergent reverse faults with limited vertical displacement offset the top of KCU as well as the Oligo-Miocene sedimentary and evaporitic units in the eastern side of the Paola basin and in the distal part of the CTCM where a number of closely spaced, W-vergent thrust faults are also observed in the Plio-Pleistocene deposits. Along the CTCM, the only significant normal fault which was identified is located around its central sector, dips to the W and has a displacement of ~-580m. Across the margin, the Moho was inferred at ~-35 km beneath the Calabria Arc and shallows up to 24 km in correspondence with the coastline. Moho deepens again to a depth of ~-28 km in

  3. Assessment of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV incidence in Calabria, southern Italy: results of a three-year survey

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    Giuliana Renata Albanese

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 a survey on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV has been carried out in Calabria, southern Italy, to determine the occurrence of the virus, to evaluate its incidence, to identify and characterize the virus strains, and to monitor the aphid vector populations. Citrus samples were collected from nurseries and orchards located in the five provinces of the region. The virus was not detected in the citrus-growing areas of Catanzaro (CZ or Crotone (KR, whereas it was found in three orchards in Cosenza (CS, three in Vibo Valentia (VV and twelve citrus plantings in Reggio Calabria (RC. The highest infection percentages occurred in citrus orchards close to fields already infected with CTV. Infections were detected not only in foreign cultivars, but also in local cultivars such as ‘Comune’ clementine, ‘Moro’, ‘Ovale’ and ‘Tarocco’ sweet orange, suggesting that CTV was transmitted by aphids. CTV occurred in only a few plantlets sampled in two citrus nurseries located near the main areas already infected. Serological differentiation of several CTV field isolates revealed that the mild strains were prevalent. Aphis gossypii (Glover and A. spiraecola Patch (= A. citricola Van der Goot were the most frequent aphids in the orchards, whereas Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Foscoulombe and Myzus persicae (Sulzer occurred with low incidence. The absence of T. citricidus (Kirkaldy was confirmed.

  4. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  5. Long-term variation of rainfall erosivity in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, A.; Porto, P.; La Spada, C.

    2017-04-01

    The changes in rainfall erosivity have been investigated using the rainfall erosivity factor ( R) proposed for USLE by Wischmeier and Smith ( R W-S ) and some simplified indexes (the Fournier index modified by Arnoldus, F, a regional index spatial independent, R Fr , and a regional index spatial dependent, R Fs ) estimated by indirect approaches. The analysis has been carried out over 48 rainfall stations located in Calabria (Southern Italy) using data collected in the period 1936-2012 and divided in three sub-periods. The series of the erosivity indexes and of some precipitation variables have been analyzed for evidence of trends using standard methods. The simplified indexes suggested a general underestimation of the rainfall erosivity with respect to R W-S . The mean underestimation ranged between 23 and 54 % for R Fr and from 10 to 15 % for R Fs . Both the sign and the magnitude of the trends were different for the different stations depending on the variable and sub-period considered. In general, the erosivity increased during the period 1936-1955 (1st sub-period) and during the more recent sub-period (1992-2012, 3rd sub-period), whereas it decreased during 1958-1977 (2nd sub-period). The evidence of trends was generally higher for R W-S than for R Fr and R Fs . Focusing on the most recent sub-period (3rd sub-period), all the variables analyzed showed mainly increasing trends but with different magnitude. More particularly, R W-S showed a mean increment of 29 %; F, R Fr and R Fs increased by 11, 15 and 18 %, respectively; the maximum intensity of 0.5-h precipitation increased by 5 %; and the annual precipitation increased by 22 %. Consequently, it remains difficult to define which precipitation variable plays the dominant role in the temporal variation of rainfall erosivity in the region. However, the overall results suggest that the indexes estimated by indirect procedures ( F, R Fr , and R Fs ) should be used with caution for climate change analysis, despite

  6. Civil protection and Damaging Hydrogeological Events: comparative analysis of the 2000 and 2015 events in Calabria (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela; Perrotta, Piero; Russo, Luigi; Tansi, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is a flood prone region, due to both its rough orography and fast hydrologic response of most watersheds. During the rainy season, intense rain affects the region, triggering floods and mass movements that cause economic damage and fatalities. This work presents a methodological approach to perform the comparative analysis of two events affecting the same area at a distance of 15 years, by collecting all the qualitative and quantitative features useful to describe both rain and damage. The aim is to understand if similar meteorological events affecting the same area can have different outcomes in terms of damage. The first event occurred between 8 and 10 September 2000, damaged 109 out of 409 municipalities of the region and killed 13 people in a campsite due to a flood. The second event, which occurred between 30 October and 1 November 2015, damaged 79 municipalities, and killed a man due to a flood. The comparative analysis highlights that, despite the exceptionality of triggering daily rain was higher in the 2015 event, the damage caused by the 2000 event to both infrastructures and belongings was higher, and it was strongly increased due to the 13 flood victims. We concluded that, in the 2015 event, the management of pre-event phases, with the issuing of meteorological alert, and the emergency management, with the preventive evacuation of people in hazardous situations due to landslides or floods, contributed to reduce the number of victims.

  7. Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-07-12

    Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study.

  8. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  9. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  10. New Time-independent and Time-dependent Seismic Source Models for the Calabria Region (Italy) for the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Aybige; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Falcone, Giuseppe; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Murru, Maura; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The present study is carried out in the framework of the S2-2014 COBAS Project "Constraining Observations into Seismic Hazard" co-funded by the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC) within the general agreement DPC-INGV for the period 2012-2021. The two areas identified as priority areas in the first phase of the activities by the 2012- 2021 Agreement DPC-INGV, namely the Po Plain and the Southern Apennines from Molise-Lazio to Basilicata-Calabria borders, require different strategies for calculating "the best seismic hazard". In this study we develop new time-independent and time-dependent seismic source models for the Calabria region starting from the new version of the DISS (Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources). This version of the Database DISS contains remarkable and notable new data and information on the seismogenic sources and their parameterizations in the Calabria region. The probability of the earthquake occurrences is calculated by developing models of seismicity-derived hazard sources, and models of earthquakes on faults/seismogenic sources. Mainly the four different classes of earthquake source models are developed to be included into the PSHA maps: (1) shallow crustal background seismicity (2) special zone that account for deep background seismicity (many earthquakes deeper than 30 kilometers occur beneath the Calabrian Arc and may have caused considerable damage in the Calabria region; these earthquakes have different ground-motion properties than shallow earthquakes) (3) uniform background source zones (4) finite faults/seismogenic sources as defined in the previous activity. The first three models are based on the earthquake catalog and characterize the hazard from earthquakes Mw>4.7. In most cases, the faults contribute most to the hazard for earthquakes larger than Mw5.5. The earthquake occurrence for the faults are modeled both as a Poisson time-independent process and introducing the various renewal

  11. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age,

  12. Civil protection and Damaging Hydrogeological Events: comparative analysis of the 2000 and 2015 events in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calabria (southern Italy is a flood prone region, due to both its rough orography and fast hydrologic response of most watersheds. During the rainy season, intense rain affects the region, triggering floods and mass movements that cause economic damage and fatalities. This work presents a methodological approach to perform the comparative analysis of two events affecting the same area at a distance of 15 years, by collecting all the qualitative and quantitative features useful to describe both rain and damage. The aim is to understand if similar meteorological events affecting the same area can have different outcomes in terms of damage. The first event occurred between 8 and 10 September 2000, damaged 109 out of 409 municipalities of the region and killed 13 people in a campsite due to a flood. The second event, which occurred between 30 October and 1 November 2015, damaged 79 municipalities, and killed a man due to a flood. The comparative analysis highlights that, despite the exceptionality of triggering daily rain was higher in the 2015 event, the damage caused by the 2000 event to both infrastructures and belongings was higher, and it was strongly increased due to the 13 flood victims. We concluded that, in the 2015 event, the management of pre-event phases, with the issuing of meteorological alert, and the emergency management, with the preventive evacuation of people in hazardous situations due to landslides or floods, contributed to reduce the number of victims.

  13. Deconvolving regional and fault-driven uplift in Calabria using drainage inversion techniques and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quye-Sawyer, Jennifer; Whittaker, Alexander; Roberts, Gareth; Rood, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    A key challenge in the Earth Sciences is to understand the timing and extent of the coupling between geodynamics, tectonics, and surface processes. In principle, the landscape adjusts to surface uplift or tectonic events, and present-day topography records a convolution of these processes. The inverse problem, the ability to find the 'best fit' theoretical scenario to match present day observations, is particularly desirable as it makes use of real data, encompasses the complexity of natural systems and quantifies model uncertainty through misfit. The region of Calabria, Italy, is known to have experienced geologically rapid uplift ( 1 mm/yr) since the Early Pleistocene, inferred from widespread marine terraces (ca. 1 Myr old) at elevations greater than 1 km. In addition, this is a tectonically active area of normal faulting with several highly destructive earthquakes in recent centuries. Since there has been some debate about the relative magnitudes of the uplift caused by regional processes or by faulting, the ability to model these effects on a regional scale may help resolve this problem. Therefore, Calabria is both a suitable and important site to model large magnitude recent geomorphic change. 1368 river longitudinal profiles have been generated from satellite digital elevation models (DEMs). These longitudinal profiles were compared to aerial photography to confirm the accuracy of this automated process. The longitudinal profiles contain numerous non-lithologically controlled knickpoints. Field observations support the presence of knickpoints extracted from the DEM and measurements of pebble imbrication from fluvial terraces suggest the planform stability of the drainage network in the last 1 Myr. By assuming fluvial erosion obeys stream power laws with an exponent of upstream area of 0.5 ± 0.1, the evolution of the landscape is computed using a linearized joint inversion of the longitudinal profiles. This has produced a spatially and temporally continuous

  14. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna

    2015-04-01

    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  15. Public knowledge and perception of geo-hydrological risk in Calabria (southern Italy): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antronico, Loredana; Coscarelli, Roberto; De Pascale, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of risk perception is a fundamental tool to strengthen public awareness and knowledge that are directly linked to the way people perceive disaster risk. By means of a quantitative research method (structured interviews), a survey to acquire information on knowledge, communication and perception of natural hazard by the population was led with main reference to landslides and floods. With these aims, a questionnaire including about 50 queries was elaborated with the following main objectives: i) the state of knowledge about landslides and flood phenomena of the people living or working in the survey area; ii) the ability of the population in responding to emergency situations related to such phenomena and the background coming from past events; iii) the trust of the population towards administrators. Moreover, the communication between citizens and Local Authorities when a catastrophic event occurs was evaluated. The survey was carried out on an area of Tyrrhenian seacoast of Calabria (southern Italy) where a set of mountain front alluvial fans develops along the narrow coastal plain. In the study area, a series of rainfall events in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 have induced several debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and inundations that threatened the population and mainly caused damage to private buildings and infrastructures located on the alluvial fans. Three municipalities were selected in the study area, where the proposed questionnaire was submitted face-to-face to 300 residents using a judgment sampling procedure. The preliminary results of the survey are alarming: citizens don't have a good communication with local institutions. In addition, the majority of respondents think that landslides and floods are caused by "man-made actions". They indicated "illegal building", "poor land-management practices" and "lack of interest of local administrators" as the main factors that have the most influence in the occurrence of landslides and

  16. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  17. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  18. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

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    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  19. Agonum tulliae sp. n. from the Sila National Park (Calabria, southern Italy (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Platynini

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    A. Mazzei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Agonum tulliae sp. n. is described from the Sila Massif upland in Calabria, Italy. This species is similar to Agonum (Olisares sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 as far as the external morphology is concerned, but it is easy to distinguish by the colour pattern, the shape of pronotum, and at best by the morphology of male genitalia. The study includes some remarks about the habitat and ecology of the new species. It lives only in the eastern part of the Sila massif and occupies the southernmost part of the distribution area of the Agonum sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 complex in Italy.

  20. Interaction between soil formation and geomorphic dynamics along a soil catena in the Turbolo watershed (northwest Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Conforti, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Robustelli, Gaetano; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of a soil catena located along a slope in the Turbolo watershed in northwest Calabria, southern Italy. This geomorphological context can be assumed as representative of widespread sites in the same region, as well as of several zones in the Mediterranean area, on the basis of its variegate but common lithological, topographic, pedological and climatic features, on the whole prone to high soil erosion susceptibility. The Turbolo stream is a tributary of the Crati river, covers an area of about 30 km2 and develops longitudinally from west to east up to about 13 km in length. It originates from the eastern flank of the Coastal Range and ranges from more than 1000 m to 75 m asl. The watershed is developed through Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks in the western sector, where high relief and steep slopes dominate, whereas the eastern hilly reaches are characterised by gentler slopes and terraces cut on sedimentary terrains of Neogene-Quaternary ages. The soil toposequence we analysed consists of six soil profiles in the eastern sector, on a north-facing slope, cut across Pleistocene marine silty clays, comprised between 85 to 140 m asl in elevation and 5 to 20° inclined. Field observations, chemical-physical data and micromorphological features contribute interesting considerations in the understanding of the interplay between soil-forming processes and geomorphic dynamics. At present, the land is uncultivated with sparse olive trees and is mainly affected by sheet wash and rill erosion, with poor gully incision in places. These processes are presumably promoted by the recent abandon of agricultural crops in the last decade and by the slight local relief of the footslope (about 3 m) above the Turbolo valley-floor, whose main channel occurs less than 100 m far. The selected soil profiles represent loam to (sandy-)clay-loam Inceptisols characterised by accumulation of organic matter (always > 2% except in one profile) in topsoils, neutral to

  1. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy: the stakeholders’ point of view

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    Paletto A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers. In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the

  2. Miocene thrusting in the eastern Sila Massif: Implication for the evolution of the Calabria-Peloritani orogenic wedge (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, G.; Minelli, L.; Rossetti, F.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Faccenna, C.

    2012-05-01

    Alpine orogens in the central Mediterranean region have revealed the concomitance of crustal extension in back-arc domain and crustal shortening in frontal domain. Quantitative data of deformation in the frontal orogenic wedges are necessary to understand how the shortening-extension pair evolves in terms of structures, orogenic transport, timing, and exhumation rate. This paper deals with kinematics and ages of the frontal thrust systems of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (Italy) exposed in the eastern Sila Massif. We first present structural fieldwork, onshore and offshore well log data, and new apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology. Then, we describe the structural architecture of the studied area as an ENE-verging stacking of thrust sheets involving basement units and syn-orogenic sediments. The AFT study documents that thrust sheets entered the partial annealing zone from 18 Ma to 13 Ma. This Early-Middle Miocene thrusting phase was coeval with exhumation of high-pressure/low temperature metamorphic rocks in the hinterland of the orogen (Coastal Chain area), mainly driven by top-to-the-W extensional tectonics. Opposite kinematic shear senses (contractional top-to-the-E and extensional top-to-the-W) and different exhumation rates (slow in the frontal, more rapid in the hinterland) are framed in a tectonic scenario of a critically tapered orogenic wedge during the eastward retreating of the Apennine slab.

  3. Drone photogrammetry for geological research: field digital stratigraphic logs for turbiditic reservoir analog studies in Calabria, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillois, Maxime; Brocheray, Sandra; Paron, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Drone technology combined with new algorithms like Structure from Motion (SfM) has revived and expanded the uses of photogrammetry bringing new flexibility and the capacity to carry on close range photogrammetry to inaccessible areas. This characteristics are particularly appealing in field geology offering the option to reconstruct continuous digital outcrop models of vertical or difficult to reach outcrops. In this light we present the results of a digital outcrop modelling of a Miocene turbiditic system (mainly sandstone) in Calabria (Southern Italy) generated through field data collected by means of a light-weight commercial drone, a detailed geological field survey and cloud point photogrammetric analyses comparing different software for this purpose (Agisoft Photoscan, Drone deploy, Arc3D). The geological model has been used as an input for preliminary reservoir modelling. We generated digital geological sections (stratigraphic logs) of 1,200 m of sections using expert digital image and terrain model interprepation from the DTM generated with drone data, with the goal to reconstruct the real thickness of each layer. We then compared the results with previously created detailed field geological cross sections. The comparison between drone-derived sections and field-survey sections shows a global accuracy of the thickness ranging between 1% to 10%. Although this new methodology still has to be validated in other morpho-lithological context it already demonstrating its usefulness for preliminary geological outcrop investigation and modelling in remote areas. We also compared the different softwares used and we made recommendations for future deployment. This research has been made possible thanks to a collaboration between UNESCO-IHE, The Netherlands, and UniLaSalle Beauvais, France.

  4. STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE EOCENE ALBIDONA FORMATION IN THE TYPE LOCALITY (CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    LUCA BARUFFINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  5. Using ground based radar interferometry during emergency: the case of the A3 motorway (Calabria Region, Italy threatened by a landslide

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    C. Del Ventisette

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid assessment of the evolution of the phenomena which occur during an emergency, along with an all weather and h24 monitoring capability, are probably the main characteristics of a system aimed at optimizing intervention in natural disasters, such as landslide collapses. A few techniques are able to provide all these features remotely, hence assuring safe conditions to operators. This paper reports on an application of the GB-InSAR (Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar technique to monitor a landslide threatening an infrastructure, the A3 motorway in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy, in emergency conditions. Here, it is evaluated how well this technique is able to satisfy these requirements. On 30 January 2009, a mass movement never detected before and located near Santa Trada viaduct caused the closure of that sector of the A3 motorway. The prompt installation of a GB-InSAR permitted to follow and to understand the temporal evolution of the landslide until the end of the emergency and then safely reopen of the motorway. The main steps of the GB-InSAR interferometry data interpretation used in managing this emergency are described and discussed here. In detail, data collected through a continuous acquisition have permitted the division of the unstable area into three smaller zones characterized by different extents of displacement.

  6. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  7. Detection and correction of LiDAR raster data from the Italian national remote sensing programme and production of a suitable CHM to forest volume estimation in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Floris A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and correction of LiDAR raster data from the Italian national remote sensing programme and production of a suitable CHM to forest volume estimation in Calabria (southern Italy. The AlForLab project, a Public-Private Laboratory which is part of the Cluster MEA (Materials Energy Environment addressed to the Calabria Region (southern Italy, has gained great benefit by using LiDAR data acquired in the frame of a national remote sensing programme of the Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea. This kind of LiDAR data, distributed in raster format and publicly available for research and non-profit purposes, have proved to be a suitable tool to support forest management. Their usage, however, has required the recognition and correction of non-forest elements included in the Digital Surface Model (DSM, like electric powerlines, wind turbines, sub-vertical rocks and viaducts. Such outliers, if remaining into the Canopy height Model (CHM, can generate potential errors in application of LiDAR-based prediction models. This paper proposes some semi-automatic pre-processing procedures, directly applicable on raster data, in order to obtain a CHM without non-forest elements. The methods described here have been developed in open-source environment (R and QGIS. The correction procedures carried out were tested in three municipalities having forest area between 1700 and 5400 ha, and characterized by different types of outliers. The performances of the methods were evaluated by comparing the estimated forest volume obtained before and after their application. Although low total volume changes were observed on the entire study areas (about 0.5%, corresponding to 1500 to 7200 m3, more significant effects, tens to hundreds cubic meters per hectare of overestimation, can occur in stands or forest compartments with a high presence of outliers. In conclusion, the proposed methods have proved to be suitable to achieve a reliable CHM for

  8. Damaging Hydrogeological Events: A Procedure for the Assessment of Severity Levels and an Application to Calabria (Southern Italy

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    Tommaso Caloiero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this paper, a methodology to classify the severity of DHEs is presented. A chart which considers indicators of both the damage (Dscore and the daily rainfall (Rscore values recorded in the study area is proposed. According to the chart, the events are classified into four types: ordinary events, with low Dscore and Rscore values; extraordinary events, with high Rscore values but low Dscore values; catastrophic events, characterized by non-exceptional rainfall (low Rscore and severe damage (high Dscore; major catastrophic events, obtained by both high Dscore and Rscore values. Using this approach, the 2013 DHE that occurred in Calabria (Italy was classified as an ordinary event, when compared to the previous ones, even though the widespread diffusion of damage data induced the perception of high severity damage. The rainfall that triggered this event confirms the negative trend of heavy daily precipitation detected in Calabria, and the damage can be ascribed more to sub-daily than daily rainfall affecting urbanized flood-prone areas.

  9. NEW BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC DATA ON THE FRAZZANO' FORMATION (LONGI-TAORMINA UNIT: CONSEQUENCES ON DEFINING THE DEFORMATION AGE OF THE CALABRIA-PELORITANI ARC SOUTHERN SECTOR

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    PAOLA DE CAPOA

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available New biostratigraphic data on the Frazzanò Flysch Formation are presented. This unit is the topmost formation of the stratigraphic succession characterizing the Longi-Taormina Unit, which in turn represents the lowest tectonic unit of the Peloritani Mountains and the only unit in the entire southern sector of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc in which cenozoic terrains have been recognized. The age of the Frazzanò Fm., which as yet has not been well defined, is essential to ascertain the time period during which the tectogenetic phase responsible for the stacking (superposition of the nappes in the Peloritani Mountains occurred . Coltro (1967 reported foraminiferal assemblages of Late Eocene age, but subsequently ages ranging between the Middle Eocene and the Oligocene have been pro posed, none of them supported by new biostratigraphic data. The identification of some coccolithid taxa which appear in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene allowed us to attribute an age not older than Upper Oligocene to the levels that mark the transition between the Frazzanò Fm.and the underlying Militello Formation, and an age not older than Early Aquitanian to the most recent beds of the Frazzanò Formation. Therefore, the tectogenetic phase responsible for the superposition of the nappes in the Peloritani Mountains, very likely started during the Aquitanian. While these data agree with the evolution of homologous units recognised in the Betic and Rifian sectors, they challenge the Late Oligocene age ascribed to the basal levels of the Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation, which lies unconformably over all the tectonic units of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc and pro vides a chronological upper limit to their overthrusting.    

  10. Region of Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  11. The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy): A high resolution record of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (MIS 21-MIS 19) in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele; Tateo, Fabio; Fornaciari, Eliana; Bellini, Giulia; Dalan, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The on-land marine Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy), one of the candidates to host the GSSP of the Middle Pleistocene (;Ionian;) Stage, preserves a manifold record of independent chronological, paleoclimatic and stratigraphic proxies that permit a straightforward correlation with marine and terrestrial reference records at the global scale. In particular, the section holds an excellent record of the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal, which occurs in the midst of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. We report on a complete revision of the section that improves dramatically the available dataset, especially in the stratigraphic interval straddling the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary. Our benthic δ18O record provides evidence that the Matuyama-Brunhes transition, the stratigraphic position of which is marked by a prominent tephra (the ;Pitagora ash;), occurred during full MIS 19, in agreement with many records worldwide. We obtained an age of 786.9 ± 5 ka for the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal and pinpointed the paleomagnetic transition of to a 3 cm-thick interval, indicating that the event was very fast. Since the section fulfills all the requirements to host the GSSP of the Ionian Stage, we propose that the boundary should be placed at the base of the ;Pitagora ash;, ca. 12.5 cm below the midpoint of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal.

  12. Geoethics and perception of seismic risk: the case of Pollino, Calabria, Southern Italy and the comparison with past societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This work is a synthesis of research on the perception of seismic risk in the area of the Pollino, where it is been two years that an ongoing earthquake swarm is affecting the area between Calabria and Basilicata. Mr Downs has distinguished three different aspects in the perception of the environment: structural, preference and evaluation. Within this third aspect, the perception of seismic risk is an important dimension for the schedule. Starting from the territory, understood as the result of reciprocal interactions between humans and the physical space during the later stages of territorialization and reterritorialization, Geoethics can find a synthesis between humanistic and scientific knowledge in relating to the theme of disasters. The risk must be considered in its territorial nature, as a complex phenomenon which involves all aspects of the relations between man and environment. Assuming that the rupture of the dynamic equilibrium among population, environment and resources is the increasingly frequent causes of the outbreak of disasters in the academic increasing attention has been paid to the concept of resilience, for its potential to evaluate a system in a state of equilibrium and adaptation in response to a shock. Thus, the meaning adopted in the social sciences, not only in terms of natural disasters, but more generally for any change to the territory, refers to the ability to resist and recover their losses. Therefore, Geoethics can certainly help especially in educating the territory in terms of integrated risk management to become a tool that can enhance the resilience. In education-teaching, the concept of resilience is used especially for what concerns the sphere of the child's skills in effectively managing stress and difficulties of everyday life. In this context of risk, improve communications, awareness of the complexity of risk and the level of preparation would increase the resilience of the territory and to allow a more effective

  13. Forecasting the timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides. An application of GA-SAKe to the Acri case study (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Terranova, Oreste; Greco, Roberto; Iaquinta, Pasquale; Iovine, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    In Calabria (Southern Italy), rainfall-induced landslides often cause significant economic loss and victims. The timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides can be predicted by means of either empirical ("hydrological") or physically-based ("complete") approaches. In this study, by adopting the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel), the relationships between the rainfall series and the dates of historical activations of the Acri slope movement, a large rock slide located in the Sila Massif (Northern Calabria), have been investigated. SAKe is a self-adaptive hydrological model, based on a black-box approach and on the assumption of a linear and steady slope-stability response to rainfall. The model can be employed to predict the timing of occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides. With the model, either the mobilizations of a single phenomenon, or those of a homogeneous set of landslides in a given study area can be analysed. By properly tuning the model parameters against past occurrences, the mobility function and the threshold value can be identified. The ranges of the parameters depend on the characteristics of the slope and of the considered landslide, besides hydrological characteristics of the triggering events. SAKe requires as input: i) the series of rains, and ii) the set of known dates of landslide activation. The output of the model is represented by the mobilization function, Z(t): it is defined by means of the convolution between the rains and a filter function (i.e. the Kernel). The triggering conditions occur when the value of Z(t) gets greater than a given threshold, Zcr. In particular, the specific release of the model here employed (GA-SAKe) employs an automated tool, based on elitist Genetic Algorithms. As a result, a family of optimal, discretized kernels has been obtained from initial standard analytical functions. Such kernels maximize the fitness function of the model: they have been

  14. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy): the stakeholders’ point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Paletto A.; Giacovelli G; Matteucci G; Maesano M; Pastorella F; Turco R; Scarascia_Mugnozza G

    2017-01-01

    In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry) with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a region...

  15. Marine ostracod turnover tracks orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition: the case study of the Valle di Manche section (Calabria, southern Italy)

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    Rossi, Veronica; Scarponi, Daniele; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Ostracods, small crustaceans living in almost every aquatic depositional setting, are widely used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to their well-known ecological sensitivity. A close connection between the composition of ostracod fauna and the Milankovitch climate-eustatic variability has been documented in several Plio-Pleistocene marine sections of the Central Mediterranean area. The Valle di Manche section (VdM; Calabria, southern Italy), one of the suitable candidates to host the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ionian Stage-Middle Pleistocene, represents an ideal venue where to investigate ostracod turnover in relation to orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes, being firmly constrained in time and well documented by a number of independent climatic proxy. A high-resolution, quantitative analysis of the ostracod fauna has been undertaken on the middle part of the VdM, ca. 30 m-thick and showing two T-R cycles developed at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition (late MIS 21 to early MIS 18). Within each cycle, a relatively thin, fining-upward transgressive muddy unit is overlain by gradually coarsening upward and more expanded regressive silty to sand packages. A total of 40 samples have been selected to characterise the whole spectrum of lithofacies and detect high-frequency palaeoenvironmental variations especially within homogeneous clayey stratigraphic intervals. Taxa typical of circalittoral (>70/100 m) depths (e.g., Bosquetina dentata, Cytherella vulgatella, Cytheropteron monoceros, Pterygocythereis ceratoptera and Krithe species), commonly accompanied by the lower circalittoral-bathyal species Henryhowella sarsii, occur within the fine-grained units developed during the full interglacials of MIS 21 and MIS 19. Furthermore, ostracod assemblages document that the oxygen availability at the sea floor changed during MIS 19. In contrast, a less-diversified ostracod fauna dominated by Aurila convexa, a species preferring

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS IN WILD BOARS FROM CALABRIA

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    F. Naccari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn organochlorine pesticides (POCs and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs in some samples (heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle tissue and spleen of wild boars (utilized as “bioindicator” from various areas from Calabria. Quantitative determination of POCs and PCBs were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by a Varian Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy instrument. Our data have shown low residual levels of OCs, heavy metals and the absence of PCBs in all samples analyzed and therefore the boar meat products are not dangerous for the consumer. Moreover, results obtained deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Calabria, a region a low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries and the traditional agricultural activity.

  17. Source-inherited compositional diversity in granite batholiths: The geochemical message of Late Paleozoic intrusive magmatism in central Calabria (southern Italy)

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    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Bonanno, Fiorenza; Carciotto, Manuele Mario

    2015-11-01

    The Serre Batholith, in central Calabria, is a Late Paleozoic granitoid complex that makes up the middle portion, ca. 13 km thick, of a continuous and nearly complete section of the continental crust. The batholith displays a large compositional variety, with granitoid rocks ranging with continuity from quartz diorite to syenogranite, a distinct group of leucotonalites also occur. The granitoids are on the whole magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, with only some of the more evolved rocks showing a ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic composition. Quartz diorites and tonalites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, while granodiorites and granites are weakly to strongly peraluminous, with two-mica porphyritic types being the only population with a genuine strongly peraluminous character. Fe*-number, MALI and ASI features highlight a strong affinity of the Serre Batholith rocks with Cordilleran granitoids, inherited from the compositions of the source rocks rather than reflecting the real tectonic environment of the magmas. Major trace element and existing Sr-Nd data are consistent with an origin of the Serre Batholith from the assembling of several batches of magmas with specific original compositions derived by fluid-absent melting of different crustal sources. Quartz diorites and tonalites originated from a metabasaltic magma source, whereas metagraywackes with various mafic and pelitic contents appear the most likely sources of weakly peraluminous granodiorites and strongly peraluminous granodiorites and granites. Biotite ± amphibole granodiorites could also have been derived from mafic-intermediate metaigneous sources. Two-mica porphyritic leucogranites are the only rock types representing pure crustal melts, resulting from melting of mafic pelitic sources. The other granitoid compositions are too silica-poor and MgO + FeOt rich to represent pure melts, so they need to include other components, such as solid restitic/peritectic material entrained from the

  18. Timescales and mechanisms of batholith construction: Constraints from zircon oxygen isotopes and geochronology of the late Variscan Serre Batholith (Calabria, southern Italy)

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    Fiannacca, Patrizia; Williams, Ian S.; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2017-04-01

    The late Variscan Serre Batholith in central Calabria represents the middle portion, c. 13-km-thick, of a tilted crustal section continuously exposed from lower-crustal granulites to upper-crustal phyllites. The batholith is zoned, consisting of several granitoid types that were emplaced at depths ranging from c. 23 to c. 6 km. Deep, strongly foliated quartz diorites and tonalites were emplaced into migmatitic metapelites, the intermediate level granitoids are weakly foliated to unfoliated porphyritic granodiorites and monzogranites, and the shallowest bodies are two-mica granodiorites and granites, grading upward to biotite ± amphibole granodiorites, emplaced into paragneisses and phyllites. Five samples, representative of the main granitoid types in terms of both composition and emplacement depth, have been dated by SHRIMP. Zircon from a lower-crustal quartz diorite gave an emplacement age of 297.3 ± 3.1 Ma; two middle-crustal strongly peraluminous K-feldspar megacrystic granites were emplaced at 296.1 ± 1.9 Ma and 294.9 ± 2.7 Ma; a middle- to upper-crustal two-mica monzogranite was emplaced at 294.2 ± 2.6 Ma and finally, an upper-crustal weakly peraluminous granodiorite from the batholith roof was emplaced at 292.2 ± 2.6 Ma. These results are consistent with the development of the batholith by incremental multipulse overaccretion, each granitoid body being in a dominantly rigid state before intrusion of the next, with little or no possibility of magma mixing. The difference in age between the oldest and youngest granitoids, from the batholith floor and roof, respectively, is 5.1 ± 4.0 Ma, providing an upper limit of about 9 Ma on the time taken for batholith construction. The presence in the c. 296-294 Ma granitoids of c. 305-302 Ma anatectic zircon with varied Th/U and oxygen isotope compositions indicates a time interval of 8-9 Ma between incipient partial melting in the lower crust and magma emplacement in the middle crust. The emplacement of the first

  19. Fractal geometry-based fabric quantification in practice: deployment of automated analysis routines on magmatic flow patterns from the Squillace Tonalite (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerik, A.; Kruhl, J. H.; Caggianelli, A.

    2009-04-01

    Magmatic processes such as magma emplacement and deformation-cooling histories leave visible traces in fabrics of magmatic rocks on all scales from µm to m. Together with the mostly diffuse and irregular nature of the patterns, this large scale range greatly impedes comprehensive analyses of the rock's fabrics. While such fabric patterns have been analyzed using a number of conventional methods over the last two decades, the resulting interpretations are mostly related to geometric aspects of the analyzed patterns on a specific scale. Fractal geometry-based quantification approaches can help overcome this problem, as they can be applied on larger scale ranges and thereby help extracting additional information. Furthermore, they are specifically suitable to analyze the pattern's complexity as well as anisotropies and inhomogeneities that may occur within a pattern. One issue that has prevented a widespread application of these methods is the fact that - compared to methods that are based on conventional statistical approaches - the time and effort required for the deployment of fractal geometry-based quantification approaches is much higher. However, the better availability of computing power and the development of automated routines along with their successful application on complex magmatic patterns has largely resolved such reservations. Still, the foundation of a meaningful analysis is laid in the initial preparation and processing of the analyzed patterns. To help avoid the influence of subjective decisions made along the way, we show an exemplary, rule-based work flow from pattern acquisition and image processing to deployment of automated quantification routines on a series of samples from geologically different locations within the Squillace Tonalite in the Serre (Calabria, Italy). All of the samples show evidence of flow, mingling and mixing processes of different intensity. These processes occurred during the injection and the shearing of the

  20. Monitoring landslide-induced deformation with TerraSAR-X Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI): Gimigliano case study in Calabria Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, S.; Cigna, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide phenomena represent a major geological hazard worldwide, threatening human lives and settlements, especially in urban areas where the potential socio-economic losses and damages are stronger because of the higher value of the element at risk exposure and vulnerability. The impact of these natural disasters in highly populated and vulnerable areas can be reduced or prevented by performing a proper detection of such ground movements, in order to support an appropriate urban planning. Mapping and monitoring of active landslides and vulnerable slopes can greatly benefit from radar satellite data analysis, due to the great cost-benefits ratio, non-invasiveness and high precision of remote sensing techniques. This work illustrates the potential of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using X-band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for a detailed detection and characterization of landslide ground displacements at local scale. PSI analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and monitoring slow surface displacements, just particularly in built-up and urbanized areas where many radar benchmarks (the PS, Persistent Scatterers) are retrieved. We exploit X-band radar data acquired from the German satellite TerraSAR-X on Gimigliano site located in Calabria Region (Italy). The use of TerraSAR-X imagery significantly improves the level of detail of the analysis and extends the applicability of space-borne SAR interferometry to faster ground movements, due to higher spatial resolutions (up to 1 m), higher PS targets density and shorter repeat cycles (11 days) of X-band satellites with respect to the medium resolution SAR sensors, such as ERS1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT1/2. 27 SAR scenes were acquired over a 116.9 Km2 extended area from the satellite TerraSAR-X in Spotlight mode, along descending orbits, with a look angle of 34°, from November 2010 to October 2011. The images were processed by e-GEOS with the Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSP) technique, providing the

  1. Lateglacial-Holocene abrupt vegetation changes at Lago Trifoglietti in Calabria, Southern Italy: The setting of ecosystems in a refugial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis de; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta; Joannin, Sébastien; Guiter, Frédéric; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wulf, Sabine; Peyron, Odile; Bernardo, Liliana; Didier, Julien; Stock, Agnès; Rius, Damien; Magny, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Retrospective science such as palaeoecology deeply depends on the preservation of archives in sensitive places. As an example, mountains of medium altitude from Mediterranean peninsulas have long been identified by biogeographers as refuges zones allowing the survival of European temperate taxa during the ice ages, but archives to validate this hypothesis are scarce, especially in Southern Italy. Here we present a new sequence from Lago Trifoglietti (1048 m a.s.l.) in the Calabrian Mountains, which covers the Late Glacial Interstadial (LGI, corresponding to the Bölling-Alleröd period in northern-central Europe) and the transition to the Holocene. The independent chronology based on seven radiocarbon dates is supported by the evidence of three tephra layers already identified in other regional sequences. During the LGI, besides the high diversity of non arboreal pollen grains, a great number of pollens of temperate forest trees are present or abundant (mostly deciduous oaks and fir). These assemblages suggest that the site was above but not far from the upper limit of diversified woodland stands. They confirm a local survival during the last glacial. The Younger Dryas is not marked by major changes, and oak percentages are even higher, suggesting a resilient expansion at lower altitude. Surprisingly the site remains above the timberline until an aridity crisis centered at 11,100 cal 14C yr PB, which is correlated with the Preboreal Oscillation (PBO). This event is immediately followed by the local settlement of a dense fir and beech forest around the lake. A comparison with other Italian key sequences aims at explaining the climate forcing factors that governed this original vegetation dynamic. Further investigations using additional proxies are needed for a more robust climate reconstruction.

