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Sample records for calabria region southern

  1. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

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    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  2. The Vulnerability of People to Damaging Hydrogeological Events in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy

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    Olga Petrucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are severe weather periods during which floods, landslides, lightning, windstorms, hail or storm surges can harm people. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency/intensity of DHEs and, consequently, the potential harm to people. Method: We investigated the impacts of DHEs on people in Calabria (Italy over 37 years (1980–2016. Data on 7288 people physically affected by DHEs were gathered from the systematic analysis of regional newspapers and collected in the database named PEOPLE. The damage was codified in three severity levels as follows: fatalities (people who were killed, injured (people who suffered physical harm and involved (people who were present at the place where an accident occurred but survived and were not harmed. During the study period, we recorded 68 fatalities, 566 injured and 6654 people involved in the events. Results: Males were more frequently killed, injured and involved than females, and females who suffered fatalities were older than males who suffered fatalities, perhaps indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-aged males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, suggesting that younger people show greater promptness in reacting to dangerous situations. Floods caused the majority of the fatalities, injured and involved people, followed by landslides. Lightning was the most dangerous phenomenon, and it affected a relatively low number of people, killing 11.63% of them and causing injuries to 37.2%. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoors, largely along roads. In contrast, people indoors, essentially in public or private buildings, were more frequently involved without suffering harm. Being “dragged by water/mud” and “surrounded by water/mud”, respectively, represented the two extremes of dynamic dangerousness. The dragging

  3. Adverse drug reactions reporting in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the four-year period 2011-2014: impact of a regional pharmacovigilance project in light of the new European Legislation.

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    Leporini, Christian; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mumoli, Laura; Esposito, Stefania; Gallelli, Luca; Mangano, Giovanna; Brancati, Giacomino; De Francesco, Emanuela Adele; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2017-05-01

    The number of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) yearly submitted to the Italian Network of Pharmacovigilance (RNF) has progressively increased after the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation (July 2012). These results have mostly reflected the agreements between Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) and Italian Regions, enabling the implementation of active pharmacovigilance projects. A project was funded by the AIFA in Calabria region (Southern Italy) in 2010 to increase ADRs reporting and promote a safer medicines' use. Based on this background, we investigated the trend of ADRs in Calabria in 2011-2014, trying to analyze the possible entailments of the new law. Quantitative and descriptive analysis of ADRs submitted by Calabrian healthcare professionals and patients to the RNF database between 2011 and 2014. A sharp rise in regional reporting rate was observed over study period. Calabrian Pharmacovigilance system completely fulfilled the World Health Organization gold standard for ADR reporting rate, both in 2013 and 2014. However, heterogeneity was observed regarding reporting health facilities, healthcare professionals and patients among the study years. These findings reflect the success of the project performed in Calabria. However, this initiative should go on in the next future to obtain better and more homogeneous reporting behavior.

  4. A high-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition from the Mediterranean region: The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy)

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    Macrì, Patrizia; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations on the Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy) provide a detailed record of the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) reversal that, to our best knowledge, is the only available record of the last geomagnetic reversal for the Mediterranean on-land marine stratigraphy. The M-B transition can be pinpointed precisely, as it develops within a 3-cm-thick interval located just above a prominent tephra layer (the "Pitagora ash") where the sedimentation rates are about 27 cm/kyr. Demagnetization analyses indicate a stable palaeomagnetic behaviour throughout the section for both normal and reversed polarity directions, with demagnetization vectors aligned toward the origin of Zijderveld diagrams after the removal of a small viscous low-coercivity remanence component. In the lower part of the studied interval, some samples acquired a spurious gyromagnetic remanent magnetization (GRM) during AF demagnetization in high fields. Rock magnetic analyses confirm that magnetite is the main magnetic carrier for all measured specimens, which also have an abundant paramagnetic fraction. Only the lower part of the record, well below the M-B boundary, is characterized by a downward-increasing presence of iron sulphides (greigite). According to our chronology, which is based on a robust, cross-validated age model, the final reverse-to-normal directional change of the M-B transition occurred at ca. 786.9 ± 5 ka (error includes uncertainty in orbital tuning) and was very rapid, of the order of 100 years or less.

  5. Regional Policies For Social Housing. An experience in Regione Calabria

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    Corrado Trombetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social housing is again a dynamic sector of construction. European «cohesion» and «convergence» programs aim to promote Mediterranean housing in order to improve competitiveness, innovation and employment in under-developed regions. The whole SH planning and implementing process implies criticalities that often damage local initiatives. This study of the Calabria Case has pointed out that both public and private entrepreneurs perceive the cumbersome requirements and procedures as ‘unfriendly’ and tend to renounce the incentives. Process management information instruments together with simpler evaluation and certification systems seem to encourage suitable and flexible solutions, reliable results as well as transparency and quality of action.

  6. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  7. Grooved stone tools from Calabria region (Italy: Archaeological evidence and research perspectives

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    Felice Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 19th century the Calabria region in southern Italy has been known for an abundance of grooved stone axes and hammers used during late prehistory. These artefacts are characterized by a wide and often pronounced groove in the middle of the implement, thought to have aided securing the head to a wooden haft. Their widespread presence is known both in prehistoric archaeological literature and in the archaeological collections of various regional and extra-regional museums. At first, scholars did not relate these tools to the rich Calabrian ore deposits and to possible ancient mining activities; they were regarded simply as a variant of ground lithic industry of Neolithic tradition. However, between 1997 and 2012, about 50 tools were discovered in the prehistoric mine of Grotta della Monaca in northern Calabria where there are outcrops of copper and iron ore. This allowed us to recognize their specific mining value and to consider them as a sort of “guide fossil” for the identification of ancient mining districts. This paper presents the results of a study involving over 150 tools from the entire region, effectively demonstrating an almost perfect co-occurrence of grooved axes and hammers with areas rich in mineral resources, especially metalliferous ores.

  8. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

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    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  9. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Maurizio Polemio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  10. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

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    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  11. THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY CRISIS REVISITED. THE CASE OF THE SOUTHERN ITALIAN SILK INDUSTRY: REGGIO CALABRIA, 1547-1686

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    Antonio Calabria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the silk trade in Southern Italy through a quantitative study of exports from the dry-customs port of Reggio Calabria. It traces the experience of Reggio’s silk industry from its heyday in the sixteenth century to its collapse in the seventeenth, and it places that experience in the context of the economic decline of Southern Italy and of the literature on the crisis of the seventeenth century.

  12. Role of lichens in weathering of granodiorite in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy)

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    Scarciglia, Fabio; Saporito, Natalina; La Russa, Mauro F.; Le Pera, Emilia; Macchione, Maria; Puntillo, Domenico; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the role of five recurrent epilithic lichen species (Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold, Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Elix, D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner and Lecanora bolcana (Pollini) Poelt), which encrust granodiorite spheroidal boulders exposed in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy), in weathering of plutonic rocks in a typical mountainous Mediterranean environment. A detailed investigation was carried out on the lichen-rock interface of each species, by comparing them mutually and with lichen-free granodiorite samples. For this purpose, the lichen species were sampled together with the encrusted rock surface for detailed mineral-petrographic analyses performed in thin and ultra-thin sections. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of these sections and of bulk samples permitted us to highlight the peculiar modes of physical and chemical attacks of lichen thalli and hyphae on and into the substratum for each species. Crack systems often parallel to the outer rock surface appear often intruded by hyphae, which cause rupture of primary minerals, with detachment and progressive incorporation of their fragments into the thallus. In particular, the species L. bolcana and T. atra revealed an unexpected, partly endolithic behavior, presumably enhanced by the presence of rock fractures earlier generated by other physical breakage processes already affecting the spheroidal boulders in the Sila mountains. Dissolution features often affect primary minerals (even quartz), that may show very peculiar patterns which are suggestive of a biologically-induced control. Various phyllosilicate clay minerals were identified using SEM-EDS microprobe analyses and FT-IR spectroscopy, which also enabled the identification of possible amorphous silica (or quartz micrograins), rhizocarpic acid and carotenoid at the encrusted granodiorite interface. In contrast, neither oxalic

  13. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

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    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age,

  14. Civil protection and Damaging Hydrogeological Events: comparative analysis of the 2000 and 2015 events in Calabria (southern Italy

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    O. Petrucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calabria (southern Italy is a flood prone region, due to both its rough orography and fast hydrologic response of most watersheds. During the rainy season, intense rain affects the region, triggering floods and mass movements that cause economic damage and fatalities. This work presents a methodological approach to perform the comparative analysis of two events affecting the same area at a distance of 15 years, by collecting all the qualitative and quantitative features useful to describe both rain and damage. The aim is to understand if similar meteorological events affecting the same area can have different outcomes in terms of damage. The first event occurred between 8 and 10 September 2000, damaged 109 out of 409 municipalities of the region and killed 13 people in a campsite due to a flood. The second event, which occurred between 30 October and 1 November 2015, damaged 79 municipalities, and killed a man due to a flood. The comparative analysis highlights that, despite the exceptionality of triggering daily rain was higher in the 2015 event, the damage caused by the 2000 event to both infrastructures and belongings was higher, and it was strongly increased due to the 13 flood victims. We concluded that, in the 2015 event, the management of pre-event phases, with the issuing of meteorological alert, and the emergency management, with the preventive evacuation of people in hazardous situations due to landslides or floods, contributed to reduce the number of victims.

  15. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy)

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    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  16. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

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    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H 2 O setup to determine the 222 Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222 Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  17. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta

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    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna

    2015-04-01

    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  18. Essential oil chemical composition and antifungal effects on Sclerotium cepivorum of Thymus capitatus wild populations from Calabria, southern Italy

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    Mariateresa Russo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the qualitative and quantitative composition and its antifungal activities of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Lamiaceae, essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants collected in Calabria, Southern Italy. The essential oils of 22 samples were analysed by GC-Flame ionization detection and GC/MS. A total of sixty five compounds were identified. Phenols were present in highest percentage (average: 79,03%. Carvacrol was the main component (81,52%-78,40% in all samples, confirming that T. capitatus is a carvacrol chemotype, according to literature data for this species. This essential oil was also characterized by high level of biogenetic precursor of the phenols: p-cimene (4,98%, γ-terpinene (3,13% and by β-cariophyllene, were the most abundant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Antifungal activity against Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., a soil born fungus, was tested. At the concentration of 250 ppm there was no development of fungal mycelium. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted on Calabria wild populations of T. capitatus essential oil nor were conducted studies on parasitic fungi of specific interest for crops such as Sclerotium cepivorum.

  19. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

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    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  20. Agonum tulliae sp. n. from the Sila National Park (Calabria, southern Italy (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Platynini

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    A. Mazzei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Agonum tulliae sp. n. is described from the Sila Massif upland in Calabria, Italy. This species is similar to Agonum (Olisares sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 as far as the external morphology is concerned, but it is easy to distinguish by the colour pattern, the shape of pronotum, and at best by the morphology of male genitalia. The study includes some remarks about the habitat and ecology of the new species. It lives only in the eastern part of the Sila massif and occupies the southernmost part of the distribution area of the Agonum sexpunctatum (Linné, 1758 complex in Italy.

  1. Radioactivity in wild-growing mushrooms of the Calabria region, south of Italy

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    Caridi, F.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    Wild-growing mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff, widely consumed as a delicacy, in Italy. They are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution and the accumulation of radionuclides can pose a radiological hazard. 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma-spectrometry in different mushroom species (Agaricus arvensis, Leccinum quercinum, Boletus aereus, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota konradii, Cantharellus lutescens) collected from four different sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental values were found to be in the range from (0.3 ± 0.1) Bq/kg f.m. (fresh mass) to (73.1 ± 4.6) Bq/kg f.m. for 137Cs and from (46.9 ± 10.7) Bq/kg f.m. to (161.3 ± 12.9) Bq/kg f.m. for 40K, respectively. All values were much lower than the specific activity limit set by the international legislation at 600 Bq/kg f.m. for 137Cs and at 1,258 Bq/kg f.m. for 40K, respectively. Experimental activity concentrations allowed us to determine the effective dose due to the ingestion of mushrooms by adult members of the population. It was found in the range from 0.25 to 1.35 μSv/y, much lower than the recommended level for the public (1 mSv/y). Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk and can be further used for a radiological mapping of the studied area.

  2. Sightings and successful reproduction of allochthonous reptiles in Calabria

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    Emilio Sperone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports information about the presence of three allochthonous reptiles species in Calabria: Testudo marginata, Trachemys scripta elegans and Chamaeleo chamaeleon. The first one was found in three sites located in the Catena Costiera Massif and in the Crati Valley (Northern Calabria. The slider turtle was found in seven different sites throughout all the region. It massively colonised the Angitola artificial lake: here, this turtle lives in natural conditions and its reproduction was confirmed by the presence of nests, eggs and hatchlings. C. chamaeleon is present in sandy coastal habitats near Palmi and Gioia Tauro (Southern Calabria. From a conservationistic point of view, serious damages to autochtonous species could be caused by the spreading of T. scripta elegans: this species has already determined the local extinction of Angitola’s Emys orbicularis populations.

  3. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy: the stakeholders’ point of view

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    Paletto A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers. In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the

  4. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

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    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Several lakes on the southern Italian peninsula provide valuable palaeoenvironmental archives of the Last Glacial period. These archives include, e.g., the long high-resolution record from varved lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, the bigger one of two maar lakes situated on top of Mt. Vulture. Its pollen record indicates (1) temperate deciduous forest during MIS5.2-MIS5.1 (St. Germain 2); (2) frequent vegetation fluctuations, then Artemisia steppe during MIS5.1-MIS4; (3) alternations between open steppe (stadials) and wooded steppe (interstadials) during MIS3; and (4) open steppe during MIS2 (Last Glacial Maximum). However, only few palaeosol records of this period have been reported from southern Italy in the literature so far. Such records would allow for gaining insight also into spatial patterns of the vegetation cover during this period that should have formed, e.g., according to relief, elevation, and continentality gradient (related to the much lower coastline during the last glacial period). So far, we have studied three sediment-palaeosol successions in southern Italy, two in the Calabria region, and one in north-western Sardinia. All of them have developed in alluvial fan deposits resting on littoral sediments of the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5). The southernmost succession studied is located near Lazzaro (south of Reggio di Calabria). It is exposed in an alluvial fan overlying the MIS5.5 terrace. Due to strong tectonic uplift (1.3 m ka-1) the alluvial fan has been dissected by the same creek which previously had built it up. Therefore, its internal structure is exposed, exhibiting a detailed sediment-palaeosol sequence. The palaeosols are mainly characterized by accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), bioturbation and secondary carbonates. They represent Chernozem- and Phaeozem-like soils that most likely formed under steppe to forest steppe. SOM of the two uppermost Lazzaro palaeosols was 14C-dated to 26.8-28.8 ka cal BP and 28

  5. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, G. G. R.; Lollino, P.; Gariano, S. L.; Terranova, O. G.

    2010-11-01

    On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria). The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and frequent hand-made measurements of surface displacements were performed. Since 11 February, a basic real-time monitoring system of meteoric parameters and of surface displacements, measured by means of high-precision extensometers, was also implemented. Based on the data gained through the monitoring system, and on field surveying, a basic support system for emergency management could be defined since the first phases of activation of the phenomenon. The evolution of the landslide was monitored during the following months: as a consequence, evidence of retrogressive distribution could be recognized, with initial activation in the middle sector of the slope, where new temporary springs were observed. During early May, the activity reduced to displacements of a few millimetres per month and the geo-hydrological crisis seemed to be concluded. Afterwards, the geological scheme of the slope was refined based on the data collected through a set of explorative boreholes, equipped with inclinometers and piezometers: according to the stratigraphic and inclinometric data, the depth of the mobilized body resulted in varying between 15 and 35 m along a longitudinal section. A parametric limit equilibrium analysis was carried out to explore the stability conditions of the slope affected by the landslide as well as to quantify the role of the water table in destabilizing the slope. The interpretation of the process based on field observations was confirmed by the limit equilibrium analysis

  6. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. R. Iovine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria. The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and frequent hand-made measurements of surface displacements were performed. Since 11 February, a basic real-time monitoring system of meteoric parameters and of surface displacements, measured by means of high-precision extensometers, was also implemented.

    Based on the data gained through the monitoring system, and on field surveying, a basic support system for emergency management could be defined since the first phases of activation of the phenomenon. The evolution of the landslide was monitored during the following months: as a consequence, evidence of retrogressive distribution could be recognized, with initial activation in the middle sector of the slope, where new temporary springs were observed. During early May, the activity reduced to displacements of a few millimetres per month and the geo-hydrological crisis seemed to be concluded.

    Afterwards, the geological scheme of the slope was refined based on the data collected through a set of explorative boreholes, equipped with inclinometers and piezometers: according to the stratigraphic and inclinometric data, the depth of the mobilized body resulted in varying between 15 and 35 m along a longitudinal section. A parametric limit equilibrium analysis was carried out to explore the stability conditions of the slope affected by the landslide as well as to quantify the role of the water table in destabilizing the slope. The interpretation of the process based on field observations was confirmed

  7. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  8. First compositional evidences on the local production of Dressel 2-4 amphorae in Calabria (Southern Italy): characterization and mixing simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriello, D.; Bloise, A.; De Luca, R.; Apollaro, C.; Crisci, G. M.; Medaglia, S.; Taliano Grasso, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dressel 2-4 amphorae are a type of pottery, which was used to transport wine and produced in the Mediterranean area between the first century BC and the second century AD. This study shows, for the first time, that their production also occurred in Ionian Calabria. These results were achieved by studying 11 samples of archaeological pottery (five samples of Dressel 2-4 and six samples of other ceramic types) taken from Cariati (Calabria—Southern Italy). The composition of the pottery was compared with that of the local raw materials (clays and sands) potentially usable for their production. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy and analysed by XRF, XRPD and Raman spectroscopy. An innovative approach, based on Microsoft Excel optimizer "Solver" add-in on geochemical data, was used to define the provenance of archaeological pottery and to calculate the mixtures of local clay and sand needed for the production of the pottery itself.

  9. Damaging Hydrogeological Events: A Procedure for the Assessment of Severity Levels and an Application to Calabria (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A damaging hydrogeological event (DHE is characterized by two components: a rainfall event and a subsequent damage event, which is the result of floods and landslides triggered by rainfall. The characteristics of both events depend on climatic, geomorphological and anthropogenic factors. In this paper, a methodology to classify the severity of DHEs is presented. A chart which considers indicators of both the damage (Dscore and the daily rainfall (Rscore values recorded in the study area is proposed. According to the chart, the events are classified into four types: ordinary events, with low Dscore and Rscore values; extraordinary events, with high Rscore values but low Dscore values; catastrophic events, characterized by non-exceptional rainfall (low Rscore and severe damage (high Dscore; major catastrophic events, obtained by both high Dscore and Rscore values. Using this approach, the 2013 DHE that occurred in Calabria (Italy was classified as an ordinary event, when compared to the previous ones, even though the widespread diffusion of damage data induced the perception of high severity damage. The rainfall that triggered this event confirms the negative trend of heavy daily precipitation detected in Calabria, and the damage can be ascribed more to sub-daily than daily rainfall affecting urbanized flood-prone areas.

  10. NEW BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC DATA ON THE FRAZZANO' FORMATION (LONGI-TAORMINA UNIT: CONSEQUENCES ON DEFINING THE DEFORMATION AGE OF THE CALABRIA-PELORITANI ARC SOUTHERN SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLA DE CAPOA

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available New biostratigraphic data on the Frazzanò Flysch Formation are presented. This unit is the topmost formation of the stratigraphic succession characterizing the Longi-Taormina Unit, which in turn represents the lowest tectonic unit of the Peloritani Mountains and the only unit in the entire southern sector of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc in which cenozoic terrains have been recognized. The age of the Frazzanò Fm., which as yet has not been well defined, is essential to ascertain the time period during which the tectogenetic phase responsible for the stacking (superposition of the nappes in the Peloritani Mountains occurred . Coltro (1967 reported foraminiferal assemblages of Late Eocene age, but subsequently ages ranging between the Middle Eocene and the Oligocene have been pro posed, none of them supported by new biostratigraphic data. The identification of some coccolithid taxa which appear in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene allowed us to attribute an age not older than Upper Oligocene to the levels that mark the transition between the Frazzanò Fm.and the underlying Militello Formation, and an age not older than Early Aquitanian to the most recent beds of the Frazzanò Formation. Therefore, the tectogenetic phase responsible for the superposition of the nappes in the Peloritani Mountains, very likely started during the Aquitanian. While these data agree with the evolution of homologous units recognised in the Betic and Rifian sectors, they challenge the Late Oligocene age ascribed to the basal levels of the Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation, which lies unconformably over all the tectonic units of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc and pro vides a chronological upper limit to their overthrusting.    