  2. The presence of depression in women who are victims of violence. The experiences of Anti Violence centers in the region of Calabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-11-01

    As is clear from research accredited by the ONU, the violence suffered by the partner, husband or other family members is the leading cause of death and disability for women aged 15 to 44 years. The WHO has also shown that at least one in five women suffers a beating or any form of violence in herl lifetime. Gender-based violence is undoubtedly a widespread phenomenon on a worldwide scale regardless of ethnicity, religion, social class,or level of education. It is a traumatic experience that produces different effects depending on the type of violence and the person who is the victim. There is a close relationship of cause and effect between violence and health status of women. They are in fact relevant primary effects related to the consequences of direct physical violence on the body and the side effects associated with mental and physical damage to repetitive exposure and situations of traumatic impact. The health consequences can be of different nature,rainging from Physical, Psychological and Behavioral, Sexual and Reproductive, to Death. The first important Psychological consequences are Depressive Disorder and Anxiety. The objective of this study was to analyze, through the administration of diagnostic tests, the methods of the links of the subjects on the one hand, attachment and relationships on the other; grouped in practice to detect if there is a close relationship between a Depressive Disorder and Violence suffered. 20 women aged between 23 and 50 years who have experienced various forms of violence, were randomly selected and followed by the three anti-violence centers of Calabria. The Separation Anxiety Depressive trait that explains the current Depression is not the result of the violence, but it is due to lack of self-confidence, difficulty im being identified and ability to plan for their lives. These difficulties are established in the woman through an enmeshed relationship with her partner, in fact, what has emerged is the establishment of an

  3. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  4. PROSPECTS OF REGIONAL NETWORK STRUCTURES IN THE SOUTHERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the possibility of the Southern Federal District to form regional network structures. The prospects for the formation of networks in the region in relation to the Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014.

  5. Pharmacovigilance and drug safety 2011 in Calabria (Italy: Adverse events analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scicchitano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pharmacovigilance assesses the safety profile of drugs. Its main aim is the increase of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Italian Drug Agency (AIFA; Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco is financing several projects to the aim of increasing reporting, and in Calabria a Pharmacovigilance Information Centre has been created. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the AIFA database relatively to Calabria in the year 2011 and we have analyzed ADRs using descriptive statistics. We have also collected a questionnaire-based interview in order to describe the background knowledge in the field. Results : Regarding the number of AIFA reported ADRs from Calabria, a 38% increase (138 vs. 100 in comparison to 2010 was evidenced. Hospital Doctors represent the main source of signaling (71.7 %. Ketoprofene and the combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represent the most frequently reported drugs causing ADRs. Our questionnaires indicated that despite the health professionals have met at least once an ADR only a small percentage of them was reported to the authorities (37%. There is a very good knowledge of the ADR concept and reporting system (90% of interviewed distinguish an ADR and knows how to report it, and there is a strong interest in participating to training courses in the field (95% are interested. Conclusions : Despite Calabria has had a positive increase in the number of reported ADRs, the total number is very low and the pharmacovigilance culture is far from being achieved in this region.

  6. The Role of South Africa in Southern African Regional Integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an analysis of the role of the South African state in Southern African regional integration as viewed by the Zimbabwean state, capital and civil society. Their view is that South Africa should forge and sustain better and more equitable relations with the rest of Southern Africa so as to create and sustain a ...

  7. Molecular analysis of the 3’ terminal region of Onion yellow dwarf virus from onion in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana MANGLLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV is an economically important pathogen causing severe disease in garlic, onion and other Allium crops. Eleven isolates of OYDV, all from onion originating from Calabria, southern Italy, were genetically analyzed. An OYDV onion isolate from Sudan was also included in this study. The 3’ terminal region of about 2.5 kb of the twelve isolates were sequenced and the sequences comprising a part of the nuclear inclusion a (NIa-Pro, the complete nuclear inclusion b (NIb and coat protein (CP genes and the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR, were compared to each other and to corresponding sequences of other OYDV isolates from different countries and Allium hosts. The within-population nucleotide identity of the Italian OYDV onion isolates was very high (more than 99.3%, whereas nucleotide identity between them and OYDV onion isolates from Germany was 94%, Argentina 92% and Sudan 87%. Recombination analysis among the complete 3’ terminal sequences showed putative recombination breakpoints in the NIb region of the Argentine isolate, with the minor parent related to the Sudanese isolate. Comparison between OYDV isolates from onion and isolates from garlic produced identities of 77-78% for the complete nucleotide region. When the 3’ terminal nucleotide sequence and the complete NIb protein were analyzed, the phylogenetic analysis generated rooted trees with high bootstrap values (100%, showing a genetic grouping into two well separated clades distinctive for onion and garlic isolates of OYDV. Phylogenetic analysis of CP protein and 3’UTR showed lower bootstrap separation values and no distinct sub-grouping of the OYDV isolates from the two major Allium species.

  8. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  9. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  10. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  11. The integration of the asylum seekers and the state of permanent emergency of the immigrants in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riso Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the situation of the asylum seekers and the economic immigrants starting from an historic and legislative summary of the immigration in Italy. The case study concerns the situation in Calabria, Southern Italy. The comparison between the situation of the Calabrian jungles and the protection system called SPRAR, is used to explain the paradigm of the Italian migration policy that still considers immigration as some kind of permanent emergency.

  12. Regional Approach for Water Policies in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maupin, Agathe

    2013-01-01

    In Southern Africa, the recent elaboration of treaties, protocols, new legislation, as well as political and economic changes, have encouraged and contributed to reorganising water management. The region includes around fifteen transboundary river basins, requiring a fine articulation between the reorganisation of Water Resources Management national laws and strategies to regional Protocol and River Basins Commissions. Approaches and models diverged from one State to another in the region. Si...

  13. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: The Bright Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Balser, Dana; Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas; Dawson, Joanne; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Shea, Jeanine

    2018-01-01

    HII regions, the zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass stars, are the archetypical tracers of Galactic structure. The census of Galactic HII regions in the Southern sky is vastly incomplete due to a lack of sensitive radio recombination line (RRL) surveys. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS) is a 900-hour Australia Telescope Compact Array cm-wavelength RRL and continuum emission survey of hundreds of third and fourth quadrant Galactic HII region candidates. These candidates are identified in the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Catalog of Galactic HII Regions based on coincident 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (Southern Galactic Plane Survey) emission. The SHRDS is an extension of HII Region Discovery Surveys in the Northern sky with the Green Bank Telescope and Arecibo Telescope which discovered ~800 new HII regions. In the first 500 hours of the SHRDS, we targeted the 249 brightest HII region candidates and 33 previously known HII regions. We discuss the data reduction, analysis, and preliminary results from this first stage of the survey.

  14. Insights on the seismotectonics of the western part of northern Calabria (southern Italy) by integrated geological and geophysical data: Coexistence of shallow extensional and deep strike-slip kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, L.; Milano, G.; Pierro, M.

    2017-11-01

    We assess the seismotectonics of the western part of the border area between the Southern Apennines and Calabrian Arc, centered on the Mercure extensional basin, by integrating recent seismicity with a reconstruction of the structural frame from surface to deep crust. The analysis of low-magnitude (ML ≤ 3.5) events occurred in the area during 2013-2017, when evaluated in the context of the structural model, has revealed an unexpected complexity of seismotectonics processes. Hypocentral distribution and kinematics allow separating these events into three groups. Focal mechanisms of the shallower (< 9 km) set of events show extensional kinematics. These results are consistent with the last kinematic event recorded on outcropping faults, and with the typical depth and kinematics of normal faulting earthquakes in the axial part of southern Italy. By contrast, intermediate ( 9-17 km) and deep ( 17-23 km) events have fault plane solutions characterized by strike- to reverse-oblique slip, but they differ from each other in the orientation of the principal axes. The intermediate events have P axes with a NE-SW trend, which is at odds with the NW-SE trend recorded by strike-slip earthquakes affecting the Apulia foreland plate in the eastern part of southern Italy. The intermediate events are interpreted to reflect reactivation of faults in the Apulia unit involved in thrust uplift, and appears aligned along an WNW-ESE trending deep crustal, possibly lithospheric boundary. Instead, deep events beneath the basin, which have P-axis with a NW-SE trend, hint to the activity of a deep overthrust of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin crust over the continental crust of the Apulia margin, or alternatively, to a tear fault in the underthrust Apulia plate. Results of this work suggest that extensional faulting, as believed so far, does not solely characterizes the seismotectonics of the axial part of the Southern Apennines.

  15. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  16. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  17. Identification of Clay Minerals of the Eastern Southern Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of Clay Minerals of the Eastern Southern Region of Lake Victoria by Ethylene Glycol and Heat: Xray Diffraction and Infrared Spectroscopy ... Tanzania Journal of Science ... IR spectroscopy study was also carried out and the results were presented for comparison to clay minerals identified by XRD analysis.

  18. The effectiveness of regional peacemaking in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With ever increasing urgency, the United Nations (UN) has worked to develop the budding security relationship between itself and regional economic communities (RECs) in Africa, especially the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Southern African Development ...

  19. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  20. U Tingiutu. Ajax in Calabria. Political Fissures in the Theatre of Scena Verticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Albanese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The curse of Calabria is collusion. Collusion between the law of the state and the hidden law, between the power of public institutions and mafia power, between upright citizens and "la mala carne", the "evil flesh" of the criminal underworld. Director, actor and playwright Dario De Luca, guiding spirit with Saverio La Ruina of the Scena Verticale theatre company, shines a light on the criminal state within the state in his new play, U Tingiutu. Ajax in Calabria, in which he also performs along with four other actors. De Luca has transformed Sophocles's tragedy to illuminate the daily tragedy of gang warfare, street killings, and blood spilled in the name of honor, in the face of the cowardly inertia of those who pretend not to see. De Luca's Calabria is beseiged by 'ndrangheta power and drained by an ineffectual, often complicit political sector, its social fabric muddied and torn. The dynamics by which mafia violence insinuates itself into the shadowy corners of politics to seize control of the law are acutely revealed in the shadow zones of language, in the harsh, archaic dialect of the region, full of allusion, meaningful silence and glances.

  1. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dell`Atmosfera

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., `Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria`, edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., `Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno` (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper.

  2. Environmental recovery of the Scoglio of S. Maria in Tropea (Southern Italy). A case of geologic and preservation normative in environmental wealth; Aspetti geologici e normativi del recupero conservativo dei beni ambientali culturali. Lo scoglio di Santa Maria dell'Isola di Tropea (Calabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ietto, F. [Arcavacata Universita' della Calabria, Arcavacata, CS (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    , imposing some rapid intervention and effective consolidation. Therefore the plan becomes an element of forecast that requires of substantial technical progressive adjustments, which are prevented and anyway not admitted from the present normative. Therefore is suggested a modification of the Law that currently is checking and governing all the jobs of consolidation and recovery of the environmental wealth. The preservation and recovery of environmental wealth constitute, behind any doubt, a culture of management of the natural capital to transmit to the future generations. In this respects, environmental and architectural wealth, having no economic value, and being thus wealth of public property, are most easily subject to the risk of deterioration. The preservation of environmental wealth (both natural and man-made) together with their aesthetic value, is linked to the preservation of the fundamental resources of a territory, such as water, the agricultural soil, the ore materials, etc. The economy and the economical development of many countries in the World, for example Egypt and Israel, but also Italy, and southern Italy (notably Calabria) in particular depend upon the correct use of this cultural and environmental wealth. For this reason there is nowadays in Italy a critical re-evaluation of the criteria to manage the preservation and recovery of environmental wealth. However, it must be stressed here that for a correct management of the environment, the technical aspects must be adequately substained by appropriate laws and rules. [Italian] I beni ambientali, intesi come ricchezze paesaggistiche, architettoniche e insediamenti urbani, costituiscono in Italia un patrimonio d'ordine superiore; spesso in tali condizioni di degrado da non garantire la sua persistenza nel tempo. Degrado strutturale, cattivo uso antropico, terremoti ed erosione si sommano ad una consolidata mancanza di attenzione sociale e, quindi, di manutenzione e salvaguardia; eccetto che in

  3. THE REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiani Sobrinho Del Bianco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability indicators provide elements that facilitate the assessment of progress in the regions and also the fulfillment of the objectives / goals to produce human well-being both in line with a sustainable ecosystem. Thus, this paper analyzes the Sustainable Regional Development of the Southern region of Brazil, from the preparation of Sustainable Development Indicator (IDRS, which in addition to economic and social variables incorporates environmental variables. In 2010, there were 99.2% of the municipalities in transition and 0.67% in laggard stage. Thus, it is concluded that only 0:08% of the municipalities studied were classified as advanced stage in both years analyzed. The IDRS of southern Brazil was a result of the performance of the variable formal employment sector electricity consumption, residential energy consumption, expenditure on health, education, sports, leisure, welfare and assistance, properties and areas of natural and artificial forests, green area per inhabitant and risk of housing. The result of IDRS in southern Brazil showed that in 2000 there were 95.5% of the municipalities in transition and 4.45% in laggard stage. Thus, these data represent an optimized tool for the design of public policies and actions for sustainable development in regional, state and municipal.

  4. Between Community Spaces: Squares of Minor Centers of Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of open “community spaces” in recent years has to the development of important interdisci­plinary issues. Nevertheless, the reading of smaller towns, in urbanistic, historical-anthropological and geographical terms appears less extended, considering the declination of public spaces as "squares." Starting from this declension we would like to introduce the first results of a research. The research had the aim of (reinterpreting the particular characteristics of these areas in specific areas such as small towns, using the region of Calabria for the case of analytic application. These communities have diverse and stratified living cultures, altered by settlement processes that have triggered two different types of urban contexts. The former often lead either to urban areas in depopulated decay or, in contrast, in places of memories: empty containers of relationships, sterile and crystallized museum objects, reduced to scenarios on which passing groups of visitors move necessarily from those realities. The latter often encircle primitive nuclei, asphyxiating them, or characterizing the so-called "dual" or "satellites" towns, completely detached from the original urban center in which all public functions are decentralized. The applied methodology is based on the reading of the historical-functional evolution of squares by the identification of codified compositional criteria. Through this research we seek to verify how urban planning, in synergy with other disciplines, can define processes of regeneration aimed at restoring the meaning of "center", and thus of an urban-community reference center.

  5. [Migration from Southern Italy to Argentina: Calabrians and Sicilians (1880-1930)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1990-06-01

    "The study analyzes Italian emigration to Argentina from Sicily and Calabria between 1880-1930, compared with out-migration flows from Piedmont. The concepts of cultural patrimony and of migratory strategy are used to measure the different potentials and job opportunities in the Argentinean labor market as well as in the Italian context for those returning home. Considering the high proportion of returnees, a positive or negative correlation between region of origin and of destination can be proposed. Southern Italians indicate a more permanent settlement. The authors conclude that the Argentinean society in its Italian component is the result of Southern rather than Northern influences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  6. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  7. Higher Education, Human Capital, and Regional Dynamics in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscaia, Ricardo; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Rocha, Vera

    2017-01-01

    relevance of human capital for economic growth was also associated with the role of technology and its impact in enhancing the demand for more and better qualified workers. However, the capacity of societies to take advantage of those investments has been found to be more complex and uncertain than...... institutions at the regional level and we review the empirical findings on these issues in the context of Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain). Finally we provide a brief exploratory analysis of the potential association between the education of the population and the GDP per capita...

  8. Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available 25 Map 5.4 Balance of mean annual groundwater use vs recharge (%) 25 CASE STUDY - Climate change and water resources: Altered water availability 26 and increased societal risks 6 Agriculture 28 Map 6.1 Accumulated heat units (degree... Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa 6 Map 3.1 Dynamically downscaled projected summer, autumn, winter, spring future 9 temperature over South Africa for the period 2070?2100 vs 1975-2005 Map 3.2 Dynamically downscaled...

  9. Regional Attenuation of Southern Nevada Using Multiphase Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic event amplitude estimation plays an important role in a range of endeavors including the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions and seismic hazard estimation. Reasonable amplitude estimation requires knowledge of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves as they travel through the earth. In this study, we investigate the attenuation structure in the region of Southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. Phase III is planned to be a direct earthquake-to-explosion comparison in Rock Valley at the southern end of NNSS. For the Rock Valley experiment, a chemical explosion would be placed at the hypocenter of a small shallow earthquake and recorded at a common set of receivers. A sequence of unusually shallow events along the Rock Valley Fault Zone in May of 1993 was recorded by a network of stations operated by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and makes this novel experiment possible. As part of a feasibility study for this phase of the SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Eight new seismic stations, including two borehole sensors, located at the original 1993 sites and additional sites, have been installed and ongoing seismicity along the fault is currently being recorded. Examination of the local attenuation structure is an important part of our site characterization. We wish to ensure that an explosion generated at a Rock Valley site will be large enough to be recorded at regional distances, and a well-constrained attenuation study will aid

  10. Sangiovese and its offspring in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, Marica; Caputo, Angelo Raffaele; Bergamini, Carlo; Crupi, Pasquale; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of different approaches such as ampelography, historical researches, and molecular analysis to reveal direct parent-child relationship. The aim of this paper was to highlight the degree of relationship to five varieties spread in southern Italy, through ampelographic and molecular characterization: Sangiovese, Mantonico di Bianco, Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Molecular characterization was carried out through 52 SSR molecular markers, showing that Sangiovese and Mantonico di Bianco are the parents of Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Ampelographic description was performed using the method developed by the Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin. This analysis identifies three distinct groups: the first brings together Sangiovese and the two offspring Nerello Mascalese and Gaglioppo di Cirò, while Mantonico di Bianco and Mantonicone are positioned at a distance from the first and between them. Using molecular characterization, supported by the ampelographic one, we showed that Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese, three varieties recovered in the southern regions of Italy, such as Calabria and Sicily, originated by the cross between a nationally spread grape variety as Sangiovese and a Calabria autochthonous vine as Mantonico di Bianco.

  11. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kartashev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3% and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%, while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009 revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region.

  12. Regional Development and Sustainability: Cultural Tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. (Subject is missing Are tested first to identify the demand for cultural tourism to determine the profile of the cultural tourist under the assumptions that tourists especially motivated by culture tend to travel longer distances than most tourists. It discusses the motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists in order to establish the potential market in accordance with the characteristics of the target market in the southern region of Jalisco. Any operation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis, which explains the use of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally, we propose some development strategies of cultural tourism in this region of Southern Jalisco.

  13. Determination of trace elements in goat and ovine milk from Calabria (Italy) by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, P; Di Bella, G; Potortì, A G; Lo Turco, V; Salvo, A; Dugo, G Mo

    2012-01-01

    There are many sources of contamination to which milk could be exposed: grazing animals can ingest contaminants present in nature, such as lead in soil, or that have been deposited on grass, resulting from industrial emissions. Another possible route of contamination is represented by feed for animals, which may contain heavy and essential metals. The potential of high-resolution inductively coupled plasma spectrometry was evaluated to quantify reliably various toxic and essential elements (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Cd) in 47 samples of goat and ovine milk from various farms in Calabria (southern Italy). The results showed that concentrations of cadmium were below the limit of detection. Lead levels were below the maximum limits as set by the EC in almost all samples tested. The highest values were those of Zn followed by Fe, Cu and Se.

  14. Causes and circumstances of damage to people in Calabria (Italy) due to hydrogeological events in the period 1980-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Luigi; Pasqua, A. Aurora; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE) can be defined as rainy periods during which landslides and floods can damage people. We investigates the effects of DHE on people in Calabria (southern Italy) ,in the period 1980-2014, using data coming from the systematic survey of regional daily newspapers. Data about "fatalities", people "injured" and people "involved" (not killed neither hurt) are stored in the database named PEOPLE, made of five sections: 1) event identification, 2) victim identification, 3) type of victim's involvement, 4) victim-event interaction, and 5) effects on victim. The outcomes highlight vulnerability factors related to gender and age: males were killed more frequently (75%) than females (25%), and fatalities were older (average age 49 years) than injured (40.1 years) and involved people (40.5 years). The average age of females killed (67.5 years), injured (43.4 years) and involved (44.6 years) were higher than the same values assessed for males, maybe indicating that younger females tend to be more cautious than coetaneous males, while older females show an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured and fatalities, perhaps because younger people showed greater promptness to react in dangerous situations. In the study region, floods caused more fatalities (67.9%), injured (55%) and involved people (55.3%) than landslides. Fatalities and injured mainly occurred outdoor, especially along roads, and the most dangerous dynamic seems to be dragged by flood, causing the majority of fatalities. The present work is the progression of the described research, and it has been carried out by enlarging the database to a 34-year period, from 1980 to 2014. The aim is to validate the conclusions drawn for the 2000-2014 period and to investigate if and how the gender and age vulnerability factors of Calabrian people have been changing throughout the study period.

  15. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  16. The Liguride Complex of Southern Italy —a Cretaceous to Paleogene accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Steven D.

    1987-11-01

    The ophiolite-bearing allochthonous flysch (Liguride Complex) of the Southern Apennines, Italy, has traditionally been divided into two tectonic units: the metamorphic Frido Unit and the unmetamorphosed Cilento Unit. The two units have hitherto been considered to derive from two distinct paleogeographic domains; however, the identification of Cilento Unit sediments within Frido Unit successions implies that the sediments of both units were coeval deposits within the same sedimentary basin. Cilento Unit sediments also occur as the sedimentary cover of kilometre-scale oceanic slices within the Liguride Complex indicating deposition on oceanic basement and not continental basement as was previously considered. Thrust transport directions and sediment provenance indicate that during Late Jurassic time this ocean basin lay to the east of the Calabrian terrain and to the west of Apulia, Calabria and Apulia representing the European and African margins of Neotethys respectively. Northwestwards subduction of oceanic crust beneath the Calabrian terrain from Late Cretaceous time onwards produced an accretionary wedge which was later emplaced onto the Apulian margin during the Burdigalian collision of Calabria and Apulia. The Liguride Complex represents the obducted remains of this accretionary wedge. This interpretation contains three important implications for pre-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region, these are: (1) The Calabrian continental terrain formed part of the Iberian Plate on the north margin of Neotethys, this may have implications for the former location and continuation of the North Pyrenean Fault. (2) The existence of a continuation of the "Eo-Alpine" belt through Calabria and the Kabylies is placed in doubt thus requiring only one, constant polarity (NW-dipping) subduction direction to explain the structures now seen in these regions. (3) The existence of a transform fault between the Europe-vergent structures of Corsica

  17. ABA Southern Region Burn disaster plan: the process of creating and experience with the ABA southern region burn disaster plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Cairns, Bruce A; Hickerson, William L; Holmes, James H

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Region of the American Burn Association began to craft a regional plan to address a surge of burn-injured patients after a mass casualty event in 2004. Published in 2006, this plan has been tested through modeling, exercise, and actual events. This article focuses on the process of how the plan was created, how it was tested, and how it interfaces with other ongoing efforts on preparedness. One key to success regarding how people respond to a disaster can be traced to preexisting relationships and collaborations. These activities would include training or working together and building trust long before the crisis. Knowing who you can call and rely on when you need help, within the context of your plan, can be pivotal in successfully managing a disaster. This article describes how a coalition of burn center leaders came together. Their ongoing personal association has facilitated the development of planning activities and has kept the process dynamic. This article also includes several of the building blocks for developing a plan from creation to composition, implementation, and testing. The plan discussed here is an example of linking leadership, relationships, process, and documentation together. On the basis of these experiences, the authors believe these elements are present in other regions. The intent of this work is to share an experience and to offer it as a guide to aid others in their regional burn disaster planning efforts.

  18. Characterization of the Southern Nevada Region for Source Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Pasyanos, M.; Hauk, T. F.; Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) includes an ongoing series of chemical explosions designed to advance seismic monitoring through better understanding of explosion physics and associated simulation codes. A candidate for a future SPE would result in direct comparison of seismic signals from well constrained and co-located earthquake and explosion sources at a common set of receivers. This possibility arises from an area of unusually shallow seismicity in southern Nevada. In May of 1993 a series of events with depths of 1-2 km were recorded at regional seismic stations as well as local stations that were temporarily deployed by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). The main shock had a magnitude of approximately 3.7 and 11 more events in the sequence had magnitudes over 2. As part of a feasibility study for a future SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Six new telemetered seismic stations located at both original 1993 sites and additional sites have been installed and operating in and around the area since early 2011. Using both historic and current data we seek to ensure that we have the best possible locations for the 1993 sequence and current ongoing microseismicity in the region. For this purpose we use the Bayesloc multiple-event location algorithm (Myers et al., 2007; 2009) to improve hypocentral locations. Bayesloc formulates the location problem as a hierarchy of the travel-time model with travel-time corrections, an arrival time model including picking errors, and a prior model for each parameter. Using known locations of nearby previous nuclear tests we have the ability to test the accuracy and robustness of our relocation parameters and results. In our preliminary analysis, we use a mixture of local and regional nuclear test data with the algorithm for the first time, and initial tests show significant

  19. Assessment of future regional precipitation pattern for an Andes region in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, N.; Rohrer, M.; Acuna, D.; Calanca, P.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Cusco and Apurímac region (Southern Peru) in the outer tropical Andes is characterized by a distinct wet and dry season. The climatology of the Andes region in southern Peru is complex and mainly influenced by tropical and extra tropical upper level-large scale circulation as well as by local convection. For the past decades, observations from station data show a slight negative precipitation trend for the area. Scenarios for the future are associated with large uncertainties. Data from the few available Regional Climate Model simulations, and results from statistical downscaling show neither clear nor consistent future precipitation trends for this region The large biodiversity in the high altitude of the Andes and the critical socio-economic situation of the majority of the local population imply a high vulnerability to climate variability and change. Even small shifts in particular in the precipitation regime (sum, frequency or intensity) can therefore have significant impacts on the livelihood of the rural population. Droughts and flooding events that occurred in the past years have demonstrated the heavy repercussion of extreme events. In our study, we analysed and correlated past regional station observations with large-scale circulation patterns from Renanalyses in order to aim at improving our understanding of the major drivers for precipitation in the Cusco-Apurímac region. First results show an only moderate correlation with ENSO and a relative stronger correlation with moisture transported from the Amazon Basin. Our results are then related to large-scale pattern scenarios provided by GCMs and discussed in view of possible impacts of climate change for the Cusco - Apurímac region. In conclusion, we aim at showing at the example of this specific area of the Andes how process knowledge can be used to support the development of adaptation measures in regions with limited availability of data.

  20. Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: the role of subtropical dry zone expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Cowan, Tim; Thatcher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions such as southern-coastal Chile, southern Africa, and southeastern Australia have experienced a drying trend in austral autumn, predominantly during April and May. The rainfall reduction coincides with a poleward expansion of the tropical belt and subtropical dry zone by around 2°-3° in the same season. This has raised questions as to whether the regional rainfall reductions are attributable to this poleward expansion. Here we show that the impact of the poleward subtropical dry-zone shift is not longitudinally uniform: a clear shift occurs south of Africa and across southern Australia, but there is no evidence of a poleward shift in the southern Chilean sector. As such, a poleward shift of climatological April-May rainfall can explain most of the southeastern Australia rainfall decline, a small portion of the southern Africa rainfall trend, but not the autumn drying over southern Chile.

  1. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  2. 77 FR 21078 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ...: Stone County Leader, published weekly (Wednesday) in Mountain View, AR. National Forests and Grasslands... Forest Service Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish...

  3. Quaternary history of the Kiseiba Oasis region, southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ted A.; Haynes, C. Vance; Nicoll, Kathleen; Johnston, Andrew K.; Grant, John A.; Kilani, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Kiseiba Oasis and depression are located in southern Egypt between the Selima Sand Sheet to the west and the Nile to the east, an important area that hosted Late Cenozoic drainage, Middle Pleistocene lakes, and numerous Paleolithic and Neolithic cultural sites. A synthesis of orbital data, field surveying and near-surface stratigraphy provides new insights into the Quaternary history of this region. Shuttle Imaging Radar data show a complex of fluvial channels that are due to stringers of surficial fluvial lag, subsurface fluvial deposits, and areas of deep alluvium. Three topographic surfaces are described: 1) the Atmur El-Kibeish, above 230 m elevation, which displays a linear pattern of light radar returns, possibly formed from northeast drainage; 2) the Acheulean Surface, at 200 m elevation, that has dark radar patterns resulting from thick alluvium bounded by pebble sand and calcrete strata, and 3) the Kiseiba Surface, below 190 m, that has a complex series of surface and subsurface fluvial and aeolian sediments. Initial drainage from the Early through Middle Pleistocene was to the northeast, which may have lasted through the Last Interglacial. Later reworking of sediments during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene resulted in topographic inversion, with any subsequent local drainage on the Kiseiba Surface to the southwest, towards the Kiseiba Scarp.

  4. Paleolakes in the Gobi region of southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grunert, Jörg; Hülle, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    There are quite a lot of lakes and remnants of higher paleolakes in western and southern Mongolia. The area is known as "Valley of the Lakes", which can be divided into the "Basin of the Great Lakes" in northwestern Mongolia, and to the south between Khangai and Gobi Altai, the so-called "Valley of the Gobi Lakes". Quaternary lake levels and shorelines of varying altitude and timing are shown in geomorphological maps from (i) the Zavkhan Gol and Mongol Els in the Basin of the Great Lakes, (ii) from different regions of the Valley of the Gobi Lakes and (iii) the Bayan Tohomin Nuur and Khongoryn Nuur in the central part of the Gobi desert. 43 OSL- and 12 radiocarbon data from different archives indicate mega paleolakes around the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e and smaller lakes during MIS 3 and the early to mid-Holocene. The Last glacial Maximum (LGM) is supposed to be a dry period with low lake levels.

  5. 77 FR 74454 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ...: Stone County Leader, published weekly (Wednesday) in Mountain View, AR. National Forests and Grasslands...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern...

  6. Paleolakes in the Gobi region of southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grunert, Jörg; Hülle, Daniela; Batkhishig, Ochirbat; Stauch, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Numerous lakes and remnants of paleolakes exist in western and southern Mongolia. For six basins in the area, detailed geomorphological maps were compiled, based on extensive field studies and remote sensing datasets. Several phases of high and low lake levels were reconstructed and dated by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. During the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 lakes in southern and western Mongolia mostly disappeared. In contrast, large paleolakes existed during the last interglacial (MIS 5e) and lasted probably until the beginning of the last glacial. These huge lakes were caused by a strong East Asian summer monsoon, which reached southern and even western Mongolia. During the MIS 3 the monsoon was considerably weaker and most of the lakes were relatively small or even disappeared. Higher lake levels of this period were only recorded at the Orog Nuur. However, at this time the lake was fed by glacial melt water from the Khangai Mountains. The MIS 2 was again a very dry period. The previously supposed phase of synchronous high lake levels and glaciations in southern and western Mongolia is not supported by the data presented here. During the Holocene, lakes in the western and southern part of the study area evolved differently. Early Holocene high lake levels were reconstructed for the western lakes, while most of the southern lakes had highest lake levels in the mid-Holocene. These differences can be attributed to different moisture bearing atmospheric systems. In the late Holocene lake levels were generally low and in the last 50 years most lakes completely disappeared due to a strong human usage of the water resources.

  7. Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tadross, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ?s climate 7 Current state and recent historical changes 1.1. Introduction 7 1.2. Understanding climate, variability and change 7 1.3. Current climate of southern Africa 8 ? Rainfall 8 ? Relative humidity 11 ? Temperature 12 1.4. Observed... changes in global climate 14 ? Detection and attribution of global climate change 14 1.5. Observed trends in southern African climate 16 ? Temperature 17 ? Rainfall 18 ? Case study: Farmer perceptions regarding variability and change in local 21...

  8. Verification of surface minimum, mean, and maximum temperature forecasts in Calabria for summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, one-hour temperature forecasts for the Calabria region (southern Italy, modelled by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, have been issued by CRATI/ISAC-CNR (Consortium for Research and Application of Innovative Technologies/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of the National Research Council and are available online at http://meteo.crati.it/previsioni.html (every six hours. Beginning in June 2008, the horizontal resolution was enhanced to 2.5 km. In the present paper, forecast skill and accuracy are evaluated out to four days for the 2008 summer season (from 6 June to 30 September, 112 runs. For this purpose, gridded high horizontal resolution forecasts of minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures are evaluated against gridded analyses at the same horizontal resolution (2.5 km.

    Gridded analysis is based on Optimal Interpolation (OI and uses the RAMS first-day temperature forecast as the background field. Observations from 87 thermometers are used in the analysis system. The analysis error is introduced to quantify the effect of using the RAMS first-day forecast as the background field in the OI analyses and to define the forecast error unambiguously, while spatial interpolation (SI analysis is considered to quantify the statistics' sensitivity to the verifying analysis and to show the quality of the OI analyses for different background fields.

    Two case studies, the first one with a low (less than the 10th percentile root mean square error (RMSE in the OI analysis, the second with the largest RMSE of the whole period in the OI analysis, are discussed to show the forecast performance under two different conditions. Cumulative statistics are used to quantify forecast errors out to four days. Results show that maximum temperature has the largest RMSE, while minimum and mean temperature errors are similar. For the period considered

  9. Molecular hydrogen in the central regions of southern infrared galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J; Israel, FP

    1997-01-01

    An extensive set of molecular hydrogen observations of centers of southern infrared galaxies is presented. Our data are combined with published infrared and radio observations to investigate the relationship between nuclear and circumnuclear activity. We convert the observational data to absolute

  10. The effectiveness of regional peace- making in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    itself in declarations of the importance of sovereignty and the traditional norm of non-interference. While SADC reformed its 'Organ on Politics, Defence and Security. Cooperation' in 2001 and came out with a new Strategic Indicative Plan in 2004. (Southern African Development Community 2004), the organisation may still.

  11. High-resolution multibeam backscatter data - northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution acoustic-backscatter data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  12. The status of wintering Canada geese in the "Southern Region" of the Atlantic Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In our previous descriptions of Canada goose sub-populations, we have found it convenient to generalize about the "southern region"; those wintering birds...

  13. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  14. Spirastrellolide B: the synthesis of southern (C9-C25) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Rambabu, Chegondi; Reddy, Annareddy Syamprasad

    2008-10-02

    A combination of "chiron" and "asymmetric" approaches is utilized to construct the southern (C 9-C 25) region of marine natural product spirastrellolide B. The key functionalities are derived from d-glucose and Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and dihydroxylation.

  15. Southern Region Perspectives on Security and International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    issue of a "threat from the south" is more keenly felt in Spain where the existence of the enclaves at Ceuta and Melilla introduces a territorial...at Ceuta and Melilla gives this concept a concrete flavor that cannot be sensed elsewhere in Southern Europe where military and demographic concerns...34nonshared threat"--contingencies in North Africa. No precise scenarios are offered, apart from a potential crisis over Ceuta and Melilla (to this one

  16. Alien phytogeographic regions of southern Africa: numerical classification, possible drivers, and regional threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J; Van Wyk, Abraham E; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management.

  17. Helminth community structure in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-02-01

    We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.

  18. Interplay of plate convergence and arc migration in the central Mediterranean (Sicily and Calabria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2016-04-01

    Key components in the current geodynamic setting of the central Mediterranean are continuous, slow Africa-Eurasia plate convergence (~5 mm/yr) and arc migration. This combination encompasses roll-back, tearing and detachment of slabs, and leads to back-arc opening and orogeny. Since ~30 Ma the Apennnines-Calabrian and Gibraltar subduction zones have shaped the western-central Mediterranean region. Lithospheric tearing near slab edges and the accompanying surface expressions (STEP faults) are key in explaining surface dynamics as observed in geologic, geophysical and geodetic data. In the central Mediterranean, both the narrow Calabrian subduction zone and the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front show convergence, with a transfer (shear) zone connecting the distinct SW edge of the former with the less distinct, eastern limit of the latter (similar, albeit on a smaller scale, to the situation in New Zealand with oppositely verging subduction zones and the Alpine fault as the transfer shear zone). The ~NNW-SSE oriented transfer zone (Aeolian-Sisifo-Tindari(-Ionian) fault system) shows transtensive-to-strike slip motion. Recent seismicity, geological data and GPS vectors in the central Mediterranean indicate that the region can be subdivided into several distinct domains, both on- and offshore, delineated by deformation zones and faults. However, there is discussion about the (relative) importance of some of these faults on the lithospheric scale. We focus on finding the best-fitting assembly of faults for the transfer zone connecting subduction beneath Calabria and convergence north of Sicily in the Sicily-Tyrrhenian offshore thrust front. This includes determining whether the Alfeo-Etna fault, Malta Escarpment and/or Ionian fault, which have all been suggested to represent the STEP fault of the Calabrian subduction zone, are key in describing the observed deformation patterns. We first focus on the present-day. We use geodynamic models to reproduce observed GPS

  19. The effectiveness of regional peace- making in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparative advantages of the international (UN) and regional level can be combined for the most efficient response to conflicts. However it must be cautioned that peacemaking efforts led by a regional organisation, rather than a simple unilateral or bilateral team, require greater levels of coordination and cooperation to ...

  20. Regional anaesthesia in children: an update | Bosenberg | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional anaesthesia for children continues to grow in popularity. The potential benefits of regional anaesthesia over more conventional methods are well recognised, but the level of evidence is small since there are few well designed randomised controlled studies on infants or children. Practice patterns have changed ...

  1. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Moreno; Ricardo Ludwig Schmitt; Maria Gabriela Lang; Vanessa Gheno

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the w...