  11. Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation.

  12. The Valle di Manche section (Calabria, Southern Italy): A high resolution record of the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (MIS 21-MIS 19) in the Central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia; Scarponi, Daniele; Tateo, Fabio; Fornaciari, Eliana; Bellini, Giulia; Dalan, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The on-land marine Valle di Manche section (Crotone Basin, Calabria, Southern Italy), one of the candidates to host the GSSP of the Middle Pleistocene (;Ionian;) Stage, preserves a manifold record of independent chronological, paleoclimatic and stratigraphic proxies that permit a straightforward correlation with marine and terrestrial reference records at the global scale. In particular, the section holds an excellent record of the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal, which occurs in the midst of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19. We report on a complete revision of the section that improves dramatically the available dataset, especially in the stratigraphic interval straddling the Lower-Middle Pleistocene boundary. Our benthic δ18O record provides evidence that the Matuyama-Brunhes transition, the stratigraphic position of which is marked by a prominent tephra (the ;Pitagora ash;), occurred during full MIS 19, in agreement with many records worldwide. We obtained an age of 786.9 ± 5 ka for the Matuyama-Brunhes magnetic reversal and pinpointed the paleomagnetic transition of to a 3 cm-thick interval, indicating that the event was very fast. Since the section fulfills all the requirements to host the GSSP of the Ionian Stage, we propose that the boundary should be placed at the base of the ;Pitagora ash;, ca. 12.5 cm below the midpoint of the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal.

  13. Geoethics and perception of seismic risk: the case of Pollino, Calabria, Southern Italy and the comparison with past societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This work is a synthesis of research on the perception of seismic risk in the area of the Pollino, where it is been two years that an ongoing earthquake swarm is affecting the area between Calabria and Basilicata. Mr Downs has distinguished three different aspects in the perception of the environment: structural, preference and evaluation. Within this third aspect, the perception of seismic risk is an important dimension for the schedule. Starting from the territory, understood as the result of reciprocal interactions between humans and the physical space during the later stages of territorialization and reterritorialization, Geoethics can find a synthesis between humanistic and scientific knowledge in relating to the theme of disasters. The risk must be considered in its territorial nature, as a complex phenomenon which involves all aspects of the relations between man and environment. Assuming that the rupture of the dynamic equilibrium among population, environment and resources is the increasingly frequent causes of the outbreak of disasters in the academic increasing attention has been paid to the concept of resilience, for its potential to evaluate a system in a state of equilibrium and adaptation in response to a shock. Thus, the meaning adopted in the social sciences, not only in terms of natural disasters, but more generally for any change to the territory, refers to the ability to resist and recover their losses. Therefore, Geoethics can certainly help especially in educating the territory in terms of integrated risk management to become a tool that can enhance the resilience. In education-teaching, the concept of resilience is used especially for what concerns the sphere of the child's skills in effectively managing stress and difficulties of everyday life. In this context of risk, improve communications, awareness of the complexity of risk and the level of preparation would increase the resilience of the territory and to allow a more effective

  14. Forecasting the timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides. An application of GA-SAKe to the Acri case study (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Terranova, Oreste; Greco, Roberto; Iaquinta, Pasquale; Iovine, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    In Calabria (Southern Italy), rainfall-induced landslides often cause significant economic loss and victims. The timing of activation of rainfall-induced landslides can be predicted by means of either empirical ("hydrological") or physically-based ("complete") approaches. In this study, by adopting the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel), the relationships between the rainfall series and the dates of historical activations of the Acri slope movement, a large rock slide located in the Sila Massif (Northern Calabria), have been investigated. SAKe is a self-adaptive hydrological model, based on a black-box approach and on the assumption of a linear and steady slope-stability response to rainfall. The model can be employed to predict the timing of occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides. With the model, either the mobilizations of a single phenomenon, or those of a homogeneous set of landslides in a given study area can be analysed. By properly tuning the model parameters against past occurrences, the mobility function and the threshold value can be identified. The ranges of the parameters depend on the characteristics of the slope and of the considered landslide, besides hydrological characteristics of the triggering events. SAKe requires as input: i) the series of rains, and ii) the set of known dates of landslide activation. The output of the model is represented by the mobilization function, Z(t): it is defined by means of the convolution between the rains and a filter function (i.e. the Kernel). The triggering conditions occur when the value of Z(t) gets greater than a given threshold, Zcr. In particular, the specific release of the model here employed (GA-SAKe) employs an automated tool, based on elitist Genetic Algorithms. As a result, a family of optimal, discretized kernels has been obtained from initial standard analytical functions. Such kernels maximize the fitness function of the model: they have been

  15. Adjustments in channel morphology due to land-use changes and check dam installation in mountain torrents of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortugno, Diego; Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Bombino, Giuseppe; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Quinonero Rubio, Juan Manuel; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean semi-arid conditions the geomorphic effects of land-use changes and check dam installation on active channel headwater morphology are not completely understood. In such environments, the availability of specific studies, which monitor channel adjustments as a response to reforestation and check dams over representative observation periods, could help develop new management strategies and erosion control measures. This investigation is an integrated approach assessing the adjustments of channel morphology in a typical torrent (Sant'Agata, Calabria, Southern Italy) after land-use changes (e.g. fire, reforestation, land abandonment) and check dam construction across a period of about 60 years (1955-2012). A statistical analysis of historical rainfall records, an analysis of land-use change in the catchment area and a geomorphological mapping of channel adjustments were carried out and combined with field surveys of bed surface grain-size over a 5-km reach including 14 check dams. The analysis of the historical rainfall records showed a slight decrease in the amount and erosivity of precipitation. Mapping of land-use changes highlighted a general increase of vegetal coverage on the slopes adjacent to the monitored reaches. Together with the check dam network installation, this increase could have induced a reduction in water and sediment supply. The different erosional and depositional forms and adjustments showed a general narrowing between consecutive check dams together with local modifications detected upstream (bed aggradation and cross section expansion together with low-flow realignments) and downstream (local incision) of the installed check dams. Changes in the torrent bends were also detected as a response to erosional and depositional processes with different intensities. The study highlighted: (i) the efficiency of check dams against the disrupting power of the most intense floods by stabilising the active channel; and (ii) the influence of

  16. Weathering profiles in granitoid rocks of the Sila Massif uplands, Calabria, southern Italy: New insights into their formation processes and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Critelli, Salvatore; Borrelli, Luigi; Coniglio, Sabrina; Muto, Francesco; Perri, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we characterized several weathering profiles developed on granitoid rocks in the Sila Massif upland (Calabria, southern Italy), integrating detailed macro- and micromorphological observations with physico-mechanical field tests and petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analyses. We focused our attention on the main weathering and pedogenetic processes, trying to understand apparent discrepancies between weathering grade classes based on field description and geomechanical properties, and two common weathering indices, such as the micropetrographic index (Ip) and the chemical index of alteration (CIA). Our results showed that sericite on plagioclase and biotite chloritization, that represent inherited features formed during late-stage hydrothermal alteration of granitoid rocks, may cause an overestimation of the real degree of weathering of primary mineral grains under meteoric conditions, especially in lower weathering grade classes. Moreover, the frequent identification of Fe-Mn oxides and clay coatings of illuvial origin (rather than or in addition to those formed in situ), both at the macro- and microscale, may also explain an overestimation of the weathering degree with respect to field-based classifications. Finally, some apparent inconsistencies between field geomechanical responses and chemical weathering were interpreted as related to physical weathering processes (cryoclastism and thermoclastism), that lead to rock breakdown even when chemical weathering is not well developed. Hence, our study showed that particular caution is needed for evaluating weathering grades, because traditional field and geochemical-petrographic tools may be biased by inherited hydrothermal alteration, physical weathering and illuvial processes. On the basis of chronological constraints to soil formation obtained from a 42 ka-old volcanic input (mixed to granite parent materials) detected in the soil cover of the Sila Massif upland, a first attempt to estimate

  17. Marine ostracod turnover tracks orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition: the case study of the Valle di Manche section (Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Veronica; Scarponi, Daniele; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Ostracods, small crustaceans living in almost every aquatic depositional setting, are widely used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to their well-known ecological sensitivity. A close connection between the composition of ostracod fauna and the Milankovitch climate-eustatic variability has been documented in several Plio-Pleistocene marine sections of the Central Mediterranean area. The Valle di Manche section (VdM; Calabria, southern Italy), one of the suitable candidates to host the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ionian Stage-Middle Pleistocene, represents an ideal venue where to investigate ostracod turnover in relation to orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes, being firmly constrained in time and well documented by a number of independent climatic proxy. A high-resolution, quantitative analysis of the ostracod fauna has been undertaken on the middle part of the VdM, ca. 30 m-thick and showing two T-R cycles developed at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition (late MIS 21 to early MIS 18). Within each cycle, a relatively thin, fining-upward transgressive muddy unit is overlain by gradually coarsening upward and more expanded regressive silty to sand packages. A total of 40 samples have been selected to characterise the whole spectrum of lithofacies and detect high-frequency palaeoenvironmental variations especially within homogeneous clayey stratigraphic intervals. Taxa typical of circalittoral (>70/100 m) depths (e.g., Bosquetina dentata, Cytherella vulgatella, Cytheropteron monoceros, Pterygocythereis ceratoptera and Krithe species), commonly accompanied by the lower circalittoral-bathyal species Henryhowella sarsii, occur within the fine-grained units developed during the full interglacials of MIS 21 and MIS 19. Furthermore, ostracod assemblages document that the oxygen availability at the sea floor changed during MIS 19. In contrast, a less-diversified ostracod fauna dominated by Aurila convexa, a species preferring

  18. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  19. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  20. Mesozoic architecture of a tract of the European-Iberian continental margin: Insights from preserved submarine palaeotopography in the Longobucco Basin (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santantonio, Massimo; Fabbi, Simone; Aldega, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary successions exposed in northeast Calabria document the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous tectonic-sedimentary evolution of a former segment of the European-Iberian continental margin. They are juxtaposed today to units representing the deformation of the African and Adriatic plates margins as a product of Apenninic crustal shortening. A complex pattern of unconformities reveals a multi-stage tectonic evolution during the Early Jurassic, which affected the facies and geometries of siliciclastic and carbonate successions deposited in syn- and post-rift environments ranging from fluvial to deep marine. Late Sinemurian/Early Pliensbachian normal faulting resulted in exposure of the Hercynian basement at the sea-floor, which was onlapped by marine basin-fill units. Shallow-water carbonate aprons and reefs developed in response to the production of new accommodation space, fringing the newborn islands which represent structural highs made of Paleozoic crystalline and metamorphic rock. Their drowning and fragmentation in the Toarcian led to the development of thin caps of Rosso Ammonitico facies. Coeval to these deposits, a thick (> 1 km) hemipelagic/siliciclastic succession was sedimented in neighboring hanging wall basins, which would ultimately merge with the structural high successions. Footwall blocks of the Early Jurassic rift, made of Paleozoic basement and basin-margin border faults with their onlapping basin-fill formations, are found today at the hanging wall of Miocene thrusts, overlying younger (Middle/Late Jurassic to Late Paleogene) folded basinal sediments. This paper makes use of selected case examples to describe the richly diverse set of features, ranging from paleontology to sedimentology, to structural geology, which are associated with the field identification of basin-margin unconformities. Our data provide key constraints for restoring the pre-orogenic architecture of a continental margin facing a branch of the Liguria-Piedmont ocean in the

  1. Results from CAT/SCAN, the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Accretion-Collision Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Amato, A.; Guerra, I.; Armbruster, J.; Baccheschi, P.; Diluccio, F.; Gervasi, A.; Harabaglia, P.; Kim, W.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Margheriti, L.; Seeber, L.; Tolstoy, M.; Wilson, C. K.

    2005-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc region is the final remnant of a Western Mediterranean microplate driven by rollback. Calabria itself is an exotic block that rifted off Sardinia and opened the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin in its wake. The Calabrian Arc rapidly advanced to the southeast, with subduction ahead and extension behind, following subduction rollback of the Mesozoic seafloor. The subduction zone meanwhile collided progressively with the Apulia to form the Apennines in peninsular Italy and with the Africa to form the Maghrebides in Sicily. The Calabrian Arc is where the transition from subduction to continental collision is occurring. The collisions on either side of Calabria have restricted oceanic subduction to a narrow 200-km salient with well-defined edges and seismicity that extends to over 500 km depth. The collisions have also slowed, or possibly even halted, the rapid advance of the arc. Whether rollback of the oceanic lower plate of the Ionian Sea continues and whether the upper plate of Calabria continues to move as an independent plate are both uncertain. The Calabrian-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction-Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) is a passive experiment to study of the Calabrian Arc and the transition to the southern Apennines. The land deployment consisted of three phases. The initial phase included an array of 39 broadband seismometers onshore, deployed in the winter of 2003/4. In September 2004, the array was reduced to 28 broadband and 8 short-period instruments. In April 2005, the array was reduced once again to 20 broadband and 2 short-period instruments. The field deployment was completed in October 2005. Offshore, 12 broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were deployed in the beginning of October 2004. Data from 4 OBSs have been recovered so far with deployment durations from a few weeks to almost one year. Fishing activity has been strongly implicated in the early recoveries, (with one instrument returned by fishermen), and is suspected

  2. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  3. The presence of depression in women who are victims of violence. The experiences of Anti Violence centers in the region of Calabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-11-01

    As is clear from research accredited by the ONU, the violence suffered by the partner, husband or other family members is the leading cause of death and disability for women aged 15 to 44 years. The WHO has also shown that at least one in five women suffers a beating or any form of violence in herl lifetime. Gender-based violence is undoubtedly a widespread phenomenon on a worldwide scale regardless of ethnicity, religion, social class,or level of education. It is a traumatic experience that produces different effects depending on the type of violence and the person who is the victim. There is a close relationship of cause and effect between violence and health status of women. They are in fact relevant primary effects related to the consequences of direct physical violence on the body and the side effects associated with mental and physical damage to repetitive exposure and situations of traumatic impact. The health consequences can be of different nature,rainging from Physical, Psychological and Behavioral, Sexual and Reproductive, to Death. The first important Psychological consequences are Depressive Disorder and Anxiety. The objective of this study was to analyze, through the administration of diagnostic tests, the methods of the links of the subjects on the one hand, attachment and relationships on the other; grouped in practice to detect if there is a close relationship between a Depressive Disorder and Violence suffered. 20 women aged between 23 and 50 years who have experienced various forms of violence, were randomly selected and followed by the three anti-violence centers of Calabria. The Separation Anxiety Depressive trait that explains the current Depression is not the result of the violence, but it is due to lack of self-confidence, difficulty im being identified and ability to plan for their lives. These difficulties are established in the woman through an enmeshed relationship with her partner, in fact, what has emerged is the establishment of an

  4. 77 FR 15994 - Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Southern Region Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting via teleconference. SUMMARY: The Southern Region... and requests to Southern Region Recreation RAC, Caroline Mitchell, P.O. Box 1270, Hot Springs, AR...

  5. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  6. Monitoring of Small Hive Beetle (Aethina Tumida Murray in Calabria (Italy from 2014 to 2016: Practical Identification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gomis Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Small Hive Beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida, is an invasive pest of honey bee colonies that causes significant damage to the beekeeping sector. SHB was detected in southern Italy (EU in 2014 and despite adopted eradication measures, is still present there. After three years of observations of SHB in Calabria (2014-2016, we provide here some practical tips for improving control measures. A new time-saving colony examination method, including the use of an internal divider reduced the time needed for hive inspections by 31.86 % on average. Prioritizating the inspection of pollen and honey combs rather than brood combs is advised. Sentinel apiaries with no more than five colonies without supers are suggested for each beekeeping location in order to attract and to monitor the early appearance of SHB. The use of these methods will enable early detection and prompt control measures application before this destructive pest can spread in the region.

  7. Pharmacovigilance and drug safety 2011 in Calabria (Italy: Adverse events analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scicchitano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pharmacovigilance assesses the safety profile of drugs. Its main aim is the increase of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Italian Drug Agency (AIFA; Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco is financing several projects to the aim of increasing reporting, and in Calabria a Pharmacovigilance Information Centre has been created. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the AIFA database relatively to Calabria in the year 2011 and we have analyzed ADRs using descriptive statistics. We have also collected a questionnaire-based interview in order to describe the background knowledge in the field. Results : Regarding the number of AIFA reported ADRs from Calabria, a 38% increase (138 vs. 100 in comparison to 2010 was evidenced. Hospital Doctors represent the main source of signaling (71.7 %. Ketoprofene and the combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represent the most frequently reported drugs causing ADRs. Our questionnaires indicated that despite the health professionals have met at least once an ADR only a small percentage of them was reported to the authorities (37%. There is a very good knowledge of the ADR concept and reporting system (90% of interviewed distinguish an ADR and knows how to report it, and there is a strong interest in participating to training courses in the field (95% are interested. Conclusions : Despite Calabria has had a positive increase in the number of reported ADRs, the total number is very low and the pharmacovigilance culture is far from being achieved in this region.

  8. Pharmacovigilance and drug safety 2011 in Calabria (Italy): Adverse events analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Francesca; Giofrè, Chiara; Palleria, Caterina; Mazzitello, Carmela; Ciriaco, Miriam; Gallelli, Luca; Paletta, Laura; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; De Fazio, Salvatore; Menniti, Michele; Curia, Rubens; Arena, Concetta; Chimirri, Serafina; Patanè, Marinella; Esposito, Stefania; Cilurzo, Felisa; Staltari, Orietta; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2012-09-01

    Pharmacovigilance assesses the safety profile of drugs. Its main aim is the increase of spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The Italian Drug Agency (AIFA; Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco) is financing several projects to the aim of increasing reporting, and in Calabria a Pharmacovigilance Information Centre has been created. We analyzed the AIFA database relatively to Calabria in the year 2011 and we have analyzed ADRs using descriptive statistics. We have also collected a questionnaire-based interview in order to describe the background knowledge in the field. Regarding the number of AIFA reported ADRs from Calabria, a 38% increase (138 vs. 100) in comparison to 2010 was evidenced. Hospital Doctors represent the main source of signaling (71.7 %). Ketoprofene and the combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid represent the most frequently reported drugs causing ADRs. Our questionnaires indicated that despite the health professionals have met at least once an ADR only a small percentage of them was reported to the authorities (37%). There is a very good knowledge of the ADR concept and reporting system (90% of interviewed distinguish an ADR and knows how to report it), and there is a strong interest in participating to training courses in the field (95% are interested). Despite Calabria has had a positive increase in the number of reported ADRs, the total number is very low and the pharmacovigilance culture is far from being achieved in this region.

  9. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul T. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  10. PROSPECTS OF REGIONAL NETWORK STRUCTURES IN THE SOUTHERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the possibility of the Southern Federal District to form regional network structures. The prospects for the formation of networks in the region in relation to the Olympic Winter Games Sochi 2014.

  11. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  12. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  13. Insights on the seismotectonics of the western part of northern Calabria (southern Italy) by integrated geological and geophysical data: Coexistence of shallow extensional and deep strike-slip kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, L.; Milano, G.; Pierro, M.

    2017-11-01

    We assess the seismotectonics of the western part of the border area between the Southern Apennines and Calabrian Arc, centered on the Mercure extensional basin, by integrating recent seismicity with a reconstruction of the structural frame from surface to deep crust. The analysis of low-magnitude (ML ≤ 3.5) events occurred in the area during 2013-2017, when evaluated in the context of the structural model, has revealed an unexpected complexity of seismotectonics processes. Hypocentral distribution and kinematics allow separating these events into three groups. Focal mechanisms of the shallower (kinematics. These results are consistent with the last kinematic event recorded on outcropping faults, and with the typical depth and kinematics of normal faulting earthquakes in the axial part of southern Italy. By contrast, intermediate ( 9-17 km) and deep ( 17-23 km) events have fault plane solutions characterized by strike- to reverse-oblique slip, but they differ from each other in the orientation of the principal axes. The intermediate events have P axes with a NE-SW trend, which is at odds with the NW-SE trend recorded by strike-slip earthquakes affecting the Apulia foreland plate in the eastern part of southern Italy. The intermediate events are interpreted to reflect reactivation of faults in the Apulia unit involved in thrust uplift, and appears aligned along an WNW-ESE trending deep crustal, possibly lithospheric boundary. Instead, deep events beneath the basin, which have P-axis with a NW-SE trend, hint to the activity of a deep overthrust of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin crust over the continental crust of the Apulia margin, or alternatively, to a tear fault in the underthrust Apulia plate. Results of this work suggest that extensional faulting, as believed so far, does not solely characterizes the seismotectonics of the axial part of the Southern Apennines.

  14. U Tingiutu. Ajax in Calabria. Political Fissures in the Theatre of Scena Verticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Albanese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The curse of Calabria is collusion. Collusion between the law of the state and the hidden law, between the power of public institutions and mafia power, between upright citizens and "la mala carne", the "evil flesh" of the criminal underworld. Director, actor and playwright Dario De Luca, guiding spirit with Saverio La Ruina of the Scena Verticale theatre company, shines a light on the criminal state within the state in his new play, U Tingiutu. Ajax in Calabria, in which he also performs along with four other actors. De Luca has transformed Sophocles's tragedy to illuminate the daily tragedy of gang warfare, street killings, and blood spilled in the name of honor, in the face of the cowardly inertia of those who pretend not to see. De Luca's Calabria is beseiged by 'ndrangheta power and drained by an ineffectual, often complicit political sector, its social fabric muddied and torn. The dynamics by which mafia violence insinuates itself into the shadowy corners of politics to seize control of the law are acutely revealed in the shadow zones of language, in the harsh, archaic dialect of the region, full of allusion, meaningful silence and glances.

  15. Pharmacovigilance and drug safety in Calabria (Italy): 2012 adverse events analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giofrè, Chiara; Scicchitano, Francesca; Palleria, Caterina; Mazzitello, Carmela; Ciriaco, Miriam; Gallelli, Luca; Paletta, Laura; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Leporini, Christian; Ventrice, Pasquale; Carbone, Claudia; Saullo, Francesca; Rende, Pierandrea; Menniti, Michele; Mumoli, Laura; Chimirri, Serafina; Patanè, Marinella; Esposito, Stefania; Cilurzo, Felisa; Staltari, Orietta; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is designed to monitor drugs continuously after their commercialization, assessing and improving their safety profile. The main objective is to increase the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), in order to have a wide variety of information. The Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco [AIFA]) is financing several projects to increase reporting. In Calabria, a PV information center has been created in 2010. We obtained data using the database of the National Health Information System AIFA relatively to Italy and Calabria in the year 2012. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the ADRs. A total number of 461 ADRs have been reported in the year 2012 with an increase of 234% compared with 2011 (138 reports). Hospital doctors are the main source of this reporting (51.62%). Sorafenib (Nexavar(®)), the combination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ketoprofen represent the drugs most frequently reported causing adverse reactions. Adverse events in female patients (61.83%) were more frequently reported, whereas the age groups "41-65" (39.07%) and "over 65" (27.9%) were the most affected. Calabria has had a positive increase in the number of ADRs reported, although it has not yet reached the gold standard set by World Health Organization (about 600 reports), the data have shown that PV culture is making inroads in this region and that PV projects stimulating and increasing PV knowledge are needed.

  16. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: The Bright Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, Christopher H.; Balser, Dana; Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas; Dawson, Joanne; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Shea, Jeanine

    2018-01-01

    HII regions, the zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass stars, are the archetypical tracers of Galactic structure. The census of Galactic HII regions in the Southern sky is vastly incomplete due to a lack of sensitive radio recombination line (RRL) surveys. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS) is a 900-hour Australia Telescope Compact Array cm-wavelength RRL and continuum emission survey of hundreds of third and fourth quadrant Galactic HII region candidates. These candidates are identified in the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Catalog of Galactic HII Regions based on coincident 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (Southern Galactic Plane Survey) emission. The SHRDS is an extension of HII Region Discovery Surveys in the Northern sky with the Green Bank Telescope and Arecibo Telescope which discovered ~800 new HII regions. In the first 500 hours of the SHRDS, we targeted the 249 brightest HII region candidates and 33 previously known HII regions. We discuss the data reduction, analysis, and preliminary results from this first stage of the survey.

  17. Environmental recovery of the Scoglio of S. Maria in Tropea (Southern Italy). A case of geologic and preservation normative in environmental wealth; Aspetti geologici e normativi del recupero conservativo dei beni ambientali culturali. Lo scoglio di Santa Maria dell'Isola di Tropea (Calabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ietto, F. [Arcavacata Universita' della Calabria, Arcavacata, CS (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    , imposing some rapid intervention and effective consolidation. Therefore the plan becomes an element of forecast that requires of substantial technical progressive adjustments, which are prevented and anyway not admitted from the present normative. Therefore is suggested a modification of the Law that currently is checking and governing all the jobs of consolidation and recovery of the environmental wealth. The preservation and recovery of environmental wealth constitute, behind any doubt, a culture of management of the natural capital to transmit to the future generations. In this respects, environmental and architectural wealth, having no economic value, and being thus wealth of public property, are most easily subject to the risk of deterioration. The preservation of environmental wealth (both natural and man-made) together with their aesthetic value, is linked to the preservation of the fundamental resources of a territory, such as water, the agricultural soil, the ore materials, etc. The economy and the economical development of many countries in the World, for example Egypt and Israel, but also Italy, and southern Italy (notably Calabria) in particular depend upon the correct use of this cultural and environmental wealth. For this reason there is nowadays in Italy a critical re-evaluation of the criteria to manage the preservation and recovery of environmental wealth. However, it must be stressed here that for a correct management of the environment, the technical aspects must be adequately substained by appropriate laws and rules. [Italian] I beni ambientali, intesi come ricchezze paesaggistiche, architettoniche e insediamenti urbani, costituiscono in Italia un patrimonio d'ordine superiore; spesso in tali condizioni di degrado da non garantire la sua persistenza nel tempo. Degrado strutturale, cattivo uso antropico, terremoti ed erosione si sommano ad una consolidata mancanza di attenzione sociale e, quindi, di manutenzione e salvaguardia; eccetto che in

  18. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  19. Southern California Regional Technology Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, Rosibel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Jacobs School of Engineering; Rasochova, Lada [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Rady School of Management

    2014-09-30

    UC San Diego and San Diego State University are partnering to address these deficiencies in the renewable energy space in the greater San Diego region, accelerating the movement of clean energy innovation from the university laboratory into the marketplace, building on the proven model of the William J. von Liebig Center’s (vLC’s) Proof of Concept (POC) program and virtualizing the effort to enable a more inclusive environment for energy innovation and expansion of the number of clean energy start-ups and/or technology licenses in greater California.

  20. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., 'Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria', edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., 'Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno' (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper

  1. Thermally forced mesoscale atmospheric flow over complex terrain in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, M.; Colacino, M.; Dalu, G. A.; Piervitali, E.; Ye, Z. [CNR, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dell`Atmosfera

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the Authors discuss some results concerning the analysis of the local atmospheric flow over the southern part of Italy, the peninsula of Calabria, using a mesoscale numerical model. Our study is focused on two different but related topics: a detailed analysis of the meteorology and climate of the region based on a data collection, reported in Colacino et al., `Elementi di Climatologia della Calabria`, edited by A. Guerrini, in the series P. S., `Clima, Ambiente e Territorio nel Mezzogiorno` (CNR, Rome) 1997, pp. 218, and an analysis of the results based on the simulated flow produced using a mesoscale numerical model. The Colorado State University mesoscale numerical model has been applied to study several different climatic situations of particular interest for the region, as discussed in this paper.

  2. Regional Geography Is Dead: Long Live Regional Geography! With an Example from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1979-01-01

    Recounts criticisms of regional geography and points out three reasons for retaining it: growth of regional science, area studies, and regional planning. Evaluates Southern Italy as an example of the uses of regional analyses. For journal availability, see SO 507 291. (Author/CK)

  3. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  4. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  5. Oceans around Southern Africa and regional effects of global change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lutjeharms, JRE

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, a great deal of work has been carried out on the nature of the oceanic circulation around southern Africa. Attempts have been made to determine regional ocean-atmosphere interactions and the effect of changing sea...

  6. Between Community Spaces: Squares of Minor Centers of Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of open “community spaces” in recent years has to the development of important interdisci­plinary issues. Nevertheless, the reading of smaller towns, in urbanistic, historical-anthropological and geographical terms appears less extended, considering the declination of public spaces as "squares." Starting from this declension we would like to introduce the first results of a research. The research had the aim of (reinterpreting the particular characteristics of these areas in specific areas such as small towns, using the region of Calabria for the case of analytic application. These communities have diverse and stratified living cultures, altered by settlement processes that have triggered two different types of urban contexts. The former often lead either to urban areas in depopulated decay or, in contrast, in places of memories: empty containers of relationships, sterile and crystallized museum objects, reduced to scenarios on which passing groups of visitors move necessarily from those realities. The latter often encircle primitive nuclei, asphyxiating them, or characterizing the so-called "dual" or "satellites" towns, completely detached from the original urban center in which all public functions are decentralized. The applied methodology is based on the reading of the historical-functional evolution of squares by the identification of codified compositional criteria. Through this research we seek to verify how urban planning, in synergy with other disciplines, can define processes of regeneration aimed at restoring the meaning of "center", and thus of an urban-community reference center.

  7. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  8. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  9. CO J=2-1 observations toward southern HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Ruf, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Zimmermann, P.; Emerson, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A spectral line receiver system developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie in Bonn was installed on the ESO 3.6-m and 1-m telescopes in July 1981. The cooled mixer front end gave DSB receiver temperatures of 260-600 K at 230 GHz. The spectrometer was a 256 x 1 MHz filterbank. The authors have observed the CO 2-1 transition towards 42 positions corresponding to the brightest southern HII regions. (Auth.)

  10. OPEN SOURCE ARCHITECTURE PER LA CITTÀ METROPOLITANA DI REGGIO CALABRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Quarto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the role of the new Open Source technologies to encourage participation in the processes of incorporation of metropolitan cities established by the Italian legal system by Law 56 of 7 April 2014. Highlighted how technological innovation can provide useful tools to fill the competitive gap resulting from the physical conformation of the territory and from the delays in infrastructure of the future metropolitan city of Reggio Calabria. And is finally presented the experimental project of neighborhood of Archi CEP in Reggio Calabria.

  11. 77 FR 74454 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish notice of decisions... newspapers listed in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice. The Southern Region consists of...

  12. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jeanine; Wenger, Trey; Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; Bania, Thomas M.; Dawson, Joanne; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.

    2017-01-01

    HII regions are some of the brightest sources at radio frequencies in the Milky Way and are the sites of massive O and B-type star formation. They have relatively short (Bank Telescope. Candidate HII regions were selected from mid-infrared emission coincident with radio continuum emission, and confirmed as HII regions by the detection of radio recombination lines. Here we discuss the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), a continuation of the HRDS using the Australia Telescope Compact Array over the Galactic longitude range 230 to 360 degrees. We have reduced and analyzed a small sub-set of the SHRDS sources and discuss preliminary results, including kinematic distances and metallicities.

  13. Canine and Human Dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kartashev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region (Southern Russia are presented. Prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in 795 autochthonous dogs, assessed by the Knott test, was 20.25%. The highest prevalence was found in Novocherkassk (38.3% and Rostov-on-Don (18.5%, while prevalences were lower in other points of the region. Prevalence of D. repens was 44.7%, prevalence of D. immitis was 30.3%, and coinfections were observed in 25.0% of the dog population. A case finding study carried out during 9 years (2000–2009 revealed 131 cases of human dirofilariosis in the Rostov Region, 129 of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and 2 of pulmonary dirofilariosis. Seroprevalence among 317 healthy blood donors from the Rostov Region was 10.4%, while seroprevalence in policemen living in Rostov city and working in training dogs was 19%. These data show high infection rates of Dirofilaria spp. in both human and dog populations of Rostov, probably because of the existence of favorable conditions for the transmission in this region.

  14. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  15. Pliocene Warm Period Upwelling in the Southern Benguela Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.; Rosell Mele, A.; Rueda, G.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene has been proposed as a possible analogue for understanding future climate change and testing climate models. Previous work has shown that during the Pliocene the major upwelling systems were relatively warm, and thus either inactive, contracted, or upwelling warmer waters than present. Here we examine evidence from a core site located on the margins of the modern Benguela upwelling system, to test whether the upwelling cells had migrated or contracted relative to present during the Pliocene. We applied several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP site 1087 (31º28'S, 15º19'E, 1374m water depth), including the UK37' index and TEX86 index (for reconstructing sea surface temperatures), chlorins (for estimating primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera assemblages (for inferring water mass changes). These proxies show that between 3.5 and 3.0 Ma the southern Benguela region was significantly cooler than the northern Benguela region, the latter where the main upwelling cells are found today. Coupled with higher primary production, a shift in planktonic foraminifera assemblage, and an offset between the UK37' index and TEX86 index, we infer that more extensive upwelling was present in the southern Benguela region during the Pliocene. We infer that the main Benguela upwelling cells had shifted southward relative to today, as a result of changes in the local wind field. We find evidence for pronounced cooling and a shift in the planktonic foraminifera assemblage during the M2 and KM2 glacial stages, showing a sensitivity of Benguela upwelling to these short-lived climate events.

  16. Regional Development and Sustainability: Cultural Tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. (Subject is missing Are tested first to identify the demand for cultural tourism to determine the profile of the cultural tourist under the assumptions that tourists especially motivated by culture tend to travel longer distances than most tourists. It discusses the motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists in order to establish the potential market in accordance with the characteristics of the target market in the southern region of Jalisco. Any operation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis, which explains the use of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally, we propose some development strategies of cultural tourism in this region of Southern Jalisco.

  17. Reemergence of rabies in the southern Han river region, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-07-01

    Recently, 11 cases of animal rabies were reported in the southern region (Suwon and Hwaseong cities) of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The cases were temporally separated into two cases in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in spring 2012 and nine cases in domestic animals and wildlife in winter 2012-13. All carcasses were submitted for histopathologic examination and viral antigen identification. Sequences of the glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein-large polymerase protein intergenic noncoding loci of the 11 strains were determined and compared with published reference sequences. All rabies strains were closely related to the Gangwon strains isolated in 2008-09, suggesting that the rabies virus strains isolated in Gyeonggi were introduced from Gangwon Province.

  18. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  19. How can design be a platform for the development of a regional cluster in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Christensen, Poul Rind

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of key factors for the emergence of a cluster and the formation of a design cluster in the region of Southern Denmark......Analyses of key factors for the emergence of a cluster and the formation of a design cluster in the region of Southern Denmark...

  20. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  1. Mechanization in firewood harvesting in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to survey current mechanization level of coppice harvesting in Southern Italy. The cooperation of the General Direction of the National Forest Service (NFS has been a basic tool of survey. A questionnaire compiled on purpose was sent to each Forest Station (hereinafter referred to as CS in the following regions: Basilicata, Campania and Calabria. A high percentage (80% of the CSs did fulfill the questionnaire. The answers highlight that: i the main assortment currently produced is firewood; ii the level of harvesting mechanization is rather low, equipment being quite obsolete: indeed, the most widely used machineries are farm tractors partly adapted to forest harvesting and equipped with cages or back winch; iii the use of animals for hauling (mules and oxen, the latter in Calabria is still quite frequent, while forest tractors, polyethylene chutes and cable cranes are almost absent; iv the use of individual protection (DPI and machinery protection devices (DPM is on average quite low.

  2. Mesopause region temperature variability and its trend in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Mateus S.; Bageston, José V.; Caetano, Nattan R.; Peres, Lucas V.; Bencherif, Hassan; Schuch, Nelson J.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the study of the upper atmosphere is increasing, mostly because of the need to understand the patterns of Earth's atmosphere. Since studies on global warming have become very important for the development of new technologies, understanding all regions of the atmosphere becomes an unavoidable task. In this paper, we aim to analyze the temperature variability and its trend in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region during a period of 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). For this purpose, three different heights, i.e., 85, 90 and 95 km, were focused on in order to investigate the upper atmosphere, and a geographic region different to other studies was chosen, in the southern region of Brazil, centered in the city of Santa Maria, RS (29°41'02'' S; 53°48'25'' W). In order to reach the objectives of this work, temperature data from the SABER instrument (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry), aboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, were used. Finally, two cases were studied related to distinct grids of latitude/longitude used to obtain the mean temperature profiles. The first case considered a grid of 20° × 20° lat/long, centered in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In the second case, the region was reduced to a size of 15° × 15° in order to compare the results and discuss the two cases in terms of differences or similarities in temperature trends. Observations show that the size of the geographical area used for the average temperature profiles can influence the results of variability and trend of the temperature. In addition, reducing the time duration of analyses from 24 to 12 h a day also influences the trend significantly. For the smaller geographical region (15° × 15°) and the 12 h daily time window (09:00-21:00 UT) it was found that the main contributions for the temperature variability at the three heights were the annual and semi-annual cycles and the solar flux influence

  3. Volunteer Administration Leadership Proficiency and Leadership Styles: Perceptions of Southern Region 4-H County Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2005-01-01

    Volunteers play an integral role in supporting the mission of 4-H programs in the southern region. For this reason their proficiency in volunteer administration competence and perceived leadership style is important. The researchers sought to examine both the perceived proficiency of 4-H faculty in the southern region in seven competencies…

  4. Granites and granitoids of the southern region - Granite molybdenite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Economic concentrations of molybdenum are genetically closely associated with acidic and moderately acid granitoids-granites, granodiorites, monzonites and diorites, and are located in two geotectonic settings: subduction-related and rift-related. The aim of this paper is twofold, first succinctly approach the geology, tectonic setting and chemical parameters of the 'granite molybdenite system' as defined by Mutschler and/or alcali granite porphyry bodies emplaced in the North American continent for occasion of a Mesozoic-Fanerozoic extensile event; second to relate the computer-assisted evaluation of 422 major element chemical analysis of granites and granitoids of southern region of Brazil, using chemical fingerprints (SiO 2 ≥ 74. Owt%, Na 2 O ≤ 3.6wt%, K 2 O ≥ 4.5wt%), and K 2 O/Na 2 O ratio > 1.5 developed and testified from North American and Finnish occurrences, may locate molybdenite-bearing granite bodies with high exploration potential. These techniques suggest that some late Precambrian to early Paleozoic granite-rhyolite assemblages inserted at domains of the SG. 22/23 Curitiba/Iguape, SH. 21/22 Uruguaiana/Porto Alegre and SI.22 Lagoa Mirim Sheets, have exploration potential for molybdenum. (author) [pt

  5. Eikonal Tomography of the Southern California Plate Boundary Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, H.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zigone, D.; Lin, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    We use eikonal tomography to derive directionally-dependent phase velocities of surface waves for the plate boundary region in southern CA sensitive to the approximate depth range 1-20 km. Seismic noise data recorded by 346 stations in the area provide a spatial coverage with 5-25 km typical station spacing and period range of 1-20 s. Noise cross-correlations are calculated for vertical component data recorded in year 2014. Rayleigh wave group and phase travel times between 2 and 13 sec period are derived for each station pair using frequency-time analysis. For each common station, all available phase travel time measurements with sufficient signal to noise ratio and envelope peak amplitude are used to construct a travel time map for a virtual source at the common station location. By solving the eikonal equation, both phase velocity and propagation direction are evaluated at each location for each virtual source. Isotropic phase velocities and 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy and their uncertainties are determined statistically using measurements from different virtual sources. Following the method of Barmin et al. (2001), group velocities are also inverted using all the group travel times that pass quality criteria. The obtained group and phase dispersions of Rayleigh waves are then inverted on a 6 x 6 km2 grid for local 1D piecewise shear wave velocity structures using the procedure of Herrmann (2013). The results agree well with previous observations of Zigone et al. (2015) in the overlapping area. Clear velocity contrasts and low velocity zones are seen for the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore and Garlock faults. We also find 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy with fast directions parallel to geometrically-simple fault sections. Details and updated results will be presented in the meeting.