  2. Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack; Pope, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The southern Chesapeake Bay region is experiencing land subsidence and rising water levels due to global sea-level rise; land subsidence and rising water levels combine to cause relative sea-level rise. Land subsidence has been observed since the 1940s in the southern Chesapeake Bay region at rates of 1.1 to 4.8 millimeters per year (mm/yr), and subsidence continues today. This land subsidence helps explain why the region has the highest rates of sea-level rise on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Data indicate that land subsidence has been responsible for more than half the relative sea-level rise measured in the region. Land subsidence increases the risk of flooding in low-lying areas, which in turn has important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important southern Chesapeake Bay region. The aquifer system in the region has been compacted by extensive groundwater pumping in the region at rates of 1.5- to 3.7-mm/yr; this compaction accounts for more than half of observed land subsidence in the region. Glacial isostatic adjustment, or the flexing of the Earth’s crust in response to glacier formation and melting, also likely contributes to land subsidence in the region.

  3. Simulating the effects of the southern pine beetle on regional dynamics 60 years into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer K. Costanza; Jiri Hulcr; Frank H. Koch; Todd Earnhardt; Alexa J. McKerrow; Rob R. Dunn; Jaime A. Collazo

    2012-01-01

    We developed a spatially explicit model that simulated future southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) dynamics and pine forest management for a real landscape over 60 years to inform regional forest management. The SPB has a considerable effect on forest dynamics in the Southeastern United States, especially in loblolly pine (...

  4. Regional efforts to promote forestry best management practices: a southern success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb Nicholson; John Colberg; Hughes Simpson; Tom Gerow; Wib Owen

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Group of State Foresters has a long history of water resource protection efforts, providing leadership in BMP development, improvement, and implementation, enhancing state BMP programs, establishing effective partnerships, and standardizing an approach to consistently monitor implementation across the region.

  5. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  6. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  7. Study of Nurse Education Needs in the Southern New York Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and Hospital Planning Council of Southern New York, Inc., New York.

    The study was undertaken to assess the needs of and facilities for professional nurse education in the 14-county region of Southern New York in order to provide direction for future planning. The information used in the study was a composite of: (1) available statistics, (2) data collected from 855 study participants through interviews, group…

  8. Ice-bearing deposits in the southern mid-latitude regions of Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Michael, G.; Fawdon, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report here the presence of a newly observed well-preserved glacial-like and ice-bearing deposit, named Valley Fill Deposit (VFD), on the surface of Terra Cimmeria, located in the southern mid-latitude regions of Mars.

  9. Efficient assessments of urban tree planting potential around the southern Piedmont region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Merry; Jacek Siry; Pete Bettinger; Michael Bowker

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest carbon offset projects have the potential todraw substantial amounts ofcarbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere ,increase green space,and possibly generate revenue for landowne rsincities capable of trading credits associated with these projects.The area of15cities inornear the Piedmont region of the southern...

  10. Southern Slippage: Growing School Segregation in the Most Desegregated Region of the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The South remains the most desegregated region in the country for black students, but along every measure of segregation and at each level of geography, gains made during the desegregation era are slipping away at a steady pace. This report shows that the segregation of Southern black students has been progressively increasing since judicial…

  11. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographical and organizational patterns of scientific collaboration, in terms of co-authored scientific articles, in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig. The motivation behind the approach lies in the fact that scientific collaboration...... in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-border regional innovation systems provides the conceptual framework for the task. The paper, thus, gives methodological insights for the measurement...

  12. Paradigms and proboscideans in the southern Great Lakes region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J.J.; Grimm, E.C.; Widga, C.C.; Campbell, G.D.; Curry, B. Brandon; Grimley, D.A.; Hanson, P.R.; McCullum, J.P.; Oliver, J.S.; Treworgy, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen new chronometric dates for Illinois proboscideans are considered in relation to well-dated pollen records from northeastern and central Illinois. These dates span an interval from 21,228 to 12,944 cal BP. When compared to pollen spectra, it is evident that Mammut americanum inhabited spruce (Picea) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra) forest during the B??lling-Aller??d (14,700-12,900 cal BP) and early Younger Dryas (12,900-11,650 cal BP) chronozones. Both Mammuthus jeffersonii and Mammuthus primigenius inhabited spruce dominated open-woodland during the Oldest Dryas chronozone, while M.??primigenius persisted in a forest of predominantly black ash during the Aller??d chronozone. A newly discovered specimen from Lincoln, IL, clarifies the taxonomic distinction between M. primigenius and M.??jeffersonii. Hitherto, a paradigm of proboscidean succession during the full- to late-glacial periods was based on the vegetation succession of steppe tundra-like vegetation to spruce forest to spruce-deciduous forest. The presumed proboscidean succession was that of cold, dry steppe-adapted M. primigenius succeeded by more mesic-tolerant M. jeffersonii that in turn was succeeded by the wet forest-adapted M.??americanum. Reported data do not support this view and indicate a need for re-evaluation of assumptions of proboscidean ecology and history, e.g., the environmental tolerances and habits of M.??primigenius in regions south of 55??N, and its dynamic relationship with other proboscidean taxa. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  13. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  14. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  15. Reconsidering the origins of the Southern African regionalism thirty years later: towards a constructivist approach to the origins of SADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abel Moma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of SADCC has generated a debate over the real origins of the southern African model of regionalism. This paper develops the idea that the origins of SADC are both internal and external. Thus, southern African regionalism is understood as a constructivist articulation of internal and external inputs, which determined the creation of SADCC and its transformation into SADC.

  16. With or without us? An audit of disability research in the southern African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith McKenzie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disability research in the global South has not received significant critical consideration as to how it can be used to challenge the oppression and marginalisation of people with disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries. The Southern Africa Federation of the Disabled (SAFOD embarked on a programme to use research to influence policy and practice relating to people with disabilities in Southern Africa, and commissioned an audit on research expertise in the region. In this article, a research audit is reported on and situated in a framework of mancipatory research.Objectives: This article sets out to describe a preliminary audit of disability research in the southern African region and to draw conclusions about the current state of disability research in the region and make recommendations.Method: The research method entailed working with disability researchers in the ten SAFOD member countries and utilising African disability networks hosted on electronic media. Disability researchers working in the region completed 87 questionnaires, which were reviewed through a thematic analysis.Results: The discussion of results provides a consideration of definitions of disability; the understanding of disability rights, research topics and methodologies; the participation of people with disabilities in research; and the challenges and opportunities for using research to inform disability activism.Conclusion: The conclusion highlights critical issues for future research in the region, and considers how a disability researcher database can be used as a tool for disability organisations to prioritise research that serves a disability rights agenda.

  17. Incidence of respiratory tract sarcoidosis in southern and northern regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk G.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative survey of incidence and prevalence of pulmonary sarcoidosis in Southern (Crimean AR and Northern (Zhytomyr region regions of Ukraine by means of analysis of self-referred cases and cases, revealed at prophylactic radiological examination in 2011. The incidence of sarcoidosis in Crimea was 1.08 per 100 000 adult inhabitants; the prevalence was 4,59 per 100 000. In Zhytomyr region the incidence value (2,62 per 100 000 exceeded an equivalent value in Crimea by 2,4 times. The prevalence (7,86 per 100 000 was also higher than in Crimea by 1,7 times. Taking into account a significant impact of climate factor on sarcoidosis epidemiology, the incidence and prevalence of disease in Northern and Southern regions should be considered polar as for the regions of Ukraine. This makes it possoble to conclude that mean incidence of sarcoidosis in Ukraine ranges from 1,1 to 2,6 per 100 000 adult population, whereas the prevalence – from 4,6 to 7,9 per 100 000, which is equivalent to the level of Southern European countries.

  18. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  19. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  20. Migranti tra exit e voice. Da Lampedusa ad Amburgo passando per la Calabria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Elisabetta; Meret, Susi

    2014-01-01

    Questo reportage è basato sul nostro viaggio intrapreso a metà ottobre 2013 con il proposito di documentare le condizioni dei migranti in Calabria, tra Rosarno, Crotone, Riace, Falerna e Acquaformosa, terminando in Nord Europa con l’incontro delle Lampeduse ad Amburgo e Berlino.......Questo reportage è basato sul nostro viaggio intrapreso a metà ottobre 2013 con il proposito di documentare le condizioni dei migranti in Calabria, tra Rosarno, Crotone, Riace, Falerna e Acquaformosa, terminando in Nord Europa con l’incontro delle Lampeduse ad Amburgo e Berlino....

  1. Essential oil diversity of Origanum vulgare L. populations from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Giuseppe De; Tarraf, Waed; Verdini, Leonardo; Brunetti, Gianluca; Ruta, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    Essential oils (EOs) belonging to 25 wild populations of Origanum vulgare L. samples, growing wild in different locations of Calabria Region (Southern Italy), were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The quantitative and qualitative data showed EO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.10% and 37 compounds detected, representing more than 80% of the total composition of the oils. By applying hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of the EO constituents, two main groups and three subgroups were found, reflecting the variation in the chemical composition of EOs from wild oregano populations. The first group consisted of acyclic (linalool/linalyl acetate) chemotypes with a predominant presence of linalyl acetate; the second was characterized by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds, mainly carvacrol, thymol and γ-terpinene. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild oregano populations from Calabria to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Register studies of cancer in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Attner, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim was to study different aspect of health care use and health care costs on a population based level for persons with cancer and their partners, and from an individual level to explore the impact of comorbidities in incidence and survival. In the beginning of the study all persons in the Southern Health Care Region in Sweden diagnosed with colon, rectal, breast, prostate and lung cancer during the period 2000 to 2005 were identified via the Swedish Cancer Register. Lately, inclu...

  3. Geographic/conceptual delimitation of the «Southern Mediterranean». A Regional Security Complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse how the Mediterranean Area has evolved after the changes occurred with the so-called Arab Springs. The main idea is to focus on the Southern Mediterranean as a dynamic space that expands itself as a result of its internal transformations and subsequent external changes caused by the Arab Spring. We will use the IR theory of the Regional Security Complex as it is considered as the most adaptable to this changing reality.

  4. Relative in vitro wood decay resistance of sapwood from landscape trees of southern temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuela Baietto; A. Dan. Wilson

    2010-01-01

    The development of wood decay caused by 12 major root-rot and trunk-rot fungi was investigated in vitro with sapwood extracted from nine ornamental and landscape hardwood and conifer species native to southern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and the lower Mississippi Delta. Wood decay rates based on dry weight loss for 108 host tree–wood decay fungi...

  5. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie J. Ehlers; Lovegirl S Dlamini; Martie M van der Merwe

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstra...

  6. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J Ehlers

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  7. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovegirl S Dlamini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  8. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  9. Epidemiological profile of patients with cutaneous melanoma in a region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  10. Improving accuracy in shallow-landslide susceptibility analyses at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Rago, Valeria; Frustaci, Francesco; Bruno, Claudia; Giordano, Stefania; Muto, Francesco; Gariano, Stefano L.; Pellegrino, Annamaria D.; Conforti, Massimo; Pascale, Stefania; Distilo, Daniela; Basile, Vincenzo; Soleri, Sergio; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2015-04-01

    -landslide prone areas. The susceptibility map may also be included into a regional warning system, combined with suitable threshold evaluations (Vennari et al., 2014), to help Civil Protection Authorities to managing emergencies for events triggered by intense rainfalls. At this purpose, both hydrological (e.g. Capparelli et al., 2012) and geotechnical (e.g. Iovine et al., 2010) modelling approaches may also be profitably included. References Capparelli G., Iaquinta P., Iovine G., Terranova O.G. & Versace P. (2012) - Modelling the rainfall-induced mobilization of a large slope movement in northern Calabria. Natural Hazards, 61(1), pp.247-256. Iovine G., Lollino P., Gariano S.L. & Terranova O.G. (2010) - Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (Southern Italy). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 2341-2354. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. Vennari C., Gariano S.L., Antronico L., Brunetti M.T., Iovine G., Peruccacci S., Terranova O., Guzzetti F. (2014) - Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Sciences, 14(2), 317-330.

  11. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: t2klestari@gmail.com [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  13. Regional analysis of runoff thresholds behaviour in Southern Italy based on theoretically derived distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, M.; Gioia, A.; Iacobellis, V.; Manfreda, S.

    2011-02-01

    The analysis of runoff thresholds and, more in general, the identification of main mechanisms of runoff generation controlling the flood frequency distribution is investigated, by means of theoretically derived flood frequency distributions, in the framework of regional analysis. Two nested theoretically-derived distributions are fitted to annual maximum flood series recorded in several basins of Southern Italy. Results are exploited in order to investigate heterogeneities and homogeneities and to obtain useful information for improving the available methods for regional analysis of flood frequency.

  14. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  15. Litomosoides silvai (Nematoda: Onchocercidae parasitizing Akodon montensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae in the southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, Litomosoides silvai parasitizing Akodon montensis in the southern region of Brazil is reported for the first time. New morphological information is provided for some structures of this nematode species, such as a flattened cephalic extremity, presence of two dorsal cephalic papillae, female tail with a constriction at its tip, “s” shaped vagina, spicules characteristic of the carinii species group and microfilaria tail constricted at the tip. This nematode was found parasitizing the thoracic cavity with a prevalence of 10% (2/20, mean intensity of 4 (6/2, mean abundance of 0.4 (8/20 and range of infection of 2-6 specimens per host, in southern Brazil. This occurrence of L. silvai in A. montensis is a new geographical record for southern Brazil, in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion of the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome.

  16. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  17. CFOR: a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puletti N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria (CFOR is presented. The main aim of the tool is to assess wood production under various harvesting options. All functionalities have been developed by Python and R languages for QGIS. Main inputs are digital models, mainly derived from Lidar, and vector shapefiles.

  18. CFOR: a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria

    OpenAIRE

    Puletti N; Floris A; Scrinzi G; Chianucci F; Colle G; Michelini T; Pedot N; Penasa A; Scalercio S; Corona P

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a spatial decision support system dedicated to forest management in Calabria (CFOR) is presented. The main aim of the tool is to assess wood production under various harvesting options. All functionalities have been developed by Python and R languages for QGIS. Main inputs are digital models, mainly derived from Lidar, and vector shapefiles.

  19. Putting the Spotlight on Small Metal Age Pottery Scatters in Northern Calabria (Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neef, Wieke; Armstrong, Kate; van Leusen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an in-depth multidisciplinary restudy of small Metal Age surface scatters recorded in earlier fieldwalking surveys in northern Calabria (Italy). Guided by a stratified sampling approach based on site types and topographic positions, high-resolution surface

  20. A regional frequency analysis of extreme rainfall events over Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, K.; Neppel, L.; Tramblay, Y.

    2010-09-01

    Reliable estimates of extreme rainfall events are required for several hydrological purposes. However, the reliability of statistical inference tools based on Extreme Value Theory is poor when applied to short time series. These well-established statistical procedures are relevant only when applied to relatively long data records. Therefore, regional estimation methods that "trade space for time" by including several at-site data records in the frequency analysis are efficient tools to improve the reliability of extreme quantile estimates. Regional frequency analysis methods also allow for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles in sites with no data. However, all regionalization procedures require an extra step: the construction of homogenous regions. For this critical step, an original neighbourhood-type approach which provides a specific statistically homogeneous region for each site of interest is proposed in the present study. Both the Hosking and Wallis heterogeneity measure, based on L-moment ratios, and the non-parametric Anderson and Darling homogeneity test, are applied there within. A pooling scheme is also proposed to avoid the effects of intersite correlation. This regionalization method based on an index-value type procedure is applied to extreme rainfall events of Southern France. This study uses 1219 daily rainfall stations belonging to the French Weather Forecast rain gauge network: 601 stations have more than 20 years of daily data and 222 stations more than 50 years (from 1950 to 2008). A calibration-validation procedure was performed to evaluate the descriptive and predictive accuracy and the robustness of this regionalization method. Finally, this study provides a comparison between local and regional estimation methods for mapping Southern France extreme rainfall events.

  1. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  2. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 for the northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution multibeam-bathymetry data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  3. Influence of rifting episodes on seismic and volcanic activity in the southern Red Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viltres, Renier; Ruch, Joël; Doubre, Cécile; Reilinger, Rob; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2017-04-01

    Rifting episodes cause large changes to the state of stress in the surrounding crust, both instantaneously (elastic stress transfer) and in the years following the episodes (viscoelastic stress transfer), and can significantly influence occurrence of future earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here we report on a new project that aims at studying the stress impact of rifting episodes and focuses on the southern Red Sea, Afar and Gulf of Aden region, which has seen a significant increase in rifting activity during the past decade. The Afar rift system experienced a major rifting episode (Dabbahu segment) in 2005-2010 and the southern Red Sea also appears to have had one, indicated by three volcanic eruptions in 2007, 2011-12, and 2013 (the first in the area in over a century), accompanied by several seismic swarms. In addition, Gulf of Aden had an exceptionally strong seismic swarm activity starting in late 2010 that was associated with intrusion of magma in a separate rifting episode. To explore the influence of these recent rifting episodes in the region we will use new geodetic observations, seismicity analysis and modeling. We have analyzed new GPS data collected in Eritrea, in Afar, and in southern Saudi Arabia. Comparisons with older surveys has not only resulted in better GPS velocities for the observed sites, but also revealed changes to velocities at some sites influenced by the rifting activity. We use the results along with seismic data to better constrain the timing, magnitude and duration of the rifting activity in the region. We will then apply elastic and visco-elastic stress transfer modeling to assess the associated stress changes, in particular at locations where volcanic eruptions or intrusions have occurred or where significant seismicity has been detected. The project should provide new information about the impact rifting events and episodes can have on regional volcanic and earthquake activity and how rifting episodes may influence one another.

  4. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  5. LATE GLACIAL AND HOLOCENE BIOCLIMATIC RECONSTRUCTION IN SOUTHERN ITALY: THE TRIFOGLIETTI LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brugiapaglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollen record from Trifoglietti lake (Calabria region provides new information about the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes occurred during the LateGlacial and Holocene period. The LateGlacial part of the record, for which only preliminary data is available, is a new and original sequence from southern Italy. The Holocene sequence, with 11 AMS radiocarbon dates shows a stable Fagus forest for the entire period. Apart from sporadic pastoralism activities and the selective exploitation of Abies, only a weak human impact is recognized in the pollen records. Lake level oscillations have been reconstructed and annual precipitations quantified using the Modern Analogue Technique. The reconstruction was effectuated both at millennial and centennial scale: the first shows an increasing of moisture from 11000 to 9400 cal BP and a maximum of humidity from 9400 to 6200 cal BP. Moreover, several climatic oscillations punctuated the Holocene and therefore superimposed the millennial trend.

  6. Southern Federal University as a Center for the Development of Inclusive Education in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova L.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of best practices for inclusive education in higher educational institutions of the country, in terms of assessing its role in the development of inclusion in the regions. Cluster approach is proposed as the main approach to the development of regional inclusive education. The article describes the experience of organizing inclusive education in the Southern Federal University as a basic educational institution of higher education and as a cluster- forming educational organization that provides learning environment for persons with disabilities at all levels of education. The article also reveals the purpose and objectives of the university in the organization and implementation of quality inclusive education as a key development strategy. We analyze the actual state of inclusive education system at the university, which allows us to identify and describe the main activities of the Southern Federal University that ensure the establishment and development of inclusive education system both within the university and in the Rostov region in general. This also provides the opportunity to describe the current experience that may be incorporated in other institutions of higher education thus ensuring the effectiveness of formation of inclusive education system.

  7. Severity and causality of maxillofacial trauma in the Southern region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Mazen

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the causality and severity of maxillofacial trauma (MFT) among patients referred to a tertiary heath care center in the Southern Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods The charts of all MFT patients referred to the tertiary care center from September 2010 to November 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Pertinent data, including patient age, gender, and cause of injury, were obtained from 101 selected charts. Results Male patients comprised 91% of the 101 selected cases. The highest percentage of MFT cases (88.7%) were caused by road traffic accidents (RTAs) while physical altercations and sports injuries accounted for approximately 6% and 2.8% of MFT cases, respectively. A high fracture: patient ratio of 2.4:1 was observed, which was likely due to vehicular speeding (high energy trauma) involved in RTAs in the mountain regions. Conclusion RTAs are a major cause of MFT in the southern region of Saudi. These accidents cause a heavy burden on the health care sector. PMID:24179319

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection.

  9. The atmospheric boundary layer over land and sea: Focus on the off-shore Southern Baltic and Southern North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    Lecture notes for a short course on the ideal atmospheric boundary layer and its characteristics for different types of real boundary layers, aiming at a discussion of the coastal conditions at the Southern Baltic and North Sea region. The notes are aimed at young scientists (e.g. PhD students...

  10. High Frequency Attenuation Modeling and Event Amplitude Estimation in the Southern Nevada Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of seismic amplitudes plays a critical role in underground explosion monitoring and the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions, which is crucial for global security. In order to improve amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances, an accurate 2D model of attenuation is important. As part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we develop a detailed attenuation model for the region around southern Nevada and test the model's usefulness in predicting amplitudes of local events. The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the waveform modeling efforts of these experiments, and enable us to take a more detailed look at local event discrimination. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Preliminary results show that our attenuation model correlates quite well with the regional geology, and a small number of comparisons of predicted and observed amplitudes from past SPE shots show reasonable agreement. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  12. An acoustic description of the vowels of northern and southern standard Dutch II: regional varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; van Hout, Roeland; van de Velde, Hans

    2007-02-01

    An analysis is presented of regional variation patterns in the vowel system of Standard Dutch as spoken in the Netherlands (Northern Standard Dutch) and Flanders (Southern Standard Dutch). The speech material consisted of read monosyllabic utterances in a neutral consonantal context (i.e., /sVs/). The analyses were based on measurements of the duration and the frequencies of the first two formants of the vowel tokens. Recordings were made for 80 Dutch and 80 Flemish speakers, who were stratified for the social factors gender and region. These 160 speakers were distributed across four regions in the Netherlands and four regions in Flanders. Differences between regional varieties were found for duration, steady-state formant frequencies, and spectral change of formant frequencies. Variation patterns in the spectral characteristics of the long mid vowels /e o ø/ and the diphthongal vowels /ei oey bacwards c u/ were in accordance with a recent theory of pronunciation change in Standard Dutch. Finally, it was found that regional information was present in the steady-state formant frequency measurements of vowels produced by professional language users.

  13. A simple regional coupled model experiment for summer-time climate simulation over southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnam, J.V.; Behera, S.K. [Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); Masumoto, Y. [Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); Earth Simulator Center, Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, T. [Application Laboratory, Yokohama (Japan); The University of Tokyo, School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional model in simulating the precipitation over southern Africa during austral summer. The model's ability to reproduce the southern African mean climate and its variability around this mean state was evaluated by using the two-tier approach of specifying sea surface temperature (SST) to WRF and by using the one-tier approach of coupling the WRF with a simple mixed-layer ocean model. The boundary conditions provided by the reanalysis-II data were used for the simulations. Model experiments were conducted for twelve austral summers from DJF1998-99 to DJF2009-10. The experiments using both the two-tier and one-tier approaches simulated the spatial and temporal distributions of the precipitation realistically. However, both experiments simulated negative biases over Mozambique. Furthermore, analysis of the wet and dry spells revealed that the one-tier approach is superior to the two-tier approach. Based on the analysis of the surface temperature and the zonal wind shear it is noted that the simple mixed-layer ocean model coupled to WRF can be effectively used in place of two-tier WRF to simulate the climate of southern Africa. This is an important result because specification of SST at higher temporal resolutions in the subtropics is the most difficult task in the two-tier approach for most regional prediction models. The one-tier approach with the simple mixed-layer model can effectively reduce the complicacy of finding good SST predictions. (orig.)

  14. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  15. Tectonic control of Triassic sedimentation in southern New Brunswick: Local and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, G. C.; Middleton, G. V.

    1984-10-01

    Both regional and local tectonics controlled the sediment distribution in the Fundy half-graben during the Triassic. Locally, alluvial fans built out into the basin from the western boundary fault along what is now the south shore of New Brunswick. The alluvial fan red beds of the Honeycomb Point Formation are covered by fluvial conglomerates of the Quaco Formation, which in turn are buried by a resurgence of alluvial fan deposition represented by the Echo Cove Formation. Pollen recovered from the upper part of the Echo Cove Formation indicates that, regionally, the system of Triassic-Jurassic grabens along the eastern seaboard is composed of two separate graben systems; one stretching from South Carolina to Connecticut, the other from the Gulf of Maine to the southern Grand Banks. Initial graben formation began at the southern end of each system, followed by successive grabens opening toward the north. The areal distribution of both graben systems appears to have been controlled by four large transform-fault systems from the Middle Triassic through the Jurassic. The age and overall distribution of sediments within the Fundy Basin confirm the existence of a hot spot along the Kelvin Seamount chain and refines determination of the position and timing of the initial rifting that led to the formation of the present Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Factors Limiting Formation of Community Forestry Enterprises in the Southern Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, José Antonio; Cortina-Villar, Héctor Sergio; García-Barrios, Luis Enrique; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study involved fieldwork, surveys applied to Community Board members, and maps developed from satellite images in order to calculate the forested surface area. It was found that the majority of Southern Mixteca communities lack the natural and social conditions necessary for developing community forestry enterprise; in this region, commercial forestry is limited due to insufficient precipitation, scarcity of land or timber species, community members' wariness of commercial timber extraction projects, ineffective local governance, lack of capital, and certain cultural beliefs. Only three of the 25 communities surveyed have a community forestry enterprise; however, several communities have developed other ways of profiting from their forests, including pine resin extraction, payment for environmental services (PES), sale of spring water, and ecotourism. We conclude that community forestry enterprise are not the only option for rural communities to generate income from their forests; in recent years a variety of forest-related economic opportunities have arisen which are less demanding of communities' physical and social resources.

  17. Factors Limiting Formation of Community Forestry Enterprises in the Southern Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, José Antonio; Cortina-Villar, Héctor Sergio; García-Barrios, Luis Enrique; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study involved fieldwork, surveys applied to Community Board members, and maps developed from satellite images in order to calculate the forested surface area. It was found that the majority of Southern Mixteca communities lack the natural and social conditions necessary for developing community forestry enterprise; in this region, commercial forestry is limited due to insufficient precipitation, scarcity of land or timber species, community members' wariness of commercial timber extraction projects, ineffective local governance, lack of capital, and certain cultural beliefs. Only three of the 25 communities surveyed have a community forestry enterprise; however, several communities have developed other ways of profiting from their forests, including pine resin extraction, payment for environmental services (PES), sale of spring water, and ecotourism. We conclude that community forestry enterprise are not the only option for rural communities to generate income from their forests; in recent years a variety of forest-related economic opportunities have arisen which are less demanding of communities' physical and social resources.

  18. Biodiversity and spatial distribution of medusae in the Magellan Region (Southern Patagonian Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Epipelagic medusae collected in the Magellan Region (Southern Patagonian Zone during spring 2009 were analyzed. A total of 27 species of medusae were identified (25 hydromedusae and 2 scyphomedusae. Twelve medusae species were recorded for the first time in the Magellan region. Six dominant species were found: Clytia simplex (19.8%, Rhopalonema funerarium (16.2%, Aurelia sp. (15.9%, Bougainvillia muscoides (15.5%, Proboscidactyla stellata (8.9%, and Obelia spp. (6.0%. The horizontal distribution of all these species, except Obelia spp., showed the highest abundances to the south of 54°S, particularly in the Almirantazgo and Agostini fjords and in the Beagle Channel. Most of the dominant species were collected in shallow strata (0-50 m, with less saline waters (<30, except for R. funerarium, which was mainly collected above depths deeper than 25 m in more saline waters (30-33. These results confirm the success of several species in the colonization of the inland waters of the Southern Patagonian Zone.

  19. Marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Arabiat, Diana Hashem; Sato, Tokiko; Obaid, Batoul; Imoto, Atsuko

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 915 women in the southern region of Jordan. Data collected were related to forms of marital abuse and six domains of psychological well-being. The analysis showed that women have moderate to high level of psychological well-being. The prevalence of ever being abused during the past 12 months ranged from 3.2% (n = 25) for being threatened with a knife to 45.1% (n = 348) for their husbands being unconcerned about them while they were sick. There were significant differences in marital abuse related to having ever had school education (χ(2) = 8.56, df = 2, p = .014). All forms of marital abuse were highly correlated (p < .01). Self-acceptance and environmental mastery domains of psychological well-being had negative and significant correlation with all forms of marital abuse (p < .01). DISCUSSION OF CONCLUSION: Health professionals in health care centers need to assess for marital abuse and its consequence on women's health. Interventions should emphasize promotion of psychological well-being and the factors that influence women empowerment.

  20. Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collalti A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy. At present, the climate changes issue is perhaps the greatest threat that is affecting people and the environment. Forest ecosystems have a key role in the mitigation of climate change. In this context, the prediction of the evolution and growth dynamics of the forests including carbon and water fluxes, and in relation to forest management has become a primary objective. The present study aims at defining a protocol for data collection and the workflow for using the 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM model in a small mountain watershed in the Calabria region. Within this work we synergistically integrate data coming from different methods (e.g., LiDAR, eddy covariance and sample area to predict forest dynamics (growth, carbon and water fluxes. Carbon and water fluxes will be simulated considering also the effects of forest management.

  1. Democratic local governance in the Southern African Development Community region: Some emerging issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornwell Chikulo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reforms have been transforming the structure of local governance in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC region. Since the 1990s, a critical objective of governance reform has been the strengthening of local government by the decentralization of powers, resources and responsibilities to local authorities and other locally administered bodies. These reforms have been labelled ‘democratic decentralization’ by scholars (Ribot, 2004; Olowu & Wunsch, 2004. Democratic decentralization refers to initiatives which entail the transfer of significant authority, responsibility for services, fiscal and human resources to local governance. The objective of the reforms was to capacitate local governance structures, as well as to increase the capacity and productivity of the public sector in general (Hope & Chikulo, 2000. Efforts to improve institutional effectiveness, accountability and service delivery at the local level thus have been a major focus throughout the region.

  2. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality Patterns in the Southern Black Belt: Regional and Racial Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W. Wimberley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W. E. B. Du Bois coined the term The Black Belt to indicate an area of extreme structural inequality. The Southern Black Belt is a set of U.S. counties with proportionately high African American populations and the Plantation South's social legacy. Previous research revealed the region's serious socioeconomic disadvantages. This article presents the first comprehensive analysis of Black Belt mortality. Both Blacks and Whites in the Black Belt experience substantially worse infant mortality and shorter life expectancy compared to their counterparts in the rest of the South and the rest of the U.S. The study also examines the region's leading causes of death and cause-specific "excess" deaths by race, and considers the findings' policy implications.

  4. Flood quantiles estimation based on theoretically derived distributions: regional analysis in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iacobellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional probabilistic model for the estimation of medium-high return period flood quantiles is presented. The model is based on the use of theoretically derived probability distributions of annual maximum flood peaks (DDF. The general model is called TCIF (Two-Component IF model and encompasses two different threshold mechanisms associated with ordinary and extraordinary events, respectively. Based on at-site calibration of this model for 33 gauged sites in Southern Italy, a regional analysis is performed obtaining satisfactory results for the estimation of flood quantiles for return periods of technical interest, thus suggesting the use of the proposed methodology for the application to ungauged basins. The model is validated by using a jack-knife cross-validation technique taking all river basins into consideration.

  5. Flood quantiles estimation based on theoretically derived distributions: regional analysis in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, V.; Gioia, A.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.

    2011-03-01

    A regional probabilistic model for the estimation of medium-high return period flood quantiles is presented. The model is based on the use of theoretically derived probability distributions of annual maximum flood peaks (DDF). The general model is called TCIF (Two-Component IF model) and encompasses two different threshold mechanisms associated with ordinary and extraordinary events, respectively. Based on at-site calibration of this model for 33 gauged sites in Southern Italy, a regional analysis is performed obtaining satisfactory results for the estimation of flood quantiles for return periods of technical interest, thus suggesting the use of the proposed methodology for the application to ungauged basins. The model is validated by using a jack-knife cross-validation technique taking all river basins into consideration.

  6. Effects of forest fires in southern and central of Zabaykal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Buryak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire frequency situation in Zabaykal region from 1964 to 2015 is evaluated and discussed in the paper. The main reasons of decadal increase of fire numbers and the area burned are revealed. The main reasons of high fire frequency and the increase of fire activity in the last decades are shown. The characteristics of the weather conditions in the years of high fire frequency are presented. Fire activity was found to increase not only because of the droughts in the last decades but also due to forest disturbances in Zabaykalsky Krai by illegal logging. Based on the data from 170 sample sites laid out with the use of satellite images, forest inventory data and results of ground sample transects, the impact of the wildfires of different type, form and severity on tree mortality in the light-coniferous forests was estimated, as well as the amount of tree regeneration in the forest areas disturbed by fires, logged sites (both burned and unburned, and sites burned repeatedly was evaluated. Wildfires in the Zabaykal region were found to be strong ecological factor influencing on the probability of existence of many forest ecosystems. In case of further climate warming and repeated fires, the part of the forests may transform to the non forest areas. The steppification of the burned sites in the southern forest-steppe regions and in the low parts of the southern slopes at the border with steppe landscapes as well as desertification in the central parts of the region and swamping of burned sites located in the wet soils are observed. Wind and water soil erosion happens at the large burned sites.

  7. Forest certification in Calabria (Italy: attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was born in the early 90s of the twentieth century in order to protect tropical and sub-tropical forests against a progressive deforestation and degradation. Forest certification is a valuable instrument for environmental protection and a useful tool of green marketing for forest-wood chain enterprises. In the last decades, in developed countries there has been increased consumer awareness of environmental protection and environmentally friendly wood products. This consumers’ attitude is related to the consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly wood products. In the international literature, some studies have investigated the consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for several certified wood products with different prices, while few studies have analyzed the willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain for certified wood products. In addition, in the international literature there is a knowledge gap concerning the manufactures or consumers’ willingness to pay for local wood products compared to equivalent products from other geographical areas. Starting from these considerations, the main aims of this study are: (1 to analyze the wood manufactures’ willingness to pay a premium price for certified wood products; (2 to investigate the wood manufactures’ attitudes and willingness to pay for regional/local wood products. The study was conducted as part of the “Ambi.Tec.Fil.Legno” project involving 127 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain located in Calabria region. At the end of the questionnaire survey, the information provided by 40 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain were processed and analyzed (response rate 31.5%. The results show that the main factors that influence the purchase decisions of enterprises are the trust in the seller and the durability of the product. Concerning the manufactures’ willingness to pay for certified

  8. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  9. Preliminary results of a 30-year daily rainfall data base in southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Pasqualoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first exploratory results and analyses performed on a 30-year (1978–2007) homogeneous precipitation database that has been created for the Calabria peninsula, southern Italy. The database consists of complete time series of daily values of precipitation from 88 stations distri...

  10. Regional Trade in Food Staples : Prospects for Stimulating Agricultural Growth and Moderation Food Security Crises in Eastern and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on growing trade in food staples in the Southern and Eastern African region of Africa as one of the largest growth opportunities available to African farmers. This paper examines the impact of regional trade in food staples, both for maintaining farmer incentives in surplus food production zones and for moderating price spikes in deficit areas. The paper begins by ident...

  11. Evaluating terrestrial water storage variations from regionally constrained GRACE mascon data and hydrological models over Southern Africa – Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    2010-01-01

    ). In this paper we explore an experimental set of regionally constrained mascon blocks over Southern Africa where a system of 1.25° × 1.5° and 1.5° × 1.5° blocks has been designed. The blocks are divided into hydrological regions based on drainage patterns of the largest river basins, and are constrained...

  12. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  13. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  14. Landscapes without board. Routes of signs and drawings in the ionic territory in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Bassetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines for the understanding and appreciation of the Park of Aspromonte in Calabria have implemented a route signs in Calabria to promote the image of city centers, they have created a system of communication to this territory. This process has converged drawing and description of the place in an experience in which the perspective drawing and the new instruments to the character (GIS transform in a decisive manner the viewer's gaze. They cast him in a landscape between cities, smaller towns and territorial morphology, they create a link between the observed reality and what is possible to build and producing a visual structure of a new ecosystem-relational space.

  15. A challenge of regional integration: the Southern Argentinian pipeline enlargement; Desafio de integracao regional: ampliacao do gasoduto Sul-Argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar; Sosa, Damian [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duarte Filho, Arno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The enlargement of the pipelines of Southern Argentina comprised the construction of around 500 km of 30' and 36' loops in the first semester of 2005 and presented many peculiarities. It has been the first enlargement of the argentinian pipeline system since the country's default statement, in 2001, and it has been financed and built by a bi national Brazilian-Argentinian consortium. It has also been the first time that a governmental trusteeship has been used in such an enterprise in Argentina to guarantee the necessary funds. The increasing demand of natural gas to industries and power generation plants brought about by Argentina's recent growth has stated the sense of urgency: the construction must be on duty in June 2005, ready to increase de flow of gas to the Provincia de Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires regions. This has represented also a technical challenge, due to the small time to built the loops, the geographical distribution of the construction, which extends from Patagonia to the Great Buenos Aires region and the meteorological conditions of the period of the construction. The article describes the negotiations done to assemble the construction's financial and managerial frameworks, the building and the solutions found to face the challenge and to meet the deadline. (author)

  16. Prevalence and incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Campobasso (Molise region chieftown, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantonio, P; Iuliano, G; Di Blasio, F; Ruggieri, S

    2013-09-01

    Multiple Sclerosis in southern Italy was not epidemiologically studied until 2006 in Salerno (Campania region), with data based on the registry of district MS centers established since 1996 by Italian Ministry of Health. This paper reports data about Molise region by the same metodology as Campanian study. The registry of MS center was searched for the city of Campobasso, chief town of Molise region. Population screened: 51,633 units. ISTAT 2005 data were used for comparison and age standardization. Prevalence day: September 30, 2009; incidence was calculated by cumulative rates 1996-2000 and 2001-2005. 47 patients were collected, 17 males, 30 females, age 44.10 (9-74, SD 14.38); female/male ratio=1.76/1; age onset 34.61 (4-61, SD 12.40); mean disease duration 9.48 years (0-24; SD 4.28). Males prevalence: 68.62/100,000; females: 111.68/100,000. Total prevalence: 91.02/100,000; standardized: 90.91/100,000. Incidence rates: 1996-2000: 10.84/100,000; 2001-2005: 4.26/100,000. Prevalence is coherent with previous Campanian data, and with last epidemiologic papers on middle Italy, confirming also the validity of MS district centers registries. A possible underestimation of data, for some patients could still migrate to northern centers, could contribute to the differences in incidence. Nevertheless, prevalence data confirm southern Italy as high risk area for MS, and stands against a latitude gradient in this country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying internal variability in a regional climate model: a case study for Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretat, Julien; Macron, Clemence; Pohl, Benjamin; Richard, Yves [Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, CNRS/Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2011-10-15

    This study aims at presenting various methodologies to separate the reproducible and irreproducible components of seasonal and intraseasonal climate variability simulated by a regional climate model over Southern Africa (south of 15 S), during an austral summer rainy season representative of the climatology. To that end, a 30-member ensemble simulation is performed using WRF laterally forced by the ERA40 reanalyses. Retained metrics include the analysis of weather regimes, signal-to-noise ratio, inter-member standard deviation and coefficient of variation. At the seasonal timescale, simulated rainfall amounts generally show a strong reproducibility, except in the subtropics and over the southern part of the Mozambique Channel. There, the number of rainy days is roughly similar in all members, while their average intensity varies extensively. At the intraseasonal timescale, the chronology of weather regimes, derived from the 500 hPa geopotential height, is highly reproducible. Rainfall variability is much less reproducible, especially in the central parts of the domain and near its outflow boundaries. Analysis of a South African regional index nonetheless indicates that both wet and dry spells tend to be accurately simulated and occur in phase in most members, demonstrating that they are embedded in large-scale variability patterns. Internal variability is lastly related to the lateral forcings along the domain boundaries. An objective classification of inflow/outflow mass fluxes allows identification of the recurrent synoptic configurations that favor strong or weak regional reproducibility. The main uncertainties concern the basic morphological features of rain-bearing systems (i.e., their spatial extension, location and propagation speed). Consequences for tropical-temperate interactions are then discussed. (orig.)

  18. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, Eastern Mediterranean region: subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotstein, Y.; Kafka, A.L.

    1982-09-10

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increease from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. Most of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes along the entire southern boundary of Anatolia indicate that N to NNW thrusting is the dominant mode of seismic deformation.

  19. Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Fallahi, Soghra; Mahmudi, Forugh; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Taghavi, Mohsen; Fereydooni Asl, Marjan

    2015-07-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P family history of FGM/C in mother (P traditions in the area (57.1%) were mentioned as the most important factor leading to FMG/C. Urinary tract infection was the most common reported complication (60.4%). FGM/C is a common practice in rural areas of Southern Iran. It is associated with increased age, illiteracy, Sunni Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  1. Southern Africa’s Water–Energy Nexus: Towards Regional Integration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community’s (SADC water and energy sectors are under increasing pressure due to population growth and agricultural and industrial development. Climate change is also negatively impacting on the region’s water and energy resources. As the majority of SADC’s population lives in poverty, regional development and integration are underpinned by water and energy security as the watercourses in the region are transboundary in nature. This paper reviews the region’s water and energy resources and recommends policies based on the water–energy nexus approach. This is achieved by reviewing literature on water and energy resources as well as policy issues. Water resources governance provides a strong case to create a water–energy nexus platform to support regional planning and integration as SADC countries share similar climatic and hydrological conditions. However, there has been a gap between water and energy sector planning in terms of policy alignment and technical convergence. These challenges hinder national policies on delivering economic and social development goals, as well as constraining the regional goal of greater integration. Regional objectives on sustainable energy and access to clean water for all can only be achieved through the recognition of the water–energy nexus, championed in an integrated and sustainable manner. A coordinated regional water–energy nexus approach stimulates economic growth, alleviates poverty and reduces high unemployment rates. The shared nature of water and energy resources requires far more transboundary water–energy nexus studies to be done in the context of regional integration and policy formulation.

  2. Particularities of Syrah wines from different growing regions of Southern Brazil: grapevine phenology and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Saionara; Malinovski, Luciane Isabel; Caliari, Vinícius; da Silva, Aparecido Lima; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the phenological parameters of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) of Syrah variety recently introduced in the region of Marari, Água Doce, Campos Novos and São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, and to characterize the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wines produced from this variety of the vintages 2010 and 2011. The adaptation of the grapevine to climate conditions of these grape growing regions of Southern Brazil for this variety has also been assessed. The climate variations occurring between the phenological cycles of grapevine of Syrah for each growing region influenced the phenological extension and heat accumulation of the grapevine. The wines showed significant levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity, while catechin, a potent antioxidant, was the main phenolic compound quantified in wines. Positive correlations between the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were observed. The principal component analysis confirmed the influence of the growing region and vintages on the phenolic composition of wines, indicating the importance of climate conditions. This study identified possible phenolic markers indicative of climatic influence.

  3. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  4. Annual report on adverse events related with vaccines use in Calabria (Italy): 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Cilurzo, Felisa; Caroleo, Benedetto; Greco, Alexia; Corasaniti, Francesco; Genovesi, Maria Antonietta; Gallelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are administered to large population of healthy individuals, particularly to millions of infants every year, through national immunization programs. Although vaccines represent a good defense against some infectious diseases, their administration may be related with the development of adverse vaccine events (AVEs); therefore their use is continually monitored to detect these side effects. In the presents work, we reported the suspected AVEs recorded in 2012 in Calabria, Italy. We performed a retrospective study on report forms of patients that developed AVEs in Calabria from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Naranjo score was used to evaluate the association between AVEs and vaccines and only suspected AVEs definable as certain, probable, or possible were included in this analysis. During the study period, we evaluated 461 records of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and 18 (3.9%) were probably induced by vaccination. AVEs were common in females (almost 77.7%) and in children aged 0-3 years. The largest number of non-serious AVEs involved “skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders” and “general disorders and administration site conditions.” In conclusion, we documented that in Calabria the total number of AVEs is very low and it may be useful to increase the pharmacovigilance culture in order to evaluate the safety of these products in large populations. PMID:24347985

  5. Financing R&D Projects in Southern Italy: The “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Iazzolino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy, as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation to the improvement of cooperation between SMEs, research centers, universities and technological laboratories. The weak points of the program mainly regard the evaluation phase that made it impossible to get a feedback useful for policy and for driving future agenda.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M.

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern...... is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes...... with the best performance in representing parameters near the surface and in the boundary layer during the analyzed campaign....

  7. Water resources of the Southern Hills regional aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Vincent E.

    2017-03-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of groundwater in the 10 parishes overlying the Southern Hills regional aquifer system of Louisiana (fig. 1) is critical for water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater sources in these parishes is presented. Previously published reports (see References Cited section) and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (U.S. Geological Survey, 2017) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  8. Otter (Lutra lutra presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy

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    Roberto Fasano

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new area of presence of the otter (Lutra lutra was found in Campania region (Southern Italy. It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province. A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra nei monti Lattari (Campania - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno. In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.

  9. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  10. A model optimizing the port-hinterland logistics of containers: The case of the Campania region in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele Iannone

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model for the economic analysis and strategic planning of port-hinterland container logistics systems. The model was employed to investigate the inland multimodal distribution of import/export containers handled at the seaports located in the Campania region of Southern Italy. The loading units can transit through the regional off-dock intermodal and logistic facilities called ‘interports’, as well as through extra-regional locations which have a railway ...

  11. The Development of Tourist Relations during the Economic Crisis through the Example of the Southern Great Plain Region and Serbia

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    PÉTER GULYÁS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the economic crisis, nearby feeder markets have become increasingly important for Hungary’s tourism sector with cross-border cooperation schemes playing an ever increasing role. This also holds true for Hungary’s Southern Great Plain Region when viewed in its relationship with neighbouring Serbia. This paper examines tourism flow changes in the Southern Hungarian Great Plain Region during the period of the economic crisis especially as far as tourism flows from Serbia are concerned. The analysis is based on official statistical data available in respect of commercial accommodation facilities, analyses on tourism trends carried out at the European level, and regional development documents drawn up for the Hungarian–Serbian cross border region. The economic crisis caused a significant downturn in tourism flows in the Southern Great Plain Region. However, the number of tourists arriving from Serbia to the Southern Great Plain and the number of nights they spent there increased even during the crisis partly because of the favourable geographical location of the region, partly because of the intensive cooperation schemes implemented in the tourism sector, and partly because of organised marketing campaigns.

  12. Groundwater quality characterization to protect biodiversity in SADC region (Southern African Development Community

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    Stefania Vitale

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the first phase of a study held in the context of the SECOSUD Phase II project, called “Conservation and equitable use of biological diversity in the SADC region (Southern African Development Community, which aims at promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable economic development in the SADC [1]. The Southern African Development Community (SADC is an inter-governmental organization, with 15 member states: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Madagascar, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its aim is to increase socio-economic cooperation and integration among the community. It is one of the richest area in terms of biodiversity. The main goal of the Project is to contribute to stop biodiversity loss by supporting the development of conservation strategies. Biodiversity or biological diversity is formally defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD as: “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” (UN 1992 Article 2 [2]. Biodiversity is affected by the interaction of multiple drivers and pressures including demographic, economic, socio-political, scientific and technological ones, which are leading to further decline, degradation and loss. The principal pressures on biodiversity include habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, alien invasive species, climate change and pollution. These pressures are continuing to increase. To use biodiversity and to keep it in a sustainable way, it is necessary to study it, assess its economic value, develop a global strategy and a global network to monitor its status in the biosphere. An important step in developing conservation of biodiversity

  13. Ten-year experiences of the tuberculosis control programme in the southern region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M A; Datiko, D G; Shargie, E B

    2006-10-01

    The tuberculosis control programme, southern region of Ethiopia. To assess the impact of the expansion of the DOTS strategy on tuberculosis (TB) case finding and treatment outcome. Reports of TB patients treated since the introduction of DOTS in the region were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed and treated according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Case notification and treatment outcome reports were compiled quarterly at district level and submitted to the regional programme. Of 136,572 cases registered between 1995 and 2004, 47% were smear-positive, 25% were smear-negative and 28% had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). In 2004, 94% of the health institutions were covered by DOTS. Between 1995 and 2004, the smear-positive case notification rate increased from 45 to 143 per 100,000 population, the case detection rate from 22% to 45%, and the treatment success rate from 53% to 85%. The default and failure rates decreased from 26% to 6% and from 7% to 1%, respectively. There was a steady increase in the treatment success rate with the decentralisation of DOTS. Although 94% coverage was achieved after 10 years, the stepwise scale-up was important in securing resources and dealing with challenges. The programme achieved 85% treatment success; however, with the current low case detection rate (45%), the 70% WHO target seems unachievable in the absence of alternative case-finding mechanisms.

  14. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

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    Wei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  15. Inconsistencies of Breast Cancer Risk Factors between the Northern and Southern Regions of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jennifer K; Do, Thuan Doan; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-10-26

    Background: In recent decades the amount of new breast cancer cases in the southern region has been reported to increase more rapidly than in the northernVietnam. The aim of this study is to compare breast cancer risk factors between the two regions and establish if westernized influences have an impact on any reported differences. Method: Data was collected from the two largest oncology hospitals in the north and the south of Vietnam in 2015. Breast density, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle data of 127 cases and 269 controls were collected in the north and 141 cases and 250 controls were gathered from the south. Baseline differences in factors between cases and age-matched controls in each region were assessed using chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Odds ratios (OR) for independent risk factors for breast cancer were obtained from conditional logistic regression. Results: In northern Vietnam significantly increased risks in developing breast cancer were observed for women with age at first menstrual period less than 14 years old (OR=2.1; Pcup of coffee per day (OR=1.9; P<0.05) were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer. Conclusion: We found that women living in the south had some breast cancer associations, such as increased mammographic density and coffee consumption, which are closer to the risks in westernized populations than women in the north. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Patagonian fjord ecosystems in southern Chile as a highly vulnerable region: problems and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Jose Luis; González, Humberto E; Nahuelhual, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Southern Chile encompasses one of the most extensive fjord regions of the world, the Patagonia, currently exposed to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These fjord ecosystems provide important services to humans, which have not been adequately measured and valued. As a consequence, ecosystem services are commonly ignored in public policy design and in the evaluation of development projects. Here we tackle questions that are highly relevant for the nation's development, namely (1) understanding fjord functioning, and (2) developing management strategies based on ecosystem services, in order to secure simultaneous and adequate use of these ecosystems which area influenced by ecological (e.g., biogeochemical) and productive (e.g., aquaculture, fisheries) processes. We also seek to strengthen the analysis of fjord ecosystem value from the economical (including coastal zoning), socio-cultural, institutional, and governmental points of view. In addition, the investigation of current and future effects of climate change on this large region offers a unique opportunity to understand the social and economic consequences of a global phenomenon at local to regional scales. Biogeochemical and socio-economic models will be used to simulate future scenarios under a gamut of management options.

  17. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

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    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  18. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.

    2015-11-01

    Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the impact of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop regional hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. Regional curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other regional curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, regional curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses to urbanization were observed at the county scales with significant scatter about the regional curves and regression equations. Urban channels have a high probability of enlargement, with greater risk for sand-bedded streams, but the magnitude of enlargement was not predictable from

  19. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

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    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  20. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

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    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  1. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  2. Prediction of Climatic Change for the Next 100 Years in the Apulia Region, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Kapur

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on water resources and use for agricultural production has become a critical question for sustainability. Our objective was investigate the impact of the expected climate changes for the next 100 years on the water balance variations, climatic classifications, and crop water requirements in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. The results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2,5 °C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation will not change significantly on yearly basis although a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification, the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decreasing of humid areas and increasing of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR, calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%, wheat (61%, grapevine (49%, and citrus (48% and it is slightly lower for maize (35%, sorghum (34%, sunflower (33%, tomato (31%, and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%.

  3. Albedo Dynamics after Fire in Southern Africa; Contributing Factors and Implications for Regional Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M.; D'Odorico, P.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented instantaneous reductions in albedo (darkening) of the land surface after fires in sub-Saharan Africa. However, at longer time scales the interplay of vegetation removal and revelation of dry underlaying soils could result in higher albedo (brightening) and a negative radiative forcing, a phenomenon that requires further investigation. In this study we consider the effect of fire on albedo weeks to months after early fires occurring southern Africa at the onset of the 2015 dry season. We make opportunistic use of the SMAP radar-based soil moisture product to account and correct for fine-scale spatiotemporal variability in soil moisture. Furthermore, this allows us to bypass issues associated with reference pixel approach. We use advanced statistical modeling and multiple satellite data sources to quantify the relative contributions of underlying soil type, fire-induced char deposition and vegetation removal, and seasonal fluctuations in soil moisture to overall albedo dynamics. In line with previous studies, we find a general decrease in albedo immediately following fire. However, within a month of burning, about half of the study pixels exhibit fire-induced brightening. Long-lived albedo increases of up to 0.04 are common in semiarid regions. These values continue to increase over the course of the dry season. There are distinct geographic trends in the occurrence of brightening which are attributable to regional gradients in soil type and vegetation cover. Given the prevalence of brightening in drier regions and the potential for persistent surface modification, we discuss the implications for regional climate. Specifically, we consider how bright burn scars following widespread fires offer a mechanism that could help explain recent evidence of fire-induced rainfall suppression in African drylands.

  4. Current practice of chronic hepatitis B treatment in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroffolini, T; Spadaro, A; Di Marco, V; Scifo, G; Russello, M; Montalto, G; Bertino, G; Surace, L; Caroleo, B; Foti, G; Portelli, V; Madonia, S; Sapienza, M; Cosco, L; Frugiuele, P; Galdieri, A; Brandolino, N; Siciliano, R; Bruno, S; Almasio, P L

    2012-07-01

    Treatment choice for chronic HBV infection is a continuously evolving issue, with a wide range of options. We aimed to evaluate the current practice of HBV therapies in the real world in Southern Italy. A prospective study enrolling over a six month period (February-July 2010) all consecutive HBsAg positive subjects, never previously treated, referred to 16 liver units in two Southern Italy regions (Calabria and Sicily). Out of 247 subjects evaluated, 116 (46.9%) had HBV-DNA undetectable or lower than 2000 UI/ml. There were 108 (43.7%) inactive carriers, 103 (41.7%) chronic hepatitis, and 36 (14.6%) liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment was planned in 94 (38.0%) patients (26 cases with Interferon or Pegylated Interferon and 68 with nucleos(t)ides analogues). As many as 49.5% of subjects with chronic hepatitis did not receive antiviral treatment. The majority of chronic HBsAg carrier referring centres for evaluation were not considered suitable for antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ides analogues are the preferred first choice for therapy. A long-lasting period of observation may be needed to make appropriate therapeutic decisions in several cases. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, eastern Mediterranean region: Subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Yair; Kafka, Alan L.

    1982-09-01

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increase from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. The subduction zone in this area sequentially jumps to the south as small continental fragments collide with existing zones of subduction. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. The plate boundary between Africa and Turkey at the center of the Levantine basin appears to have shifted to the south of the Anaximander Mountains and Florence rise. Most of the focal mechanisms of the

  6. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  7. Stand structure of a primate rich rainforest region in the central Western Ghats of southern India

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    K. Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats of southern India are one of the most important biodiversity regions in the world, not only due to their faunal diversity and abundance but also due to different habitat types, floral diversity and the presence of several endemic plant species. The rainforests in the central Western Ghats are inhabited by several primate species. We investigated the vegetation pattern and tree species occupancy of one of the prime primate habitats in the central Western Ghats. Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus, Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata, Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates and Malabar Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus inhabit the study area. We studied the density, dominance, frequency and Importance Value Index (IVI of different tree species, using the belt transect method on randomly selected plots covering 4.1ha. We found that all the plant species that emerged to be the most dominant species with high IVI in the forest were also used by the diurnal primates for foraging. Knema attenuata and Syzygium gardneri were found to be the ‘keystone’ species. Since the forests of the study area do not come under the ‘protected area network’ for wildlife, the data obtained during this study will be helpful in the forestry management practices with a view for wildlife conservation of the region.

  8. Carbapenemases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitals of two regions of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Carla; Pazzani, Carlo; Oliva, Marta; Scrascia, Maria; Lovreglio, Piero; Capolongo, Carmen; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Chiarelli, Adriana; Monno, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. Antibiotic susceptibility was also evaluated. The relatedness of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 150 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, KPC-3 genotype was the most predominant (95%), followed by VIM-1 (5%). No other genotypes were found and no co-presence of two carbapenemase genes was found. A full concordance between results obtained by both the phenotypic and the genotypic tests was observed. All strains were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, and among antibiotics tested, only tetracycline and gentamycin showed low percentage of resistance (18% and 15%, respectively). Resistance to colistin was detected in 17.3% of strains studied. The analysis of PFGE profiles of the carbapenemases-positive strains shows that one group (B) of the five (A to E) main groups identified was the most prevalent and detected in almost all the hospitals considered, while the other groups were randomly distributed. Three different sequence types (ST 307, ST 258, and ST 512) were detected with the majority of isolates belonging to the ST 512. Our results demonstrated the wide diffusion of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 in the area considered, the good concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Gentamicin and colistin had a good activity against these strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  9. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  10. Kukimbia: the impact of environmental refugees in Southern Africa: A regional perspective on climate-induced migration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on the regional, national and sub-national policy landscape and the preparedness of Southern African countries to respond to future internal and cross-border displacements as a result of environmental disasters. The goal...

  11. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  12. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. K.; Schneider, D.; Owens, I. F.

    2009-03-01

    Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  13. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s Southern Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, S.; Schneider, D.; Owens, I F

    2009-01-01

    Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand’s Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems...

  14. Micromorphological and physical properties of southern ravine soils in Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Bozhko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of determination of physical and micromorphological properties of soils under natural ravine vegetation in the southern part of Dnipropetrovsk region. The value of ravine forests for the steppe zone of Ukraine is analyzed, and the methods of investigation are shown. Forest typology characteristics of the vegetation stationary test areas, as well as macro- and micromorphological characteristic of the soil profile, structural condition of the soil, its aggregate composition, and water stability of aggregates, are determined. Soil-forming processes in ravine ecosystems of the southern variant in Dnipropetrovsk region are diagnosed. Micromorphological studies of soil in the intact state, as well as analysis of produced thin sections, revealed the high degree of aggregation of the upper (0–60 cm soil horizons. Structure formation is of zoogenic origin. Large amount of soil aggregates of coprolite structure is clearly seen under the microscope. Well decomposed plant residues are visible in the aggregates. Soil over the entire area of the section is of dark brown, almost black color. This is due to the large amount (80% of organic substances indicating the active processes of humification. Fine grained humus is represented by plenty of equally spaced bunches of humones. Humus is in mull form. Skeleton is composed of different sized minerals, with quartz and feldspars dominating in its structure. Plasma is of humus-clay type, uniform over the entire area of the section and anisotropic with point illumination. Visible pore surface area is significant (65% in the upper layers of the soil profile. Pores feature round and oblong regular shape. Often (on 50% of the pore area the outbreaks of small invertebrates are found. With the depth of the soil profile, visible pore area decreases, as well as the aggregation. While correlating with the micromorphological characteristics, water stability of the soil structural aggregates

  15. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Female Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

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    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 139 female adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that female Southern-Montenegrins are 168.73±6.79 cm tall and have an arm span of 167.23±7.79 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than female population across the Europe and the rest of World. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.50±1.00 centimetres, much more than in general population. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  16. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Male Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  17. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  18. Pharmacovigilance in Calabria (Italy): Local experiences resonate international relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pimpinella; Loriana Tartaglia

    2013-01-01

    The new European Union (EU) regulations on pharmacovigilance require that the national systems are strengthened in order to fit the new requirements. The Italian Pharmacovigilance System, coordinated by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), is made by local and regional structures. In 2007, a program for funding active pharmacovigilance projects in the Italian Regions was established by the National law. The AIFA is responsible for the preparation of guidelines aimed at the identification of r...

  19. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  20. A review of pedogenic zonation in well-drained soils of the Southern Circumpolar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockheim, James G.; Ugolini, Fiorenzo C.

    1990-07-01

    The concept of zonality is used to link well-drained mineral soils and processes along a bioclimatic gradient extending from ca. 48° to 87° S, including southernmost Chile, the subantarctic islands, and maritime and continental Antarctica. The following environmental factors decline along this gradient: mean annual temperature and precipitation and the type and number of plant species. Six pedological zones (along with representative soils) are identified along the gradient: (1) Subantarctic Forest Zone (Podzol?), (2) Subantarctic Low Tundra zone, (3) Subantarctic High Tundra Zone (Subantarctic Brown soil, without permafrost), (4) Antarctic Sub-Polar Desert Zone (Subantarctic Brown soil, with permafrost), (5) Antarctic Polar Desert Zone (Red Ahumisol), and (6) Cold Desert Zone (Ahumisol). Zonal mineral soils in the Subantarctic Forest and Low Tundra Zones are rare, because large amounts of precipitation (>-2500 mm) and cool summers have led to thick accumulation of peat. Whereas the processes of rubification, melanization, and peat accumulation decline in relative magnitude southward, the processes of salinization and desert pavement formation increase in relative importance along this bioclimatic gradient. Carbonation and pervection (silt and clay migration) are maximized in the Subantarctic Tundra and Antarctic Polar Desert Zones. Because of the limited amount of land between 40° and 65° S and the presence of the Antarctic Convergence, comparable pedogenic zones occur at lower latitudes in the Southern than in the Northern Circumpolar Region.

  1. Freshwater ecosystems of the southern region of the russian far east are undergoing extreme environmental change

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    Bogatov V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater ecosystems of the Southern Region Of the Russian Far East (SRORFE are subject to the influence of environmental extremes (especially heavy floods and droughts. Within forested areas, extreme floods do not destroy the ecosystems of rivers and floodplain lakes; in contrast, periodic medium and small floods alternating with low-flow periods are beneficial to these ecosystems. In the 21st century, the natural flood cycles will change, likely increasing the peaks of floods but decreasing the probability of rain during the dry season. Extreme floods can lead to the rapid depletion of river phytoplankton and zoobenthos and can cause long-term water hyper-eutrophication. Droughts will increase the probability of forest fires. The loss of forest cover due to logging and fires will intensify the unsteadiness of hydrological regimes of water bodies. In the SRORFE global environmental change, accompanied by increasing anthropogenic pressures and a lack of protective measures will cause a significant loss of biodiversity among freshwater biota. Meanwhile, forest preservation will ease the negative effects on the biodiversity and productivity of freshwater ecosystems in the SRORFE.

  2. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

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    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  3. Atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of promising biomass fuels in southern European regions

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    Panopoulos Kyriakos D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three promising biomass fuels from southern European regions were gasified atmospherically with air in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor with quartz or olivine as bed material. The fuels used were an agro-industrial residue (olive bagasse and the energy crops giant reed and sweet sorghum bagasse. Varying air ratios and temperatures were tested to study the impact on the product gas composition and tar load. Tars were higher in the case of olive bagasse, attributed to its higher lignin content compared to the other two biomasses with higher cellulose. Giant reed gasification causes agglomeration and defluidisation problems at 790°C while olive bagasse shows the least agglomeration tendency. The particular olivine material promoted the destruction of tars, but to a lesser level than other reported works; this was attributed to its limited iron content. It also promoted the H2 and CO2 production while CO content decreased. Methane yield was slightly affected (decreased with olivine, higher temperatures, and air ratios. Air ratio increase decreased the tar load but at the same time the gas quality deteriorated. .

  4. Molecular and clinical analysis of haemoglobin Lepore in Campania, a region of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, Paolo; Ammirabile, Massimiliano; Spasiano, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Di Matola, Tiziana; Cinque, Patrizia; Saporito, Caterina; Filosa, Aldo; Pagano, Leonilde

    2017-08-01

    To date in Italy, there is paucity on data about the prevalence, clinical and haematological features of patients carrying the haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore variant in homozygous or in association with other haemoglobinopathies. Here we report the results of a retrospective analysis on 33 patients from Campania, a region of Southern Italy, historically followed at 'UOSD Malattie Rare del Globulo Rosso' of Cardarelli hospital, Naples, Italy. We described 33 patients carrying the Hb Lepore variant: 21 compound heterozygotes with a common thalassaemia allele, six patients with homozygous state for Hb Lepore, five patients with Hb Lepore/Hb S and one patient with Hb Lepore/Hb Neapolis were identified. All individuals carried haplotype I or V. These thalassaemic patients showed different phenotypes ranging from severe disease with early blood transfusion dependency to moderate form of thalassaemia intermedia. In most cases, thalassaemia mutation type determined the severity of the disease. A great variability of clinical phenotype among the same genotypes was also observed suggesting the presence of unknown genetic modifiers acting in combination with Hb Lepore.

  5. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

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    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  6. Origin of Elblag Upland, northern Poland, and glaciotectonism in the southern Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, James S.; Ruszczyńska-Szenajch, Hanna

    1997-07-01

    Elblag Upland is a complex glaciotectonic landform located near Gdansk Bay in northern Poland. We conducted surface, subsurface, and remote-sensing investigations to elaborate the internal structure and morphology of the upland. The upland covers some 390 km 2 and rises more than 150 m. Elbląg Upland consists almost entirely of Pleistocene strata, many of which are strongly deformed, anomalously thick, and situated high above their normal levels. These deformed sediments were derived from source basins located to the northeast and possibly west of the upland. Elbląg Upland was created by North Polish (Vistulian = Weichselian) ice advances, which pushed locally from the northeast and possibly the west. The upland was then overridden by ice coming from the north-northwest. We propose that glaciotectonic deformation occurred as a result of ice-lobe advances — possibly surges — over unconsolidated and unfrozen sediments, in which high pore-water pressures existed in confined aquifers. Surges may have been either local or regional in character, and surging may have taken place repeatedly during Vistulian glaciation. Glaciotectonism played a prominent role in shaping the southern Baltic basin, which represents a geomorphic end-product of multiple Pleistocene glaciations.

  7. Imperial Industry and Observational Control in the Faynan Region, Southern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Friedman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Faynan district of southern Jordan is an area rich in copper ore, a resource that has made it a focus for human settlement since prehistory. During the Roman and Byzantine periods, the Faynan was the site of a metallum, a State-owned extraction industry. The imperial administration in charge of the Faynan used a variety of methods to regulate and direct the copper industry, ensuring large-scale copper production. This article explores one of the management techniques employed, the use of surveillance as a mechanism to control the local population of workers and slaves. North American historical archaeology has studied control through surveillance in relation to slave populations on plantations. I argue that these theories can be applied to the placement of observational structures and the role of buildings in the Faynan landscape. Roman sources attest to the presence of convict labour at this metallum. As an example, the administration building in the Wadi Ratiye, WF1415, is discussed in detail. This building had towers and I argue that its placement in the landscape in relation to the nearby copper mines was not merely to observe them but to enforce discipline through surveillance. To test this hypothesis the GIS technique viewshed analysis was employed. The main argument of the article hangs on understanding the views and surveillance possibilities, therefore the viewshed produced needed to be very robust with a clear methodology. To accomplish this, the unique environment of the Faynan and limitations of human visual acuity are taken into account to create a regionally and theoretically appropriate model. I posit that the imperial administration displayed a thorough understanding of control through observation and that surveillance of the miners and convicts in the region encouraged their hard work and obedience while discouraging misconduct.

  8. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships between Climate and Biodiversity of Fish Assemblages in the Southern California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonagle, H.; Koslow, J. A.; Watson, W.

    2016-02-01

    Climate has been shown to play a major role in the dynamics of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Previous studies of relationships between physical oceanography and fish population dynamics have focused primarily on commercially important species. However, as we move towards more comprehensive, ecosystem-based management of fisheries, it is important to understand how entire assemblages of fish, including ecologically important but noncommercial taxa, are influenced by climate. We used the ichthyoplankton time series maintained by the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) to examine changes in over 200 fish taxa from 1969 to 2011 in the Southern California Current region. We used several indices of species richness and evenness, as well as graphical approaches, to examine potential changes in the diversity of regional fish assemblages in relation to interannual and decadal-scale climate variability. These include El Niño-La Niña events, changes in deepwater oxygen concentration and long-term ocean warming. Richness was positively correlated with deepwater oxygen concentration, consistent with the strong correlation between midwater fish abundance and oxygen. Diversity (a measurement of both richness and evenness) was positively correlated with sea surface temperature. Diversity decreased as the abundance of a diverse midwater fish assemblage declined, and it increased as a dominant assemblage of common, coldwater fish declined. This latter pattern may be due to the strong dominance of species with cold water affinities when conditions were favorable, which reduced evenness in the community. Trends in deoxygenation and warming are predicted to continue due to climate change. A better understanding of the relationships between the diversity of fish communities and climate could lead to improved indicators of ecosystem status and the ability to predict trends in fish communities related to climate change.

  10. Remote sensing of rock glacier activity in the Spanish Peaks region of southern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C.; Savage, A.; Gomez, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the significance of rock glaciers for water resources and indicators of climate change, there is a need to improve the capability to monitor changes in rock glacier activity (and, hence, the state of the ground ice) for alpine settings. Remote sensing tools potentially provide means of conducting regional studies. This study focuses on the Spanish Peaks region of southern Colorado where glacial- and talus-derived rock glaciers are found predominantly on slopes of late Cenozoic felsic intrusions. Mapping of rock glaciers and other rock-debris landforms is based on high resolution optical imagery. Talus-derived rock glaciers are typically found at lower altitudes than those derived from rock-buried glaciers and moraines. We utilize Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to identify active rock glaciers (and their temporal kinematic variations). InSAR analyses includes recent data from the Sentinel-1 mission (2015 - present), as well as older archived data spanning through the 1990s. For selected rock glaciers, field verification is also provided by repeat GPS surveys and ground-based radar interferometry spanning 2014 - 2016. Seasonal changes in flow rate are observed, as well as annual variations that may correspond with differing amounts of winter precipitation. This study also explores the utility of thermal remote sensing as a possible tool to identify landforms with significant ground ice. Analysis of thermal emittance data from Landsat and ASTER imagery suggests that active rock glaciers and relatively ice-free landforms (as determined from InSAR) might be distinguishable. This is further tested using 1-dimensional thermal modeling. Compared with InSAR data archives, the potential utility of thermal remote sensing data may allow analysis of longer data archives for a better view of changes periglacial environmental state.

  11. Fiumara Sant'Agata Reloaded : Reggio Calabria, Itàlia

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzon, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Zona de reforma del proyecto “Fiumara sant’Agata_connector paesajistico” mas vinculado a uso antropologico de parque urbano. El “Uliveto” busca una relacion con la periferia de Reggio Calabria y incluye la zona de cultivos de olivos preexistente a traves de un parque linear urbano que sigue del bacino de arena de la fiumara, utilizado como principal eje visivo y peatonal. Zona 2 del parque urbano, se vincula a un programa de control de la producion agricola del parque y de jest...

  12. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Hg(II)-methylation and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota inhabiting the Gulf of Mexico region. - This study, which presents the results of a landscape scale examination of methylmercury and total mercury cycling in southern Louisiana, shows that freshwater, brackish, and marine wetlands are important sites of methylmercury production, which could lead to increased fish Hg concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  13. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  14. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  15. Dense shelf water spreading from Antarctic coastal polynyas to the deep Southern Ocean: A regional circumpolar model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Tamura, Takeshi; Massom, Robert; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    The spreading of dense shelf water (DSW) from Antarctic coastal margins to lower latitudes plays a vital role in the ocean thermohaline circulation and the global climate system. Through enhanced localized sea ice production in Antarctic coastal polynyas, cold and saline DSW is formed over the continental shelf regions as a precursor to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). However, the detailed fate of coastal DSW over the Southern Ocean is still unclear. Here we conduct extensive passive tracer experiments using a circumpolar ocean-sea ice-ice shelf model to investigate pathways of the regional polynya-based DSW from the Antarctic margins to the deep Southern Ocean basins. In the numerical experiments, the Antarctic coastal margin is divided into nine regions, and a passive tracer is released from each region at the same rate as the local sea ice production. The modeled spatial distribution of the total concentration of the nine tracers is consistent with the observed AABW distribution and clearly demonstrates nine routes of the DSW over the Southern Ocean along its bottom topography. Furthermore, the model shows that while ˜50% of the total tracer is distributed northward from the continental shelf to the deep ocean, ˜7% is transported poleward beneath ice shelf cavities. The comprehensive tracer experiments allow us to estimate the contribution of local DSW to the total concentration along each of the pathways.

  16. Quality of diabetes care at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S Al-Arfaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current status of care provided by the Diabetes Center at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region. Materials and Methods : A total of 260 patients were randomly selected from the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Center. Study tools comprised patients′ data sheets and patients′ interview questionnaire. Results : Two-thirds of the patients were aged 50 years or more. Half of patients had had the disease for less than 10 years. Diet therapy alone was followed by 2.3% of diabetic patients. More than half of patients (56.5% were on insulin. Most of the diabetic patients were tested for HbA1c at least once per year (88.1%, and 71.5% had their lipid profile done at least once within two years. Low indicators included having a dilated eye examination (35.4%, assessment for nephropathy (28.8%, and having a well-documented foot examination (12.7%. Highest risk HbA1c level (>9.5% was reached by 38.8% of patients, 48.8% had a low-density lipoprotein level of <130 mg/dl, and 36.5% of patients had controlled blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg. Most patients were satisfied with their interaction with the treating doctor, 41.5% were satisfied with access to treatment. Hypertension was found to be the most frequent comorbidity (38.5%. Conclusion : The quality of services as regard to process and outcome are low at the Diabetes Center. The overall diabetic patients′ satisfaction was high, whereas their satisfaction was low as regards to access to treatment or health professionals.

  17. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  18. Integrated mapping of groundwater drought risk in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Villholth, KG

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and human vulnerability associated with diminished groundwater availability and access during drought. An integrated management support tool, GRiMMS, is presented, for the mapping and assessment of relative groundwater drought risk in the Southern African...

  19. Estimating Earthquake Hazards in the San Pedro Shelf Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baher, S.; Fuis, G.; Normark, W. R.; Sliter, R.