  6. Verification of surface minimum, mean, and maximum temperature forecasts in Calabria for summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, one-hour temperature forecasts for the Calabria region (southern Italy, modelled by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, have been issued by CRATI/ISAC-CNR (Consortium for Research and Application of Innovative Technologies/Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of the National Research Council and are available online at http://meteo.crati.it/previsioni.html (every six hours. Beginning in June 2008, the horizontal resolution was enhanced to 2.5 km. In the present paper, forecast skill and accuracy are evaluated out to four days for the 2008 summer season (from 6 June to 30 September, 112 runs. For this purpose, gridded high horizontal resolution forecasts of minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures are evaluated against gridded analyses at the same horizontal resolution (2.5 km.

    Gridded analysis is based on Optimal Interpolation (OI and uses the RAMS first-day temperature forecast as the background field. Observations from 87 thermometers are used in the analysis system. The analysis error is introduced to quantify the effect of using the RAMS first-day forecast as the background field in the OI analyses and to define the forecast error unambiguously, while spatial interpolation (SI analysis is considered to quantify the statistics' sensitivity to the verifying analysis and to show the quality of the OI analyses for different background fields.

    Two case studies, the first one with a low (less than the 10th percentile root mean square error (RMSE in the OI analysis, the second with the largest RMSE of the whole period in the OI analysis, are discussed to show the forecast performance under two different conditions. Cumulative statistics are used to quantify forecast errors out to four days. Results show that maximum temperature has the largest RMSE, while minimum and mean temperature errors are similar. For the period considered

  7. Paleolakes in the Gobi region of southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grunert, Jörg; Hülle, Daniela; Batkhishig, Ochirbat; Stauch, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Numerous lakes and remnants of paleolakes exist in western and southern Mongolia. For six basins in the area, detailed geomorphological maps were compiled, based on extensive field studies and remote sensing datasets. Several phases of high and low lake levels were reconstructed and dated by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. During the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 lakes in southern and western Mongolia mostly disappeared. In contrast, large paleolakes existed during the last interglacial (MIS 5e) and lasted probably until the beginning of the last glacial. These huge lakes were caused by a strong East Asian summer monsoon, which reached southern and even western Mongolia. During the MIS 3 the monsoon was considerably weaker and most of the lakes were relatively small or even disappeared. Higher lake levels of this period were only recorded at the Orog Nuur. However, at this time the lake was fed by glacial melt water from the Khangai Mountains. The MIS 2 was again a very dry period. The previously supposed phase of synchronous high lake levels and glaciations in southern and western Mongolia is not supported by the data presented here. During the Holocene, lakes in the western and southern part of the study area evolved differently. Early Holocene high lake levels were reconstructed for the western lakes, while most of the southern lakes had highest lake levels in the mid-Holocene. These differences can be attributed to different moisture bearing atmospheric systems. In the late Holocene lake levels were generally low and in the last 50 years most lakes completely disappeared due to a strong human usage of the water resources.

  8. Regional Phenomena of Vertical Deformation in Southern Part of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo; Andreas, H.; Pradipta, D.; Gumilar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Distribution of present-day horizontal and vertical deformation across the Southern Part of Indonesia at Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara now days can be determined from continuous and campaign types of GNSS GPS data monitoring. For vertical deformation in this case we use the continuous types since they are give better quality of data consistency compare to campaign type. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are maintaining by Geospatial Information Agency for more than a decade. The vertical displacements or velocity rates are estimated from time series analysis after multi-baseline GPS processing using GAMIT-GLOBK software with respect to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The result shows some interesting phenomena where the northern part of research area majority have negative value that may indicate land subsidence with or without tectonic subsidence combination. In the middle part, the uplift phenomena are clearly shown and in the southern part show combine pattern between uplift and subsidence. The impacts of those phenomena would be discuss also in this paper since many population and infrastructure are located in the areas that will need more protection planning to reduce the negative impact such as earthquake and flooding.

  9. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographical and organizational patterns of scientific collaboration, in terms of co-authored scientific articles, in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig. The motivation behind the approach lies in the fact that scientific collaboration...... of co-authored publications and, thus, the knowledge infrastructure of the border region can be considered as weakly integrated....

  10. African Instituted Churches in Southern Africa: Paragons of Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... reducing discussions on regional cooperation to purely economic and materialistic ..... references to religion and culture in a document dealing with economic .... nomic Cooperation and Integration, Harare: SAPES Books.

  11. Forest growth modeling in the Southern Region, National Forest System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses an attempt to combine individual tree growth models and stand level growth models currently available for the Region into one computer program. Operation of the program is explained and growth models are included

  12. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region ..... between cattle breeds (genetic), pre-slaughter stress and growth- ..... Nguni cattle for example, owing to their adaptability (i.e. drought and heat tolerant,.

  13. The southern region renal transplant program at armed forces hospital, khamis mushayt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A S; Al-Hashemy, A; Addous, A J; Ismail, G

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Region renal transplant program was established in February 1989. The appointment of a transplant co-ordinator and creation of a waiting list for the Southern Region as well as tissue typing of all patients in the region were important early steps. Between February 1989 and December 1995, 155 transplants were performed on 152 patients at the Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region (AFHSR). Of them, 52 were cadaveric donor transplants and the remaining were from living related donors. The overall five-year actuarial patient and graft survival was 93% and 78% respectively. Of the 152 patients who were transplanted, 79 patients were from other hospitals in the region and 73 were from AFHSR. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporin, azathioprine and prednisolone. Use of the spouse as a donor was an early feature of this program. Our results compare favorably with results published from other centers. To cope with the increasing demand of transplantation in the Southern Region, we have to look into ways of increasing our transplant numbers to match the needs.

  14. Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tadross, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, the authors provide projections of regional climate change so that decision-makers can better understand the nature of the projected changes, and how to take this into account when formulating and implementing adaptive strategies....

  15. The effectiveness of regional peace- making in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tension, with more than one organisation vying for the lead, or in other cases, trying to pass ... of successfully managing conflict resolution efforts and establishing peace. ... in Africa further argued that 'sub-regional organizations sometimes have a ... a 1999 study, commissioned by the OAU on the functioning of cooperation.

  16. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  17. Productivity Growth and the Regional Dynamics of Antebellum Southern Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alan L. Olmstead; Paul W. Rhode

    2010-01-01

    Between 1800 and 1860, the United States became the preeminent world supplier of cotton as output increased sixty-fold. Technological changes, including the introduction of improved cotton varieties, contributed significantly to this growth. Measured output per worker in the cotton sector rose four-fold and large regional differences emerged. By 1840, output per worker in the New South was twice that in the Old South. The economy-wide increase is explained, in equal measure, by growth in outp...

  18. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  19. Higher Education, Human Capital, and Regional Dynamics in Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biscaia, Ricardo; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Rocha, Vera

    2017-01-01

    studies. We discuss the role of human capital in the framework of growth convergence theories and the issue of human capital migration as a potential factor influencing regional disparities in Europe. Then we focus on an important component of human capital formation—the role of higher education...... relevance of human capital for economic growth was also associated with the role of technology and its impact in enhancing the demand for more and better qualified workers. However, the capacity of societies to take advantage of those investments has been found to be more complex and uncertain than......Although the term “human capital” has remote historical roots, being already widespread in the writings of the founding fathers of economic analysis, it was during the second half of the twentieth century that an increasing debate around human capital emerged among scholars. The increasing...

  20. History of cotton fiber bioscience research at USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving fiber quality has been an important breeding goal for cotton breeders. Better understanding of fiber development helps cotton scientists to devise a strategy for crop improvement either through marker-assisted selection or via manipulation of fiber genes. USDA-ARS Southern Regional Researc...

  1. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient,

  2. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  3. Regional efforts to promote forestry best management practices: a southern success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb Nicholson; John Colberg; Hughes Simpson; Tom Gerow; Wib Owen

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Group of State Foresters has a long history of water resource protection efforts, providing leadership in BMP development, improvement, and implementation, enhancing state BMP programs, establishing effective partnerships, and standardizing an approach to consistently monitor implementation across the region.

  4. Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Northern and Southern Macro-Regions of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aquilino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Crouch and Ritchie (1999 model of competitiveness to investigate/measure the competitiveness of northern and southern Italian macro-regions. Researching competitive advantages along with identifying strengths/weaknesses represent the objectives of this study. 156 responses were analysed, and findings show that northern regions tend to be more competitive than southern regions. While naturally endowed and created resources represent strengths in both regions, the competitiveness of all the determinant factors included in the tourism development, planning and policy of both tourist destinations are found to be quite inadequate. Moreover, the findings revealed that these mature destinations are experiencing the effects unleashed by a number of trends such as the development of new forms of tourism, the increasing number of tourist arrivals, the growth of the global economy and the sophistication of tourists’ tastes, representing both opportunities and threats that Italian destinations need to consider when planning/developing new strategies.

  5. Regional assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs of cheetahs in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Purchase, Gianetta; Marker, Laurie; Marnewick, Kelly; Klein, Rebecca; Williams, Samual

    2007-01-01

    A country by country assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in the southern African region indicates that this area holds a significant proportion of the global population of cheetahs, at least 4 500 adults. The largest proportion of this regional population occurs in four range states, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe where it is under threat as a result of conflict with livestock and wildlife ranchers, removal of animals (both ...

  6. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  7. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  8. Reconsidering the origins of the Southern African regionalism thirty years later: towards a constructivist approach to the origins of SADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Abel Moma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of SADCC has generated a debate over the real origins of the southern African model of regionalism. This paper develops the idea that the origins of SADC are both internal and external. Thus, southern African regionalism is understood as a constructivist articulation of internal and external inputs, which determined the creation of SADCC and its transformation into SADC.

  9. Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Robert J.; Annegarn, Harold J.; Suttles, J. Timothy; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Privette, Jeffrey L.; Scholes, Robert J.

    2003-07-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) was a major surface, airborne, and spaceborne field campaign carried out in southern Africa in 2000 and 2001 that addressed a broad range of phenomena related to land-atmosphere interactions and the biogeochemical functioning of the southern African system. This paper presents a thematic analysis and integration of the Journal of Geophysical Research SAFARI 2000 Special Issue, presenting key findings of an intensive field campaign over southern Africa in August and September of 2000. The integrating themes deal with surface emissions characterization; airborne characterizations of aerosols and trace gases; regional haze and trace gas characterization; and radiant measurements by surface, aircraft, and remote sensing platforms. Enhanced regional fuel loads associated with the moist La Niña phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle produced above average biomass burning emissions, which consequently dominated all other aerosol and trace gas emissions during the dry season. Southward transport of a broad plume of smoke originating in equatorial Africa and exiting off the east coast toward the Indian Ocean (the river of smoke) is attributed to unusual synoptic airflows associated the ENSO phase. New and revised biogenic and pyrogenic emission factors are reported, including a number of previously unreported oxygenated organic compounds and inorganic compounds from biomass combustion. Emission factors are scaled up to regional emission surfaces for biogenic species utilizing species specific and light-dependent emission factors. Fire scar estimates reveal contradictory information on the timing of the peak and extent of the biomass-burning season. Integrated tall stack coordinated measurements (between ground, airborne and remotely sensing platforms) of upwelling and downwelling radiation in massive thick aerosol layers covering much of southern Africa yield consistent estimates of large

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  11. Litterfall production under pine plantations in the southern Andes region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Quichimbo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Litterfall research is an interesting aspect in environmental studies due to its significance in nutrient cycling specially in regions like the Andes where the interactions between biomass production and its decomposition is poorly understood. This study is focusing in the litterfall biomass production under pine plantations in southern Ecuador. The litterfall production was studied for five months at two-week intervals in three pine forest sites located in the southern Andes region of Ecuador. Monthly litterfall production ranged between 1067-1907 kg ha-1, in comparison with other coniferous stands around the world, this study revealed a higher litterfall production for tropical areas and particularly the highest production under pine plantations in the Andes region. This high litterfall production highlights the upmost importance of this forest component as a potential nutrient reservoir involved in the global nutrient cycling under landscapes dominated by this exotic forest specie in the tropical Andes.

  12. Incidence of respiratory tract sarcoidosis in southern and northern regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk G.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative survey of incidence and prevalence of pulmonary sarcoidosis in Southern (Crimean AR and Northern (Zhytomyr region regions of Ukraine by means of analysis of self-referred cases and cases, revealed at prophylactic radiological examination in 2011. The incidence of sarcoidosis in Crimea was 1.08 per 100 000 adult inhabitants; the prevalence was 4,59 per 100 000. In Zhytomyr region the incidence value (2,62 per 100 000 exceeded an equivalent value in Crimea by 2,4 times. The prevalence (7,86 per 100 000 was also higher than in Crimea by 1,7 times. Taking into account a significant impact of climate factor on sarcoidosis epidemiology, the incidence and prevalence of disease in Northern and Southern regions should be considered polar as for the regions of Ukraine. This makes it possoble to conclude that mean incidence of sarcoidosis in Ukraine ranges from 1,1 to 2,6 per 100 000 adult population, whereas the prevalence – from 4,6 to 7,9 per 100 000, which is equivalent to the level of Southern European countries.

  13. Regional health governance: A suggested agenda for Southern African health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Erica Dale; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Regional organisations can effectively promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. Regional bodies make decisions about health challenges in the region, for example, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the World Health Organisation South East Asia Regional Office (WHO-SEARO). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has a limited health presence as a regional organisation and diplomatic partner in health governance. This article identifies how SADC facilitates and coordinates health policy, arguing that SADC has the potential to promote regional health diplomacy and governance through engagement with regional social policy. The article identifies the role of global health diplomacy and niche diplomacy in health governance. The role of SADC as a regional organisation and the way it functions is then explained, focusing on how SADC engages with health issues in the region. Recommendations are made as to how SADC can play a more decisive role as a regional organisation to implement South-South management of the regional social policy, health governance and health diplomacy agenda.

  14. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  15. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovegirl S Dlamini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  16. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Lovegirl S Dlamini; Martie M van der Merwe; Valerie J Ehlers

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full t...

  17. Geographic/conceptual delimitation of the «Southern Mediterranean». A Regional Security Complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse how the Mediterranean Area has evolved after the changes occurred with the so-called Arab Springs. The main idea is to focus on the Southern Mediterranean as a dynamic space that expands itself as a result of its internal transformations and subsequent external changes caused by the Arab Spring. We will use the IR theory of the Regional Security Complex as it is considered as the most adaptable to this changing reality.

  18. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  19. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  20. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: t2klestari@gmail.com [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  1. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  3. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  4. The wind forecasting improvement project. Description and results from the Southern study region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Jeffrey [AWS Truepower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Benjamin, Stan; Wilczak, James [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC and Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sponsored study whose main purpose is to demonstrate the scientific and economic benefits of additional atmospheric observations and model enhancements on wind energy production forecasts. WFIP covers two geographical regions of the U.S.: (1) the upper Great Plains, or Northern Study Area, and (2) most of Texas-the Southern Study Area. The Southern campaign is being led by AWS Truepower LLC, and includes a team of private, government, and academic partners with collective experience and expertise in all facets required to ensure a successful completion of the project. In addition presenting a summary of the state-of-the-art forecasting techniques used and phenomena-based analysis mentioned above, a brief synopsis of how ''lessons learned'' from the WFIP Southern Study Area can be articulated and applied to other wind resource regions will be described. (orig.)

  5. The effects of cultivar and harvest year on the fatty alcohol composition of olive oils from Southwest Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty alcohol (FAL composition of olive oils produced in Southwest Calabria (Southern Italy was analyzed over three harvest years 2005–2006–2007. Three autochthonous cultivars: Cassanese, Ottobratica, Sinopolese and seven allochtonous cultivars: Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nocellara Messinese, Nociara, Pendolino and Picholine were considered. Hexacosanol was always the main FAL occurring in the olive oil. The autochthonous cultivars were among those with the highest total FAL contents. Nevertheless, both autochthonous and allochthonous cultivars produced olive oil within the limit indicated by EU and IOC regulations. Cultivar affected the FAL content highly significantly or very highly significantly, whereas in a large part of the cases the harvest year did not influence the FAL content. Cultivar x harvest year influenced highly significantly or very highly significantly only C22-OH, C23-OH, C24-OH, C25-OH, odd chain FALs and the ratio even chain/odd chain FALs.Se ha analizado, durante tres cosechas 2005–2006–2007, la composición de alcoholes grasos (FAL de aceites de oliva producidos en el suroeste de Calabria (sur de Italia. Se consideraron tres cultivares autóctonos: Cassanese, Ottobratica y Sinopolese y siete alóctonas: Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nocellara Messinese, Nociara, Pendolino y Picholine. Hexacosanol fue siempre el principal FAL en los aceites de oliva. Los cultivares autóctonos se encuentran entre los de mayor contenido total de FAL. No obstante, ambos cultivares, autóctonos y alóctonos producen aceites de oliva dentro de los límites de los reglamentos de la UE y del COI. Los cultivares afectan de manera altamente significativa o muy significativa al contenido de FAL, mientras que el año de cosecha no influyó en el contenido de FAL. Cultivar x año de cosecha influye de manera altamente significativa o muy significativa sobre C22-OH, C23-OH, C24-OH, C25-OH, al total de alcoholes grasos de cadena impar y a la

  6. A methodology for assessing annual risk of southern pine beetle outbreaks across the southern region using pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald F Billings; William W. Upton

    2010-01-01

    An operational system to forecast infestation trends (increasing, static, declining) and relative population levels (high, moderate, low) of the southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has been implemented in the Southern and Eastern United States. Numbers of dispersing SPB and those of a major predator (the clerid beetle, ...

  7. Description of a New Temnocephala Species (Platyhelminthes) from the Southern Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile

    2015-08-01

    The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus.

  8. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  9. LATE GLACIAL AND HOLOCENE BIOCLIMATIC RECONSTRUCTION IN SOUTHERN ITALY: THE TRIFOGLIETTI LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brugiapaglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollen record from Trifoglietti lake (Calabria region provides new information about the paleoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes occurred during the LateGlacial and Holocene period. The LateGlacial part of the record, for which only preliminary data is available, is a new and original sequence from southern Italy. The Holocene sequence, with 11 AMS radiocarbon dates shows a stable Fagus forest for the entire period. Apart from sporadic pastoralism activities and the selective exploitation of Abies, only a weak human impact is recognized in the pollen records. Lake level oscillations have been reconstructed and annual precipitations quantified using the Modern Analogue Technique. The reconstruction was effectuated both at millennial and centennial scale: the first shows an increasing of moisture from 11000 to 9400 cal BP and a maximum of humidity from 9400 to 6200 cal BP. Moreover, several climatic oscillations punctuated the Holocene and therefore superimposed the millennial trend.

  10. Protists in the polar regions: comparing occurrence in the Arctic and Southern oceans using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ongoing discussion of the distribution of protists, whether they are globally distributed or endemic to one or both of the polar regions is the subject of heated debate. In this study, we compared next-generation sequencing data from the Arctic and the Southern oceans to reveal the extent of similarities and dissimilarities between the protist communities in the polar regions. We found a total overlap of operational taxonomic units (OTUs between the two regions of 11.2%. On closer inspection of different taxonomic groups, the overlap ranged between 5.5% (haptophytes and 14.5% (alveolates. Within the different groups, the proportion of OTUs occurring in both regions greatly differed between the polar regions. On the one hand, the overlap between these two regions is remarkable, given the geographical distance between them. On the other hand, one could expect a greater overlap of OTUs between these regions on account of the similar environmental conditions. The overlap suggests a connection between the polar regions for at least certain species or that the evolutionary divergence has been slow, relative to the timescales of isolation. The different proportions of common OTUs among the groups or regions may be a result of different life cycle strategies or environmental adaptations.