    2003-12-01

    The San Pedro Shelf (SPS) region of the inner California Borderland offshore southern California poses a significant seismic hazard to the contiguous Los Angeles Area, as a consequence of late Cenozoic compressional reactivation of mid-Cenozoic extensional faults. The extent of the hazard, however, is poorly understood because of the complexity of fault geometries and uncertainties in earthquake locations. The major faults in the region include the Palos Verdes, THUMS Huntington Beach and the Newport-Inglewood fault zones. We report here the analysis and interpretation of wide-angle seismic-reflection and refraction data recorded as part of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment line 1 (LARSE 1), multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data obtained by the USGS (1998-2000) and industry borehole stratigraphy. The onshore-offshore velocity model, which is based on forward modeling of the refracted P-wave arrival times, is used to depth migrate the LARSE 1 section. Borehole stratigraphy allows correlation of the onshore and offshore velocity models because state regulations prevent collection of deep-penetration acoustic data nearshore (within 3 mi.). Our refraction study is an extension of ten Brink et al., 2000 tomographic inversion of LARSE I data. They found high velocities (> 6 km/sec) at about ~3.5 km depth from the Catalina Fault (CF) to the SPS. We find these velocities, shallower (around 2 km depth) beneath the Catalina Ridge (CR) and SPS, but at a depth 2.5-3.0 km elsewhere in the study region. This change in velocity structure can provide additional constraints for the tectonic processes of this region. The structural horizons observed in the LARSE 1 reflection data are tied to adjacent MCS lines. We find localized folding and faulting at depth (~2 km) southwest of the CR and on the SPS slope. Quasi-laminar beds, possible of pelagic origin follow the contours of earlier folded (wavelength ~1 km) and faulted Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Depth to

  20. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    the lack of symptomatology of “ink disease” in the sub-plots, even though present on the same territory. The hypovirulence is predominant and steady with time for the high presence of healing and healed cankers. Among the factors of coppice shoots mortality, blight plays a minor role here. The disease spreads regardless of thinnings and silviculture can operate therefore independently to get a wide range of assortments, from poles to timber. Basically, thinning release has to ensure the predominance and steady presence of hypovirulence in the chestnut stands. In this way, foci for the natural spreading of hypovirulent strains are being created and preserved. This seem to be a basic tool to ensure a phytosanitary equilibrium between the parasite and the host in chestnut coppices, which still represent an important economic resource in Calabria as well as in several other Italian regions. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  1. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  2. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, R. W.; Morais, D. H. [UNESP; Anjos, L. A. [UNESP; Almeida, W. O.; Silva, R. J. [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. ox...

  3. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  4. Magnetic iron-nickel sulphides in the Pliocene and Pleistocene marine marls from the Vrica section (Calabria, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, A.J. van; Dekkers, M.J.; Zijderveld, J.D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The rock magnetic properties of the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene open-marine marls from the Vrica section in Calabria (Italy) point to magnetic sulphide as the main magnetic mineral and remanence carrier. The maximum blocking temperatures, however, are between 340 and 360°C, which is too

  5. SSR analysis demonstrates that olive production in the southern Marmara region in Turkey uses a single genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, A; Barut, E; Gulen, H; Oz, A T; Tangu, N A; Ipek, M

    2009-10-20

    The southern Marmara region in Turkey was surveyed to determine the olive cultivars that are used for olive production. Genetic diversity analysis using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the cultivar Gemlik is the major olive cultivar grown in this region, while other olive cultivars are grown only for use as pollinators of Gemlik or for growers' own exotic consumption. Although the quality of Gemlik is widely accepted in Turkey, its tendency toward alternate bearing is a major drawback. Twenty-four genotypes were selected within the cultivar Gemlik because of their tolerance to alternate bearing. These selected genotypes have the same SSR alleles as Gemlik, making them good candidates for developing a Gemlik olive with reduced alternate bearing. About 8% of samples did not share the same SSR alleles with Gemlik, though these genotypes were identified as Gemlik by the growers. Some other standard cultivars that are grown in other regions of Turkey were mistakenly called Gemlik in this region, probably due to the popularity of this cultivar in the southern Marmara region. In conclusion, as indicated by SSR analysis, Gemlik has become the standard cultivar in this region; future research should be focused on techniques to improve the production and quality of table olives and olive oil from this cultivar.

  6. Clinical manifestations and survival of HIV/AIDS-infected patients, southern region of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chaimay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine magnitude of clinical manifestations on survival of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: The HIV/AIDS information system, a database containing demographic factors and clinical manifestations was used. A prospective, hospital-based cohort study was conducted in HIV/AIDS patients registered in both provincial and community hospitals from 14 provinces in southern region of Thailand, between January 1993 and April 2010. Totally, 52,459 of HIV/AIDS patients were routinely observed and followed up. One-fifth of the HIV/AIDS patients died (n=11,767, 22.43% during the follow-up period. The outcome was timed from diagnosis of HIV/AIDS infection to death. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to analyze the magnitude of clinical manifestations on survival of HIV/AIDS patients. Results: A statistically significant corresponding risk of clinical manifestation on death was found. HIV/AIDS patients who had clinical manifestations including: invasive cervical cancer (HR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.43, herpes simplex (0.81, 0.66 to 0.98, histoplasmosis (0.67, 0.46 to 0.97, Mycobacterium other species (0.78, 0.64 to 0.97 were more likely to have a longer life. However, patients expressed clinical manifestations including; candidiasis (1.45, 1.34 to 1.56, cryptococcosis (1.77, 1.64 to 1.91, cytomegalovirus retinitis (1.58, 1.26 to 1.98, HIV encephalopathy (2.17, 1.92 to 2.47, Mycobacterium avium complex (1.76, 1.32 to 2.33 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (1.25, 1.21 to 1.30, pneumonia recurrent (1.78, 1.61 to 1.96, Pneumocystis carinii (1.71, 1.63 to 1.78, salmonella septicemia (1.85, 1.43 to 2.39 toxoplasmosis (1.47, 1.30 to 1.66 and wasting syndrome (2.13, 2.04 to 2.21 were more likely to die faster. Conclusion: In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients expressed clinical manifestations which were a risk of death must be monitored closely and intensively care to extend their life and increase their quality of life.

  7. Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the peri-Gondwana Calabria-Peloritani Terrane inferred from a review of zircon chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornelli, Annamaria; Micheletti, Francesca; Piccarreta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from ten samples of augen gneisses, eight mafic and intermediate metaigneous rocks and six metasediments from some tectonic domains along the Calabria-Peloritani Terrane (Southern Italy) contribute to knowledge of peri-Gondwanan evolution from Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic times. All samples were equilibrated under amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. The zircon grains of all considered samples preserve a Proterozoic memory suggestive of detrital, metamorphic and igneous origin. The available data fit a frame involving: (1) Neoproterozoic detrital input from cratonic areas of Gondwana; (2) Pan-African/Cadomian assemblage of blocks derived from East and West African Craton; (3) metamorphism and bimodal magmatism between 535 and 579 Ma, within an active margin setting; (4) rifting and opening of Ordovician basins fed by detrital input from the assembled Cadomian blocks. The Paleozoic basins evolved through sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism during the Variscan orogeny involving Palaeozoic and pre-Paleozoic blocks. The Proterozoic zircon records decidedly decrease in the high grade metamorphic rocks affected by Variscan pervasive partial melting.

  8. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  9. Is the Southern Benguela a significant regional sink of CO 2?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregor, L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to characterise the seasonal cycle of air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(sub2)) in the southern Benguela upwelling system off the South African west coast. Samples were collected from six monthly cross-shelf cruises...

  10. A regional view of fluctuations in glacier length in southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, P.; Chevallier, P.; Favier, V.; Pouyaud, B.; Ordenes, F.; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the length of 72 glaciers in the Northern and Southern Patagonia Icefield (NPI and SPI, respectively) and the Cordillera Darwin Icefield (CDI) were estimated between 1945 and 2005. The information obtained from historical maps based on 1945 aerial photographs was compared to ASTER

  11. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  12. Preliminaries to a feasibility analysis of the Maglev proposal of the Southern California Association of Governments for the region : a seed grant study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-30

    This is a seed grant study to perform a preliminary investigation of the system components and : generalized costs of the magnetic levitation type of high speed rail system that is proposed for the : Southern California Region, TGVbased high speed...

  13. Reggio Calabria, museum of itself. Project for an interactive musem of the City

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    Francesca Fatta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The city of Reggio Calabria, its local context and the history that, in this last century, distinguished it, assumed an important role in the determination of the proposal for the project of a virtual museum of the city, which remembers its configuration before the earthquake.It’s an experience started in the 2014, about the reconstruction of a city that has been deleted by the earthquake of the 1908 and about its new settlement of the historical memory and of the place’s identities.The project deals with the creation of urban paths with an high multimedia effect and for this reason we asked to Franz Fischnaller in a brief interview to describe some of his more important experiences of virtual museum realized through new generation systems, able to link the digital entertainments to the urban sites, adapted to recreate historical lost paths.

  14. Murders, Injuries, Altercations: Verbal and corporal violence in the 15th century Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Colesanti, Gemma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The finding, in the “Archivio di Stato” of Napoli, of the only surviving Justitiae register belonging to the “Cancelleria aragonese” serie ‘s (1453-1454, led to insight into the Calabria society thruough the analysis of the denunciations of crimes, such as: crimes against government, administration or people and sexuals crimes.

    Il ritrovamento, presso l’Archivio di Stato di Napoli, dell’unico registro superstite della serie Justitiae della Cancelleria aragonese (1453-1454, ha permesso attraverso l’analisi delle denunce —reati contro l’amministrazione, contro la persona, reati di natura sessuale e contro lo stato— di ricostruire uno spaccato della società calabrese.

  15. Characterizing 40-years of inter-regional migration in Southern Mauritania as a result of environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam El Vilaly, Mohamed Abd; El Vilaly, Audra; Mahe, Gil

    2017-04-01

    Formerly a country of nomadism par excellence, Mauritania has experienced since its independence in 1960 a spectacular sedentarisation of its nomadic population. In fact, nomads have decreased from 75% of the total population in 1965 to 12 % in 1988, and just 6% in 2000. This rapid and unprecedented sedentarisation, particularly in Southern Mauritania, can be explained by several factors, including the devastating droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the turbulent transformation of Mauritania's political economy. Together, these factors have destabilized rural livelihoods and accelerated land degradation, livestock loss, urbanization, and conflict between farmers and herders over natural resources and water access across the area, resulting in unprecedented inter-regional migration. The aim of this 40- years study is not to review in detail all the factors driving inter-regional migration in Southern Mauritania, but instead to scrutinize at the relationship between vegetation productivity, land cover changes, rainfall trends, and dynamic spatial demographic shifts from 1971 to 2015. In this regard, we propose an advanced assessment approach that integrates demographic information, climatological data, and multi-sensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1981 to 2015 at 5.6 km to characterize the inter-regional migration movements in Southern Mauritania. A multi-linear regression analysis was conducted to examine to which extent the inter-regional migration movements are controlled by both climate and environmental changes. The demographic data show that Southern Mauritania's population grew less rapidly at an annual rate between 1977 and 1988 than between 1988 and 2000. The annual growth rate recorded in 2000 was 2.9%, compared to 2.5% in 1988 and 2.29% in 1960. Moreover, the population sedentarized dramatically at a rate of 95.2% in 2000 compared to 84.4% in 1988. The results also show distinctive interactions between

  16. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  17. Separatist Conflicts in the ASEAN Region: Comparing Southern Thailand and Mindanao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupprecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two cases of separatist conflict, namely the conflict in Southern Thailand and the conflict in the southern Philippines. Both conflicts have been long-lasting, extremely violent, and embedded in ethnic and religious sentiments. The comparison shows that there are structural analogies in both conflict cases that indicate similar root causes. State-internal conflicts of this scale are not purely a matter of national politics. States and non-state actors have influenced – and are still influencing – both separatist conflicts in various ways and towards different outcomes. It becomes apparent that non-traditional security issues that are linked to state-internal conflicts demand a more proactive role of ASEAN in the field of conflict management.

  18. Parasite assemblages in the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius (Colubridae) from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Aznar, F J; Mattiucci, S; Kinsella, J M; Pellegrino, F; Cipriani, P; Nascetti, G

    2013-09-01

    Parasite assemblages of the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius were investigated from the Calabria region in southern Italy. A total of 14 parasite taxa including 6 nematodes, 3 acanthocephalans, 2 cestodes, 2 digeneans and a single pentastomid was identified. Within the study area, H. v. carbonarius serves as the final host for seven species of helminths, of which only four (Hexametra quadricornis, Kalicephalus viperae, Paracapillaria sonsinoi and Renifer aniarum) can be considered as snake specialists, while one (Oswaldocruzia filiformis) is shared with other reptiles and amphibians, and two (Paradistomum mutabile and Rhabdias fuscovenosa) with lizards. A large proportion of larval forms of six helminth taxa (about 95% of all helminths collected) was found, for which H. v. carbonarius serves as an intermediate and/or paratenic host; however, adult stages of helminths were prevalent in snakes with snout-to-vent length greater than 70 cm. Our results suggest that ontogenetic and ecological factors should exert a strong influence upon the helminth assemblage of Western whip snakes. We concluded that H. v. carbonarius plays an important role in southern Italy as an intermediate/paratenic host for species of helminths infecting vertebrate groups which may include this snake species within their feeding chain. Eleven taxa, including three potential agents of zoonosis, were added to the poorly known parasite fauna of this host.

  19. Marine Mammal Acoustic Monitoring and Habitat Investigation, Southern California Offshore Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    krill’) (Fiedler et al. 1998), whereas the diets of fin whales and humpback whales include krill as well as copepods, cephalopods , and small...and the evolution of whistle loss and narrow-band high frequency clicks in odontocetes. J. Evol. Biol. 20(4): 1439-1458. Oswald, J. N., S...Whales off Southern California. CalCOFI Reports 39: 236-239. NORRIS, K. S. 1968. The evolution of acoustic mechanisms in odontocete cetaceans

  20. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available years of fuel accumulation, or a preceding exceptionally wet growing season, are required to generate sufficient fuel to support a widespreading fire. The availability of fuel is primarily controlled by annual precipitation and soil fertility..., and is reduced by herbivory (e.g. cattle grazing, grasshoppers) and by people (e.g. fuel collected for domestic energy) (van Wiglen and Scholes 1997, Frost 1999). Most fires in southern Africa occur in the dry season, from approximately May to October, when...

  1. The partitioning of food resources between two rodents in the subtropical region of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINELLI, FÁBIO P.; FABIANO CORRÊA; Colares,Elton P.; Colares, Ioni G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and nutria (Myocastor coypus) are herbivorous semi-aquatic rodents. Although these rodents occur in sympatry in southern South America, little is known about how the two species interact in relationship to food resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the food resource overlap, the feeding strategy and the diversity of the diet of capybaras and nutria. A micro-histological analysis of feces was used to study the diets. ...

  2. New chronology for the Middle Palaeolithic of the southern Caucasus suggests early demise of Neanderthals in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Nioradze, M; Tushabramishvili, N; Lordkipanidze, D; Pleurdeau, D; Moncel, M-H; Adler, D S; Stringer, C; Higham, T F G

    2012-12-01

    Neanderthal populations of the southern and northern Caucasus became locally extinct during the Late Pleistocene. The timing of their extinction is key to our understanding of the relationship between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Eurasia. Recent re-dating of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) at Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus, and Ortvale Klde, southern Caucasus, suggests that Neanderthals did not survive after 39 ka cal BP (thousands of years ago, calibrated before present). Here we extend the analysis and present a revised regional chronology for MP occupational phases in western Georgia, based on a series of model-based Bayesian analyses of radiocarbon dated bone samples obtained from the caves of Sakajia, Ortvala and Bronze Cave. This allows the establishment of probability intervals for the onset and end of each of the dated levels and for the end of the MP occupation at the three sites. Our results for Sakajia indicate that the end of the late Middle Palaeolithic (LMP) and start of the Upper Palaeolithic (UP) occurred between 40,200 and 37,140 cal BP. The end of the MP in the neighboring site of Ortvala occurred earlier at 43,540-41,420 cal BP (at 68.2% probability). The dating of MP layers from Bronze Cave confirms that it does not contain LMP phases. These results imply that Neanderthals did not survive in the southern Caucasus after 37 ka cal BP, supporting a model of Neanderthal extinction around the same period as reported for the northern Caucasus and other regions of Europe. Taken together with previous reports of the earliest UP phases in the region and the lack of archaeological evidence for an in situ transition, these results indicate that AMH arrived in the Caucasus a few millennia after the Neanderthal demise and that the two species probably did not interact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Notes on landscape architecture education in architecture and urban planning courses in the southern region of Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Filla Rosaneli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about Landscape Architecture education in Architecture and Urbanism courses from a quantitative analysis of a set of information collected on courses in Southern Brazil. The selected variables - number and title of disciplines, discipline load, offer period; summary and basic bibliography - representing the essence of any discipline, allowed us to understand the scenery of this learning in most so authorized courses. Thus, by exposing the common aspects and specificities found in the region in two analytical axes - proposed content and offer features - this text promotes inquiries about the challenges of Landscape Architecture education in Brazil today.

  4. A Sterile Insect Technique (S.I.T.) Study Project to control Medfly in a Southern region of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A.; Cirio, U.; Balducci, R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-12-01

    Since 1967 the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) namely the main Italian governmental technological research organization, is carrying out R and D programmes and demonstrative projects aimed to set up S.I.T. (Sterile Insect Technique) processes. In the framework of a world-wide growing interest concerning pest control technology, the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) developed a very large industrial project aimed to control Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) with reference to fruit crops situation in Sicily region (Southern of Italy) through the production and spreading of over 250 million sterile flies per week.

  5. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  6. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-12-22

    The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For instance, plot connectivity and/or selection for high dispersal

  7. A model study of regional air-sea interaction in the austral summer precipitation over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-03-01

    The importance of air-sea interactions in the simulation of southern Africa precipitation is brought out using a fully coupled regional model and by forcing the atmospheric component of the coupled model with the coupled model-simulated sea surface temperature (SST). The coupled model has the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model as the atmospheric component and the Regional Ocean Modeling System as the oceanic component. The spatial and temporal distribution of the coupled model-simulated SST shows good agreement with observations. The coupled model shows a bias of about 0.25°C near the east coast of southern Africa. Comparison of the precipitation between the coupled and uncoupled model shows that the air-sea interactions play an important role in the simulation of the precipitation during the peak precipitation season January to March, when the precipitation is mostly due to tropical processes. It is found that the two-way specification of SST to the atmospheric model results in significant larger (smaller) precipitation depending on the spatial distribution of SST, due to the increase (decrease) of moisture from the surrounding oceans into the landmass. The results also show that the air-sea interactions are not so important during the initial phases of the precipitation from October to December.

  8. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  9. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  10. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  11. Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea - transport and transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Beszczyńska-Möller

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A medium-sized inflow (about 200 km3 according to IOW data, - personal communication of saline water into the southern Baltic Sea occurred during January 2003. Unlike any previously observed inflow, this one brought very cold water, of temperatures around 1-2oC and less. Since the temperature of the deep water in the southern Baltic before the inflow was exceptionally high (11-12oC, the inflowing waters produced dramatic changes and a steep temperature gradient. The movement of the inflowing waters through the deep basins and channels of the Baltic Sea from the Arkona Basin to the Gdańsk Deep during next 4-8 months is described. Frequent mesoscale structures and intensive mixing followed the eastward transport of the inflow water, particularly in the Bornholm Deep and Słupsk Furrow. The present paper is based on data collected during 6 cruises r/v "Oceania" between December 2002 and August 2003. The last cruise in August took place in order to assess the long-term consequences of the inflow.

  12. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  13. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Eggermont, Hilde

    2006-08-01

    Chironomid paleoecology in north-temperate regions has made tremendous progress over the past decade, but studies in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions remain relatively scarce. Reasons for this imbalance are (1) incomplete taxonomic knowledge of chironomid faunas outside Europe and North America, (2) a scarcity of ecological data on local species and genera that might confer bio-indicator value to them, and (3) logistic difficulties hampering the lake surveying necessary to develop paleoenvironmental calibration data sets. Thus far, most chironomid paleoecology in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions has relied on an indicator-species approach, combining autecological information on local species of which larval morphology is known with the traditional ecological typology of chironomid genera transferred from the Holarctic region. This paper reviews work accomplished to date in tropical and temperate South America, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand, including studies on various families of non-chironomid Diptera with diagnostic fossils. Research has focused mostly on late-Glacial and Holocene climate reconstruction, less on tracing past human disturbance of aquatic ecosystems and their drainage basins. Quantitative chironomid-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction has so far been done only in Australia and Africa. These studies compensated for the lack of traditional surface-sediment calibration data sets, nowadays often the main source of quantitative information on species ecological optima and tolerances, by maximally exploiting archival species-distribution data based on live collections of adult and/or larval midges. This stimulated efforts to achieve trustworthy species-level identification of fossil chironomid remains, and, as a result, the taxonomic resolution of paleoecological studies in Australia and Africa is higher on average than that achieved in European and North American studies.

  14. Origin and source regions of nodule-bearing kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in southern Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard

    High precision high resolution electron microprobe traverses of olivine grains in the Majuagaa kimberlite sensu stricto from southern West Greenland show that the olivine crystallisation is coupled to digestion of xenocrystic orthopyroxene into the melt. This process was previously suspected...... but unconfirmed in kimberlite sensu stricto magmas. It is here termed digestion fractional crystallisation (DFC) and it is argued that the DFC process may account for much of the global varia-bility in kimberlite compositions. The bulk rock trace element geochemistry of the Majuagaa kimberlite is used...... to constrain an inversion of the mixing equation between parental melt and xenocrystic material from the lithospheric mantle. The calculated parental melt is a magnesio-silico-carbonatite. Petrographic, textural, mineral chemical and major and trace element geochemical data show a progression from CO2 rich...

  15. Sensitivity of the atmospheric water cycle to corrections of the sea surface temperature bias over southern Africa in a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Torsten; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) have been used to dynamically downscale global climate projections at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to analyse the atmospheric water cycle. In southern Africa, precipitation pattern were strongly affected by the moisture transport from the southeast Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean and, consequently, by their sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, global ocean models often have deficiencies in resolving regional to local scale ocean currents, e.g. in ocean areas offshore the South African continent. By downscaling global climate projections using RCMs, the biased SSTs from the global forcing data were introduced to the RCMs and affected the results of regional climate projections. In this work, the impact of the SST bias correction on precipitation, evaporation and moisture transport were analysed over southern Africa. For this analysis, several experiments were conducted with the regional climate model REMO using corrected and uncorrected SSTs. In these experiments, a global MPI-ESM-LR historical simulation was downscaled with the regional climate model REMO to a high spatial resolution of 50 × 50 km2 and of 25 × 25 km2 for southern Africa using a double-nesting method. The results showed a distinct impact of the corrected SST on the moisture transport, the meridional vertical circulation and on the precipitation pattern in southern Africa. Furthermore, it was found that the experiment with the corrected SST led to a reduction of the wet bias over southern Africa and to a better agreement with observations as without SST bias corrections.

  16. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (MLENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE-dipping fault between 2-5 km depth in the carbonate reservoir. The fault measures 5 km along dip and corresponds to a pre-existing thrust fault favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional field.

  17. An attenuation study in Southern Italy using local and regional earthquakes recorded by seismic network of Basilicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined a set of empirical functions that describe the spectral amplitude decay of S-waves with distance in Southern Italy. We analyzed 32 earthquakes with magnitudes ML 2.0-5.4 and hypocentral distances ranging between 12 and 216 km. We obtained attenuation functions for 14 frequencies(1.0< f<20.0 Hz. We compared these functions with average non-parametric attenuation functions reported by Castro et al. (1999 for different regions of Italy, and we observe that at low frequencies (f<5.0 Hz the spectral amplitudes from earthquakes in Southern Italy decay faster than the average. However, at high frequencies ( f > 5.0 Hz, the spectral amplitudes are above the average. At higher frequencies ( f > 10 Hz, the attenuation functions obtained for Southern Italy are slightly above the standard deviation of the average attenuation functions. It is possible that in this frequency range (10-20 Hz site effects may influence the amplitude decay. In order to quantify the attenuation of the S-waves, we estimated the quality factor Q modeling the empirical attenuation functions using the following parametric form: A( f , r=10/r b·e- pfR/Q ß; where 1.6 = f = 10.0 Hz is the frequency band with minimum effect of instrument and site response, r = 120 km is the distance range where the rate of decay of the spectral amplitudes is approximately constant, R=(r-10 and ß=3.2 km/s. We found that the exponent b=1.0±0.2 in the frequency band analyzed and Q shows a frequency dependence that can be approximated by the function Q=32.1 f 1.7.

  18. Possible climatic impacts of a biologically driven phosphorus pump associated with ice regions in the southern ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrotto, R.

    2003-04-01

    Significant departures from the expected 16:1 (by mole) ratio between nitrogen and phosphorus consumption in surface waters have been recorded during several independent studies in ice-impacted regions of the Southern Ocean. Both the marginal ice zone near the Polar Front as well as near shore polynyas exhibit low N/P ratios (below 8 for the latter). The existence of a surface phosphorus pump suggests that at least some of the observed variations in the deep-water N/P ratio may have been erroneously attributed to the nitrogen cycle. While luxury consumption of phosphate by diatoms is not limited to high-latitude seas, its prevalence there is significant because it occurs in regions of deep water mass formation. Thus, it imparts a characteristic nutrient signature to deep waters and may result in a lateral redistribution of phosphorus as Antarctic Bottom Water spreads north. This appears to be the case in the western Pacific. This deep water pumping diminishes the supply of phosphorus to surface waters of the sub-polar region and thus impacts large-scale ocean productivity. In addition, because the high latitude phosphorus pump is linked to ice-impacted regions, it is sensitive to variations in ice cover and deep-water formation, and may have a feedback to climate as these conditions change.

  19. Estimated bankfull discharge for selected Michigan rivers and regional hydraulic geometry curves for estimating bankfull characteristics in southern Michigan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachol, Cynthia M.; Boley-Morse, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Regional hydraulic geometry curves are power-function equations that relate riffle dimensions and bankfull discharge to drainage-basin size. They are defined by data collected through surveys conducted at stable stream reaches and can be used to aid watershed managers, design engineers, and others involved in determination of the best course of action for an unstable stream. Hydraulic geometry curves provide a mechanism through which comparisons can be made between riffle dimensions collected at an unstable stream to those collected at stable streams within the same region. In 2005, a study was initiated to delineate regional hydraulic geometry curves for Michigan. After in-office review of 343 U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations and an extensive field reconnaissance effort, 44 stable reaches were selected for this study. Detailed surveys that included cross-sectional and longitudinal profiles and pebble counts were conducted at selected streamgages, which were distributed throughout Michigan. By use of survey data from riffle cross sections and water-surface slope, bankfull discharge was estimated and compared to flood-recurrence intervals using regional flood equations. This comparison shows that bankfull discharges in Michigan recur more frequently than every 2 years. Regional hydraulic geometry curves were developed rather than statewide curves owing to large differences in factors that control channel geometry across the State. However, after the data were subdivided according to ecoregions, it was determined that there were enough data to delineate regional hydraulic geometry curves only for the Southern Lower Michigan Ecoregion. For this ecoregion, geometry curve equations and their coefficients of determination are: Width = 8.19 x DA0.44; R2 = 0.69, Depth = 0.67 x DA0.27; R2 = 0.28, Area = 4.38 x DA0.74; R2 = 0.59, where DA is the drainage area and R2 is the coefficient of determination. By use of discharge estimates for the Southern Lower Michigan

  20. Geologic map of Lake Mead and surrounding regions, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and northwestern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Beard, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Regional stratigraphic units and structural features of the Lake Mead region are presented as a 1:250,000 scale map, and as a Geographic Information System database. The map, which was compiled from existing geologic maps of various scales, depicts geologic units, bedding and foliation attitudes, faults and folds. Units and structural features were generalized to highlight the regional stratigraphic and tectonic aspects of the geology of the Lake Mead region. This map was prepared in support of the papers presented in this volume, Special Paper 463, as well as to facilitate future investigations in the region. Stratigraphic units exposed within the area record 1800 million years of geologic history and include Proterozoic crystalline rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, Cenozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks, sedimentary rocks and surfi cial deposits. Following passive margin sedimentation in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, late Mesozoic (Sevier) thrusting and Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary compression produced major folding, reverse faulting, and thrust faulting in the Basin and Range, and resulted in regional uplift and monoclinal folding in the Colorado Plateau. Cenozoic extensional deformation, accompanied by sedimentation and volcanism, resulted in large-magnitude high- and low-angle normal faulting and strike-slip faulting in the Basin and Range; on the Colorado Plateau, extension produced north-trending high-angle normal faults. The latest history includes integration of the Colorado River system, dissection, development of alluvial fans, extensive pediment surfaces, and young faulting.

  1. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease.

  2. Iron fertilization and the structure of planktonic communities in high nutrient regions of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéguiner, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    In this review article, plankton community structure observations are analyzed both for artificial iron fertilization experiments and also for experiments dedicated to the study of naturally iron-fertilized systems in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean in the POOZ (Permanently Open Ocean Zone) and the PFZ (Polar Frontal Zone). Observations made in natural systems are combined with those from artificially perturbed systems, in order to evaluate the seasonal evolution of pelagic communities, taking into account controlling factors related to the life cycles and the ecophysiology of dominant organisms. The analysis considers several types of planktonic communities, including both autotrophs and heterotrophs. These communities are spatially segregated owing to different life strategies. A conceptual general scheme is proposed to account for these observations and their variability, regardless of experiment type. Diatoms can be separated into 2 groups: Group 1 has slightly silicified fast growing cells that are homogeneously distributed in the surface mixed layer, and Group 2 has strongly silicified slowly growing cells within discrete layers. During the growth season, Group 1 diatoms show a typical seasonal succession of dominant species, within time windows of development that are conditioned by physical factors (light and temperature) as well as endogenous specific rhythms (internal clock), and biomass accumulation is controlled by the availability of nutrients. Group 1 diatoms are not directly grazed by mesozooplankton which is fed by protozooplankton, linking the microbial food web to higher trophic levels. Instead, successive dominant species of Group 1 are degraded via bacterial activity at the end of their growth season. Organic detritus fragments feed protozooplankton and mesozooplankton. The effective silicon pump leads to the progressive disappearance of silicic acid in surface waters. In contrast, Group 2 is resistant to grazing

  3. Water mass mixing shapes bacterial biogeography in a highly hydrodynamic region of the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Ameneiro, Julia; Teira, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Even though compelling evidences indicate that marine microbes show biogeographic patterns, very little is known on the mechanisms driving those patterns in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, bacterial community structure was examined in epipelagic waters of a highly hydrodynamic area of the Southern Ocean to gain insight into the role that biogeochemical factors and water mass mixing (a proxy of dispersal) have on microbial biogeography. Four water masses that converge and mix around the South Shetland Islands (northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula) were investigated. Bacterioplankton communities were water-mass specific, and were best explained by dispersal rather than by biogeochemical factors, which is attributed to the relatively reduced environmental gradients found in these cold and nutrient rich waters. These results support the notion that currents and water mixing may have a considerable effect in connecting and transforming different water bodies, and consequently, in shaping communities of microorganisms. Considering the multidimensional and dynamic nature of the ocean, analysis of water mass mixing is a more suitable approach to investigate the role of dispersal on the biogeography of planktonic microorganisms rather than geographical distance. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  5. The partitioning of food resources between two rodents in the subtropical region of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO P. ESPINELLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and nutria (Myocastor coypus are herbivorous semi-aquatic rodents. Although these rodents occur in sympatry in southern South America, little is known about how the two species interact in relationship to food resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the food resource overlap, the feeding strategy and the diversity of the diet of capybaras and nutria. A micro-histological analysis of feces was used to study the diets. A total of 48 plant species belonging to 10 families were identified in the diet of H. hydrochaeris, and a total of 49 species belonging to 14 families were identified in the diet of M. coypus. According to the Amundsen graphical method, both rodents adopted a specialized strategy for feeding on Poaceae and a generalized strategy for other families. The results of a multivariate analysis of the dietary data showed significant differences between the two rodent species and among the seasons. These differences between diets may be related to the different proportions of each food item eaten. However, the dietary overlap between the two rodents in the Taim wetland was high, suggesting that partitioning of other resources ensured the coexistence of the species.

  6. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species’ diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange. PMID:28262789

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  8. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  9. Investigating correlations of local seismicty with anomalous geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals jointly recorded in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results analysing the correlation between local seismicity and geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals concomitantly recorded in Basilicata Region, one of the most seismically active areas in Southern Italy. The signals were recorded by two stations: Tito and Tramutola. Tito station measures vertically the Self-Potential field (SP by an array of five no-polarizable electrodes equally spaced with the common electrode at 20 m depth as well as water-level, water-temperature and electrical-conductivity. Tramutola station measures self-potential signals in soil surface, gas flow and water temperature in a thermal-water well, as well as atmospheric barometric pressure and ambient temperature. Correlations were found between the sharp variability of the signals recorded by both stations and the seismic sequence that occurred on September 3 to 4, 2004, allowing us to link these anomalies with the tectonic evolution of the investigated area.

  10. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Millie; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. METHODS: Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014....... Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). RESULTS: A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using...... the CODAC and INCODE classification systems, we found that the causes of death were unknown in 59/95 (62.1%). The second most common cause of death in CODAC was congenital anomalies in 10/95 (10.5%), similar to INCODE with fetal, genetic, structural and karyotypic anomalies in 11/95 (11.6%). The majority...

  11. Principal component analysis of geoelectrical signals measured in the seismically active area of Basilicata Region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telesca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoelectrical fluctuations are the end product of several geophysical phenomena. In particular geoelectrical signals measured in seismically active areas can be attributed to stress and strain changes, associated with earthquakes. The complexity of this problem has suggested the development of advanced statistical methods to investigate the heterogeneous nature of these fluctuations. In this paper we analysed the time dynamics of short-term variability of geoelectrical field measured at Giuliano station, located in Basilicata Region, one of the most seismically active areas of southern Italy. We applied the principal component analysis (PCA. The analysis has shown earthquake precursory patterns in the daily variation of the principal components, revealing that the PCA approach is promising for monitoring seismic areas.

  12. A review about the mechanisms associated with active deformation, regional uplift and subsidence in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folguera, Andrés; Gianni, Guido; Sagripanti, Lucía; Rojas Vera, Emilio; Novara, Iván; Colavitto, Bruno; Alvarez, Orlando; Orts, Darío; Tobal, Jonathan; Giménez, Mario; Introcaso, Antonio; Ruiz, Francisco; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    A broad range of processes acted simultaneously during the Quaternary producing relief in the Andes and adjacent foreland, from the Chilean coast, where the Pacific Ocean floor is being subducted beneath South American, to the Brazilian and the Argentinean Atlantic platform area. This picture shows to be complex and responds to a variety of processes. The Geoid exemplifies this spectrum of uplift mechanisms, since it reflects an important change at 35°S along the Andes and the foreland that could be indicating the presence of dynamic forces modeling the topography with varying intensity through the subduction margin. On the other hand, mountains uplifted in the Atlantic margin, along a vast sector of the Brazilian Atlantic coast and inland regions seem to be created at the area where the passive margin has been hyper-extended and consequently mechanically debilitated and the forearc region shifts eastwardly at a similar rate than the westward advancing continent. Therefore the forearc at the Arica latitudes can be considered as relatively stationary and dynamically sustained by a perpendicular-to-the-margin asthenospheric flow that inhibits trench roll back, determining a highly active orogenic setting at the eastern Andes in the Subandean region. To the south, the Pampean flat subduction zone creates particular conditions for deformation and rapid propagation of the orogenic front producing a high-amplitude orogen. In the southern Central and Patagonian Andes, mountain (orogenic) building processes are attenuated, becoming dominant other mechanisms of exhumation such as the i) impact of mantle plumes originated in the 660 km mantle transition, ii) the ice-masse retreat from the Andes after the Pleistocene producing an isostatic rebound, iii) the dynamic topography associated with the opening of an asthenospheric window during the subduction of the Chile ridge and slab tearing processes, iv) the subduction of oceanic swells linked to transform zones and v) the

  13. A comparative study of the risk profile of hemodialysis patients in a for profit network and in two regional registries of the Italian Society of Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Maurizio; Amato, Claudia; Mancini, Elena; Carioni, Paola; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Cerino, Fabrizio; Marino, Carmela; Vilasi, Antonio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Stuard, Stefano; Capasso, Giovanbattista; Santoro, Antonio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-02-16

    In 2013, the Italian Society of Nephrology joined forces with Nephrocare-Italy to create a clinical research cohort of patients on file in the data-rich clinical management system (EUCLID) of this organization for the performance of observational studies in the hemodialysis (HD) population. To see whether patients in EUCLID are representative of the HD population in Italy, we set out to compare the whole EUCLID population with patients included in the regional HD registries in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and in Calabria (Southern Italy), the sole regions in Italy which have systematically collected an enlarged clinical data set allowing comparison with the data-rich EUCLID system. An analysis of prevalent and incident patients in 2010 and 2011 showed that EUCLID patients had a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer and other comorbidities and risk factors and a higher fractional urea clearance (Kt/V) than those in the Emilia Romagna and Calabria registries. Accordingly, survival analysis showed a lower mortality risk in the EUCLID 2010 and 2011 cohorts than in the combined two regional registries in the corresponding years: for 2010, hazard ratio (HR) EUCLID vs. Regional registries: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.90]; for 2011, HR: 0.76 [0.65-0.90]. However, this difference was nullified by statistical adjustment for the difference in comorbidities and risk factors, indicating that the longer survival in the EUCLID database was attributable to the lower risk profile of patients included in that database. This preliminary analysis sets the stage for future observational studies and indicates that appropriate adjustment for difference in comorbidities and risk factors is needed to generalize to the Italian HD population analyses based on the data-rich EUCLID database.