  11. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  12. Two damaging hydrogeological events in Calabria, September 2000 and November 2015. Comparative analysis of causes and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Caloiero, Tommaso; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Each year, especially during winter season, some episode of intense rain affects Calabria, the southernmost Italian peninsular region, triggering flash floods and mass movements that cause damage and fatalities. This work presents a comparative analysis between two events that affected the southeast sector of the region, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. The event occurred between 9th and 10th of September 2000 is known in Italy as Soverato event, after the name of the municipality where it reached the highest damage severity. In the Soverato area, more than 200 mm of rain that fell in 24 hours caused a disastrous flood that swept away a campsite at about 4 a.m., killing 13 people and hurting 45. Besides, the rain affected a larger area, causing damage in 89 (out of 409) municipalities of the region. Flooding was the most common process, which damaged housing and trading. Landslide mostly affected the road network, housing and cultivations. The most recent event affected the same regional sector between 30th October and 2nd November 2015. The daily rain recorded at some of the rain gauges of the area almost reached 400 mm. Out of the 409 municipalities of Calabria, 109 suffered damage. The most frequent types of processes were both flash floods and landslides. The most heavily damaged element was the road network: the representative picture of the event is a railway bridge destroyed by the river flow. Housing was damaged too, and 486 people were temporarily evacuated from home. The event also caused a victim killed by a flood. The event-centred study approach aims to highlight differences and similarities in both the causes and the effects of the two events that occurred at a temporal distance of 14 years. The comparative analysis focus on three main aspects: the intensity of triggering rain, the modifications of urbanised areas, and the evolution of emergency management. The comparative analysis of rain is made by comparing the return period of both daily and

  13. Isotopic composition of groundwater in semi-arid regions of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.; Urk, H. van

    1975-01-01

    Although the isotope content of precipitation in the semi-arid regions of southern Africa is extremely variable, groundwater samples from the same district are found to have a remarkably constant isotopic composition. The oxygen-18 content of the underground water, in general, varies by about 0.5% in a given area. The differences that occur between different regions are sufficiently large to allow the groundwater of an area to be characterized by means of its oxygen-18 content. In order to localize the infiltration area of an aquifer, radiocarbon dating of the water is used. It appears that the groundwater contains, in general, less of the heavy isotopes than does the precipitation in the recharge area. This indicates that infiltration only takes place during periods of heavy rainfall. Examples are given where the isotope content of the groundwater is used to distinguish between different aquifers in the same region

  14. Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collalti A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy. At present, the climate changes issue is perhaps the greatest threat that is affecting people and the environment. Forest ecosystems have a key role in the mitigation of climate change. In this context, the prediction of the evolution and growth dynamics of the forests including carbon and water fluxes, and in relation to forest management has become a primary objective. The present study aims at defining a protocol for data collection and the workflow for using the 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM model in a small mountain watershed in the Calabria region. Within this work we synergistically integrate data coming from different methods (e.g., LiDAR, eddy covariance and sample area to predict forest dynamics (growth, carbon and water fluxes. Carbon and water fluxes will be simulated considering also the effects of forest management.

  15. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  16. Southern Federal University as a Center for the Development of Inclusive Education in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryunova L.V.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of best practices for inclusive education in higher educational institutions of the country, in terms of assessing its role in the development of inclusion in the regions. Cluster approach is proposed as the main approach to the development of regional inclusive education. The article describes the experience of organizing inclusive education in the Southern Federal University as a basic educational institution of higher education and as a cluster- forming educational organization that provides learning environment for persons with disabilities at all levels of education. The article also reveals the purpose and objectives of the university in the organization and implementation of quality inclusive education as a key development strategy. We analyze the actual state of inclusive education system at the university, which allows us to identify and describe the main activities of the Southern Federal University that ensure the establishment and development of inclusive education system both within the university and in the Rostov region in general. This also provides the opportunity to describe the current experience that may be incorporated in other institutions of higher education thus ensuring the effectiveness of formation of inclusive education system.

  17. Forest certification in Calabria (Italy: attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was born in the early 90s of the twentieth century in order to protect tropical and sub-tropical forests against a progressive deforestation and degradation. Forest certification is a valuable instrument for environmental protection and a useful tool of green marketing for forest-wood chain enterprises. In the last decades, in developed countries there has been increased consumer awareness of environmental protection and environmentally friendly wood products. This consumers’ attitude is related to the consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly wood products. In the international literature, some studies have investigated the consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for several certified wood products with different prices, while few studies have analyzed the willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain for certified wood products. In addition, in the international literature there is a knowledge gap concerning the manufactures or consumers’ willingness to pay for local wood products compared to equivalent products from other geographical areas. Starting from these considerations, the main aims of this study are: (1 to analyze the wood manufactures’ willingness to pay a premium price for certified wood products; (2 to investigate the wood manufactures’ attitudes and willingness to pay for regional/local wood products. The study was conducted as part of the “Ambi.Tec.Fil.Legno” project involving 127 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain located in Calabria region. At the end of the questionnaire survey, the information provided by 40 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain were processed and analyzed (response rate 31.5%. The results show that the main factors that influence the purchase decisions of enterprises are the trust in the seller and the durability of the product. Concerning the manufactures’ willingness to pay for certified

  18. Preliminary results of a 30-year daily rainfall data base in southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Stefano; Avolio, Elenio; Pasqualoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first exploratory results and analyses performed on a 30-year (1978–2007) homogeneous precipitation database that has been created for the Calabria peninsula, southern Italy. The database consists of complete time series of daily values of precipitation from 88 stations...

  19. The Impact of Increasing Fire Frequency on Forest Transformations in the Zabaikal Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Shvetsov, E.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Zabaikal region of southern Siberia is characterized by some of the highest fire activity in Russia. There has been a significant increase of fire frequency and burned area in the region over the last two decades due to a combination of high anthropogenic pressure, decreased funding to the forestry sector, and increased fire danger, which was associated with higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Central and southern parts of the Zabaikal region where population density is higher and road network is relatively more developed are the most disturbed by fires. Larch stands cover the largest proportion of fire-disturbed lands in the region, while the less common pine and birch stands are characterized by higher fire frequency. About 13% (3.9 M ha) of the total forest area in the Zabaikal region was burned more than once in the 20 years from 1996 to 2015, with many sites burned multiple times. Repeat disturbances led to inadequate tree regeneration on all but the moistest sites. Pine stands on dry soils, which are common in the forest-steppe zone, were the most vulnerable. After repeat burns and over large burned sites we observed transformation of the forests to steppe ecosystems. The most likely causes of insufficient forest regeneration are soil overheating, dominance of tall grasses, and lack of nearby seed sources. Extensive tree plantations have potential to mitigate negative fire impacts; however, due to high fire hazard in the recent decade about half of the plantation area has been burned. Changes in the SWVI index were used to assess postfire reforestation based on a combination of satellite and field data. In the southwestern part of the Zabaikal region, we estimated that reforestation had been hampered over 11% of the forest land area. Regional climate models project increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation across Siberia by the end of the 21st century, with changes in the Zabaikal region projected to be more than twice the

  20. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  1. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  2. SCENARI E POLITICHE DI DISTRETTO PER LA CITTÀ METROPOLITANA DI REGGIO CALABRIA: GLI ECODISTRETTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Malaspina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution highlights how the birth of a district, especially with the proliferation of genres that have characterized its recent spread in terms of models, governance, productive sectors, affects fundamentally the creation of the network, an organization aimed at horizontal bridge the gap dimensional optimizing the quality parameters. The creation of sectorial microdistrict in local contexts with strong identity characterization is the proposed road to the construction process of the development scenarios of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria.

  3. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry

    2016-10-01

    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  4. Effects of forest fires in southern and central of Zabaykal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Buryak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire frequency situation in Zabaykal region from 1964 to 2015 is evaluated and discussed in the paper. The main reasons of decadal increase of fire numbers and the area burned are revealed. The main reasons of high fire frequency and the increase of fire activity in the last decades are shown. The characteristics of the weather conditions in the years of high fire frequency are presented. Fire activity was found to increase not only because of the droughts in the last decades but also due to forest disturbances in Zabaykalsky Krai by illegal logging. Based on the data from 170 sample sites laid out with the use of satellite images, forest inventory data and results of ground sample transects, the impact of the wildfires of different type, form and severity on tree mortality in the light-coniferous forests was estimated, as well as the amount of tree regeneration in the forest areas disturbed by fires, logged sites (both burned and unburned, and sites burned repeatedly was evaluated. Wildfires in the Zabaykal region were found to be strong ecological factor influencing on the probability of existence of many forest ecosystems. In case of further climate warming and repeated fires, the part of the forests may transform to the non forest areas. The steppification of the burned sites in the southern forest-steppe regions and in the low parts of the southern slopes at the border with steppe landscapes as well as desertification in the central parts of the region and swamping of burned sites located in the wet soils are observed. Wind and water soil erosion happens at the large burned sites.

  5. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A DRIVER OF REGIONAL COOPERATION IN ITS SOUTHERN NEIGHBOURHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Irina ION

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union's policy towards its southern periphery in North Africa and the Middle East has sought to promote regional cooperation both between itself and the Arab partner states and, most importantly, among the Arab states. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, and later on, the Union for the Mediterranean introduced, after decades of superficial institutionalization of Euro-Mediterranean relations, an element of novelty in the form of the regionalism it promoted and the multilateral setting it was creating. However outstanding at its debut, this experiment of „building” a Mediterranean region, where security and peaceful change would be brought about by the states' willingness to cooperate through multilateral mechanisms has failed. The EU's efforts to create a Mediterranean region have been stymied not only by what can amount to an unrealistic perception regarding intra-Arab dynamics, but also by changes in the substance of the Euro-Mediterranean institutional setting. Namely, the region-building multilateralism of the EMP has been side-lined by the pragmatic bilateralism of the UfM.

  6. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  7. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  8. Sensitivity analysis of WRF model PBL schemes in simulating boundary-layer variables in southern Italy: An experimental campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Miglietta, M.

    2017-01-01

    the surface, where the model uncertainties are, usually, smaller than at the surface. A general anticlockwise rotation of the simulated flow with height is found at all levels. The mixing height is overestimated by all schemes and a possible role of the simulated sensible heat fluxes for this mismatching......The sensitivity of boundary layer variables to five (two non-local and three local) planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization schemes, available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model, is evaluated in an experimental site in Calabria region (southern...... is investigated. On a single-case basis, significantly better results are obtained when the atmospheric conditions near the measurement site are dominated by synoptic forcing rather than by local circulations. From this study, it follows that the two first order non-local schemes, ACM2 and YSU, are the schemes...

  9. Financing R&D Projects in Southern Italy: The “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Iazzolino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy, as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation to the improvement of cooperation between SMEs, research centers, universities and technological laboratories. The weak points of the program mainly regard the evaluation phase that made it impossible to get a feedback useful for policy and for driving future agenda.

  10. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  11. Improving epidemic malaria planning, preparedness and response in Southern Africa. Report on the 1st Southern African Regional Epidemic Outlook Forum, Harare, Zimbabwe, 26-29 September, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Joaquim; Garanganga, Brad; Teveredzi, Vonai; Marx, Sabine M; Mason, Simon J; Connor, Stephen J

    2004-10-22

    Malaria is a major public health problem for countries in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). While the endemicity of malaria varies enormously across this region, many of the countries have districts that are prone to periodic epidemics, which can be regional in their extent, and to resurgent outbreaks that are much more localized. These epidemics are frequently triggered by climate anomalies and often follow periods of drought. Many parts of Southern Africa have suffered rainfall deficit over the past three years and countries expect to see increased levels of malaria when the rains return to more 'normal' levels. Problems with drug and insecticide resistance are documented widely and the region contains countries with the highest rates of HIV prevalence to be found anywhere in the world. Consequently, many communities are vulnerable to severe disease outcomes should epidemics occur. The SADC countries have adopted the Abuja targets for Roll Back Malaria in Africa, which include improved epidemic detection and response, i.e., that 60% of epidemics will be detected within two weeks of onset, and 60% of epidemics will be responded to within two weeks of detection. The SADC countries recognize that to achieve these targets they need improved information on where and when to look for epidemics. The WHO integrated framework for improved early warning and early detection of malaria epidemics has been recognized as a potentially useful tool for epidemic preparedness and response planning. Following evidence of successful adoption and implementation of this approach in Botswana, the SADC countries, the WHO Southern Africa Inter-Country Programme on Malaria Control, and the SADC Drought Monitoring Centre decided to organize a regional meeting where countries could gather to assess their current control status and community vulnerability, consider changes in epidemic risk, and develop a detailed plan of action for the forthcoming 2004-2005 season. The

  12. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  13. Southern Africa’s Water–Energy Nexus: Towards Regional Integration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community’s (SADC water and energy sectors are under increasing pressure due to population growth and agricultural and industrial development. Climate change is also negatively impacting on the region’s water and energy resources. As the majority of SADC’s population lives in poverty, regional development and integration are underpinned by water and energy security as the watercourses in the region are transboundary in nature. This paper reviews the region’s water and energy resources and recommends policies based on the water–energy nexus approach. This is achieved by reviewing literature on water and energy resources as well as policy issues. Water resources governance provides a strong case to create a water–energy nexus platform to support regional planning and integration as SADC countries share similar climatic and hydrological conditions. However, there has been a gap between water and energy sector planning in terms of policy alignment and technical convergence. These challenges hinder national policies on delivering economic and social development goals, as well as constraining the regional goal of greater integration. Regional objectives on sustainable energy and access to clean water for all can only be achieved through the recognition of the water–energy nexus, championed in an integrated and sustainable manner. A coordinated regional water–energy nexus approach stimulates economic growth, alleviates poverty and reduces high unemployment rates. The shared nature of water and energy resources requires far more transboundary water–energy nexus studies to be done in the context of regional integration and policy formulation.

  14. A challenge of regional integration: the Southern Argentinian pipeline enlargement; Desafio de integracao regional: ampliacao do gasoduto Sul-Argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, Oscar; Sosa, Damian [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duarte Filho, Arno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The enlargement of the pipelines of Southern Argentina comprised the construction of around 500 km of 30' and 36' loops in the first semester of 2005 and presented many peculiarities. It has been the first enlargement of the argentinian pipeline system since the country's default statement, in 2001, and it has been financed and built by a bi national Brazilian-Argentinian consortium. It has also been the first time that a governmental trusteeship has been used in such an enterprise in Argentina to guarantee the necessary funds. The increasing demand of natural gas to industries and power generation plants brought about by Argentina's recent growth has stated the sense of urgency: the construction must be on duty in June 2005, ready to increase de flow of gas to the Provincia de Buenos Aires and Great Buenos Aires regions. This has represented also a technical challenge, due to the small time to built the loops, the geographical distribution of the construction, which extends from Patagonia to the Great Buenos Aires region and the meteorological conditions of the period of the construction. The article describes the negotiations done to assemble the construction's financial and managerial frameworks, the building and the solutions found to face the challenge and to meet the deadline. (author)

  15. Low crustal velocities and mantle lithospheric variations in southern Tibet from regional Pnl waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    We report low average crustal P-wave velocities (5.9-6.1 km/s, Poisson's ratio 0.23-0.27, thickness 68-76 km) in southern Tibet from modelling regional Pnl waveforms recorded by the 1991-1992 Tibetan Plateau Experiment. We also find that the mantle lithosphere beneath the Indus-Tsangpo Suture and the Lhasa Terrane is shield-like (Pn velocity 8.20-8.25 km/s, lid thickness 80-140 km, positive velocity gradient 0.0015-0.0025 s-1). Analysis of relative Pn travel time residuals requires a decrease in the mantle velocities beneath the northern Lhasa Terrane, the Banggong-Nujiang Suture and the southern Qiangtang Terrane. Tectonic and petrologic considerations suggest that low bulk crustal velocities could result from a thick (50-60 km) felsic upper crust with vertically limited and laterally pervasive partial melt. These results are consistent with underthrusting of Indian Shield lithosphere beneath the Tibetan Plateau to at least the central Lhasa Terrane.

  16. Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Fallahi, Soghra; Mahmudi, Forugh; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Taghavi, Mohsen; Fereydooni Asl, Marjan

    2015-07-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Drinking Water from an Endemic Region in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cortazar, Ivonne B; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Segura-Correa, Jose C; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process. Water samples were filtered and concentrated by a sucrose solution, then DNA was extracted and evaluated through a nested-PCR (nPCR) specific for T. gondii. Positive samples were detected in 5.4% (4/74) of the water samples. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in public drinking water from a large city in southern Mexico, where their consumption without any postpurification treatment could pose a risk for acquiring the infection in the urban population.

  18. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  19. The atmospheric boundary layer over land and sea: Focus on the off-shore Southern Baltic and Southern North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    Lecture notes for a short course on the ideal atmospheric boundary layer and its characteristics for different types of real boundary layers, aiming at a discussion of the coastal conditions at the Southern Baltic and North Sea region. The notes are aimed at young scientists (e.g. PhD students......) that study the physics of the atmospheric boundary layer with the purpose of applying this knowledge for remote sensing techniques within offshore wind energy....

  20. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  1. Possible adverse effects of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramon, Cecilie; Lindegaard Poulsen, Christina; Hartling, Ulla Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine, young girls and women have reported a broad range of symptoms. These have been described as possible adverse effects of the vaccine. In this study, we describe demographic characteristics, symptomatology......, clinical and laboratory test results in patients referred with suspected adverse effects in the Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study. The patients filled out a questionnaire, were interviewed by a doctor and received a standard physical examination...... still in diagnostic workup when the present study concluded. CONCLUSIONS: The patients reported a wide range of symptoms. We found an overall low prevalence of POTS. It should be further investigated whether these patients might suffer from a functional disorder rather than from adverse effects...

  2. Creating regional consensus for starting school later: a physician-driven approach in southern Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracey Ann; Indorf, Christopher; Klak, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    In April 2016, several contiguous school districts and an independent high school academy in southern Maine voted simultaneously to start school later, beginning with the 2016-17 academic year. They became Maine's first school districts to implement the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1 and the American Medical Association's 2 health policy recommendations that middle and high schools should not start before 8:30 AM. Local physicians' presentations to school staff and parents on the medical evidence of the health benefits of a later start solidified early consensus. The action required special permission from the Maine Municipal Association to hold a joint school board vote, impacted approximately 6500 students across the region, resulted in no increase in busing costs, and took 8 months to implement after the first formal school board discussions. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Erythromycin residue in honey from the Southern Marmara region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Nazmiye; Cibik, Recep; Gunes, Mesut Ertan; Aydin, Levent

    2008-11-01

    Honey samples, collected from the Southern Marmara region of Turkey, were analysed for erythromycin residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode (LC-ESI-MS). Fifty samples, comprising chestnut, pine, linden and multi-flower honeys, were collected directly from hives and analyzed. The limit of detection and quantification were 6 and 20 ng g(-1), respectively, and recovery ranged from 85 to 89%. Four of the honey samples (8%) were found to be contaminated with erythromycin residues at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1776 ng g(-1). An erythromycin-fortified cake feeding assay was also performed in a defined hive to test the transfer of erythromycin residue to the honey matrix. In this test hive, the residue level in the honey, 3 months after dosing, was approximately 28 ng g(-1).

  4. Groundwater quality characterization to protect biodiversity in SADC region (Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vitale

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the first phase of a study held in the context of the SECOSUD Phase II project, called “Conservation and equitable use of biological diversity in the SADC region (Southern African Development Community, which aims at promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable economic development in the SADC [1]. The Southern African Development Community (SADC is an inter-governmental organization, with 15 member states: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Madagascar, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its aim is to increase socio-economic cooperation and integration among the community. It is one of the richest area in terms of biodiversity. The main goal of the Project is to contribute to stop biodiversity loss by supporting the development of conservation strategies. Biodiversity or biological diversity is formally defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD as: “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” (UN 1992 Article 2 [2]. Biodiversity is affected by the interaction of multiple drivers and pressures including demographic, economic, socio-political, scientific and technological ones, which are leading to further decline, degradation and loss. The principal pressures on biodiversity include habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, alien invasive species, climate change and pollution. These pressures are continuing to increase. To use biodiversity and to keep it in a sustainable way, it is necessary to study it, assess its economic value, develop a global strategy and a global network to monitor its status in the biosphere. An important step in developing conservation of biodiversity

  5. The Development of Tourist Relations during the Economic Crisis through the Example of the Southern Great Plain Region and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER GULYÁS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the economic crisis, nearby feeder markets have become increasingly important for Hungary’s tourism sector with cross-border cooperation schemes playing an ever increasing role. This also holds true for Hungary’s Southern Great Plain Region when viewed in its relationship with neighbouring Serbia. This paper examines tourism flow changes in the Southern Hungarian Great Plain Region during the period of the economic crisis especially as far as tourism flows from Serbia are concerned. The analysis is based on official statistical data available in respect of commercial accommodation facilities, analyses on tourism trends carried out at the European level, and regional development documents drawn up for the Hungarian–Serbian cross border region. The economic crisis caused a significant downturn in tourism flows in the Southern Great Plain Region. However, the number of tourists arriving from Serbia to the Southern Great Plain and the number of nights they spent there increased even during the crisis partly because of the favourable geographical location of the region, partly because of the intensive cooperation schemes implemented in the tourism sector, and partly because of organised marketing campaigns.