  14. A transitional volume beneath the Sannio-Irpinia border region (southern Apennines): Different tectonic styles at different depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; Milano, Girolamo; D'Auria, Luca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the border between the Sannio and Irpinia seismogenic regions, a sector of the southern Apennine chain considered among the most active seismic areas of the Italian peninsula, to shed further light on its complex seismotectonic setting. We integrated recent seismicity with literature data. A detailed analysis of the seismicity that occurred in the 2013-2016 time interval was performed. The events were relocated, after manual re-picking, using different approaches. To retrieve information about the stress field active in the area, inversion of Fault Plane Solutions was also carried out. Hypocentral distribution of the relocated events (ML ≤ 3.5), whose depth is included between 5 and 25 km with the deepest ones located in the NW sector of the study area, shows a different pattern between the northern sector and the southern one. The computed Fault Plane Solutions can be grouped in three depth ranges: 18 km, dominated by strike-slip kinematics. Stress field inversion across the whole area shows that we are dealing with an heterogeneous set of data, apparently governed by distinct stress fields. We built an upper crustal model profile through integration of geological data, well logs and seismic tomographic profiles. Our results suggest the co-existence of different tectonic styles at distinct crustal depths: the upper crust seems to be affected mostly by normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faulting prevails in the intermediate and lower crust. We infer about the existence of a transitional volume, located between 12 and 18 km depth, between the Sannio and Irpinia regions, acting as a vertical transfer zone.

  15. Seasonal cycle of hydrography in the Bab el Mandab region, southern Red Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saafani, M.A.A.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    to 230 cm yr-1 (Bunkar et al 1982; Tragou et al 1999; So anos et al 2002). During winter (October to February), the south- ern region of the Red Sea, the Bab el Mandab region, experiences a two layer flow system typical of the inverse estuarine....0 psu) con nes to the top 20 m layer. The cooler inflow is fresher (19.0 C, 36.0 psu) and is from GA. The deeper high saline water has its origin in the northern Red Sea (Maillard 1974; Murray et al 1984; Cember 1988). Keywords. Hydrography; Gulf of Aden...

  16. Mesozoic break-up of SW Gondwana: implications for regional hydrocarbon potential of the southern South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; University of Abderdeen (United Kingdom). Kings College; Gomez-Perez, I. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). CASP; Franzese, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, La Plata (AR)] (and others)

    2003-04-01

    This work provides new palinspastic palaeofacies reconstructions of SW Gondwana incorporating rotation of a Falkland/Malvinas microplate. We discuss the implications of this for the tectonic evolution of the southern South Atlantic and hence for the regional hydrocarbon potential. Existing Gondwana reconstructions display good fits of major continents but poorly constrained fits of microcontinents. In most continental reconstructions, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was assumed to be a rigid fragment of pre-Permian South American crust. However, it has been suggested, on the basis of palaeomagnetic data, that the Falkland/Malvinas Islands were rotated by {approx} 180{sup o} after 190 Ma. This rotation hypothesis has been successfully tested on the basis of Devonian stratigraphy and palaeontology, Permian stratigraphy and sedimentology and Late Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic structure, making it unlikely that the plateau behaved as a rigid structure during breakup. We have explored the consequences of accepting this hypothesis for the tectonic evolution of SW Gondwana by compiling new palaeogeographic maps for the Permian-Cretaceous of the southern Atlantic area. To achieve a realistic close fit, we have devised a pre-rift proxy for the ocean-continent boundary for the South Atlantic. In order to produce the best fit, it is necessary to subdivide South America into four plates. The consequences of this are far-reaching. Our work suggests that although sedimentary basins were initiated at different times, three major tectonic phases can be recognised; in regional terms these can be thought of as pre-, syn- and post-rift. During the pre-rift time (until the Late Triassic), the area was dominated by compressional tectonism and formed part of the Gondwana foreland. The Falkland/Malvinas Islands lay cast of Africa, the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau was {approx} 33% shorter and Patagonia was displaced east with respect to the rest of South America, in part along the line of the

  17. Tropical-temperate interactions over southern Africa simulated by a regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigaud, N.; Pohl, B.; Cretat, J. [UMR 6282 Biogeosciences CNRS/Universite de Bourgogne, Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, Dijon (France)

    2012-12-15

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) forced by ERA40 re-analyses, is used to examine, at regional scale, the role of key features of the local atmospheric circulation on the origin and development of Tropical Temperate Troughs (TTTs) representing a major contribution to South African rainfall during austral summer. A cluster analysis applied on 1971-2000 ERA40 and WRF simulated daily outgoing longwave radiation reveals for the November-February season three coherent regimes characteristic of TTTs over the region. Analyses of WRF simulated TTTs suggest that their occurrence is primarily linked with mid-latitude westerly waves and their phasing. Ensemble experiments designed for the case of austral summer 1996/1997 allow to examine the reproducibility of TTT events. The results obtained illustrate the importance of westerly waves phasing regarding the persistence of rain-producing continental TTT events. Moreover, oceanic surface conditions prevailing over the Agulhas current regions of the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO) are also found to influence TTT persistence for regional experiments with an oceanic mixed layer, warmer sea surface temperatures being associated with increased moisture advection from the SWIO where latent heat release is enhanced, favoring baroclinic instability and thus sustaining convection activity locally. (orig.)

  18. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  19. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  20. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  1. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  2. Land Cover Mapping for the Development of Green House Gas (GHG) Inventories in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhayanga, J. A.; Oduor, P.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are responsible for the largest share of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Research has shown that greenhouse gases cause radioactive forcing in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion. Different land cover types act as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most dominant GHG.Under the oversight of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region countries are developing Sustainable National GHG Inventory Management Systems. While the countries in the ESA region are making substantial progress in setting up GHG inventories, there remains significant constraints in the development of quality and sustainable National GHG Inventory Systems. For instance, there are fundamental challenges in capacity building and technology transfer, which can affect timely and consistent reporting on the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) component of the GHG inventory development. SERVIR Eastern and Southern Africa is a partnership project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD), an intergovernmental organization in Africa, with 21 member states in the ESA region. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), SERVIR ESA is implementing the GHG Project in 9 countries. The main deliverables of the project are land cover maps for the years 2000 and 2010 (also 1990 for Malawi and Rwanda), and related technical reports, as well as technical training in land cover mapping using replicable methodologies. Landsat imagery which is freely available forms the main component of earth observation input data, in addition to ancillary data collected from each country. Supervised classification using maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to the Landsat images. The work is completed for the initial 6 countries (Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Botswana, and

  3. Mechanism of arrested charnockite formation at Nemmara, Palghat region, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.

    2004-08-01

    The formation of arrested charnockite is an excellent example of structurally controlled channellised fluid flow along specific sites accompanied by selective elemental mobility and mineralogical changes. The present paper recognises and focuses study on three types of arrested charnockite formation from Palghat region, namely, shear-controlled, foliation parallel and boudin-neck types, and address their spatio-temporal relations to regional-scale charnoenderbite. The shear-controlled and foliation parallel types post-date deformation and migmatisation. The boudin-neck type, on the contrary, is coeval with partial melting and followed the path of cooling and decreasing water activity in the gneiss. K-feldspar veining around plagioclase and quartz, symplectitic intergrowth of biotite+quartz after orthopyroxene and K-feldspar, and fluid inclusion data suggests the presence of alkalic supercritical brine and low-density CO 2-rich fluid during charnockite formation. Charnockite domains developed following the breakdown of hornblende, biotite and quartz are characterised by a more or less pronounced depletion of Fe, Ca, Mg and Ti and trace elements Y and Zr, compared to their counterpart gneiss. REE spectra indicate a subtle depletion in the HREE near the centre of the charnockite domain. Although close-pair samples of gneiss-charnockite are isochemical, on a scale of a few millimetres, bi-directional element movement, related to the formation of new mineral was noted. It is postulated that arrested charnockite formation developed in situ on local scale within the granitic domains of the hornblende-biotite gneiss, in the presence of CO 2-rich fluids and alkalic supercritical saline brine. This process post-dated the time of regional granulite (charnoenderbite) and large regional scale retrogression and migmatisation.

  4. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Schuster; Edson Feliciano de Oliveira; Tatiane Dalla Nora; Francisco de Assis Franco; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Adriel Evangelista; Mateus Polo; Renato da Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC) is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1) than the control.

  5. Active tectonics in Southern Portugal (SW Iberia) inferred from GPS data. Implications on the regional geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Mendes, Virgílio Brito; Figueiredo, Paula; Silveira, António Brum da; Pagarete, Joaquim; Ribeiro, António; Dias, Ruben; Ressurreição, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    A GPS-based crustal velocity field for the SW Portuguese territory (Algarve region, SW Iberia) was estimated from the analysis of data from a network of campaign-style GPS stations set up in the region since 1998, complemented with permanent stations, covering an overall period of 16.5 years. The GPS monitoring sites were chosen attending to the display of the regional active faults, in an attempt to detect and monitor any related crustal straining. The residual horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia unveil a relatively consistent pattern towards WNW, with magnitudes that noticeably increase from NNE to SSW. Although the obtained velocity field does not evidence a sharp velocity gradient it suggests the presence of a NW-SE trending crustal shear zone separating two domains, which may be slowly accumulating a slightly transtensional right-lateral shear strain. Based on the WNW velocity differential between the northeastern block and the southwestern block, a shear strain rate accumulation across the shear zone is estimated. This ongoing crustal deformation is taken as evidence that a nearby major active structure, the São Marcos - Quarteira fault, may be presently accumulating strain, therefore being potentially loaded for seismic rupture and the generation of a large magnitude earthquake. Further inferences are made concerning the interseismic dynamic loading of other major onshore and offshore active structures located to the west.

  6. Gonadal cycle of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae in Pampean streams (Southern Neotropical Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cao

    Full Text Available Corbicula fluminea is an aggressive invasive species of bivalve that arrived into the Río de la Plata River between the late 60's and early 70's, and dispersed widely throughout the Neotropical region, evidencing a great adaptive flexibility to different environmental conditions. This species is a functional hermaphrodite with larval incubation inside the inner demibranch. Despite its widespread distribution, there are no previous studies of complete gonadal histology and reproductive cycle for this species in the Neotropical region. In this study, the reproductive dynamics of C. fluminea in a temperate region, the Santa Catalina Pampean stream, Argentina, is described. Samples of 20-30 individuals were collected monthly from April 2003-April 2005 and processed using traditional histological techniques. During the two years of this study, seven spawning events were recognized. Three major spawns occurred in spring and summer, and other four minor ones during summer and autumn. Events of oocyte recovery were observed after spawning. A high number of incubating individuals was detected. The results stressed the difficulty of identifying a particular pattern of gamete release and of spawning behaviour in this invasive species, especially when inhabiting an unstable environment.

  7. Gonadal cycle of Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) in Pampean streams (Southern Neotropical Region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Luciana; Damborenea, Cristina; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Darrigran, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Corbicula fluminea is an aggressive invasive species of bivalve that arrived into the Río de la Plata River between the late 60's and early 70's, and dispersed widely throughout the Neotropical region, evidencing a great adaptive flexibility to different environmental conditions. This species is a functional hermaphrodite with larval incubation inside the inner demibranch. Despite its widespread distribution, there are no previous studies of complete gonadal histology and reproductive cycle for this species in the Neotropical region. In this study, the reproductive dynamics of C. fluminea in a temperate region, the Santa Catalina Pampean stream, Argentina, is described. Samples of 20-30 individuals were collected monthly from April 2003-April 2005 and processed using traditional histological techniques. During the two years of this study, seven spawning events were recognized. Three major spawns occurred in spring and summer, and other four minor ones during summer and autumn. Events of oocyte recovery were observed after spawning. A high number of incubating individuals was detected. The results stressed the difficulty of identifying a particular pattern of gamete release and of spawning behaviour in this invasive species, especially when inhabiting an unstable environment.

  8. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect during a magnetic storm at mid-latitude regions; the strong, positive disturbances during the storm's main phase at auroral latitude regions; the effects of storm-induced equatorward directed wind causing a positive disturbance at high and mid-latitude stations with appropriate time shift between higher and lower latitudes; daytime poleward movement of depleted plasma that causes temporary suppression of the equatorial anomaly during the start of the storm recovery phase; and prompt penetration of eastward electric fields to ionospheric altitudes and the production of nearly simultaneous TEC enhancement at all latitudes. In general, we found dominant negative disturbance over mid and high latitudes and positive disturbance at low latitudes. A comparison of storm-time behaviour of TEC determined from GPS satellites, and foF2 derived from ionosondes at a range of latitudes, showed reasonable agreement between the two independent measurements.

  9. Towards Constraining Regional Carbon Exchange In The Southern Great Plains With DOE ARM and COBRA Data And Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Fischer, M. L.; Lin, J. C.; Gerbig, C.; Wofsy, S.; Torn, M.

    2003-12-01

    Long term measurements of CO2 concentration and flux from tower sites may be effective for use in inversion estimates of regional land surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange. To explore the potential for application of tower data we have combined measurements from the 60m tower at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Central Facility (36.61N, 97.49W) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains with a Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model [Lin et al., 2003] using a receptor oriented modeling (ROM) framework (Gerbig et al., 2003) developed for CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). We first investigate the uncertainties in the influence functions obtained from STILT: 1) STILT estimates of PBL heights show good correlation with those estimated from the radio sound profiles in May-June 2002 and 2003; 2) The measured mean concentrations on the 60 meter tower are independent of the flow directions patterns summarized from STILT particle trajectory statistics. Then we regress the observed CO2 concentration on the STILT/ROM simulated CO2 signals of different vegetation and emission sources in the growing season 2002 to obtain the scaling factors. The residuals are modeled as an autoregressive process to resolve the temporal correlation and calculate the uncertainties associated with the estimated coefficients. We find that: 1) STILT /ROM captures 60-80% of the variance in the observations; 2) Crop and shrub are the most important vegetation types that affect the regional carbon exchange; 3) Phenology and land use management cause significant seasonal variation in the scaling factors. Progress toward Bayesian inversion of the annual cycle of regional ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange constrained by measurements from the 60m tower and aircraft flights, incorporating uncertainties in PBL heights, will be discussed.

  10. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  11. The Effect of Season-Long Temperature Increases on Rice Cultivars Grown in the Central and Southern Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice production is challenged by the asymmetric increases in day and night temperatures. Efforts are required to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on rice production. To this end, 2-year experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of mid-season rice growth in the central and southern regions of China to elevated temperatures. Four replicates of four widely planted indica rice cultivars (Huanghuazhan: HHZ; Shanyou63: SY63; Yangliangyou6: YLY6; Liangyoupeijiu: LYPJ were subjected to four elevated-temperature treatments (control: ambient temperature; NW: night-time warming; DW: daytime warming; AW: all-day warming generated by an open-top hot-blast system under field conditions. This apparatus causes an ~2°C increase in the rice canopy temperature. Of all the elevated-temperature treatments, AW was the most devastating treatment for all rice cultivars, negatively affecting nearly all of investigated parameters, including grain yield and its components, dry matter accumulation, biomass, and harvest index (HI. The AW treatment decreased the grain yield by 11–35% and 43–78% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. No significant reduction in the grain yield was observed in the DW and NW treatments in 2015. However, the grain yield was decreased in DW and NW treatments by 20–52% and 18–55%, respectively, in 2016. Furthermore, the temperature-driven degradation of pollen viability, the number of pollen grains adhering to the stigma and pollen germination on the stigma caused spikelet sterility and thereby decreased the grain yield. The YLY6 and SY63 cultivars performed better than the HHZ and LYPJ cultivars with respect to grain yield and its components in all elevated-temperature treatments in both years. However, 42.97 and 61.01% reductions still occurred for the SY63 and YLY6 cultivars, respectively, in the AW treatment in 2016. The above results suggested that the elevated temperature may cause a noteworthy reduction in

  12. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  13. Evaluation of hypocenter location techniques with applications to southern Utah: regional earthquake distributions and seismicity of geothermal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, D.J.; Smith, R.B.

    1979-12-01

    Three techniques for the computation of earthquake hypocenter locations were compared through empirical results of synthetic test cases utilizing four different computer programs. The three approaches: (1) the single event method, (2) the master event method, and (3) the joint hypocenter determination method, were analyzed with respect to their application to regional (epicenter-to-station distances from 10 to 500 km) and local (epicentral distances from 0 to 70 km) seismic network recording situations. It was found that the joint hypocenter technique can significantly correct for inadequacies in assumed velocity models by simultaneous computation of station adjustments. Earthquakes located using the joint hypocenter technique are located more precisely with respect to each other. The joint epicenter location technique was then applied to relocations of epicenters in southern Utah below 40/sup 0/N latitude with the intent of resolving some spatial relationships of epicenter occurrence on this regional scale. Earthquakes in Utah occur in a diffuse zone 150 km to 200 km wide that coincides with the physiographic boundary of the Colorado Plateau. Swarm activity is prevalent where the zone changes from a north-south to a southwest orientation, but except for a cluster northwest of Cedar City, the only major alignments of epicenters are north-south.

  14. Establishment and application of a new diagnostic definition of metabolic syndrome in the Shantou region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zan; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Shengchao; Dong, Wenya; Wen, Ye; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Qingying

    2016-02-23

    The existing definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) may not be fully appropriate for the Shantou population because of ethnic and regional differences. We sought to establish a 95% multivariate medical reference range (MMRR) model for diagnosing MetS in Shantou adults and to evaluate the prevalence of MetS by the MMRR, JCDCG (the Chinese Guidelines), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. A total of 4,580 participants were recruited in Shantou, southern China. We developed a MMRR model based on the combinatorial indicatrixes method for three categorized indicatrixes. According to the developed MMRR criteria, men (women) in Shantou have MetS by meeting 3 or more of the following: waist circumference ≥89 (81) cm; triglycerides level ≥1.73 (1.64) mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ≤1.07 (1.05) mmol/L; blood pressure ≥138/89 (136/85) mmHg; and fasting plasma glucose ≥5.8 (5.7) mmol/L. The agreement of the MMRR with JCDCG and IDF criteria was "substantial" (both κ > 0.68), but the recommended reference values and proportion of individual components of MetS defined by the 3 criteria differed. The population-based MMRR criteria may be appropriate for diagnosing MetS in Shantou population and the model might be useful for generalization to other geographic regions.

  15. Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (southern Spain): Implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in southern Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual δ13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted δ13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.

  16. Satellite Images for Monitoring Mangrove Cover Changes in a Fast Growing Economic Region in Southern Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Devi Kanniah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective monitoring is necessary to conserve mangroves from further loss in Malaysia. In this context, remote sensing is capable of providing information on mangrove status and changes over a large spatial extent and in a continuous manner. In this study we used Landsat satellite images to analyze the changes over a period of 25 years of mangrove areas in Iskandar Malaysia (IM, the fastest growing national special economic region located in southern Johor, Malaysia. We tested the use of two widely used digital classification techniques to classify mangrove areas. The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC technique provided significantly higher user, producer and overall accuracies and less “salt and pepper effects” compared to the Support Vector Machine (SVM technique. The classified satellite images using the MLC technique showed that IM lost 6740 ha of mangrove areas from 1989 to 2014. Nevertheless, a gain of 710 ha of mangroves was observed in this region, resulting in a net loss of 6030 ha or 33%. The loss of about 241 ha per year of mangroves was associated with a steady increase in urban land use (1225 ha per year from 1989 until 2014. Action is necessary to protect the existing mangrove cover from further loss. Gazetting of the remaining mangrove sites as protected areas or forest reserves and introducing tourism activities in mangrove areas can ensure the continued survival of mangroves in IM.

  17. Population Study of the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae in the Southern Pacific region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata found in the southern Colombian Pacific department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007. Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values. ESTUDIO POBLACIONAL DE LA TORTUGA CAREY Eretmochelys imbricata (CHELONIIDAE EN EL PACÍFICO SUR DE COLOMBIAEl objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer aspectos poblacionales, biológicos y ecológicos de las tortugas carey (Eretmochelys imbricata presentes en el Pacífico sur de Colombia (Departamento del Cauca, para esto se tomó información de morfometría, se revisó el estado de salud de los individuos y  se tomaron muestras de sangre para valoración de química sanguínea. Durante siete meses de muestreo se capturaron 25 tortugas carey (16 individuos diferentes en los arrecifes del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona

  18. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-03-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187-207 g C m-2 y-1, which are consistent with observed values (47-351 g C m-2 y-1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  19. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with medium resolution MODIS-EVI time series at sub-regional scale in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Olena; Landmann, Tobias; Erasmus, Barend F. N.; Tewes, Andreas; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a lack of knowledge on spatio-temporal patterns of land surface dynamics at medium spatial scale in southern Africa, even though this information is essential for better understanding of ecosystem response to climatic variability and human-induced land transformations. In this study, we analysed vegetation dynamics across a large area in southern Africa using the 14-years (2000-2013) of medium spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS-EVI time-series data. Specifically, we investigated temporal changes in the time series of key phenometrics including overall greenness, peak and timing of annual greenness over the monitoring period and study region. In order to specifically capture spatial and per pixel vegetation changes over time, we calculated trends in these phenometrics using a robust trend analysis method. The results showed that interannual vegetation dynamics followed precipitation patterns with clearly differentiated seasonality. The earliest peak greenness during 2000-2013 occurred at the end of January in the year 2000 and the latest peak greenness was observed at the mid of March in 2012. Specifically spatial patterns of long-term vegetation trends allowed mapping areas of (i) decrease or increase in overall greenness, (ii) decrease or increase of peak greenness, and (iii) shifts in timing of occurrence of peak greenness over the 14-year monitoring period. The observed vegetation decline in the study area was mainly attributed to human-induced factors. The obtained information is useful to guide selection of field sites for detailed vegetation studies and land rehabilitation interventions and serve as an input for a range of land surface models.

  20. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra L.; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187–207 g C m−2 y−1, which are consistent with observed values (47–351 g C m−2 y−1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  1. Peru Subduction Experiment (PERUSE) Preliminary results of Gravity measurements, Earthquake locations and Regional Seismicity in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, E. J.; Davis, P. M.; Guy, R.; Lukac, M. L.; Feng, H. S.; Clayton, R. W.; Phillips, K. E.; Skinner, S.; Audin, L.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, V.

    2009-12-01

    The Peru Subduction Experiment (PERUSE) is a collaborative project developed by UCLA, Caltech, French L’Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) to improve geophysical models of the Andean Orogenic Belt and to image the subduction process in Southern Peru. One area of particular interest is where the Nazca Plate transitions from a normally subducting slab at an angle of about 30 degrees to a shallow subducting slab beneath the South American Plate. The PERUSE project, which started in the summer of 2008, consists of a linear array of 50 broadband seismic stations that are evenly spaced about 6 kilometers apart. They are aligned perpendicular to the coast of Peru, from Mollendo to Juliaca. Caltech will deploy 50 more stations by the end of 2009. Their line will run perpendicular to the current line, from Juliaca to Cusco. By the end of 2010, a third linear array will be installed north of and perpendicular to Caltech’s line in the Altiplano. Preliminary results from gravity measurements indicate that the crustal root of the Andes dips approximately 20 degrees on both sides of the range, and extends to a depth of approximately 70km. This also agrees well with the receiver function results, which show that the crust thickens from the coast of Mollendo through the Altiplano to Juliaca to a depth about 70km (Phillips et al, Fall AGU 2009). Teleseismic studies also indicate that the crustal thickness varies laterally below southern Peru. We are developing a heterogeneous model from the topographic and gravity data, teleseismic events, and the receiver function results to accurately locate earthquakes in the area of interest and to provide a better crustal model of the region.

  2. Radon ((222)Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bem, Henryk; Plota, Urszula; Staniszewska, Marta; Bem, Ewa Maria; Mazurek, Daria

    Activity concentration of the (222)Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Sothern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm(3) with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm(3). The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 μSv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water.

  3. Vulnerability to Desertification in a Sub-Saharan Region: A First Local Assessment in Five Villages of Southern Region of Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Giuseppe Boschetto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study took place between July and September 2008 with the main objective to develop a first local environmental assessment suitable to obtain a general description of the agro-system environment of five villages in the Southern Region of Malawi. The research has been carried out in an administrative sub-division of the peri-urban area of the city of Blantyre, called Ntonda EPA (Extension Planning Area, where target villages had been previously identified for the overexploitation of their natural resource base and the mismanagement of their soils. This study attempts to illustrate the agro-ecosystem of the five villages in the area, their main features and the main anthropic factors, viewed as causes that could lead to desertification. As the matter of fact, the overexploitation of soils, which can be fairly considered as the one and only resource base endowment available in the area. The current farming system, heavily reliant on mere subsistence, is strictly interlinked with unsustainable fertilisation methods and a prevalent lack of socio-economic activities. Poorly planned and managed cropping systems yield low and erratic productions, despite government subsidised chemical fertilisation programmes; post-harvest management and storage are nearly inexistent and so are agricultural commodity exchanges with otherwise fairly accessible urban areas. As a result, agricultural investment (including on soil conservation is minimal and local areas remain vulnerable to land degradation and ultimately to desertification. The baseline data collected with this research provide information on the main issues that determine the process of land degradation and desertification in the area. The study is based on the analysis of climate and soil parameters. This paper attempts to provide: – a first assessment of vulnerability to desertification at local level, specifically at village level in the Southern Region of Malawi; – an identification of the

  4. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B D; Aiken, G R; Krabbenhoft, D P; Marvin-Dipasquale, M; Swarzenski, C M

    2008-07-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  5. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. © 2015 UICC.

  6. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Gullã, G.

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy) allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF), a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage. The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics. SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage. Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a) actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b) actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a) or the cost of actions (b). For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved. We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas. The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  7. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  8. Techniques of remote sensing and GIS as tools for visualizing impact of climate change-induced flood in the southern African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study employs remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data to visualize the impact of climate change caused by flooding in the Southern African region in order to assist decision makers’ plans for future occurrences. In pursuit of this objective, this study uses Digital Elevat...

  9. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  10. The self-organizing map, a new approach to apprehend the Madden-Julian Oscillation influence on the intraseasonal variability of rainfall in the southern African region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettli, Pascal; Tozuka, Tomoki; Izumo, Takeshi; Engelbrecht, Francois A.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-09-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the major mode of intraseasonal variability (30-60 days) in the tropics, having large rainfall impacts globally, and possibly on southern Africa. However, the latter impact is not well understood and needs to be further explored. The life cycle of the MJO, known to be asymmetric, has been nevertheless analyzed usually through methods constrained by both linearity and orthogonality, such as empirical orthogonal function analysis. Here we explore a non-linear classification method, the self-organizing map (SOM), a type of artificial neural network used to produce a low-dimensional representation of high-dimensional datasets, to capture more accurately the life cycle of the MJO and its global impacts. The classification is applied on intraseasonal anomalies of outgoing longwave radiation within the tropical region over the 1980-2009 period. Using the SOM to describe the MJO is a new approach, complimentary to the usual real-time multivariate MJO index. It efficiently captures this propagative phenomenon and its seasonality, and is shown to provide additional temporal and spatial information on MJO activity. For each node, the subtropical convection is analyzed, with a particular focus on the southern Africa region. Results show that the convection activity over the central tropical Indian Ocean is a key factor influencing the intraseasonal convective activity over the southern African region. Enhanced (suppressed) convection over the central Indian Ocean tends to suppress (enhance) convection over the southern African region with a 10-day lag by modulating the moisture transport.

  11. Empowering Women for Development through Community-Driven Sustainable Programmes: A Response to Traditional Patriarchal Power in the Southern African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca; Alade, Eunice B.

    2004-01-01

    In the Southern Africa region, the act of prejudice against women mostly occurs where patriarchal power reigns. This type of power is felt in areas such as inheritance right, division of labour, access to political and economic resources and legal and social matters. Other areas of discrimination against women include access to educational and…

  12. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  13. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  14. Leveraging social media for flood emergency management: an experience in Campania region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is exposed to severe hydrogeological risk scenarios, triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Many of these risk scenarios can only be mitigated by non-structural measures, which are mainly designed to increase the resilience of the exposed communities. Several studies have evidenced that the effectiveness of civil protection actions can be enhanced by using social media for disseminating and collecting information relevant for crisis preparedness, response and recovery. However, the application of social media in the management of hydrogeological risks is still in its infancy. The civil protection of Campania Region, as part of a FP7 project called SUPER (Social sensors for secUrity Assessments and Proactive EmeRgencies management), has been validating an integrated framework enabling optimal blending of social media in the emergency management processes. The SUPER project is a joint effort of social media experts (including social network providers) and security experts (including security and civil protection agencies), towards introducing an integrated and privacy-friendly approach to the use of social media in emergencies and security incidents. As part of the project outcomes, the "SUPER platform" has been developed. It consists of a set of social media processing components integrated in a Common Operational Picture, designed for supporting security and emergency management. A demonstration was primarily setup to evaluate how the SUPER platform can effectively facilitate the exploitation of social media data for improving civil protection actions during a simulated emergency scenario. To this purpose, a civil protection exercise took place in the city of Sorrento (Naples, Italy), involving tens of volunteers and emergency operators. The simulated emergency scenario was

  15. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  16. Pioneer study of population genetics of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from the central coastand southern Andean regions of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Anita G; Marcet, Paula L; Yumiseva, César A; Dotson, Ellen M; Tibayrenc, Michel; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Grijalva, Mario J

    2017-09-01

    Effective control of Chagas disease vector populations requires a good understanding of the epidemiological components, including a reliable analysis of the genetic structure of vector populations. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the most widespread vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador, occupying domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats. It is widely distributed in the central coast and southern highlands regions of Ecuador, two very different regions in terms of bio-geographical characteristics. To evaluate the genetic relationship among R. ecuadoriensis populations in these two regions, we analyzed genetic variability at two microsatellite loci for 326 specimens (n=122 in Manabí and n=204 in Loja) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) sequences for 174 individuals collected in the two provinces (n=73 and=101 in Manabí and Loja respectively). The individual samples were grouped in populations according to their community of origin. A few populations presented positive FIS, possible due to Wahlund effect. Significant pairwise differentiation was detected between populations within each province for both genetic markers, and the isolation by distance model was significant for these populations. Microsatellite markers showed significant genetic differentiation between the populations of the two provinces. The partial sequences of the Cyt b gene (578bp) identified a total of 34 haplotypes among 174 specimens sequenced, which translated into high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.929). The haplotype distribution differed among provinces (significant Fisher's exact test). Overall, the genetic differentiation of R. ecuadoriensis between provinces detected in this study is consistent with the biological and phenotypic differences previously observed between Manabí and Loja populations. The current phylogenetic analysis evidenced the monophyly of the populations of R. ecuadoriensis within the R. pallescens species complex; R. pallescens and R. colombiensis were more

  17. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Allen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  18. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Pfertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Pfertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  19. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Payette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  20. Geomorphological mapping of the San Lorenzo area Sant'arcangelo region Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Aris Marfai

    2013-07-01

    The Sant'Arcangelo region is composed of 4 cycles both marine and continental in origin, all deposited on different environments: The Caliandro, Agri, San Lorenzo and Sauro cycles. The study area consists of Sauro and San Lorenzo Cycle. Sauro Cycle is Comprises of three heterotrophic units deposited in sintectonic discordance over the Agri cycle. San Lorenzo Cycle lying in unconformity over the precedent cycles is consisting of three units, namely conglomerates on the base part as well as on the top part of the sequence, and silty clays in the intermediate part. They form a syncline structure which ax has a NW-SE direction. The main structural features are represented by the San Lorenzo syncline and the Alianello fault. The San Lorenzo area has three principal origins: alluvial, denudation, and structural. Due to the geological-tectonic complexity, the structural landform is normally found as structural denudational landform. San Lorenzo area comprises of 41 landform units, namely 3 units of alluvial landforni, 26 units of denudational landform and 11 units of structural denudational landform.

  1. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  2. Flowering phenology in the arid winter rainfall region of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Struck

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of physical factors on the flowering phenology of a succulent karroid community in the winter rainfall region of the northwestern Cape, South Africa, based upon a three year study on permanent plots, is examined, (in the permanent plots, flowering of the shrubby species extended over a period of 4 to 4'/i> months each year, while blooming ot the therophytes peaked m the first half of the flowering season. Species composition and numbers of individuals in the therophytes and geophytes offering flowers varied greatly according to the pattern and amount of seasonal precipitation. Despite these variations a consistent flowering sequence between the years was observed. Possible relations between the flowering phenology and the climatic variables are discussed in detail. The present data suggest that the onset of flowering is determined indirectly by the first drop in temperature in autumn, indicating the beginning of the rainy season and presumably the start of the growing period, and/or by the increase of temperatures in the beginning of spring. The pattern and amount of rainfall within a given season mainly influenced the duration of anthesis and the number of flowers produced.

  3. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  4. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in carbonate aquifers of southern Latium region, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spring and well water samples, from carbonate aquifers of Latium region, have been characterized to determine the hydrochemical processes governing the evolution of the groundwater. Most of the spring samples, issuing from Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci Mts., are characterized as alkaline earth HCO3 waters, however, some samples show a composition of Cl--SO4 -- alkaline earth waters. Groundwater samples from Pontina Plain shows three different hydrochemical facies: alkaline earth HCO3 type, Cl-- SO4 -- alkaline earth type and Cl--SO4 -- alkaline type waters. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the sampled waters show an interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies. Most of the springs and wells was kinetically saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum. This indicates that the groundwater has capacity to dissolve the gypsum along the flow paths. The electrical conductivity and Cl- concentrations of the sampled waters show a positive trend with the decrease in the distance from the coast, highlighting seawater intrusion in the coastal area. According to hydrochemistry results and geochemical modeling, the dominant factors in controlling the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are: (i water rock interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies; (ii seawater intrusion in the coastal area; (iii dissolution and/or precipitation of carbonate and (i.e. dolomite and calcite evaporate minerals (gypsum determined by saturation indexes; (iv mineral weathering process; (the high Mg/Ca ratio due to the weathering of Mg-rich dolomite.

  5. Artificial snowmaking possibilities and climate change based on regional climate modeling in the Southern Black Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Philipp; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Steiger, Robert [alpS - Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Technologies, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Winter sport, especially ski tourism - is one of those sectors of tourism that will be affected by climate change. Ski resorts across the Alps and in the adjacent low mountain ranges react to warm winter seasons by investing in artificial snowmaking. But snowmaking in warm winter seasons is fraught with risk, because sufficiently low air temperature will become less frequent in the future. The present study deals with the ski resort Feldberg, which has 14 ski lifts and 16 ski slopes which is the biggest ski resort in the German Federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg. The impact of climate change in this region is extraordinary important because winter tourism is the main source of revenue for the whole area around the ski resort. The study area is in altitudinal range of 850 to 1450 meters above sea level. At the moment, it is possible to supply one third of the whole area with artificial snow, but there is plan for artificial snowmaking of the whole Feldberg area by the year 2020. Based on this, more detailed investigations of season length and the needed volume of produced snow are necessary. A ski season simulation model (SkiSim 2.0) was applied in order to assess potential impacts of climate change on the Feldberg ski area for the A1B and B1 emission scenarios based on the ECHAM5 GCM downscaled by the REMO RCM. SkiSim 2.0 calculates daily snow depth (natural and technically produced snow) and the required amount of artificial snow for 100 m altitudinal bands. Analysing the development of the number of potential skiing days, it can be assessed whether ski operation is cost covering or not. Model results of the study show a more pronounced and rapid shortening of the ski season in the lower ranges until the year 2100 in each climate scenario. In both the A1B and B1 scenario runs of REMO, a cost-covering ski season of 100 days cannot be guaranteed in every altitudinal range even if snowmaking is considered. In this context, the obtained high-resolution snow data can

  6. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  7. Surveying otter Lutra lutra distribution at the southern limit of its italian range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last 20 years the otter Lutra lutra has expanded its range in the southern part of the Italian peninsula. Populations at the border of otter range suffer a high risk of extinction and need frequent monitoring. Here we report about a survey carride out by the standard method in the central Calabria region (Sila Massif and surroundings, which currently represents the southern limit of otter distribution. Otter presence has been recorded for 7 out of 31 sites (22.6%, all belonging to the catchment of the River Savuto. A previous record for the River Neto has not been confirmed. A total of 22 spraints has been collected and analysed. Salmonids (Salmo trutta formed the bulk of otter diet (Vm% = 52.1. Damming and over-fishing could represent the main obstacles to the recolonisation of the area by otters. Habitat management should be addressed to reinforce the existing population and favour its connection to the core of otter range. Riassunto Monitoraggio della distribuzione della lontra Lutra lutra al limite meridionale del suo areale italiano. Negli ultimi 20 anni, in Italia meridionale si è verificata un'espansione dell'areale della lontra. Le popolazioni che si trovano al margine dell'areale soffrono un più alto rischio di estinzione e necessitano di un frequente monitoraggio. In questo contesto, si relazione di un'indagine distributiva svolta con il metodo standard nella parte centrale della Calabria (Massiccio della sila e aree circostanti, che attualmente rappresenta il limite meridionale della distribuzione della specie. La presenza della lontra è stata accertata in 7 delle 31 stazioni monitorate (22.6%, tutte appartenenti al bacino idrografico dle fiume Savuto. Una segnalazione prcedente, riguardante il fiume Neto, non è stata confermata. Sono state raccolte e analizzate 22 feci. I salmonidi, rappresentati dalla trota Salmo trutta

  8. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  9. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.

    2012-04-01

    /year in strong sandstones to 5x10-2m/year in Miocene calcarenites with frequent karst sinkholes filled with Plio-pleistocene silty sands, reflecting the strength variations of the rock masses that compose the cliffs. The maximum value of local retreat of the cliff top was up to 33m, in man induced failure, with more frequent values in the range of 2m to 6m. For the susceptibility assessment a set of predisposing factors was studied using two statistical methods, the bi-variate Information Value method, and the multi-variate Logistic Regression method, along successive constant length stretches of cliffs. The predisposing factors included: a) major lithostratigraphical units adapted from existing geological surveys; b) rock mass structure based in field observations; c) cliff height measured in 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; d) general cliff slope angle generated from photogrammetric stereoploting of cliff top and toe; e) maximum cliff slope angle derived from the 1:2,000 scale aerophotogrammetric surveys; f) presence and type of cliff toe protection (plunging cliffs, fallen blocks, beaches, wave cut platforms) obtained in aerial photo interpretation and field work; g) land use; h) cliff exposure; i) cliff face aspect; j) presence of faults or dykes. The two instability assessment models produced were validated using standard Receiver Operator Curves using the cliff failures inventory, and provided very promising results, indicating that these methods are adequate to assess cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale, enabling an objective and validated assessment in this highly complex natural environment.

  10. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  11. New constraints on the origin of the ophiolitic rocks within sinorogenic turbiditic sequences at Cilento region (southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, F.C.; Vita, P. de; Aulinas, M.; Arienzo, I.; Cirillo, G.; Iovine, R.S.; Spari, D.

    2016-07-01

    Mafic igneous rocks (pillow lavas and gabbros) embedded as olistoliths within Miocene turbiditic sequences crop out in the Cilento area at the Mount Centaurino (Campania region, Southern Italy). The concentration of major oxides, as well as trace element ratios (Nb/Yb, Nb/Ta, Th/Nb) and the chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns suggest a tholeiitic character with Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB) affinity. The chemical composition of pillow lavas is consistent with magmas generated by 10% degrees of non-modal fractional partial melting, of a spinel-bearing MORB-type asthenospheric mantle. Regarding gabbros, the calculated composition of parental melts in equilibrium with the clinopyroxenes show a wide compositional range, and there are very different from the pillow basalts of the Mount Centaurino, suggesting that the clinopyroxenes might have derived from more evolved melts compared to those that produced the basalts. The origin of these olistoliths is not yet understood. Here we suggest that these rocks represent fragment of a dismantled accretionary wedge embedded during the deposition of the Cilento group sedimentary successions in a thrust top basin. (Author)

  12. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chwala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data are recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. Its performance and limitations are presented, showing that the mean detection error rates of wet and dry periods can be reduced to 10% for all five links. After, the wet/dry classification rain rates are derived from the RSL and compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.81 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.85 for the link-radar comparison.

  13. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, C.; Gmeiner, A.; Qiu, W.; Hipp, S.; Nienaber, D.; Siart, U.; Eibert, T.; Pohl, M.; Seltmann, J.; Fritz, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2012-08-01

    Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL) data are recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. Its performance and limitations are presented, showing that the mean detection error rates of wet and dry periods can be reduced to 10% for all five links. After, the wet/dry classification rain rates are derived from the RSL and compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.81 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.85 for the link-radar comparison.

  14. Trace Element Compositions and Defect Structures of High-Purity Quartz from the Southern Ural Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Götze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz samples of different origin from 10 localities in the Southern Ural region, Russia have been investigated to characterize their trace element compositions and defect structures. The analytical combination of cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, and trace-element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed that almost all investigated quartz samples showed very low concentrations of trace elements (cumulative concentrations of <50 ppm with <30 ppm Al and <10 ppm Ti and low abundances of paramagnetic defects, defining them economically as “high-purity” quartz (HPQ suitable for high-tech applications. EPR and CL data confirmed the low abundances of substitutional Ti and Fe, and showed Al to be the only significant trace element structurally bound in the investigated quartz samples. CL microscopy revealed a heterogeneous distribution of luminescence centres (i.e., luminescence active trace elements such as Al as well as features of deformation and recrystallization. It is suggested that healing of defects due to deformation-related recrystallization and reorganization processes of the quartz lattice during retrograde metamorphism resulted in low concentrations of CL activator and other trace elements or vacancies, and thus are the main driving processes for the formation of HPQ deposits in the investigated area.

  15. Levels of "toxic" and "essential" metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, P; Trombetta, D; Cristani, M; Giofrè, F; Martino, D; Calò, M; Naccari, F

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the possible contamination by heavy metals of milk from cows bred on various farms in Calabria. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined in 40 samples of bovine milk from the various dairy farms. Each sample, homogenized and powdered, was mineralized in a microwave oven. Quantitative analyses of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Se were performed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with graphite furnace; As was analyzed by hot vapor generation technique and Zn with the flame method. As regards toxic heavy metals, highest values are those of As (g.m. 37.90 microg/kg w.w.) and Pb (g.m. 1.32 microg/kg w.w.), while lowest concentrations are those of Cd (g.m. 0.02 microg/kg w.w). With regard to essential metals, Zn (g.m. 2016 microg/kg w.w) and Se (g.m. 13.24 microg/kg w.w.) showed the highest concentrations, followed by Cr (g.m. 2.03 microg/kg w.w.) and Cu (g.m. 1.98 microg/kg w.w.). Further investigations of the levels of heavy metals (As) in a greater number of milk samples from various zones of Calabria are necessary, both to examine this problem from the clinical epidemiological point of view and to identify the possible causes of milk contamination.

  16. Contribution of volcanic ashes to the regional geochemical balance: the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, F; Fernandez-Turiel, J L; Saavedra, J; Gimeno, D; Polanco, E; Amigo, A; Galindo, G; Caselli, A

    2012-05-15

    The environmental geochemical behaviour of the rhyolitic ashes from the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Southern Chile, has been studied. After the bulk characterisation, the potential contribution to the regional geochemical fluxes was examined using: i) single batch leaching tests to provide a rapid screening of the implied major and trace elements; and ii) column experiments to evaluate the temporal mobility of leached elements. The environmental concerns of these ashes are related to the fine grained component present in each sample (independent of distance from the source), in particular the presence of cristobalite, and the geochemical hazards posed by ash-water interaction. Leaching experiments show the fast dissolution of surface salts and aerosols, which dominate over glass dissolution during the first steps of the ash-water interaction. Chaitén ashes could transfer to the environment more than 1×10(10)g or 10,000 metric tonnes (mt) of Cl, S, Ca, Na, Si, and K; between 1000 and 10,000 mt of F, Mg, and Al; between 100 and 1000 mt of As, Pb, P, Fe, Sr, Zn, Mn, and Br; between 10 and 100 mt of Ba, Li, Ti, Ni, Nb, Cu, Rb, Zr, V, Mo, Co, and Sc; and less than 10 mt of Cr, Sb, Ce, Ga, Cs, and Y. These results show the fertilising potential of the ashes (e.g., providing Ca and Fe) but also the input of potentially toxic trace elements (e.g., F and As) in the regional geochemical mass balance. The Chaitén results evidence lower potentials for poisoning and fertilising than low silica ashes due to the lower contents released of practically all elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biogeographic analysis of the woody plants of the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the origins of a regional flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Paul S; Meireles, José Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the origins of 252 Southern Appalachian woody species representing 158 clades to analyze larger patterns of biogeographic connectivity around the northern hemisphere. We tested biogeographic hypotheses regarding the timing of species disjunctions to eastern Asia and among areas of North America. We delimited species into biogeographically informative clades, compiled sister-area data, and generated graphic representations of area connections across clades. We calculated taxon diversity within clades and plotted divergence times. Of the total taxon diversity, 45% were distributed among 25 North American endemic clades. Sister taxa within eastern North America and eastern Asia were proportionally equal in frequency, accounting for over 50% of the sister-area connections. At increasing phylogenetic depth, connections to the Old World dominated. Divergence times for 65 clades with intercontinental disjunctions were continuous, whereas 11 intracontinental disjunctions to western North America and nine to eastern Mexico were temporally congruent. Over one third of the clades have likely undergone speciation within the region of eastern North America. The biogeographic pattern for the region is asymmetric, consisting of mostly mixed-aged, low-diversity clades connecting to the Old World, and a minority of New World clades. Divergence time data suggest that climate change in the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene generated disjunct patterns within North America. Continuous splitting times during the last 45 million years support the hypothesis that widespread distributions formed repeatedly during favorable periods, with serial cooling trends producing pseudocongruent area disjunctions between eastern North America and eastern Asia. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  19. Evidence for a climate-induced ecohydrological state shift in wetland ecosystems of the southern Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Owen; Mushet, David M.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Changing magnitude, frequency, and timing of precipitation can influence aquatic-system hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes, in some cases resulting in system-wide shifts to an alternate state. Since the early 1990s, the southern Prairie Pothole Region has been subjected to an extended period of increased wetness resulting in marked changes to aquatic systems defining this region. We explored numerous lines of evidence to identify: (1) how the recent wet period compared to historical variability, (2) hydrological, geochemical, and biological responses, and (3) how these responses might represent a state shift in the region’s wetland ecosystems. We analyzed long-term climate records and compared how different hydrological variables responded in this wet period compared to decades before the observed shift. Additionally, we used multi-decadal records of waterfowl population and subsurface tile drain records to explore wildlife and human responses to a shifting climate. Since 1993, a novel precipitation regime corresponded with increased pond numbers, ponded-water depths, lake levels, stream flows, groundwater heights, soil-moisture, waterfowl populations, and installation of subsurface tile drains in agricultural fields. These observed changes reflect an alteration in water storage and movement across the landscape that in turn has altered solute sources and concentrations of prairie-pothole wetlands and has increased pond permanence. Combined, these changes represent significant evidence for a state shift in the ecohydrological functioning of the region’s wetland ecosystems, a shift that may require a significant refinement of the previously developed “wetland continuum” concept.

  20. Mean ozone and water vapour height profiles for Southern hemisphere region using radiosonde or ozonesonde and haloe satelite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to construct a model (mean) profile for ozone and water vapor in Southern hemisphere latitude using 14 years (1993-2006) of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite data and about 10 years (1998-2007) of the Southern...

  1. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  2. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  3. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teixiera, Paula S. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lada, Charles J. [Harvard-Smithsonian CFA, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  4. Gastric adenocarcinoma trends in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil: what has changed in 25 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rampazzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Its incidence varies greatly by geographic region. The highest rate is in Eastern Asia, mainly in Japan and China. In Brazil, gastric cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the fifth most common cancer in females. Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, has similar figures. The main histological type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends of this cancer over 25 years in a reference center in central Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: We reviewed the records of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, RS, between 1986 and 2010. We evaluated the incidence, age and gender distribution, anatomical subsite and histological subtype of gastric cancer throughout this 25-year period. RESULTS: We identified histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma in 335 (1.6% of the 20,521 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period. The mean age of patients was 62.4 (± 13.0 years, and 67.8% were male (a male: female ratio of 2.0:1. Cardia cancer accounted for 14.3% of the cases, and non-cardia cancer accounted for 85.7%. According to Lauren's classification, 48.1% were intestinal subtype and 40.9% were diffuse subtype. There were no differences in mean age or gender distribution by anatomical location or histological subtype. There was also no difference in the proportions of histological subtypes by anatomical location. Over the 25-year period, there was no change in the anatomical distribution of tumors, but there was a significant decrease in the intestinal subtype and a steady increase in the diffuse subtype (P = 0.02. The subset of 39 patients (11.6% who presented at < 45 years of age was more likely to be female and to have tumors of the diffuse subtype than was the total series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over this 25-year period, there were no

  5. Response of soil microbial activity and community structure to land use changes in a mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Over the past several decades the mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador, a hotspot of biodiversity, is undergoing a rapid conversion to pastureland through slash and burn practice. Frequently this pastureland is invaded by the tropical bracken fern. When the bracken becomes dominant on the pasture sites the productivity decreases and the sites are abandoned. To assess the effect of these land use changes on nutrient turnover and on ecosystem functioning, a study was conducted in the area of the German research station Estación Científica San Francisco (ECSF) in Southern Ecuador. At 2000 m above sea level three adjacent sites were selected: a mountain rainforest site, an active pasture site dominated by the grass species Setaria sphacelata and an abandoned pasture site overgrown by bracken. Mineral soil samples of all three sites (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) as well as samples from the organic layer (Oi and Oa) of the natural forest site were taken to analyze biogeochemical properties. Besides pH-value, total organic C and N contents, the amounts of microbial biomass (CFE-method), microbial activity (basal respiration, net N mineralization (KCl-extraction); gross N mineralization (15N dilution technique) rates) and microbial community structure (PLFA-analysis) were determined. 17 years after pasture establishment, twofold higher stocks of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) as well as significant lower C:N ratios were determined compared to the natural forest including the 11 cm thick organic layer. 10 years after bracken invasion and pasture abandonment the microbial biomass (Cmic) decreased and the C:N ratio increased again to forest levels. Generally, land use change from forest to pasture and from pasture to abandoned pasture induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of the fast growing copiotrophic Gram(-) bacteria was positively correlated with the amounts of readily available organic carbon

  6. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  7. The relation between radon in schools and in dwellings: A case study in a rural region of Southern Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žunić, Z S; Bossew, P; Bochicchio, F; Veselinovic, N; Carpentieri, C; Venoso, G; Antignani, S; Simovic, R; Ćurguz, Z; Udovicic, V; Stojanovska, Z; Tollefsen, T

    2017-02-01

    Recognized as a significant health hazard, radon (Rn) has been given increasing attention for years. Surveys of different kinds have been performed in many countries to assess the intensity and the geographical extent of possible Rn problems. Common surveys cover mainly dwellings, the indoor place with highest occupancy, and schools, where people spend a large fraction of their lifetime and which can also be considered exemplary for Rn exposure at workplaces; it has however been observed that relating them is difficult. It was unclear whether residential Rn at a location, or in a region, can be predicted by Rn at a school of that location, or vice versa. To current knowledge, no general rule seems applicable, as few models to describe the relationship between Rn in dwellings and in schools have been developed. In Southern Serbia, a Rn survey in a predominantly rural region was based on measurements in primary schools. The question arose whether or to which degree the results can be considered as indicative or even representative for residential Rn concentrations. To answer the question an additional survey of indoor Rn concentrations in dwellings was initiated, designed and performed in Sokobanja district in 2010-2012 in a manner to be able to detect a relationship if it exists. In the study region, 108 dwellings in 12 villages and towns were selected, with one primary school each. In this paper, we investigate how a relation between Rn in schools and dwellings could be identified and quantified, by developing a model and using experimental data from both the above main and additional surveys. The key criterion is the hypothesis that the relation dwellings - schools, if it exists, is stronger for dwellings closer to a school than for those dwellings further away. We propose methods to test the hypothesis. As result, the hypothesis is corroborated at 95% significance level. More specifically, on town level (typical size about 1 km), the Rn concentration ratio

  8. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Birks, S. Jean; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves (CanmetMINING); (AER); (Alberta Innov.); (Waterloo)

    2016-06-10

    Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest that these Fe-oxyhydroxide grains in the oxidized sediment were an alteration product of former framboidal pyrite grains. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) indicated that the oxidized sediments are dominated by As(V) species having spectral features similar to those of goethite or ferrihydrite with adsorbed As, suggesting that Fe-oxyhydroxides are the dominant As carriers

  9. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An aeolian sediment reconstruction of regional wind intensity and links to larger scale climate variability since the last deglaciation from the east coast of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, M. S.; Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Bizimis, M.; Finch, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Few long-term environmental records are available for southern Africa where shifts in atmospheric circulation and changes in sea surface temperatures interact to influence regional climate dynamics. We present downcore grain size and inorganic geochemistry data covering the last 23,000 years from a peatland on the east coast of South Africa and examine links between shifts in regional wind activity and palaeoclimatic variability. Our record documents substantial variations in aeolian flux associated with changes in regional climate and wind patterns that reflect larger scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Substantially higher fluxes observed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are linked to widespread aridification and an expansion in local source areas brought about by a clear shift to dry and cool conditions. Variations in grain size distribution reveal that the aeolian record from Mfabeni comprises two dominant end-members; locally-derived coarse-grained material and a more fine-grained dust component. Marked changes in composition and modal grain size suggest that hydrological shifts in the region during the LGM were accompanied by an increase in storm frequency and wind strength that we link to a northward displacement in the westerly wind belt and a strengthening in wind intensity. Coupling between a rapid increase in sea surface temperature (SST) and an approximate three-fold decrease in aeolian activity after 15 kcal yr BP suggests that changes in SST and its effect on the position and intensity of the westerlies in the Southern Ocean was the dominant climatic driver in the region during deglaciation. Substantially lower aeolian activities through the early Holocene indicate a warming in regional climate and the establishment of more humid conditions under the influence of enhanced tropical easterly flow. Our record also documents more subtle changes in climate over the mid to late Holocene and provides support for an arid phase in southern African

  11. Deriving hydrologic conditions in the southern Caucasus region during the Little Ice Age using different geomorphological and paleoenvironmental archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Benito, Dario Martin; Pederson, Neil; Faust, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    From the 15th century to ca. 1850 AD, the Little Ice Age (LIA), was one of the most prominent climatic fluctuations during the Holocene. It was characterized by negative temperature anomalies evidenced for many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Mann 2002). During the LIA, many of these regions showed significant changes of their landscape dynamics such as glacier advances and an intensified hydrological cycle. Although glacier advances and reduced pine growth are reported from the Greater Caucasus for parts of the LIA (Solomina 2005), little is known about the hydrological conditions of the humid to semi-arid Lesser Caucasus and Transcaucasus region during the LIA. Existing pollen records are so strongly disturbed by anthropogenic activity during the last millenia that the LIA is not resolved in the only existing pollen-based precipitation reconstruction for the region (Connor & Kvavadze 2008). Here, we present data derived from different kinds of geomorphological archives from the southern Caucasus region (fluvial sediments, indicators for the timing of incision of recently dry valleys). These data demonstrate intensive geomorphic activity during the LIA obviously caused by a strongly intensified hydrological cycle. Given the rather low temporal resolution of these geomorphological archives, however, more highly-resolved palaeoenvironmental data are needed to better understand also minor climatic and hydrologic fluctuations around the LIA period. To this end, we intend to use a recently developed multispecies tree-ring network from living trees (Martin-Benito et al., in revision). This tree-ring network will be expanded both in space and time using subfossil wood material (stems) found embedded into fluvial LIA-terrace deposits and radiocarbon-dated to the end of the 15th century AD. By overlapping these samples with the living tree network, we will be able to better characterize sub-ordinate climatic and hydrologic fluctuations during the LIA period. References

  12. Analysis of the Joint Link between Extreme Temperatures, Precipitation and Climate Indices in Winter in the Three Hydroclimate Regions of Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Assani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the relationship between four climate variables (maximum and minimum extreme temperatures, rainfall and snowfall measured in winter (December to March at 17 stations from 1950 to 2000 in the three hydroclimate regions of southern Quebec, and six seasonal climate indices using canonical correlation analysis (CCA and the copula method. This analysis yielded these major results: (1 extreme temperatures are not correlated with the amount of winter rain or snow in southern Quebec; (2 winter seasonal climate indices show better correlations with climate variables than do fall climate indices; (3 winter extreme temperatures are best correlated (positive correlation with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO in the eastern region, but show a negative correlation with the Arctic Oscillation (AO in the southwestern region; (4 the total amount of winter snow is best correlated (negative correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO in the three hydroclimate regions; (5 the total amount of winter rain is best (negatively correlated with PDO in the eastern region, but shows a positive correlation with AO in the southeast region. Finally, the copula method revealed very little change in the dependence between climate indices and climate variables in the three hydroclimate regions.

  13. Traumatic myiasis in farmed animals caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in southern Italy (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Bonacci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten herds of sheep and goats (455 heads were inspected for the presence of traumatic myiasis between May and September 2013 in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, southern Italy. Nine cases were discovered in sheep, goats and a sheepdog. Infested body sites included external genitalia, wounds (sheep and sheepdog and hooves (goats. Larvae were removed from the infested body areas and reared to adult stage in the laboratory. Both the larvae and the adults were identified as belonging to the Mediterranean screwworm fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, an obligatory parasite of humans and warm-blooded vertebrates. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of wohlfahrtiosis in sheep and goats to be reported from Calabria. The infested animals were living outdoors in spring and summer, and enclosed in sheds during the autumn and winter months. Observed effects of the myiases included severely impeded walking and tissue damage. Wohlfahrtiosis can cause significant economic loss to farmers. Data about the local distribution, seasonality and types of infestation caused by W. magnifica are useful to farmers and vets to improve control systems, in Calabria as elsewhere within the distributional range of the species

  14. Impact of Land Surface Initialization Approach on Subseasonal Forecast Skill: a Regional Analysis in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Annette L.; Kala, Jatin; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Haverd, Vanessa; Mocko, David

    2014-01-01

    The authors use a sophisticated coupled land-atmosphere modeling system for a Southern Hemisphere subdomain centered over southeastern Australia to evaluate differences in simulation skill from two different land surface initialization approaches. The first approach uses equilibrated land surface states obtained from offline simulations of the land surface model, and the second uses land surface states obtained from reanalyses. The authors find that land surface initialization using prior offline simulations contribute to relative gains in subseasonal forecast skill. In particular, relative gains in forecast skill for temperature of 10%-20% within the first 30 days of the forecast can be attributed to the land surface initialization method using offline states. For precipitation there is no distinct preference for the land surface initialization method, with limited gains in forecast skill irrespective of the lead time. The authors evaluated the asymmetry between maximum and minimum temperatures and found that maximum temperatures had the largest gains in relative forecast skill, exceeding 20% in some regions. These results were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level at up to 60 days into the forecast period. For minimum temperature, using reanalyses to initialize the land surface contributed to relative gains in forecast skill, reaching 40% in parts of the domain that were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level. The contrasting impact of the land surface initialization method between maximum and minimum temperature was associated with different soil moisture coupling mechanisms. Therefore, land surface initialization from prior offline simulations does improve predictability for temperature, particularly maximum temperature, but with less obvious improvements for precipitation and minimum temperature over southeastern Australia.

  15. Paleospring tufa deposition in the Kurkur Oasis region and implications for tributary integration with the River Nile in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen; Sallam, Emad S.

    2017-12-01

    Though southern Egypt is currently hyperarid, relict freshwater carbonate deposits called tufas near Kurkur (region centered at 23° 54‧ N, 32° 19‧ E) indicate that ambient rainwater-fed alkaline springs formerly sourced drainages in the Sinn El-Kaddab or Eocene scarp, and precipitated carbonate tufa deposits at waterfall cascades, pools, and streams. Petrographic analysis enables the reconstruction of a variety of vegetated microenvironments during Quaternary time. The Kurkur tufas are very porous rocks with an abundance of fossil plant casts and molds making up the petrofabrics at the macroscale. The tufas also preserve laminations of successive generations of calcified remains of microbes visible at the microscopic scale. Original carbonate framework architectures are massive carbonate structures to the decameter scale, with characteristic highly porous and permeable rock fabrics, including vegetation-rich phytoherms and stromatolite forms. The tufas are relatively pristine, preserving their original rock textures with minimal post-depositional alteration. Structural controls affecting the development of tufa deposits near Kurkur include fissure, cracks and fault planes that would have enhanced groundwater recharge and emergence of carbonate-saturated springs from perched aquifers above the Nubian Aquifer System during periods of greater effective rainfall in the past when the water table was significantly higher. The Kurkur tufas are relict archives from phases when groundwater discharge supported comparatively more vegetation than the modern day, and spring flows sustained baseflow in the Wadi Kurkur tributary of the Upper Nile. Episodes of tufa deposition along now-defunct tributaries therefore reflect phases of a more integrated Nile drainage system.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  17. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.

  18. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  19. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  20. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) developed in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca; Felício, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira; Miranda, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues; Pires, Tassia Cavalcante; Bispo, Eliete da Silva; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2017-11-21

    Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes 'witch's broom disease', research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease; however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, such as Aspergillus, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of aflatoxin (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa clones developed in Brazil. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination were determined in 130 samples from 13 cocoa clones grown in the south of Bahia by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The method was evaluated for limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.90 μg kg-1), limit of quantification (0.10-2.50 μg kg-1) and recovery (RSD) (89.40-95.80%) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 38% of the samples in the range of

  1. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  2. Precipitation of lead-zinc ores in the Mississippi Valley-type deposit at Treves, Cevennes region of southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.; Macquar, J.-C.; Lagneau, V.; Leventhal, J.; Emsbo, P.; Premo, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Trèves zinc–lead deposit is one of several Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits in the Cévennes region of southern France. Fluid inclusion studies show that the ore was deposited at temperatures between approximately 80 and 150°C from a brine that derived its salinity mainly from the evaporation of seawater past halite saturation. Lead isotope studies suggest that the metals were extracted from local basement rocks. Sulfur isotope data and studies of organic matter indicate that the reduced sulfur in the ores was derived from the reduction of Mesozoic marine sulfate by thermochemical sulfate reduction or bacterially mediated processes at a different time or place from ore deposition. The large range of δ34S values determined for the minerals in the deposit (12.2–19.2‰ for barite, 3.8–13.8‰ for sphalerite and galena, and 8.7 to −21.2‰ for pyrite), are best explained by the mixing of fluids containing different sources of sulfur. Geochemical reaction path calculations, based on quantitative fluid inclusion data and constrained by field observations, were used to evaluate possible precipitation mechanisms. The most important precipitation mechanism was probably the mixing of fluids containing different metal and reduced sulfur contents. Cooling, dilution, and changes in pH of the ore fluid probably played a minor role in the precipitation of ores. The optimum results that produced the most metal sulfide deposition with the least amount of fluid was the mixing of a fluid containing low amounts of reduced sulfur with a sulfur-rich, metal poor fluid. In this scenario, large amounts of sphalerite and galena are precipitated, together with smaller quantities of pyrite precipitated and dolomite dissolved. The relative amounts of metal precipitated and dolomite dissolved in this scenario agree with field observations that show only minor dolomite dissolution during ore deposition. The modeling results demonstrate the important control of the reduced

  3. Structural Kinematics of Two Regional Transects Across the Manila Trench Offshore Southern Taiwan: Untangling Thick from Thin Skin Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Chi, W. C.; Kunath, P.; McIntosh, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research offshore Southern Taiwan has proposed that a hyper-extended continental crust is involved in the convergent margin of the Manila trench as far south as 20°N (Lester et al., 2013; McIntosh et al., 2013; and Eakin et al., 2014). If and how such pre-existing structures affect modern deformation styles is still unclear. Here, we combine large offset seismic reflection profiles, gravity anomaly, and seismicity data to study two transects. Preliminary analyses of Bouguer gravity data and focal mechanisms are consistent with the proposed hyper-extended model. Observations suggest two major crustal lineament trends: 1. A NE-SW steep gravity gradient trend west of Taiwan that correlates with the passive margin normal faults as defined by Lin et al., 2003; 2. A NW-SE regional lineament that correlates with deep seismicity (>30km) offshore SW Taiwan (Wu et al., 2009) and is orthogonal to the normal fault trend. Preliminary gravity analyses also suggest southward deepening of the top of the basement from the Central Range, to the Hengchun Peninsula, to its offshore continuation. By integrating gravity and earthquake data with the structural interpretation of two 2D EW-trending regional seismic sections at 20oN and 22oN, we describe the geometry, and propose a kinematic history of the prowedge. Results display contrasting widths and taper angles between both sections. To the north, the wedge is wide ( 95km) and less steep (α+β= 6ͦ) than to the south. In contrast, the wedge to the south is narrower ( 65km) and steeper (α+β= 13ͦ). We interpret that differences in coulomb wedge behavior from north to south are due to the presence of inherited crustal structures and to the effect of the initial stages of collision. Inherited structures accommodate very thick sedimentary deposition and also accommodate deformation by buttressing younger structures. These characteristics make the Manila accretionary prism a unique example of ongoing basement

  4. Holocene to Pliocene tectonic evolution of the region offshore of the Los Angeles urban corridor, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Gardner, James V.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2004-02-01

    Quaternary tectonism in the coastal belt of the Los Angeles urban corridor is diverse. In this paper we report the results of studies of multibeam bathymetry and a network of seismic reflection profiles that have been aimed at deciphering the diverse tectonism and at evaluating the relevance of published explanations of the region's tectonic history. Rapid uplift, subsidence in basins, folds and thrusts, extensional faulting, and strike-slip faulting have all been active at one place or another throughout the Quaternary Period. The tectonic strain is reflected in the modern physiography at all scales. Los Angeles (LA) Basin has filled from a deep submarine basin to its present condition with sediment impounded behind a large sill formed behind uplifts near the present shoreline. Newport trough to the south-southeast of LA Basin also accumulated a large volume of sediment, but remained at midbathyal depths throughout the Period. There is little or no evidence of Quaternary extensional tectonism in either basin although as much as 6 km of subsidence, which mainly occurred by sagging, has been recorded in places since the middle Miocene. The uplifts include folded and thrust faulted terranes in the Palos Verdes Hills and the shelves of Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays. The uplifted areas have been shortened in a southwest-northeast direction by 10% or slightly more, and some folds are reflected in the bathymetry. Two large adjacent midbathyal basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, show strong evidence of subsidence and slight west-northwest extension (10%) during the same time folding was taking place in the uplifts. The tectonic boundaries between uplifts and basins are folded, normal faulted, reverse-faulted, and strike-slip faulted depending on location. The rapid Quaternary uplift and subsidence, along with the filling of LA Basin, have produced a reversal in the regional physiography. In the early Pliocene, LA Basin was a submarine deep, Palos Verdes and the shelves

  5. Setting the agenda in emergency medicine in the southern African region: Conference assumptions and recommendations, Emergency Medicine Conference 2014: Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D. Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first international emergency medicine (EM conference in Botswana was held on 15th and 16th May 2014 at the Gaborone International Convention Centre. The support from key stakeholders positioned the conference, from its conception, to deliver expert guidance on emergency medicine relevance, education and systems implementation. The conference theme was aptly: “Setting the Agenda in Emergency Medicine in the Southern African Region.” Over 300 local, regional and international delegates convened to participate in this landmark event. Country representation included Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Nigeria and the United States of America. Conference assumptions intersected emergency care, African burden of injury and illness and the role of the state; the public protection ethic of emergency care, and the developmental, economic and health interest in promoting EM. The recommendations addressed emergency care relevance; health systems research as an imperative for emergency systems development in southern Africa; community agency as a requisite for emergency care resilience; emergency care workers as pivotal to the emergency medical system, and support of EM system implementation. The conference recommendations – by way of setting an agenda, augur well for emergency care development and implementation in the southern African region and are likely to prove useful to the southern African countries seeking to address health service quality, EM advocacy support and implementation guidance. Emergency medicine is the only discipline with ‘universality’ and ‘responsivity’ at the point of need. This implies the widespread potential for facilitation of access to health care: a public health goal nuanced by the African development agenda.

  6. Late-Holocene climate variability in southern New Zealand: A multi-proxy study of lake sediments from Lake Ohau to reconstruct regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, H. A.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Levy, R. H.; Dunbar, G.; Upton, P.; Stumpner, P.; Fitzsimons, S.; Howarth, J. D.; Ditchburn, R.; Wilson, G. S.; Purdie, J.

    2012-12-01

    Driving this research is the need to improve understanding of synoptic climate systems influencing climate in southern New Zealand and to document changes in the character of these systems beyond the historical record. Inter-annual variability of New Zealand's climate (e.g. temperature and precipitation) is influenced by large-scale patterns originating in both the tropics (El-Niño-Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and the Antarctic (Southern Annular Mode). Currently, very few highly resolved climate reconstructions exist in mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. The identification of annually laminated sediments in Lake Ohau, Mackenzie Basin, New Zealand (44.234°S, 169.854°E) offers a unique opportunity to investigate changes in regional hydrology and climate, and by extension also explore connections to large-scale climate patterns. Importantly, Lake Ohau is situated east of and in the lee of the Southern Alps, rendering the region characteristically dry and sensitive to small fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. Short cores (<6 meters) from Lake Ohau contain layered sedimentary couplets, which 137Cs and 210Pb analyses suggest represent annual accumulation of terrigenous sediment at an average rate of 0.5 cm a-1. Core imaging (RGB, L*), density, and magnetic susceptibility data were acquired using a GeoTek multi-sensor core logger. Here we present an initial assessment of couplet characteristics based on thin-sections, grain size analysis, and GeoTek output. Extensive limnological monitoring, including acoustic Doppler profilers, thermister strings, sediment traps, and turbidity meters will help to further develop a detailed understanding of processes driving seasonal sediment deposition in Lake Ohau. These limnological data, and preliminary correlations with lake inflow data (1924-2012), and local precipitation and temperature data (1910-2012) will also be presented. This work provides the foundation for reconstructing the

  7. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Diana; Salmerón, Diego; Egea-Caparrós, José-Manuel; Huerta, José M; Pérez-Martínez, Alfonso; Navarro, Carmen; Tormo, María-José

    2011-07-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain) registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Both low (94/80) and high (102/88) waist circumference (WC) thresholds were considered. Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2), 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3) and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3) according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII) or 60.3% (JIS94/80) among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80). The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6%) and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively). Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese). Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be reinforced.

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta José M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be

  10. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, M.; Bezada, M.; Thybo, H.; Levander, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the Southern African cratons to depths as great as the bottom of the transition zone. We utilized P-wave cross-correlation arrival times at three different frequency bands 1, 0.5 and 0.25 Hz. All P-wave arrivals were hand-processed. Crustal corrections were calculated using a crustal model we derived from PdS receiver functions using H-K analysis (Zhu and Kanamori, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2000), and varied with azimuth. We chose damping for the inversion by examining the model norm-data misfit L curve. Checkerboard resolution tests showed good model recovery for 8°x8° anomalies with Vp variations of ±1.5%; 4°X4° checkerboards showed moderately good recovery. To try to isolate the depth extent of anomalies in the model we ran two suites of squeezing tests: 1) We reduced the maximum depth of the model from 1000 to 700 to 410 km. 2) For a 1000 km deep model we increased the damping parameter in the deeper layers progressively and examined the rms misfit and the imaged structure. Visual inspection of the tomographic images produced from these inversions showed that the lateral distribution of structures remained unchanged as the depth of the model was reduced and deep structures persist even with large damping, but with the rms error changing significantly. This indicates to us that the deeper structures are real. We have obtained a new P-wave tomography model showing the depth extent of the cratonic keel. We can distinguish the lateral and the vertical extent in Vp variations between the Archean and modified regions such as the Bushveld complex, and the mobile belts surrounding the cratons. The high velocity (+1.0%) cratonic roots extend to

  11. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the southern African region’s economic integration and knowledge management terrain from a spatial perspective. Its purpose is to generate insights relating to the role that space and spatial structure play in determining equity...

  12. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  13. Migratory life history of European eel Anguilla anguilla from freshwater regions of the River Asi, southern Turkey and their high otolith Sr:Ca ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-J; Yalçin-Özdilek, S; Iizuka, Y; Gümüş, A; Tzeng, W-N

    2011-03-01

    Otolith Sr:Ca ratios from 32 of 34 European eel Anguilla anguilla collected from three freshwater sites in the River Asi, southern Turkey, indicated that they were resident in fresh water without apparent exposure to salt water since the elver stage. The Sr:Ca ratio criterion indicative of residence in fresh water was more than twice that of values from other European countries. Otolith Sr:Ca ratios of A. anguilla from fresh waters can vary among regions, possibly reflecting regional-specific water chemistry. Hence, the use of Sr:Ca ratios determined in one region to interpret results from a different region might lead to misclassification of migratory life-history types. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. The Serra da Graciosa A-type granites and syenites, southern Brazil. Part 1: regional setting and geological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A.R. Gualda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Serra da Graciosa region includes important occurrences of granites and syenites of the Graciosa A-type Province (formerly Serra do Mar Suite, southern Brazil. Using fieldwork, petrography, and remote sensing imagery, we characterize the geology of the plutons in the region. Five individual plutons were recognized. Two correspond to the previously defined Marumbi and Anhangava Plutons. We divide the former "Graciosa Pluton" into three new plutons: Capivari, Órgãos, and Farinha Seca. The plutons are elliptical with northeast-southwest orientation. Two petrographic associations can be recognized: an alkaline association that includes peralkaline and metaluminous hypersolvus alkalifeldspar granites and syenites (Anhangava, Farinha Seca, Órgãos, and an aluminous association composed of metaluminous and weakly peraluminous subsolvus granites (Capivari, Órgãos, Anhangava, Marumbi. Occurrences of each association are limited to one individual pluton or to portions of a pluton, and the age relationships are not well established. Monzodioritic rocks are found marginal to the Órgãos and Farinha Seca Plutons, and interaction with silicic magmas locally produced hybrid quartz syenites (Farinha Seca Pluton. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement at shallow crustal levels (P = 2 ± 0.6 kbar, and crystallization temperatures within the interval 900-700ºC for the granitic and syenitic rocks, and 1000-750ºC for the monzodioritic rocks.A região da Serra da Graciosa inclui importantes ocorrências de granitos e sienitos da Província Graciosa de Tipo-A (originalmente chamada de Suite Serra do Mar, Sul do Brasil. Com base em trabalho de campo, petrografia, e imagens de sensoriamento remoto, é feita a caracterização dos plútons da região. Cinco plútons independentes são reconhecidos. Dois deles correspondem a plútons já definidos na região, os Plútons Marumbi e Anhangava; os três restantes derivam da subdivisão do "Maciço Graciosa" em

  15. Towards a coastal ocean forecasting system in Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian seas based on unstructured-grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ivan; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian Forecasting System (SANIFS) operational chain is based on a nesting approach. The large scale model for the entire Mediterranean basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting system, operated by INGV, e.g. Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009) provides lateral open boundary conditions to the regional model for Adriatic and Ionian seas (AIFS, Adriatic Ionian Forecasting System) which provides the open-sea fields (initial conditions and lateral open boundary conditions) to SANIFS. The latter, here presented, is a coastal ocean model based on SHYFEM (Shallow HYdrodynamics Finite Element Model) code, which is an unstructured grid, finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (e.g. Umgiesser et al., 2004, Ferrarin et al., 2013). The SANIFS hydrodynamic model component has been designed to provide accurate information of hydrodynamics and active tracer fields in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a resolution of about of 200-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also accurate in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. During the development phase the model has been initialized and forced at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS fields. The heat fluxes has been computed by bulk formulae using as input data the operational analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Short range pre-operational forecast tests have been performed in different seasons to evaluate the robustness of the implemented model in different oceanographic conditions. Model results are validated by means of comparison with MFS operational results and observations. The model is able to reproduce the large-scale oceanographic structures of the area (keeping similar structures of MFS in open sea), while in the coastal area significant improvements in terms of reproduced structures and dynamics are

  16. Regional and seasonal differences in light absorption by yellow substance in the Southern Bight of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnock, R.E; Gieskes, W.W C; van Laar, S

    1999-01-01

    Absorption spectra (250-800 nm) of yellow substance were measured in 1993 and 1994 along five onshore-offshore transects in the Southern Eight of the North Sea in different seasons. All spectra had a common shape, so the amount of yellow substance could be established using one reference wavelength

  17. Late Holocene environmental history of southern Chocó region, Pacific Columbia; sediment, diatom and pollen analysis of El Caimito.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez, M.I.; Wille, M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Metkalf, S.; Vandenberghe, J.; van de Borg, K.