  6. Kukimbia: the impact of environmental refugees in Southern Africa. A regional perspective on climate-induced migration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available , managing authorised movements, and controlling irregular flows. 6Geography of research 7Project purpose and aims • This project focuses on the regional, national and sub-national policy landscape and the preparedness of Southern African countries... in the case study areas identified. 3. To develop local adaptive management strategies for environmental refugees in the case study areas identified. 8Project scales Descriptors Global / regional National Sub-national / Local Unit of analysis SADC region...

  7. Inconsistencies of Breast Cancer Risk Factors between the Northern and Southern Regions of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jennifer K; Do, Thuan Doan; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-10-26

    Background: In recent decades the amount of new breast cancer cases in the southern region has been reported to increase more rapidly than in the northernVietnam. The aim of this study is to compare breast cancer risk factors between the two regions and establish if westernized influences have an impact on any reported differences. Method: Data was collected from the two largest oncology hospitals in the north and the south of Vietnam in 2015. Breast density, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle data of 127 cases and 269 controls were collected in the north and 141 cases and 250 controls were gathered from the south. Baseline differences in factors between cases and age-matched controls in each region were assessed using chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Odds ratios (OR) for independent risk factors for breast cancer were obtained from conditional logistic regression. Results: In northern Vietnam significantly increased risks in developing breast cancer were observed for women with age at first menstrual period less than 14 years old (OR=2.1; Pcup of coffee per day (OR=1.9; P<0.05) were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer. Conclusion: We found that women living in the south had some breast cancer associations, such as increased mammographic density and coffee consumption, which are closer to the risks in westernized populations than women in the north. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  9. Water resources management in southern Europe: clues for a research and innovation based regional hypercluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G; Brito, A G; Nogueira, R; Ureña, M; Fernández, D; Luque, F J; Alcácer, C

    2013-04-15

    European countries are facing increasing pressures on their water resources despite stringent regulations and systematic efforts on environmental protection. In this context, research and innovation play a strategic role reinforcing the efficiency of water policies. The present study provides a multilevel assessment of research and innovation practices in the field of water resource management in southern European countries and regions (more specifically; Cyprus, Albania, Poitou-Charentes in France, Andalusia in Spain and the North of Portugal). The analysis was based on a strategic framework aimed at gaining an insight of the current constraints, as well as of the existing and future technological solutions for a better water resource management. The triple helix model proved to be a useful analytical framework for assessing the efforts of different groups towards a common goal. The analysis proved the existence of a significant evolution in the use of technological tools to assist decision-making processes in integrated river basin management in all regions. Nevertheless, the absence of formal channels for knowledge and data exchange between researchers and water resource managers complicates the formers involvement in the decision-making process regarding water allocation. Both researchers and consultants emphasize the low availability of data, together with the need to advance on water resource economics as relevant constraints in the field. The SWOT analysis showed similar concerns among the participating regions and provided a battery of effective projects that resulted in the preparation of a Joint Action Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  11. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  12. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  13. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria; Valutazioni economiche ed energetiche di interventi di smaltimento di penumatici fuori uso in Calabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, Gaetano [Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Meccanica; Cersosimo, Attilio

    1997-05-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated.

  14. Prediction of Climatic Change for the Next 100 Years in the Apulia Region, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Todorovic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on water resources and use for agricultural production has become a critical question for sustainability. Our objective was investigate the impact of the expected climate changes for the next 100 years on the water balance variations, climatic classifications, and crop water requirements in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. The results indicated that an increase of temperature, in the range between 1.3 and 2,5 °C, is expected in the next 100 years. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo variations would follow a similar trend; as averaged over the whole region, the ETo increase would be about 15.4%. The precipitation will not change significantly on yearly basis although a slight decrease in summer months and a slight increase during the winter season are foreseen. The climatic water deficit (CWD is largely caused by ETo increase, and it would increase over the whole Apulia region in average for more than 200 mm. According to Thornthwaite and Mather climate classification, the moisture index will decrease in the future, with decreasing of humid areas and increasing of aridity zones. The net irrigation requirements (NIR, calculated for ten major crops in the Apulia region, would increase significantly in the future. By the end of the 21st Century, the foreseen increase of NIR, in respect to actual situation, is the greatest for olive tree (65%, wheat (61%, grapevine (49%, and citrus (48% and it is slightly lower for maize (35%, sorghum (34%, sunflower (33%, tomato (31%, and winter and spring sugar beet (both 27%.

  15. Deciphering interaction of regional aquifers in Southern Tunisia using hydrochemistry and isotopic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, Kamel; Dulinski, Marek; Ammar, Friha Hadj; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Zouari, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is the most important source of water supply in southern Tunisia. Previous hydrogeologic and isotopic studies carried out in this region revealed the existence of two major aquifer systems: the “Complex Terminal” (CT) and the “Continental Intercalaire” (CI). Turonian carbonates constitute one of the major aquifer levels of the CT multilayered aquifer. It extends over most of southern Tunisia, and its hydrodynamic regime is largely influenced by tectonics, lithology and recharge conditions. Forty-eight groundwater samples from the CI and Turonian aquifers were collected between January and April 2004 for chemical and isotopic analyses. Hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling chemical composition of groundwater and wide-scale interaction of these two aquifer systems. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes control the observed chemical composition: (i) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals, (ii) dissolution of evaporitic minerals, and (iii) cation exchange. Dissolution alone cannot account for the observed high supersaturation states of groundwater with respect to calcite and dolomite. The observed supersaturation is most probably linked to geogenic CO 2 entering water-bearing horizons of the CT and CI aquifers via deep tectonic faults and discontinuities and subsequent degassing in the exploitation wells. Presence of geogenic CO 2 in the investigated region was confirmed by C isotope data of the DIC reservoir. The radiocarbon content of the Turonian samples varied between 9.5 and 43 pmc. For CI samples generally lower values were recorded, between 3.8 and 22.5 pmc. Stable isotope composition of Turonian groundwater samples varied from −8.3 to −5.3‰ for δ 18 O and from −60 to −25‰ for δ 2 H. The corresponding ranges of δ values for the Continental Intercalaire samples were from −8.9‰ to −6.9‰ for δ 18 O and from −68.2‰ to

  16. [Tobacco cultivationin Salento (Apulia Region, Southern Italy) from 1929 to 1993: possible health implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Minelli, Pierluca; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2018-01-01

    The Province of Lecce (Apulia Region, Southern Italy) is one of the Italian areas where the prevalence of respiratory disease and cancer of the respitartory tract is very high. Through a descriptive analysis of the historical series of tobacco culture indicators, a historical reconstruction of the development of tobacco cultivation in Salento (the area where the Province of Lecce is located) is here presented, in order to provide an additional element of knowledge on potential risk factors for respiratory diseases and cancers. Data regarding extensions in hectares and crop productions in the province of Lecce, in Apulia, and in Italy are from the Chamber of commerce of Lecce province and from the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). From 1929 to 1993, the province of Lecce provided between 75% and 94% of the tobacco cultivated in Apulia Region and 25% of the national tobacco until 1945. Since the late Sixties, a growing increase in annual average production was observed, reaching 21.5 quintals per hectare in 1991 in Salento. This large tobacco production, associated with intensive use of pesticides, could be an element to be observed in analytical studies as a determining potential for the high prevalence of respiratory diseases and pulmonary cancers in the male population of the province of Lecce.

  17. [Incidence and mortality of children and teenagers with AIDS: challenges in the southern region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio Cristiano de; Ferraz, Rosemeire de Olanda; Nascimento, Juliana Luporini do; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the time trend of coefficients of incidence and mortality associated with AIDS in children and adolescents. An ecological time trend study was conducted among individuals under 14 living in the regional context of high incidence of AIDS - Porto Alegre and the State of Rio Grande do Sul - from 1996 to 2012. For this purpose, a segmented regression model was adjusted for age categories and place of residence. AIDS morbidity and mortality indicators in Porto Alegre are still higher than those registered in the State, the southern region and other areas of the country. In Porto Alegre, 59.1% of cases (371/628) occurred in children under four years of age, the incidence showed peaks in the period and the mortality dropped from 9 to 2 per 100,000. A significant decreasing in annual percentage change in mortality was observed especially in children under 1 year of age in Porto Alegre. This drop may be related to prevention and treatment of pregnant women. The challenge is to identify possible fragilities of the STD/AIDS Program and its vulnerable points in order to make specific interventions and investments with a greater impact potential.

  18. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  19. Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, Hugo José Oliveira; do Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Zonta, Everaldo; Luisi, Marcus Vinícius; Marcon, Gracioso; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Only a few studies have assessed the joint incorporation of heavy metals into agricultural systems based on the range of agrochemicals used on a specific agricultural crop. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals input through application of the main agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields. A total of 56 samples of different batches of 5 fertilizers, 3 substrates, 8 insecticides, 3 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 1 growth regulator commonly used in the cultivation of tobacco in Brazil's Southern Region were collected from 3 warehouses located in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. The total As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content of the samples was then determined and compared with the regulations of different countries and information found in the available literature. The fertilizers were identified as the primary source of heavy metals among the agrochemicals used. Application of pesticides directly to the shoots of tobacco plants contributed very little to the supply of heavy metals. The agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields provide lower inputs of the main heavy metals that are nonessential for plants than those registered in the international literature for the majority of crop fields in different regions of the world.

  20. The water masses and volumetry of the southern Agulhas Current region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, H. R.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; Brundrit, G. B.

    1993-06-01

    It has been suggested that the southern termination of the Agulhas Current plays a crucial role in the global circulation of thermocline water and thus in global climate. Due to a lack of modern hydrographic observations in this region, no detailed description of water masses or a fine-scale volumetric census for this geographic area had been carried out. Such an analysis of a collection of recent high-quality hydrographic measurements shows that the warm, saline, surface water of Agulhas Current origin contributes very little to the overall volume of the upper 1500 m of the water column in the area. Occasional equatorward leakages from south of the Subtropical Convergence are represented by a range of low-salinity outliers, but they represent <1% of the total volume. The distribution of water volume in temperature/salinity space for the Agulhas Retroflection is less diverse that that of the world ocean as a whole, 25% of the total volume of the region being contained in only 21 fine-scale temperature/salinity classes. North Atlantic Deep Water is the dominant water mass, accounting for 40% of the total volume. Deep Water in general accounts for 60% of the total volume.

  1. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  2. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  3. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  4. A regional benthic fauna assessment method for the Southern North Sea using Margalef diversity and reference value modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Willem M.G.M.; Walvoort, Dennis J.J.; Hoey, van Gert; Vina-Herbon, Christina; Blandon, Abigayil; Pesch, Roland; Schmitt, Petra; Scholle, Jörg; Heyer, Karin; Lavaleye, Marc; Phillips, Graham; Duineveld, Gerard C.A.; Blomqvist, Mats

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study are to develop an optimized method for regional benthic fauna assessment of the Southern North Sea which (a) is sensitive and precise (quantified as the slope and the R2 value of the pressure-impact relationships, respectively) for the anthropogenic pressures bottom fishing

  5. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2017-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  6. Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baban; I. Gamaliy.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with analysis of hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region. Systematization of the investigated water bodies was performed by the authors on the basis of previously developed classification and typing of water reservoirs.

  7. Correlation and origin of carnotite occurrences in the southern Nevada region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Carnotite [K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (VO 4 ) 2 .3H 2 O] is recognized at seven localities in the southern Nevada region. These general areas of occurrence are the Jean-Sloan Calcrete, Hidden Valley Calcrete, Hualapai Limestone, Boulder City ''fossil water table'', Horse Spring Formation type locality, Mormon Mesa Caliche, and exposures of the Willow Tank thrust fault. The carnotite occurrences pre-date the 3.80 MY (million years before present) basalt at Sandy Pint, post-date an 8.66 MY tuff that underlies the Hualapai Limestone, and are approximately coeval with the 5.84 MY Fortification Basalt. Analysis of the Th/U ratios from 2045 dry stream sediment samples collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program indicates uranium depletion in Precambrian terrain of the region and enrichment in areas where carnotite is observed. Anomalous vanadium in dry stream sediment samples is associated with intermediate and mafic Cenozoic volcanic rocks of pre-Colorado River age, and to a lesser extent with uratic Precambrian rocks. Correlation of the Jean-Sloan Calcrete, Hidden Valley Calcrete, Mormon Mesa Caliche, Hualapai Limestone, and Boulder City ''fossil water table'' is proposed based on elevation, relief, and inferred common age and origin. Carnotite studies have provided recognition criteria for facies of a regional geomorphic surface that formed in association with sluggish shallow groundwater flow in axial drainage systems in the Late Miocene. Carnotite and gypsum were deposited in disrupted by normal faulting and climatic conditions become increasingly arid 5-6 MY ago. Major geologic events that approximately coincide with the formation of the carnotite occurrences include the Messinian Crisis, opening of the Gulf of California, and uplift of the Sierra Nevada

  8. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  9. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in El Hicha region, Gabes, southern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M.F.; Ben Kraiem, H.; Mahjoub, A.; Labidi, B.; Ghoudi, R.; Hamrouni, H.; Nasr, H.; Zouari, K.; Froehlich, K.; Sajjad, M.I.; Garcia-Agudo, E.

    2002-01-01

    The groundwater study area is located in the southern part of Tunisia at some kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea, about 35 km north of the town Gabes. It extends over 300 km 2 and is bounded by the Gulf of Gabes in the East, El Hamma in the West and Skhira in the North. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with an average annual rainfall of about 180 mm and a potential evaporation of 2130 mm per year. The groundwater resources of the region are represented by four hydrogeological units: the Continental Intercalaire, the Sfax Aquifer, the Jeffara Aquifer and the shallow aquifer of El Hicha. The dug wells and boreholes used for groundwater abstraction in this region reach depths between a few meters and about 170m. The upper zone of 50m depths is formed by sandy clay and gypsum, and the lower zone of 50 to 70m depths consists of sandy layers. The salinity measured in groundwater samples from this area is rather high; the values range between 5 and 7g/l. Since the water will be used to grow salt-tolerant plants, it is important to know the origin of the groundwater (to assess its availability) and the source(s) of its salinity. To this end, groundwater samples for isotope and chemical analysis were taken from 6 dug wells, 6 boreholes (one of them is an artesian well), a spring and a drainage canal. Each site was sampled in March, June, July, September and December 1999. During these sampling campaigns, in-situ measurements of temperature and electrolytic conductivity were carried out

  10. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  11. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Male Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  12. Stature and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements of both gender Adolescents from Southern Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Arifi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of Southern region Kosovan adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the stature of adolescents from Southern region as well relationship between arm span and stature in both Kosovar genders. A total measured subject participated in this research was 225 out of which (105 girls and 120 boys, females average of age is 18.36±0.50 years old (range 18-20 years and for male 18.40±0.55 years old (range 18-20 years.The anthropometric measurements were done by trained people and were taken according to the ISAK manual. Relationship between stature and arm span has been analyzed by the simple correlation coeffi cient at a 95% confi dence interval. The linear regression analysis was carried out to examine extent to which arm span can reliably predict of stature. Statistical importance was placed at level p<0.05. As a result anthropometric measurements for both sexes showed that the average of stature for boys adolescents from Southern region are 178.60±5.73 centimeters and have the arm span average of 180.92±6.92 centimeters, while girls from Southern 165.33±4.45 centimeters tall, and have the arm span average of 165.60±6.03 centimeters. The results have shown that the arm span was estimated as a reliable indicator of stature assessment to the both genders adolescents from Southern region of Kosovo population. This study also confi rms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo.

  13. Evaluating terrestrial water storage variations from regionally constrained GRACE mascon data and hydrological models over Southern Africa – Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    2010-01-01

    ). In this paper we explore an experimental set of regionally constrained mascon blocks over Southern Africa where a system of 1.25° × 1.5° and 1.5° × 1.5° blocks has been designed. The blocks are divided into hydrological regions based on drainage patterns of the largest river basins, and are constrained...... Malawi with water level from altimetry. Results show that weak constraints across regions in addition to intra-regional constraints are necessary, to reach reasonable mass variations....

  14. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  15. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  16. The regional geological and structural setting of the uraniferous granitic provinces of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, R.E.; Corner, B.; Brynard, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-bearing granites, comprising both potentially economic deposits and source rocks for uranium deposits is duricrustal and sedimentary sequences, are confined chiefly to the mobile belts of Southern Africa and to the Cape granites emplaced during late Precambrian times. The direct uranium potential of the mobile belts, i.e. the Damara, Namaqua-Natal and Limpopo belts, decreases with an increase in the age of associated ensialic diastrophism. This review paper is thus mainly confined to the Damara Belt, although a brief discussion of the potential of the Namaqua Belt is presented. Aspects of the Damara Belt that are discussed in detail, with particular reference to the occurrence of uraniferous granite, include regional tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and the patterns and origin of the uranium mineralization. Initial concentrations of uranium in basement and Nosib rocks have led, through ultrametamorphism and fractionation, to uraniferous granites of both economic and sub-economic grade. These granites, in turn, have acted as source of secondary mineralization in overlying superficial calcareous and gypsiferous deposits. The Damara Belt thus provides a good example of multicyclic processes of ore formation. With regard to the uraniferous granites of Namaqualand it is concluded that the porphyroblastic gneisses and late-intrusive Concordia granites, although not of direct economic interest, represent major sources of uranium for secondary superficial deposits. Smaller bodies of late-phase differentiates associated with the Concordia granitic gneiss may themselves, however, represent potentially economically viable deposits

  17. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Charles; Masuka, Nyasha; Hazangwe, Patrick; Choto, Regis C.; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Nkomo, Brilliant; Sibanda, Edwin; Mugurungi, Owen; Siziba, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART. PMID:28352474

  18. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe C. Takarinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84% were new cases compared with 314 (16% retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78% TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282. Overall, 428 (22% TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

  19. Restricted regions of enhanced growth of Antarctic krill in the circumpolar Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eugene J; Thorpe, Sally E; Tarling, Geraint A; Watkins, Jonathan L; Fielding, Sophie; Underwood, Philip

    2017-07-31

    Food webs in high-latitude oceans are dominated by relatively few species. Future ocean and sea-ice changes affecting the distribution of such species will impact the structure and functioning of whole ecosystems. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean food webs, but there is little understanding of the factors influencing its success throughout much of the ocean. The capacity of a habitat to maintain growth will be crucial and here we use an empirical relationship of growth rate to assess seasonal spatial variability. Over much of the ocean, potential for growth is limited, with three restricted oceanic regions where seasonal conditions permit high growth rates, and only a few areas around the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula suitable for growth of the largest krill (>60 mm). Our study demonstrates that projections of impacts of future change need to account for spatial and seasonal variability of key ecological processes within ocean ecosystems.