    2001-01-01

    We present a multi-proxy study of pollen, diatoms, sediment characteristics and major elements of a 610-cm sediment core from lake El Caimito, located in the humid rain forest of southern Chocó, Pacific Colombia. We propose an integrated reconstruction of the local basin development and of the

  18. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.

  19. Feeding habits of coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina 1978 in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni G. Colares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2 in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1 and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2 were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dieta do ratão-do-banhado (Myocastor coypus, em duas regiões (áreas alagadas em Santa Isabel do Sul - Área 1 e Fazenda Santa Marta - Área 2, na região sul do Brasil, utilizando microhistological análises de fezes. Foram identificadas 24 espécies de plantas nas amostras de fezes coletadas. Entre as espécies identificadas, nove são comuns a dieta dos animais de ambas as áreas, não sendo detectada a presença de Oriza sativa em nenhuma das amostras. Entre as espécies identificadas, 84% e54% da dieta do ratão-do-banhado, nas Áreas 1 e 2 respectivamente, são plantas aquáticas. A família Poaceae foi a mais abundante, sendo encontrada em 82% das amostras de ambasas áreas. Paspalum disthichum (Área 1 e Panicum tricholaenoides (Área 2, foram as espécies mais frequentes na dieta do ratão-do-banhado. A comparação da

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of Marion and Prince Edward Islands, Southern Ocean: Magma chamber processes and source region characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, A. P.; Chevallier, L.; Verwoerd, W. J.; Barends, R.

    2012-04-01

    New bulk rock geochemical data on an extensive suite of samples from the Marion and Prince Edward Islands, located in the Southern Ocean at ~ 37°45'E, 46°55'S, show highly coherent major and trace element variations. Rock types are dominated by alkali basalt, with lesser hawaiite and minor mugearite and benmoreite. Prince Edward Island has in addition rare trachytes exposed on the plateau, and xenoliths of comenditic rhyolite pumice were found in a basalt flow of the 1980 eruption on Marion Island. Lavas from Prince Edward Island differ from those erupted on Marion Island by having subtly distinct incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb = 9.1 vs 6.7; Ba/Nb = 7.8 vs 6.7; Ce/Pb = 31 vs 36), and lower 87Sr/86Sr (0.70302) and higher 143Nd/144Nd (0.51300) isotope ratios than found on Marion Island (0.70336-0.70349; 0.51292-0.51295). The two islands are indistinguishable in terms of Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.61-18.75, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.56). Quantitative modelling suggests that the range in rock types found on each island can be ascribed to extensive low pressure crystal fractionation of phenocryst phases. For example, hawaiite can be related to the more primitive alkali basalts by some 24% fractional crystallisation of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and minor FeTi-oxides, whereas the more evolved mugearites and benmoreites require, respectively a further 36% and 24% fractional crystallisation to account for their felsic compositions. The trachytes of Prince Edward Island appear to represent the residual 28% magma following extensive crustal fractionation of dominantly clinopyroxene, plagioclase and FeTi-oxide with minor apatite. None of the sampled lavas have compositions characteristic of true primary magmas, but the least evolved, with Mg# ~ 63, appear to have experienced as much as 18% olivine fractionation from a primary magma with ~ 15 wt.% MgO. The rhyolite pumice is distinct in composition from Bouvet rhyolite or South Sandwich Island

  1. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  2. Results 3 decades after the plantation trials with palebark pine in the mountain of the coastal chain in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In Italy the palebark pine (Pinus leucodermis Antoine forms natural populations present in Calabria and Lucania at the borderline between the two regions on calcareous soils and litho-soils. The surface range is about 5700 hectares, distributed in four natural groups of vegetation, two Apennine areas (Alpi, Spina -Zàccana, Pollino and two coastal areas (Palanuda-Pellegrino, Montéa. In the mountain areas the species becomes exclusive and shows resistance to climate harshness at high elevation, ability to colonise ecologically difficult sites, aptitude and specific reliability to artificial spreading. The experimental plan, carried out without any repetition because technically unfeasible in the area, estimated three input variables: plastic bag-grown S2F2 and bare-rooted seedlings S2T2, inter-distance on the terrace (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, elevation a.s.l. (1400m, 1550m, 1700m. 4 yrs old seedlings, one half plastic bag-grown and one half bare-rooted, were transplanted in autumn in each site on 24 terraces (4x3x2 handmade in summer. Each sampled area was made up of four adjacent terraces for an overall length of 184 m. Transplanting operations were completed in December and an enclosure was set up to protect the plantation from grazing. As a whole, the experimental areas was shaped as a rectangle. Additional terraces, carried out in the lower part, were planted with bare-rooted Austrian pine and Silver fir seedlings at an inter-distance of 1m and provided the direct comparison with the same thesis of palebark pine. Maintenance practices were undertaken in June and in July of the first and second year to eliminate weeds and shrubs along the terraces. The mensurational surveys were carried out in 1982-1983-1987-1994-2007-2009. The quite complete mortality of Austrian pine and Silver fir transplants in 1983-84 made impossible any further

  3. Origin and fate of particulate organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea - Amundsen Gulf region, Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magen, Cedric; Chaillou, Gwenaelle; Crowe, Sean

    2010-01-01

    To establish the relative importance of terrigenous and marine organic matter in the southern Beaufort Sea, we measured the concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and total nitrogen in sediments and in settling particles intercepted by sediment traps. The organic...... carbon content of surface! sediment in the Chukchi and southern Beaufort Seas ranged from 0.6 to 1.6% dry wt., without a clear geographical pattern. The C-ORG:N-TOT ratio ranged from 7.0 to 10.4 and did not vary significantly downcore at any one station. Values delta C-13(ORG) and delta N-15(TOT...... contains organic matter varying from essentially labile and marine to mostly refractory and terrigenous. As it settles through the water column, the labile marine organic matter is degraded, and its original stable isotope signature changes towards the signature of the marine refractory component...

  4. Validity of the International HIV Dementia Scale as Assessed in a Socioeconomically Underdeveloped Region of Southern China: Assessing the Influence of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Dang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, more than 80,000 cases of HIV infection were recorded in the Southern Chinese minority autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang, where the occurrence of HIV-associated dementia remains high. The International HIV Dementia Scale is a relatively simple-to-administer screening scale for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. However, clinical experience in utilizing the scale with large Chinese samples is currently lacking, especially among individuals with limited formal schooling. In this study, a full neuropsychological evaluation the gold standard was conducted to identify the incidence/prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in a socioeconomically underdeveloped region of Southern China and to locate the optimal cut-off scale value using receiver operating characteristic curves. The highest Youden index of the scale was 0.450, with a corresponding cut-off point of 7.25. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.737 and 0.713, respectively. These results suggest that the scale is an effective and feasible screening tool for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in poorer regions of China with fewer well-educated residents.

  5. Validity of the International HIV Dementia Scale as assessed in a socioeconomically underdeveloped region of Southern China: assessing the influence of educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chao; Wei, Bo; Long, JianXiong; Zhou, MengXiao; Han, XinXin; Zhao, TingTing

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, more than 80,000 cases of HIV infection were recorded in the Southern Chinese minority autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang, where the occurrence of HIV-associated dementia remains high. The International HIV Dementia Scale is a relatively simple-to-administer screening scale for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. However, clinical experience in utilizing the scale with large Chinese samples is currently lacking, especially among individuals with limited formal schooling. In this study, a full neuropsychological evaluation the gold standard was conducted to identify the incidence/prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in a socioeconomically underdeveloped region of Southern China and to locate the optimal cut-off scale value using receiver operating characteristic curves. The highest Youden index of the scale was 0.450, with a corresponding cut-off point of 7.25. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.737 and 0.713, respectively. These results suggest that the scale is an effective and feasible screening tool for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in poorer regions of China with fewer well-educated residents. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. History and origin of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in South Africa and the greater southern African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-11-17

    HIV has spread at an alarming rate in South Africa, making it the country with the highest number of HIV infections. Several studies have investigated the histories of HIV-1 subtype C epidemics but none have done so in the context of social and political transformation in southern Africa. There is a need to understand how these processes affects epidemics, as socio-political transformation is a common and on-going process in Africa. Here, we genotyped strains from the start of the epidemic and applied phylodynamic techniques to determine the history of the southern Africa and South African epidemic from longitudinal sampled data. The southern African epidemic's estimated dates of origin was placed around 1960 (95% HPD 1956-64), while dynamic reconstruction revealed strong growth during the 1970s and 80s. The South African epidemic has a similar origin, caused by multiple introductions from neighbouring countries, and grew exponentially during the 1980s and 90s, coinciding with socio-political changes in South Africa. These findings provide an indication as to when the epidemic started and how it has grown, while the inclusion of sequence data from the start of the epidemic provided better estimates. The epidemic have stabilized in recent years with the expansion of antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Concentrations of {sup 210}Po in fish and shellfish from southern region of Japan and evaluation of {sup 210}Po intake from seafood for Japanese people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Radioisotope Center; Nakao, H. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Sciences

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of {sup 210}Po in fish and shellfish, mostly collected from southern region of Japan were analyzed. Values ranged from 0.2 to 229 Bq/kg fresh weight and higher concentrations were observed in samples analyzed with viscera. Intake of {sup 210}Po through fish and shellfish was evaluated at different Japanese cities based on statistical consumption data. Phytoplankton, Heterosigma akashiwo was collected during a harmful algal bloom and {sup 210}Po was analyzed. The phytoplankton occupied only 4.4% of {sup 210}Po in seawater and a large fraction of {sup 210}Po was observed in the particulate form. (orig.)

  8. Different degrees of partial melting of the enriched mantle source for Plio-Quaternary basic volcanism, Toprakkale (Osmaniye) Region, Southern Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, U; Alpaslan, M; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    ) Ba, Th and U, and show light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment relative to heavy rare earth element (HREE) on primitive mantle trace and rare earth element patterns that indicate different partial melting of the same source. The isotopic 87Sr/86Sr ratio is relatively low (0.703534 –0......The Toprakkale (Osmaniye) region, located in the Yumurtalik fault zone in southern Turkey, contains Quaternary volcanic rocks, shown by their mineralogical and petrographical features to be alkali basaltic and basanitic. These alkaline rocks are enriched in the large ion lithophile elements (LILE...

  9. A coupled remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance based algorithms to estimate actual evapotranspiration over the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H.; Alazba, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In countries with absolute water scarcity such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), large-scale actual evapotranspiration estimation is of great concern in water use practices. Herein, spatial and temporal distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the western and southern regions of KSA during 1992-2014 was estimated using the SEBAL model with field observations. Zonal statistics for each land use-cover type were also identified, in order to understand their effects on water consumption. In addition, daily and seasonal water consumption for major crops was computed. Results revealed a gradual increase in monthly AET values from January to April and subsequent decline from May to December. The maximum monthly AET values were observed for irrigated cropland in southwestern, central, and southeastern regions of Asir Province, central and southwestern regions of Al-Baha Province, central and the plains region of Jazan Province, southern portion of Makkah Province, and limited areas in the northern regions of Madinah Province. The annual AET ranged from 418.8 to 3442.3 mm yr-1. The normal distribution of mean annual AET values ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. Forty-two percent of the study area had an annual AET that ranged from 717 to 1020 mm yr-1. The second highest range of frequencies was concentrated around 1020-1322 mm yr-1, representing the majority of agricultural land. The consumptive water use of the different land cover types in study area indicated that irrigated cropland which occupied 14.6% of the study area had AET rates much higher than other land uses. Water bodies are the next highest, with forest and shrubland and sparse vegetation slightly lower, and very low AET rates from bare soil. Daily and seasonal water consumption of major cropping systems varied spatially depending on cropping practices and climatic conditions.

  10. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  11. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  12. Kukimbia: the impact of environmental refugees in Southern Africa. A regional perspective on climate-induced migration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available to respond to future internal and cross-border displacements as a result of environmental disasters. • Goal is to grow a social research capability on climate-induced human movement patterns. Aims: 1. To develop the Southern African policy position... tended to protect their national prerogatives, favouring non-binding forms of dialogue and exchanges of best practice e.g. Nansen Initiative. • No legal framework exists at the global level. • Migrants fall within the jurisdiction of different...

  13. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  14. Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales from southern Africa. 8. R. campbelliana (subgenus Riccia, newly recorded for the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available R. campbelliana Howe (1899, a rare species originally known from California and later from Georgia, Arkansas (Jacobs 1951; Wittlake 1954, Kansas and Nebraska (S. Jovet-Ast pers. comm., as well as from Kazakhstan (Ladyzhenskaja 1967, has now also been found at a few localities in southern Africa. It is characterized by the distinctive yellow-brown or rusty colouration of the dorsal surface along the margins and over the proximal parts; enlarged cells, ‘idioblasts', which differ in shape and contents from the adjacent cells, are generally found in all parts of the thallus.

  15. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  16. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and water resources in the headwaters region of the Yellow River: links and potential for forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lü

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the rainfall-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and runoff-ENSO relationships and examines the potential for water resource forecasting using these relationships. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, Niño1.2, Niño3, Niño4, and Niño3.4 were selected as ENSO indicators for cross-correlation analyses of precipitation and runoff. There was a significant correlation (95% confidence level between precipitation and ENSO indicators during three periods: January, March, and from September to November. In addition, monthly streamflow and monthly ENSO indictors were significantly correlated during three periods: from January to March, June, and from October to December (OND, with lag periods between one and twelve months. Because ENSO events can be accurately predicted one to two years in advance using physical modeling of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, the lead time for forecasting runoff using ENSO indicators in the Headwaters Region of the Yellow River could extend from one to 36 months. Therefore, ENSO may have potential as a powerful forecasting tool for water resources in the headwater regions of Yellow River.

  17. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  18. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  19. Understanding the importance of medical student clerkships in poor health outcome regions served by Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in impoverished locations of Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashruta

    2017-01-01

    Area Health Education Centers provide health professional students the opportunity to explore the benefits of practicing in a rural and underserved location. The status of health conditions in chronic disease patients residing in impoverished regions of the US provides the chance to understand the factors that are responsible for constant inadequate outcomes in underserved and rural communities. Many limiting barriers to positive health outcomes occur in disproportionate numbers in the Southern Black Belt. Students should consider participating in rural and underserved clerkships, and ultimately a career as a health care provider in a poor health outcome region. In addition, promising programs (e.g. telemedicine, community health workers) to help implement patient-centered evidence-based interventions can tackle current chronic disease issues commonly encountered by health professionals who work with diverse patient populations.

  20. [Time of adaptation (based on the criteria of biorhythms) of schoolchildren from the North to the conditions of a health resort in the southern region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirskaia, N B

    1991-01-01

    It has been ascertained that the duration of adaptation period of the sick pupils to the conditions of a southern sanatorium according to the indices of their circadian rhythm exceeds the established terms (5-7-10 days) and equals 2-3 weeks for children coming from the European North Region and 3-4 weeks for children coming from the Eastern and Far North Regions according to rhythms of the majority of functions. Terms of adaptation developed on the basis of biorhytmological principles are close to the terms of disappearance of subfebrile temperatures in sick children who show different degrees of decompensation of the pathological process in adaptation. The data obtained serves as the basis to review the duration of treatment of the sick children arriving from the contrasting climatic zones.

  1. A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

    2011-01-01

    In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Whole Genome Sequences From Southern India Suggest Novel Resistance Mechanisms and the Need for Region-Specific Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Abigail L; Abeel, Thomas; Galagan, James E; Sundaramurthi, Jagadish Chandrabose; Salazar, Alex; Gehrmann, Thies; Shanmugam, Siva Kumar; Palaniyandi, Kannan; Narayanan, Sujatha; Swaminathan, Soumya; Earl, Ashlee M

    2017-06-01

    India is home to 25% of all tuberculosis cases and the second highest number of multidrug resistant cases worldwide. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and resistance determinants of Indian Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly for the primary lineages found in India, lineages 1 and 3. We whole genome sequenced 223 randomly selected M. tuberculosis strains from 196 patients within the Tiruvallur and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu in Southern India. Using comparative genomics, we examined genetic diversity, transmission patterns, and evolution of resistance. Genomic analyses revealed (11) prevalence of strains from lineages 1 and 3, (11) recent transmission of strains among patients from the same treatment centers, (11) emergence of drug resistance within patients over time, (11) resistance gained in an order typical of strains from different lineages and geographies, (11) underperformance of known resistance-conferring mutations to explain phenotypic resistance in Indian strains relative to studies focused on other geographies, and (11) the possibility that resistance arose through mutations not previously implicated in resistance, or through infections with multiple strains that confound genotype-based prediction of resistance. In addition to substantially expanding the genomic perspectives of lineages 1 and 3, sequencing and analysis of M. tuberculosis whole genomes from Southern India highlight challenges of infection control and rapid diagnosis of resistant tuberculosis using current technologies. Further studies are needed to fully explore the complement of diversity and resistance determinants within endemic M. tuberculosis populations.

  3. Shear wave velocity models retrieved using Rg wave dispersion data in shallow crust in some regions of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shutian; Motazedian, Dariush; Corchete, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many crucial tasks in seismology, such as locating seismic events and estimating focal mechanisms, need crustal velocity models. The velocity models of shallow structures are particularly important in the simulation of ground motions. In southern Ontario, Canada, many small shallow earthquakes occur, generating high-frequency Rayleigh ( Rg) waves that are sensitive to shallow structures. In this research, the dispersion of Rg waves was used to obtain shear-wave velocities in the top few kilometers of the crust in the Georgian Bay, Sudbury, and Thunder Bay areas of southern Ontario. Several shallow velocity models were obtained based on the dispersion of recorded Rg waves. The Rg waves generated by an m N 3.0 natural earthquake on the northern shore of Georgian Bay were used to obtain velocity models for the area of an earthquake swarm in 2007. The Rg waves generated by a mining induced event in the Sudbury area in 2005 were used to retrieve velocity models between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The Rg waves generated by the largest event in a natural earthquake swarm near Thunder Bay in 2008 were used to obtain a velocity model in that swarm area. The basic feature of all the investigated models is that there is a top low-velocity layer with a thickness of about 0.5 km. The seismic velocities changed mainly within the top 2 km, where small earthquakes often occur.

  4. Psicologia e psichiatria di fronte alle emergenze: primi contributi italiani (terremoto di Messina e Reggio Calabria, 1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Ceccarelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and discusses the first Italian psychological and psychiatric contributions, recently rediscovered, pertaining to the field of emergencies. In particular, it outlines a sort of prehistory of psychiatry and psychology of emergencies in our country, referring to contributions regarding the Messina and Reggio Calabria earthquakes in 1908, focusing on the psychic consequences of the disaster. It thus examines the writings of Giulio Cesare Ferrari, founder of the "Rivista di Psicologia", Guglielmo Mondìo, Vincenzo Neri and Giuseppe D’Abundo. Referring also to the cases reported by these authors, it describes the post-earthquake syndromes they found, despite a somewhat uncertain nosographic categorization at the time, and reports the theoretical debates proposed by some of the same authors. The work also deals with the state of Italian psychology in the early twentieth century, not yet practiced by psychologists in the full sense of the term, but by scholars with a medical, psychiatric and philosophical background. And mainly focused on purposes of knowledge rather than of application.

  5. Beyond the Perimeter of Depoliticization. The Evolution of the Global Governance of Refugees and its Territorialisation in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafrancesca D'Agostino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the evolution of the global governance of refugees in light of studies on depoliticisation. Following theories on governmentality, it emphasizes the centrality of the concept of de-politicisation when examining the narratives and practices implemented to establish an extraterritorial asylum system of humanitarian containment, detached from any ideals of inclusion and rehabilitation. At the same time, we recall diverse empirical evidence in order to stress the importance of considering the divergent effects of depoliticisation in geographically and culturally distant contexts. The survey in Ca-labria, Italy, presents in fact the political attempt by its inner areas to foster autonomous practices of in-clusion that contrast the securitarian shift of the global asylum system, as well as its national implications, recognising refugees as a strategic factor of economic growth and social innovation. In particular, we re-veal the mechanisms through which new forms of local citizenship have emerged here, along with institu-tional solutions specifically connoted by a bilateral and place-based approach to forced migration. These efforts persist despite the breakup of the current European refugee crisis which, however, now opens new dilemmas by diminishing the viability of refugee relocation within the internal areas as a truly sustainable process.

  6. Diversity of culturable Gram-negative bacteria isolated from irrigation water of two rice crop regions in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Maria Helena Lima Ribeiro; Reali, Catiusca; Pittol, Michele; de Athayde Saul, Danilo; Macedo, Vera Regina Mussoi; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Machado, Vilmar; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the diversity of Gram-negative bacteria found in water used for irrigation of rice crops in two growing areas of southern Brazil. Samples were collected from the main irrigation channel and field drain area. Twenty-two bacterial species were found in Cachoeirinha and 28 in Camaquã. In both areas, the most frequent bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae. Differences in microbial diversity were observed in both study areas. Thirty-five Gram-negative species were identified; however, only 15 were common in both locations. In addition, there were found pathogenic and drug-resistant species, such as Acinetobacter sp., Brucella spp., and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. This study demonstrates the existence of a number of pathogenic species in aquatic ecosystems analyzed in three consecutive crop years, especially water used for rice production.

  7. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  8. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  9. Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ackerley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation approach from the Australian component of the international palaeoclimate synthesis effort (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records – OZ-INTIMATE to compare atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM simulations and proxy reconstructions. The approach is used in order to identify important properties (e.g. circulation and precipitation of past climatic states from the models and proxies, which is a primary objective of the Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PalaeoEnvironment (SHAPE initiative. The AOGCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP mid-Holocene (ca. 6000 years before present, 6 ka and pre-industrial control (ca. 1750 CE, 0 ka experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The largest uncertainty between the models and the proxies occurs over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP. The analysis shows that the lower temperatures in the Pacific at around 6 ka in the models may be the result of an enhancement of an existing systematic error. It is therefore difficult to decipher which one of the proxies and/or the models is correct. This study also shows that a reduction in the Equator-to-pole temperature difference in the Southern Hemisphere causes the mid-latitude westerly wind strength to reduce in the models; however, the simulated rainfall actually increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia as a result of higher convective precipitation. Such a mechanism (increased convection may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy, opportunities for better model–proxy integrated research are discussed.

  10. Agro-biodiversity has increased over a 95 year period at sub-regional and regional scales in southern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, D.; Bennett, E. M.; Rhemtulla, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Decline in agricultural biodiversity (cultivated species and wild species used for food or that support agro-ecosystem functioning) at the farm scale has fueled concerns about potential negative effects of this biodiversity loss on the ecological and economic sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Despite these concerns, formal assessment of how agro-biodiversity has historically changed at scales larger than individual farms is fragmented. We quantified the changes in the abundance of 10 crop and livestock species, their overall diversity, and the way they were mixed in ‘baskets’ of agricultural products from 1911 to 2006, at a sub-regional (15 Regional County Municipalities) and regional scales. We found that the diversity of agricultural products increased at the regional scale. From 1911 to 1966, the region produced fodder, milk and maple, mixed in two low-diversity baskets. After 1966, the region provided a greater variety of baskets composed of newly introduced cash crops and high-value livestock. All baskets provided were themselves more diverse than historically and varied greatly in composition across space. Increasing regional diversity was related to changes in agricultural policy, while the variation in the composition of baskets produced was related to biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics. Our results indicate that agricultural transformations of the 21th century did not invariably lead to agro-biodiversity loss at large scales. We have also demonstrated that combining diversity measures at multiple scales with the analysis of compositional change of agricultural products over long time periods could improve research on the links between agro-biodiversity dynamics and resilience.

  11. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

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    W. Friederich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini–Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW–SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE–SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east–west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW–SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except

  12. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

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    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  13. Potassium Fertilization for Long Term No-Till Crop Rotation in the Central-Southern Region of Paraná, Brazil

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    Renan Costa Beber Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fertilization programs for annual crops in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, are based on studies that focused on conventional tillage and were established more than 30 years ago. The primary purpose of this study was to assess potassium (K fertilization on long-term (>30 years no-tillage soybean, corn, wheat, and barley crops grown in rotation on Oxisols in the central-southern region of Paraná. A total of 47 experiments were carried out from 2008 to 2013, three of which addressed K calibration and the other 44, crop response to K fertilization. Critical K soil-test value and interpretation classes were established from the ratio between relative crop yield [RY = (yield without K/max yield × 100] and soil K levels. Winter cereals were found to be more demanding of K than were soybean and corn; also, the former governed critical K soil-test value for crop rotation: 0.23 cmolc dm-3 in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer. Recommended fertilization rates for soils in the low and medium soil K levels were established by using the build-up approach for soil correction; and those for the high and very high soil K levels were established by removing K at harvest and assessing economic return in crop response experiments. The K rates calculated for the high yield classes exceeded those currently recommended for use in Paraná.

  14. Late Holocene marine terraces of the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean: The product of neotectonism or a former high stand in sea-level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio Martínez, J.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Gomez, Andres; Delgado, Adriana; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rendon, Esteban

    2010-03-01

    The detailed stratigraphic survey and paleontological study (mollusks, corals, foraminifera and ostracods) of four low-level, ˜3 m, marine terrace sections: Punta Canoas, Manzanillo del Mar, Playa de Oro, and Tierra Bomba Island, from the Cartagena region, southern Caribbean, supplemented with 22 radiocarbon dates, reveals that the northern terraces were deposited as parasequences in a clastic depositional system compared to the Tierra Bomba Island succession that was deposited in a carbonate depositional system between ˜3600 and ˜1700 cal yrs BP. Drier conditions and the southern location of the ITCZ at about 3 ka triggered stronger easterly Trades and more dynamic southwestward sediment drift fed by the Magdalena River mouth, thus promoting the formation of sand spits that ultimately isolated the Cienaga de Tesca coastal lagoon from the Caribbean Sea. Our estimates support the hypothesis that the present position of the terraces is the product of neotectonism rather than a higher 3 ka, sea-level. Upheaval of the terraces varies between ˜3.8 mmyr -1 at Punta Canoas and ˜2.2 mmyr -1 at Tierra Bomba to ˜1.5 mmyr -1 at Manzanillo del Mar and Playa de Oro terraces. Our study corroborates previous contentions on the role of mud diapirism and the dynamics of the Dique Fault as late Holocene upheaval mechanisms.

  15. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  16. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis , Aristolochia clematis , Scrophularia deserti , Quercus brantii , Ceracus microcarpa , Echium strigosa , Pistacia atlantica , and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius , Peganum harmala , Salsola rigida , Artemisia herba-alba , Amygdalus arabica , jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica , P. khinjuk , and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  17. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  18. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  19. A long-term trend in precipitation of different spatial regions of Bangladesh and its teleconnections with El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser; Alam, Mohammad Samsul; Yousuf, Abu Hena Muhammad; Islam, Md. Monirul

    2017-07-01

    A long-term (1948 to 2012) trend of precipitation (annual, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons) in Bangladesh was analyzed in different regions using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. Moreover, the possible teleconnections of precipitation (annual and monsoon) variability with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) were investigated using both average and individual (both positive and negative) values of ENSO index and IOD. Our findings suggested that for annual precipitation, a significant increasing monotonic trend was found in whole Bangladesh (4.87 mm/year), its western region (5.82 mm/year) including Rangpur (9.41 mm/year) and Khulna (4.95 mm/year), and Sylhet (10.12 mm/year) and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) from eastern region. In pre-monsoon, only Rangpur (2.88 mm/year) showed significant increasing trend, while in monsoon, whole Bangladesh (3.04 mm/year), Sylhet (7.17 mm/year), and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) showed similar trend. In post-monsoon, there was no significant trend. Our results also revealed that the precipitation (annual or monsoon) of whole Bangladesh and almost all of the spatial regions did not show any significant correlation with ENSO events, whereas the average IOD values showed significant correlation only in monsoon precipitation of western region. The individual positive IODs showed significant correlation in whole Bangladesh, western region, and its two divisions (Rajshahi and Khulna). So, in the context of Bangladesh climate, IOD has the more teleconnection to precipitation than that of ENSO. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of ENSO and IOD events may suppress their influence on each other.

  20. Regional and temporal variation in minor ions in groundwater of a part of a large river delta, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Vetrimurugan; Brindha, K; Elango, L

    2017-07-01

    Impact of agricultural activities on groundwater can be determined from the concentration of nutrients present in groundwater. This study was carried out with the aim to assess the minor ions content of groundwater and to identify its sources, spatial, and seasonal variations in a part of the Cauvery River basin, southern India. Groundwater samples were collected from July 2007 to September 2009 and were analyzed for minor ions. These ions were in the order of dominance of nitrate> phosphate> bromide> fluoride> ammonium= nitrite> lithium. The concentration of ions tends to increase towards the coast except for fluoride. Increased concentration of ions identified in shallow wells than in deep wells with an exception of few locations indicates the impact of human activities. Relatively high concentration of agriculture-sourced nitrate was identified which pose a threat to groundwater suitability for agriculture and domestic usage. Combined influence of use of agrochemicals, improper sewage disposal, aquaculture activities, seawater intrusion due to heavy pumping near the coast, and natural weathering of aquifer materials are the major sources. Also, fine grain sediments of this area aid in poor flushing of the ions towards the sea resulting in accumulation of higher concentration of ions. A sustainable management strategy is essential to control the concentration of these ions, especially nitrate. Reduced use of fertilizers, increasing the rainfall recharge for diluting the pollutants in groundwater and maintaining the river flow for sufficiently longer period to reduce dependence on groundwater for irrigation can help to improve the situation.

  1. Environmental challenges posed by veld fires in fragile regions: The case of the Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This original research confronted challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires in the Bulilima and Mangwe Districts of Matabeleland in the South Province in southern Zimbabwe. Veld fires have affected the fauna and flora, polluted air and water, and destroyed livelihoods. The study aimed at establishing challenges to environmental sustainability posed by veld fires, identifying the type of environment upon which veld fires have impacted, analysing legal issues and other interventions surrounding the control of veld fires and suggesting new control measures for veld fires. A qualitative research design and quota sampling were used. The study involved 30 participants. Data was collected through a questionnaire, an interview guide and participant observation. Challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires include property damage, reduced soil fertility, destruction of vegetation, air and water pollution and destruction of wildlife. Most veld fires are a result of human actions that emanate from the disposal of cigarettes, the burning of vegetation when preparing fields, the use of fire by hunters, smoking out bees and the making of fires by motorists along highways. The government should consider reviewing the current environmental statues. Fireguards should be wide enough to lessen veld-fire impact. Lastly, veld-fire campaigns and rehearsals should be run on a regular basis. It is hoped that this work would make a significant contribution through improving the current thinking about environmental management and sustainability, thereby benefiting policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders.

  2. A survey into process and worker's characteristics in the wood furniture industry in Songkhla Province, southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiseranee, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1998-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the wood furniture industry was conducted in southern Thailand in February 1993. The aim was to examine the manufacturing process, occupational hazards at the workplace, workers' demographic characteristics, period of employment, incidence rate of work related injury and some reproductive history of workers. Altogether 69 managers and 1,000 workers participated in the study. There are 2 main types of wood industry, rubberwood and hardwood. The rubberwood industry is semi-automated with advanced technology, has a female-dominated workforce of 200-300 workers per factory and overseas-market orientation. The hardwood industry is based in small-scale workplaces ranging from 20 to 60 workers, domestic-market orientation and has a male-dominated workforce. Most of the workers were young, single, of low education and were high turnover rate laborforce, with arduous work and long working hours per week. Solvent was the most frequent chemical exposure. The person-year incidence of chemical exposure in female workers was higher than in male workers for every group of chemicals. The incidence of accidents was twice as high as the official rate. The standardized fertility ratio of female wood workers was only 51.6% of that of the Thai female population. There was a high abortion rate among women who became pregnant inside the wood industry compared to that among pregnancies outside the wood factory. Wood industry workers were exposed to occupational hazards and accident-prone work conditions.

  3. A Two Time-scale response of the Southern Ocean to the Ozone Hole: Regional Responses and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Pradal, M. A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing ozone on the climate of the Southern Ocean is evaluated using an ensemble of coupled climate models. By imposing a step change from 1860 to 2000 conditions we are able to estimate response functions associated with this change. Two time scales are found, an initial cooling centered in the Southwest Pacific followed by cooling in the Pacific sector and then warming in both sectors. The physical processes that drive this response are different across time periods and locations, as is the sign of the response itself. Initial cooling in the Pacific sector is not just driven by the increased winds pushing cold water northward, but also by a decrease in surface salinity reducing wintertime mixing and increased ice and clouds reflecting more shortwave radiation back to space. The decrease in salinity is primarily driven by a southward shift of precipitation associated with a shifting storm track, coupled with decreased evaporation associated with colder surface temperatures. A subsurface increase in heat associated with this reduction in mixing then upwells along the Antarctic coast, producing a subsequent warming. Similar changes in convective activity occur in the Weddell Sea but are offset in time.

  4. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  5. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  6. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  7. Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the southern North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Langereis, C.G.; Munsterman, D.; Leeuwen, R.-J. van; Verreussel, R.; Meulenkamp, J.E.; Wong, Th.E.

    2006-01-01

    Time-stratigraphic interpretations of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene sediments from onshore locations and from marginal marine settings of the North Sea Basin often refer to the subdivision of the Dutch and British 'Quaternary' regional stratigraphic stages. Since age control for these stages

  8. Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the southern North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Langereis, C.G.; Munsterman, D.; Leeuwen, R.-J. van; Verreussel, R.; Meulenkamp, J.E.; Wong, Th.E.

    Time-stratigraphic interpretations of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene sediments from onshore locations and from marginal marine settings of the North Sea Basin often refer to the subdivision of the Dutch and British ‘Quaternary’ regional stratigraphic stages. Since age control for these stages

  9. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  10. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  11. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of asbestos observed in soils developed within San Severino Lucano village (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Punturo, Rosalda; Ricchiuti, Claudia; Apollaro, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Concerns of potential health effects from disturbed natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) have resulted in environmental investigations worldwide, including Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Indeed, in this region, an increased number of lung disease were related to the environmental exposure to asbestos tremolite soils sources. On the basis of the effects of asbestos on biological systems, several authors ascribe the asbestos-fibres toxicity to the synergetic effect of fibre size, crystal habit, surface reactivity, ability to generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), biopersistence and chemical composition. The human health risks are based on the potential fibres inhalation, when they become airborne through rocks (e.g. serpentinite) weathering or human activities producing dust. In this frame, this paper reports the results of a detailed study on soils that developed on serpentinite bedrocks cropping out within the San Severino Lucano village (Basilicata region, Italy) in order to assess the presence of NOA potentially hazardous to human health (Bloise et al., 2016a). Twelve soil samples have been collected within the village and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and TEM/AEM) and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DSC, DDSC). Results pointed out as the collected soil samples contain asbestos minerals, clay minerals, diopside, quartz, and Fe-Cr oxides in various amounts. High amounts of chrysotile and asbestos tremolite were found in soils, suggesting that human activities can disturb and provoke the release of inhalable asbestos in the atmosphere, triggering thus mechanisms of hazardous exposition for population. Results also showed a high content of Fe and Cr in chrysotile in some samples, while high amount of Ni was predominantly found in asbestos

  13. Population-Level Transcriptomic Responses of the Southern Ocean Salp Salpa thompsoni to Environment Variability of the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, A. C.; Batta Lona, P. G.; Maas, A. E.; O'Neill, R. J.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the changing Antarctic climate, the Southern Ocean salp Salpa thompsoni has shown altered patterns of distribution and abundance that are anticipated to have profound impacts on pelagic food webs and ecosystem dynamics. The physiological and molecular processes that underlay ecological function and biogeographical distribution are key to understanding present-day dynamics and predicting future trajectories. This study examined transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression in relation to biological and physical oceanographic conditions in coastal, shelf and offshore waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region during austral spring and summer 2011. Based on field observations and collections, seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of salps of different life stages were associated with differences in water mass structure of the WAP. Our observations are consistent with previous suggestions that bathymetry and currents in Bransfield Strait could generate a retentive cell for an overwintering population of S. thompsoni, which may generate the characteristic salp blooms found throughout the region later in summer. The statistical analysis of transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression revealed differences among salps collected in different seasons and from different habitats (i.e., coastal versus offshore) in the WAP. Gene expression patterns also clustered by station in austral spring - but not summer - colle