  20. Understanding resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability in the Southern Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Mekuyie

    Full Text Available Change in climate and climate extremes are acknowledged as a vital challenge to pastoral production systems. Alternative systems that are accessible to a household in order to make a living could determine the household’s resilience at a given point in time. This study was conducted in the Southern Afar region in Ethiopia to understand the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. A household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions were employed to collect primary data at household level. A total of 250 pastoral households were sampled using stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The resilience of households to climate shocks and stresses was determined using a two-step modelling approach by clustering households into livelihood groups, gender and districts. The results indicated that agro-pastoral households were more resilient than pastoralists to climate-induced shock. Furthermore, households in the Gewane district were more resilient than those in the Amibara district. Female-headed households were less resilient than male-headed households. Enhancing livestock assets and productivity, social safety nets, access to market, credit, extension services and education, improving irrigation crop farming, and providing farm inputs significantly enhanced the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. Keywords: Asset, Livelihood, Climate shock, Pastoralist, Resilience

  1. [Soil infiltration capacity under different vegetations in southern Ningxia Loess hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Shi-Wei; Lei, Ting-Wu; Liu, Han

    2008-05-01

    A new apparatus for measuring the run off-on-out under simulated rainfall conditions was used to study the soil infiltration capacity under different rainfall intensities and vegetations in loess hilly region of southern Ningxia, with the relationships between soil water-stable aggregate content and soil stable infiltration rate under different vegetations analyzed. The results showed that the regression equations between rainfall duration and soil infiltration rate under different vegetations all followed y = a + be(-cx), with R2 ranged from 0.9678 to 0.9969. With the increase of rainfall intensity, the soil stable infiltration rate on slope cropland decreased, while that on Medicago lupulina land, natural grassland, and Caragana korshinskii land increased. Under the rainfall intensity of 20 mm h(-1), the rainfall infiltration translation rate (RITR) was decreased in the order of M. lupulina land > slope cropland > natural grassland > C. korshinskii land; while under the rainfall intensity of 40 mm h(-1) and 56 mm h(-1), the RITR was in the sequence of M. lupulina land > natural grassland > slope cropland > C. korshinskii land, and decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. After the reversion of cropland to grassland and forest land, and with the increase of re-vegetation, the amount of >0.25 mm soil aggregates increased, and soil infiltration capacity improved. The revegetation in study area effectively improved soil structure and soil infiltration capacity, and enhanced the utilization potential of rainfall on slope.

  2. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Southern Fujian Golden Triangle in China Based on Regional Transportation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional transportation development (RTD is an important stressor of urban agglomeration ecosystems. Groundwater recharge potential may be adversely affected when natural soil is replaced by impervious materials. To systematically identify the urban agglomeration ecological risk (UAER of RTD in the southern Fujian Golden Triangle, water regulation was used as an assessment endpoint, and RTD was considered the stressor. We used the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN to analyze the internal relationship between the assessment endpoint and the stressor factors. Then, a multi-level risk characterization method was used to show the evolutionary process of risk, and to provide a scientific basis for the management of UAER. Based on the current RTD plan, the UAER assessment shows that there is a 0.90 probability of that the risk distribution results will occur by 2030. The intensity of stress from arterial roads on the urban agglomeration ecosystem is greater than that of the railway system. By considering the development of the railway system as a factor in the stress of RTD, this study of UAER assessment differs from past studies of urban ecological risk assessment, since the latter considers only highways. We also propose a systematic method of risk assessment simulation-prediction.

  3. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  4. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticides in drinking water in agricultural regions of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Kleywegt, Sonya; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2018-07-01

    Because of the persistence and solubility of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs), there is concern that these compounds may contaminate sources of drinking water. The objective of this project was to evaluate the distribution of NNIs in raw and treated drinking water from selected municipalities that draw their water from the lower Great Lakes in areas of southern Ontario, Canada where there is high intensity agriculture. Sites were monitored using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) and by collecting grab samples at six drinking water treatment plants. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid were detected in both POCIS and grab samples of raw water. The frequency of detection of NNIs was much lower in treated drinking water, but some compounds were still detected at estimated concentrations in the low ng L -1 range. Thiamethoxam was detected in one grab sample of raw drinking water at a mean concentration of 0.28 μg L -1 , which is above the guidelines for drinking water recommended in some jurisdictions, including the European Union directive on pesticide levels water intended for human consumption. Further work is required to determine whether contamination of sources of drinking water with this class of insecticides is a global problem in agricultural regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  7. [Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariottini, Yanina; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Lange, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10). Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S), eveness (E), dominance (J), and diversity index (H'). In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22 species of grasshoppers were collected, of which 21 belong to the family Acrididae. The subfamily Melanoplinae was the most diverse with eight species. The largest species richness was recorded in native grasslands (18). The different communities of grasshoppers had similar indices of evenness and dominance (p>0.05). Considering all plant communities, the average value of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.58+/-0.075. There was a positive correlation between evenness index and species richness (pgrasshoppers species richness, and diversity of grasshoppers. According to the qualitative indices applied, the similitude between different grasshopper communities was higher than 60%. In general, the species that had a higher frequency of occurrence showed greater

  8. Uranium-thorium dating of quaternary carbonate accumulations in the Nevada Test Site region, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, B.J.; Carr, W.J.; Gottschall, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A useful way to approach the problem of tectonic activity in an arid region is through study of the history of movement of faults and fractures and of the young alluvial material they displace. Easily datable materials are scarce in these deposits, but carbonates such as caliche, calcrete, travertine, calcite vein, and tufa are common. Several types of these carbonates from the Nevada Test Site area in the southern Great Basin have been collected and dated by the uranium-series method. A variety of geologic settings are represented. The carbonate samples were subjected to a complex treatment process, and the resulting preparations were counted on an alpha spectrometer. Some of the samples from obviously closed systems yielded reasonable ages; others gave only a minimum age for a material or event. Many of the ages obtained agree well with estimates of age determined from dated volcanic units, fault-scarp morphology, and displaced alluvial units. Among the significant ages obtained were three dates of greater than 400,000 years on calcite-filling fractures above and below the water table in an exploratory drill hole for a possible candidate nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain. Another date on calcrete from immediately below the youngest basalt in the region gave an age of 345,000 years, which agrees extremely well with the K-Ar age determined for the basalt of about 300,000 years. Undisturbed travertine that fills faults in several areas gave ages from about 75,000 years to greater than 700,000 years. Soil caliche and calcretes slightly displaced or broken by repeated movement on faults gave minimum ages in the range from more than 5000 to more than about 25,000 years

  9. Hemoglobinopathy: molecular epidemiological characteristics and health effects on Hakka people in the Meizhou region, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of hemoglobinopathies in Guangdong province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 15299 "healthy" unrelated subjects of dominantly ethnic Hakka in the Meizhou region, on which hemoglobin electrophoresis and routine blood tests were performed. Suspected cases with hemoglobin variants and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH were further characterized by PCR, DNA sequencing, reverse dot blot (RDB or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. In addition, 1743 samples were randomly selected from the 15299 subjects for thalassemia screening, and suspected thalassemia carriers were identified by PCR and RDB. RESULTS: The gene frequency of hemoglobin variants was 0.477% (73/15299. The five main subgroups of the ten hemoglobin variants were Hb E, Hb G-Chinese, Hb Q-Tahiland, Hb New York and Hb J-Bangkok. 277 cases (15.89%, 277/1743 of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCV<82 fl were found by thalassemia screening, and were tested by a RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 196 mutant chromosomes: including 124 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 72 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. These results give a heterozygote frequency of 11.24% for common α and β thalassemia in the Hakka population in the Meizhou region. 3 cases of HPFH/δβ-thalassemia were found, including 2 cases of Vietnamese HPFH (FPFH-7 and a rare Belgian( Gγ((Aγδβ⁰-thalassemia identified in Chinese. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in Hakka people of the Meizhou region. The estimated numbers of pregnancies each year in the Meizhou region, in which the fetus would be at risk for β thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart's hydrops fetalis, and Hb H disease, are 25 (95% CI, 15 to 38, 40 (95% CI

  10. Hemoglobinopathy: Molecular Epidemiological Characteristics and Health Effects on Hakka People in the Meizhou Region, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Wen, Ying-Fang; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Gui-Rong; Huang, Yue; Yang, Hui; Lin, Fen; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Lin, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hui-Tian; Weng, Qiu-Qing; Huang, Fen-Ting; Wang, Yuan; Yao, Mei-Qiong; Chen, Hui-Zhou; Wu, Di-Hong; Zeng, Jing-Bo; Zeng, Ri-Xin; Yang, Hua; Li, Gui-Cai; Lu, Min; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Xie, Long-Xu; Wang, Jun-Li; Yang, Li-Ye

    2013-01-01

    Background Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited diseases in southern China. However, there have been only a few epidemiological studies of hemoglobinopathies in Guangdong province. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 15299 “healthy” unrelated subjects of dominantly ethnic Hakka in the Meizhou region, on which hemoglobin electrophoresis and routine blood tests were performed. Suspected cases with hemoglobin variants and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) were further characterized by PCR, DNA sequencing, reverse dot blot (RDB) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In addition, 1743 samples were randomly selected from the 15299 subjects for thalassemia screening, and suspected thalassemia carriers were identified by PCR and RDB. Results The gene frequency of hemoglobin variants was 0.477% (73/15299). The five main subgroups of the ten hemoglobin variants were Hb E, Hb G-Chinese, Hb Q-Tahiland, Hb New York and Hb J-Bangkok. 277 cases (15.89%, 277/1743) of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCVthalassemia screening, and were tested by a RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 196 mutant chromosomes: including 124 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 72 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. These results give a heterozygote frequency of 11.24% for common α and β thalassemia in the Hakka population in the Meizhou region. 3 cases of HPFH/δβ-thalassemia were found, including 2 cases of Vietnamese HPFH (FPFH-7) and a rare Belgian Gγ(Aγδβ)0–thalassemia identified in Chinese. Conclusions Our results provide a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of hemoglobinopathies in Hakka people of the Meizhou region. The estimated numbers of pregnancies each year in the Meizhou region, in which the fetus would be at risk for β thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart’s hydrops fetalis, and Hb H disease, are 25 (95% CI, 15 to 38), 40 (95% CI, 26 to 57), and 15 (95% CI, 8 to

  11. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Hg(II)-methylation and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota inhabiting the Gulf of Mexico region. - This study, which presents the results of a landscape scale examination of methylmercury and total mercury cycling in southern Louisiana, shows that freshwater, brackish, and marine wetlands are important sites of methylmercury production, which could lead to increased fish Hg concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  12. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Hg(II)-methylation and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota inhabiting the Gulf of Mexico region. - This study, which presents the results of a landscape scale examination of methylmercury and total mercury cycling in southern Louisiana, shows that freshwater, brackish, and marine wetlands are important sites of methylmercury production, which could lead to increased fish Hg concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico region

  13. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  14. Range-edge genetic diversity: locally poor extant southern patches maintain a regionally diverse hotspot in the seagrass Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-04-01

    Refugial populations at the rear edge are predicted to contain higher genetic diversity than those resulting from expansion, such as in post-glacial recolonizations. However, peripheral populations are also predicted to have decreased diversity compared to the centre of a species' distribution. We aim to test these predictions by comparing genetic diversity in populations at the limits of distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina, with populations in the species' previously described central diversity 'hotspot'. Zostera marina populations show decreased allelic richness, heterozygosity and genotypic richness in both the 'rear' edge and the 'leading' edge compared to the diversity 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. However, when populations are pooled, genetic diversity at the southern range is as high as in the North Sea/Baltic region while the 'leading edge' remains low in genetic diversity. The decreased genetic diversity in these southern Iberian populations compared to more central populations is possibly the effect of drift because of small effective population size, as a result of reduced habitat, low sexual reproduction and low gene flow. However, when considering the whole southern edge of distribution rather than per population, diversity is as high as in the central 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. We conclude that diversity patterns assessed per population can mask the real regional richness that is typical of rear edge populations, which have played a key role in the species biogeographical history and as marginal diversity hotspots have very high conservation value. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 870 μm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+ emissions match well with the dust emission, implying a close link to their chemical evolution in the RMSs. We found that the abundance of N2H+ is one order of magnitude lower than that in other surveys of infrared dark clouds, and a positive correlation between the abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The fractional abundance of N2H+ with respect to H2 seems to decrease as a function of NL. These observed trends could be interpreted as an indication of enhanced destruction of N2H+, either by CO or through dissociative recombination with electrons produced by central UV photons.

  16. The development and decline of phytoplankton blooms in the southern Benguela upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.C.

    1986-10-01

    Productivity/chlorophyll a relationship are investigated with a view to estimating phytoplankton productivity from extensive chlorophyll a measurements in the southern Benguela region. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in newly upwelled water off the Cape Peninsula are investigated on five different occasions during the upwelling season. A drogue was used to tag a 'parcel' of upwelled water which was monitored for between 4 and 8 days. In upwelling source water, mean chlorophyll a concentrations were typically low (0.7 mg.m -3 ) and nutrient concentrations were high (nitrates, silicates and phosphates were 20.8, 16.6 and 1.88 mmol.m -3 respectively). Along the drogue tracks nutrients decreased rapidly in the euphotic zone as chlorophyll increased to peak at concentrations of up to 26 mg.m -3 . Elemental changes in nitrates, silicates, phosphates and oxygen were used to estimate primary productivity. These 'Redfield productivity estimates' were similar to 14 C-uptake productivity but lower than estimates obtained from changes in particle volume. Daily rates of 14 C-uptake water column productivity ranged between 0.94 and 14.01 g C.m -2 .d -1 (mean 3.80 g C.m -2 .d -1 ) and were similar to or higher than productivity estimates reported for other upwelling areas. Phytoplankton biomass in the upper 50 metres ranged between 8 and 506 mg chll a. m -2 (mean 208 mg chll a.m -2 ). The temporal scale of phytoplankton bloom development was investigated in terms of changes in chlorophyll a concentrations in the euphotic zone. The build up and decline of the primary phytoplankton (diatom) bloom in newly upwelled water occurred within 6-8 days. The initiation of blooming was controlled by the stability of the water body. The decline of the bloom was associated with reduced nutrient levels and is considered to result mainly from phytoplankton cells sinking out of the surface layers

  17. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Millie; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. METHODS: Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014. Demogra......OBJECTIVE: We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. METHODS: Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014....... Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). RESULTS: A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using...

  18. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Currie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing. A negative influence of IOD on chlorophyll concentrations is shown in a region around the southern tip of India in fall. IOD also depresses depth-integrated chlorophyll in the 5–10° S thermocline ridge region, yet the signal is negligible in surface chlorophyll. The only investigated region where ENSO has a greater influence on chlorophyll than does IOD, is in the Somalia upwelling region, where it causes a decrease in fall and winter chlorophyll by reducing local upwelling winds. Yet unlike most other regions examined, the combined explanatory power of IOD and ENSO in predicting depth-integrated chlorophyll anomalies is relatively low in this region, suggestive that other drivers are important there. We show that the chlorophyll impact of climate indices is frequently asymmetric, with a general tendency for larger positive than negative chlorophyll anomalies. Our results suggest that ENSO and IOD cause significant and predictable regional re-organisation of chlorophyll via their influence on near-surface oceanography. Resolving the details of these effects should improve our understanding, and eventually gain predictability, of interannual changes in Indian Ocean productivity, fisheries

  19. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Gaetano; Cersosimo, Attilio.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated

  20. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  1. Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and δ(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on δ(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  3. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  4. [Characteristics of soil phosphorous loss under different ecological planting patterns in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Wen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Ming-Gang; Dong, Chun-Hua; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu

    2013-11-01

    Taking a large standard runoff plot on a red soil slope in Qiyang County, southern Hunan Province as a case, this paper studied the surface soil phosphorus loss characteristics in the hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan under eight ecological planting patterns. The phosphorus loss from wasteland (T1) was most serious, followed by that from natural sloped cropping patterns (T2 and T3), while the phosphorus loss amount from terrace cropping patterns (T4-T8) was the least, only occupying 9.9%, 37%, 0.7%, 2.3%, and 1.9% of T1, respectively. The ecological planting patterns directly affected the forms of surface-lost soil phosphorus, with the particulate phosphorus (PP) as the main lost form. Under the condition of rainstorm (daily rainfall > 50 mm), rainfall had lesser effects on the phosphorus loss among different planting patterns. However, the phosphorus loss increased with increasing rain intensity. The surface soil phosphorus loss mainly occurred from June to September. Both the rainfall and the rain intensity were the factors directly affected the time distribution of surface soil phosphorus loss in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan.

  5. Is the Southern Benguela a significant regional sink of CO2?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregor, L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to characterise the seasonal cycle of air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(sub2)) in the southern Benguela upwelling system off the South African west coast. Samples were collected from six monthly cross-shelf cruises...

  6. Fe (III) speciation in the high nutrient, low chlorophyll Pacific region of the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Swagerman, M.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Fe speciation was measured with competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the Pacific part of the Southern Ocean between 58° and 68°30′S along the 90°W meridian. The conditional stability constant (K′ with respect to [Fe3+]) was between 10^20.6 and 10^21.6 when

  7. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  8. Pastoral community organization, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Mongolia's Southern Gobi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe processes and impacts of collective action by mobile pastoralist communities, and of external support strategies to strengthen local institutions and cooperation in Mongolia’s southern Gobi. The need for pastoral mobility triggered the processes leading to community organization, and the emergence, or re-emergence, of local informal...

  9. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminaries to a feasibility analysis of the Maglev proposal of the Southern California Association of Governments for the region : a seed grant study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-30

    This is a seed grant study to perform a preliminary investigation of the system components and : generalized costs of the magnetic levitation type of high speed rail system that is proposed for the : Southern California Region, TGVbased high speed...

  11. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  12. Separatist Conflicts in the ASEAN Region: Comparing Southern Thailand and Mindanao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupprecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two cases of separatist conflict, namely the conflict in Southern Thailand and the conflict in the southern Philippines. Both conflicts have been long-lasting, extremely violent, and embedded in ethnic and religious sentiments. The comparison shows that there are structural analogies in both conflict cases that indicate similar root causes. State-internal conflicts of this scale are not purely a matter of national politics. States and non-state actors have influenced – and are still influencing – both separatist conflicts in various ways and towards different outcomes. It becomes apparent that non-traditional security issues that are linked to state-internal conflicts demand a more proactive role of ASEAN in the field of conflict management.

  13. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using ...

  14. Small hydropower in Southern Africa: an overview of five countries in the region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available dif- ferent sources, but is incomplete and inconsistent. This lack of information severely hampers the abili- ty to learn from past experiences and creates a bar- rier to the uptake of the technology (Gaul et al., 2010). 14 Journal of Energy... of lack of infor- mation by providing an overview of the status of small hydropower in five southern African countries. Defining small hydropower No internationally agreed definitions exist for the different sizes of hydropower. A generic distinction...

  15. Mixed precipitation occurrences over southern Québec, Canada, under warmer climate conditions using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Dominic; Thériault, Julie M.; Laprise, René

    2018-05-01

    Winter weather events with temperatures near 0°C are often associated with freezing rain. They can have major impacts on the society by causing power outages and disruptions to the transportation networks. Despite the catastrophic consequences of freezing rain, very few studies have investigated how their occurrences could evolve under climate change. This study aims to investigate the change of freezing rain and ice pellets over southern Québec using regional climate modeling at high resolution. The fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model with climate scenario RCP 8.5 at 0.11° grid mesh was used. The precipitation types such as freezing rain, ice pellets or their combination are diagnosed using five methods (Cantin and Bachand, Bourgouin, Ramer, Czys and, Baldwin). The occurrences of the diagnosed precipitation types for the recent past (1980-2009) are found to be comparable to observations. The projections for the future scenario (2070-2099) suggested a general decrease in the occurrences of mixed precipitation over southern Québec from October to April. This is mainly due to a decrease in long-duration events (≥6 h ). Overall, this study contributes to better understand how the distribution of freezing rain and ice pellets might change in the future using high-resolution regional climate model.

  16. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  17. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  18. Fore-arc Deformation in the Paola Basin Segment (Offshore Western Calabria) of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, F.; Corradino, M.; Nicolich, R.; Barreca, G.; Bertotti, G.; Ferranti, L.; Monaco, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stratigraphic architecture and Late Neogene to Recent tectonic evolution of the Paola Basin (offshore western Calabria), a segment in the fore-arc of the Tyrrhenian-Ionian subduction system, is reconstructed by using a grid of high-penetration reflection seismics. Oligocene to Messinian deposits are interpreted all along the profile. They tend to fossilize preexisting topography and reach the largest thicknesses between (fault controlled) basement highs. Plio-Quaternary deposits are found over the entire area and display variations in thickness and tectonic style. They are thicken up to 4.5 km in the depocenter of the basin, and decrease both in the east and west termination of the lines. The Paola Basin can be partitioned into two sectors with different tectonic deformation, separated by a NNW-SSE elongated area that coincides with the basin depocenter. Tectonic features associated with strike-slip restraining and releasing bends are widely spread over the western sector of the basin. Overall, they form an approximately NS-trending and geomorphically prominent ridge separating the Paola Basin from the Marsili abyssal plain. A high-angle, NNE-trending, normal fault system develops on the south-west tip of the basin, where the faults offset the Messinian horizon of ca. 500 m. Data suggest that limited vertical slip occurs along reverse faults detected at the border and inside the sedimentary infilling of the Paola Basin, reaching thickness of more than 3.8s two way travel time. The reflection sequence pattern can be interpreted as a result of the infilling of the thrust-top basin related to a prograding system, located between a growth ramp-anticline to the west and a culmination of basement-thrust sheets to the East. We propose that the Paola Basin developed near the northern edge of the Ionian slab where tearing of the lithosphere is expected. Also, the strike-slip fault system is a kinematic consequence of obliquely convergent subduction settings, where

  19. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues; Solange Cassia Inforzato de Souza; Flavio Kaue Fiuza-Moura; Katy Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul). We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The ...

  20. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  1. Seasonal variation and trend of chicken pox in the southern region of Saudi Arabia (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Noha; Al Moghazy, Bassem

    2014-12-01

    Chicken pox is a contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. Children are most susceptible to infection. In 1998, the WHO recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health concern. There are few data on the trends of chicken pox. We aimed to evaluate the trend of chicken pox in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the period 2007-2012. Data were collected by retrospective review of the existing anonymous surveillance records and book registries of chicken pox cases at the preventive medicine department of Armed Forces Hospital of the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2012. The collected data included the number, age, and sex of registered cases. A seasonal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with peak in March and April. There was also a decreasing trend from 2007 to 2012. Most cases occurred in the age group 4-15 years. The number of infected male patients was a little higher compared with female patients. These results indicate success in controlling the disease in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, which may be attributed to the implementation of public health interventions targeted at reducing infectious diseases (such as the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine in 2008). We recommend that a future study be conducted on the severity of chicken pox infection in adults (hospitalization, complications, and death) and a national survey among adults for the seroprevalence of markers of infection with varicella zoster.

  2. Impact of increasing antarctic glacial freshwater release on regional sea-ice cover in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nacho; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Le Sommer, Julien; Goosse, Hugues; Mathiot, Pierre; Durand, Gael

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of Antarctic sea-ice to increasing glacial freshwater release into the Southern Ocean is studied in a series of 31-year ocean/sea-ice/iceberg model simulations. Glaciological estimates of ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving are used to better constrain the spatial distribution and magnitude of freshwater forcing around Antarctica. Two scenarios of glacial freshwater forcing have been designed to account for a decadal perturbation in glacial freshwater release to the Southern Ocean. For the first time, this perturbation explicitly takes into consideration the spatial distribution of changes in the volume of Antarctic ice shelves, which is found to be a key component of changes in freshwater release. In addition, glacial freshwater-induced changes in sea ice are compared to typical changes induced by the decadal evolution of atmospheric states. Our results show that, in general, the increase in glacial freshwater release increases Antarctic sea ice extent. But the response is opposite in some regions like the coastal Amundsen Sea, implying that distinct physical mechanisms are involved in the response. We also show that changes in freshwater forcing may induce large changes in sea-ice thickness, explaining about one half of the total change due to the combination of atmospheric and freshwater changes. The regional contrasts in our results suggest a need for improving the representation of freshwater sources and their evolution in climate models.

  3. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  4. Development of a decision support system for setting up a wind energy policy across the Walloon Region (southern Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejeune, P. [Unit of Forest and Nature Management, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Feltz, C. [Unit of Soil, Ecology and Territory, Gembloux Agricultural University, 2, Passage des Deportes, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    Wallonia (the region covering southern Belgium) is committed to making a significant increase in its wind-powered electricity production capacity by 2010. Therefore, a decision support system designed to evaluate and map environmental and landscape constraints fundamental to the building of wind farms was developed for the whole Walloon Region (17,000 km{sup 2}). This system is a geodatabase using 40 criteria (landscape or environmental) corresponding to three constraint levels (exclusion, highly sensitive and sensitive). This geodatabase also has analysis functions developed in the ArcGIS 9 software environment that are used to update the overall constraints map, to analyse sensitivity with respect to constraint criteria-defining parameters as well as to perform full diagnostic studies on wind farm projects. (author)

  5. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  6. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N.; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC

  7. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  8. Spatial and temporal changes in desertification in the southern region of the Tengger Desert from 1973 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Guan, Wenqian; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Wang, Lei; Song, Na; Lu, Min; Li, Fuchun

    2017-07-01

    The sandy land in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is adjacent to cities and towns, and land desertification poses a threat to the livelihood and production of local residents. To determine dynamic changes in local desertification, five periods (1973, 1987, 1992, 2001, and 2009) of remote sensing data are studied by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). The desert contraction area is primarily centered around three units (Wuwei, Gulang, and Jingtai) and nearby regions of Zhongwei City. The primary desert expansion areas include the west side of Helan Mountain (WSHM), the Central Mountainous Area (CMA), and the eastern and western Zhongwei units far from towns. From 1973 to 2009, the degree of change in the contracting part of the primary desert expansion unit showed an increasing trend; in brief, most of the desert (especially after 2001) has been developing in a direction in which desertification has been gradually controlled. The primary desert expansion areas are less affected by human activity, but they are primarily controlled by natural factors (especially wind and terrain). The desert contraction areas occur around the towns and nearby regions with frequent human activity; desertification is primarily controlled by human factors. With rapid economic development (especially after 2000), the scale of the cultivated area, town, and ecological protection engineering has gradually expanded, and the latter two are primarily built on a previous desert, which is the root cause of the reduction in the desert areas around the towns and the shrinkage toward north of border. Therefore, reasonable and effective human activity in the southern region of the Tengger Desert is playing a crucial role in preventing desertification.

  9. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Eggermont, Hilde

    2006-08-01

    Chironomid paleoecology in north-temperate regions has made tremendous progress over the past decade, but studies in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions remain relatively scarce. Reasons for this imbalance are (1) incomplete taxonomic knowledge of chironomid faunas outside Europe and North America, (2) a scarcity of ecological data on local species and genera that might confer bio-indicator value to them, and (3) logistic difficulties hampering the lake surveying necessary to develop paleoenvironmental calibration data sets. Thus far, most chironomid paleoecology in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions has relied on an indicator-species approach, combining autecological information on local species of which larval morphology is known with the traditional ecological typology of chironomid genera transferred from the Holarctic region. This paper reviews work accomplished to date in tropical and temperate South America, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand, including studies on various families of non-chironomid Diptera with diagnostic fossils. Research has focused mostly on late-Glacial and Holocene climate reconstruction, less on tracing past human disturbance of aquatic ecosystems and their drainage basins. Quantitative chironomid-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction has so far been done only in Australia and Africa. These studies compensated for the lack of traditional surface-sediment calibration data sets, nowadays often the main source of quantitative information on species ecological optima and tolerances, by maximally exploiting archival species-distribution data based on live collections of adult and/or larval midges. This stimulated efforts to achieve trustworthy species-level identification of fossil chironomid remains, and, as a result, the taxonomic resolution of paleoecological studies in Australia and Africa is higher on average than that achieved in European and North American studies.

  10. Geochronology of granitoids and gnaisses from the Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Itacaiunas river regions, southern Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvao, R.M.G. de; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Bezerra, P.E.L.; Prado, P.

    1984-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses occurring at Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Itacaiunas river regions, southern Para, underwent radiometric age determinations by Rb/Sr method using conventional isochrons. Results obtained from the Rio Maria and Mata Geral farm regions allowed te establishment of a reference 2,600 my Rb/Sr isochron with an initial Sr 87 /Sr 86 ratio of 0.7009. This result resembles the one obtained for granitoids and gneisses hosting rocks of the Serra do Inaja greenstone belt, located some what south of this area, which yielded, in Rb/Sr isochron, a radiometric age of 2,696 + - 79 my with an initial Sr 87 /Sr 86 ratio of 0.701. Results obtained from the Itacaiunas river region allowed for the establishment of a Rb/Sr referential isochron of 2,480 + - 40 my wth an initial Sr 87 /.Sr 86 ratio of 0.7072. Due to low initial ratios, it is suggested that the rocks from the Rio Maria, Mata Geral farm and Serra do Inaja regions formed from Mafic crust or superior mantle reworking, while those from the Itacaiunas river region, due to a high initial ratio, result from reworking at high crustal levels. (Author) [pt

  11. Large-scale indicators for monitoring forest diversity of the main forest types in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infusino M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Society’s perception of forest resources has gone through significant changes. Forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role and host an important portion of the whole biodiversity, particularly in the Mediterranean area. Remote sensing technologies provide a unique way to obtain spatially extensive information on forest ecosystems, but relatively few studies used such information to evaluate forest habitat and biotic diversity. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensing to predict forest diversity by linking remotely sensed information with diversity metrics obtained from ground measurements of butterfly diversity. The field work was carried out in Calabria in four different forest types (beech, chestnut, black pine and silver fir forests. The sampling of Lepidoptera was carried out by LED light traps. We positioned 9 traps per forest type, for a total of 36 sites chosen to sample the different stages of forest succession in each forest type. Samples were carried out once a month from May to November 2015. Data from in situ butterfly measurements were compared with above ground forest biomass estimated from airborne LiDAR with NDVI estimated from Landsat 8. Results indicated that the Geometridae/Noctuideae ratio of lepidopteran communities was significantly correlated with the tree biomass, its distribution among tree size classes and the NDVI. The Geometridae/Noctuidae ratio, therefore, represents an index easy to calculate, which can be employed to integrate data acquired from remote sensing in order to obtain continuous spatial estimates of forest naturalness.

  12. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  13. Vegetation recovery after fire in the Klamath-Siskiyou region, southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, David; Jacobs, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In July 2002, lightning strikes started five forest fires that merged into one massive wildfire in the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion of southern Oregon. Aided by drought, severe weather conditions, dry fuels, and steep topography, the fire grew to more than 200,000 hectares of mostly public forest land. Known as the Biscuit Fire, it was Oregon's largest forest fire in more than 130 years and one of the largest wildfires on record in the United States. Discussions centered around why such a massive fire was happening, how large would it become, who was keeping communities and homes safe, and what would be the final economic and ecological outcome. Weeks later when the fire was out, conversations turned to other questions, including what, if anything, should happen for forest recovery.

  14. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  15. Regional disaster risk management strategies for food security: Probing Southern African Development Community channels for influencing national policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy M. Tirivangasi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and food insecurity are directly interconnected. Climate change related hazards such as floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, droughts and other risks can weaken food security and severely impact agricultural activities. Consequently, this has an impact on market access, trade, food supply, reduced income, increased food prices, decreased farm income and employment. Natural disasters create poverty, which in turn increases the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. It is clear that disasters put food security at risk. The poorest people in the community are affected by food insecurity and disasters; hence, there is a need to be prepared as well as be in a position to manage disasters. Without serious efforts to address them, the risks of disasters will become an increasingly serious obstacle to sustainable development and the achievement of sustainable development goals, particularly goal number 2 ‘end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’. In recent years, countries in southern Africa have experienced an increase in the frequency, magnitude and impact of climate change–related hazards such as droughts, veld fire, depleting water resources and flood events. This research aims to reveal Southern African Development Community disaster risk management strategies for food security to see how they an influence and shape policy at the national level in southern Africa. Sustainable Livelihood approach was adopted as the main theoretical framework for the study. The qualitative Analysis is based largely on data from databases such as national reports, regional reports and empirical findings on the disaster management–sustainable development nexus.

  16. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (MLENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE-dipping fault between 2-5 km depth in the carbonate reservoir. The fault measures 5 km along dip and corresponds to a pre-existing thrust fault favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional field.

  17. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of energy poverty intensity from the perspective of the regional administration: Empirical evidence from households in southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, Sabina; Rivera-Torres, Pilar; Suárez-Perales, Inés; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The current economic situation has increased the number of households in Europe experiencing restrictions and/or limitations of affordability of energy services, demonstrating the urgent need to intervene in those extreme cases in which households suffer the daily consequences of what is internationally defined as energy poverty. In such a context, this paper presents the results obtained in a case study characterising a sample of 615 households with demonstrated energy poverty in the region of Aragón (Spain). In parallel, the intensity of energy poverty in the studied cases is examined by measuring the percentage of energy expenditures with respect to income in the households that suffer it, and a descriptive analysis of the main determinants of energy poverty in the homes studied is presented as well as the policy implication at regional level. - Highlights: • New approach to energy poverty through the collaboration with social services. • Regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed at the regional level. • Household's conditions in accredited energy poverty have been measured. • A comprehensive analysis of the energy poverty at Regional level in the Southern Europe.

  19. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both

  20. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Iron fertilization and the structure of planktonic communities in high nutrient regions of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéguiner, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    In this review article, plankton community structure observations are analyzed both for artificial iron fertilization experiments and also for experiments dedicated to the study of naturally iron-fertilized systems in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean in the POOZ (Permanently Open Ocean Zone) and the PFZ (Polar Frontal Zone). Observations made in natural systems are combined with those from artificially perturbed systems, in order to evaluate the seasonal evolution of pelagic communities, taking into account controlling factors related to the life cycles and the ecophysiology of dominant organisms. The analysis considers several types of planktonic communities, including both autotrophs and heterotrophs. These communities are spatially segregated owing to different life strategies. A conceptual general scheme is proposed to account for these observations and their variability, regardless of experiment type. Diatoms can be separated into 2 groups: Group 1 has slightly silicified fast growing cells that are homogeneously distributed in the surface mixed layer, and Group 2 has strongly silicified slowly growing cells within discrete layers. During the growth season, Group 1 diatoms show a typical seasonal succession of dominant species, within time windows of development that are conditioned by physical factors (light and temperature) as well as endogenous specific rhythms (internal clock), and biomass accumulation is controlled by the availability of nutrients. Group 1 diatoms are not directly grazed by mesozooplankton which is fed by protozooplankton, linking the microbial food web to higher trophic levels. Instead, successive dominant species of Group 1 are degraded via bacterial activity at the end of their growth season. Organic detritus fragments feed protozooplankton and mesozooplankton. The effective silicon pump leads to the progressive disappearance of silicic acid in surface waters. In contrast, Group 2 is resistant to grazing

  2. [Altitudinal distribution, richness and composition of bird assemblages in a mountainous region in Southern Nayarit, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Escalante, Nidia Gissell; Figueroa-Esquivel, Elsa Margarita; Villaseñor Gómez, José Fernando; Jacobo-Sapien, Edwin Alberto; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Elevation gradient studies have strengthened the evaluation of changes in richness and composition of bird assemblages. They also provide information on environmental variables that determine bird distribution, and the variables that define their population structure. Our aim was to describe their variation through an elevational cline in Southern Nayarit, Mexico. To analyze the behavior of richness across the gradient, we gathered information through point counts in nine elevational intervals (300 m from each other) from sea level to 2 700 m of elevation. With a standardized sampling effort, we produced rarefaction curves and analyzed changes in species composition by hierarchical classification using the TWINSPAN technique. In order to identify variables associated with richness changes, we examined the effect of precipitation and habitat structure via regression trees. An analysis of nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was implemented with the purpose to determine if the changes in composition correspond to changes in vegetation types. Species richness varied significantly across the gradient: high in the lower parts of the gradient, reached its peak in the middle, and decreased monotonically with elevation. Species responded to changes in the cline and were grouped in three elevational zones. Analyses suggest that changes in richness and species composition are influenced by vegetation, its structure and precipitation regime, as well as various aspects related to habitat features and disturbance. These aspects should be taken into account in order to design appropriate strategies for the conservation of the birds of Nayarit.

  3. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y

    2009-01-01

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr -1 . It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  4. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  5. Population study of the Hawksbill Turtle eretmochelys imbricata (Cheloniidae) in the southern pacific region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobon Lopez, Alexander; Amorocho Llanos, Diego Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine biological and ecological population characteristics of the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) found in the southern Colombian Pacific Department of Cauca. Morphometric measurements were recorded, the health status of individuals was reviewed, and blood samples were taken for a biochemistry assessment. During the seven months of the investigation, 25 hawksbill turtles were caught (16 different individuals) on the reefs of Gorgona Natural National Park. Forty-six percent of the total numbers of turtles assessed were recaptured during the study period. While no obvious health problems were noted, most animals possessed epibionts and filamentous algae covering the carapace, some parts of the limbs, as well as on their neck. Curved carapace length (CCL) showed the highest proportion of individuals were between 37 and 45 cm. Sixteen individuals captured in Gorgona Natural National Park were compared with 11 individuals captured in the coastal zone of the Department of Cauca. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference in CCL was found between these two groups; the animals from Gorgona National Park were larger than those present on the coast of the mainland (Z = -2.59, p = 0.007). Uric acid concentrations were found to be higher than previously referenced values.

  6. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  7. Investigating correlations of local seismicty with anomalous geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals jointly recorded in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results analysing the correlation between local seismicity and geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geochemical signals concomitantly recorded in Basilicata Region, one of the most seismically active areas in Southern Italy. The signals were recorded by two stations: Tito and Tramutola. Tito station measures vertically the Self-Potential field (SP by an array of five no-polarizable electrodes equally spaced with the common electrode at 20 m depth as well as water-level, water-temperature and electrical-conductivity. Tramutola station measures self-potential signals in soil surface, gas flow and water temperature in a thermal-water well, as well as atmospheric barometric pressure and ambient temperature. Correlations were found between the sharp variability of the signals recorded by both stations and the seismic sequence that occurred on September 3 to 4, 2004, allowing us to link these anomalies with the tectonic evolution of the investigated area.

  8. A 3400 year paleolimnological record of prehispanic human–environment interactions in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Estrada-Belli, Francisco; Anderson, Lysanna

    2015-01-01

    The timing, magnitude and drivers of late Holocene environmental change in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands are examined by combining paleoenvironmental and archeological data. Environmental proxy analyses on a ~ 3350 cal yr lacustrine sediment record include pollen, charcoal, loss on ignition, magnetic suscep- tibility, and elemental geochemistry. Archeological evidence is derived from extensive settlement surveys conducted near the study site. Results indicate nearby settlement and agricultural activity taking place in an environment characterized by open forest from around 3350 to 950 cal yr BP. The fire history shows a dramatic increase in burning during the Classic period, possibly reflecting changing agricultural strategies. A distinct band of carbonate deposited from 1270 to 1040 cal yr BP suggests decreased hydrologic input associated with drier conditions. Abrupt changes in proxy data around 940 cal yr BP indicate a cessation of human disturbance and local abandonment of the area.

  9. MICB gene diversity and balancing selection on its promoter region in Yao population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xuexiang; Wei, Xiaomou; Meng, Yuming; Liu, Limin; Qin, Shini; Liu, Yanyu; Dai, Shengming

    2016-12-01

    To comprehensively examine the MICB gene polymorphism and identify its differences in Chinese Yao population from other ethnic groups, we investigated the polymorphism in the 5'-upstream regulation region (5'-URR), coding region (exons 2-4), and the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of MICB gene by using PCR-SBT method in 125 healthy unrelated Yao individuals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Higher polymorphism was observed in the 5'-URR, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a two base pairs deletion at position -139/-138 were found in our study. Only five different variation sites, however, were detected in exons 2-4 and three were observed in the 3'-UTR. The minor allele frequencies of all variants were greater than 5%, except for rs3828916, rs3131639, rs45627734, rs113620316, rs779737471, and the variation at position +11803 in the 3'-UTR. The first nine SNPs of 5'-URR and rs1065075, rs1051788 of the coding region showed significant linkage disequilibrium with each other. Ten different MICB extended haplotypes (EH) encompassing the 5'-URR, exons 2-4, and 3'-UTR were found in this population, and the most frequent was EH1 (23.2%). We provided several evidences for balancing selection effect on the 5'-URR of MICB gene in Yao population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  11. Anomalous intraseasonal events in the thermocline ridge region of Southern Tropical Indian Ocean and their regional impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2012-03-01

    The present study explores the mechanisms responsible for the strong intraseasonal cooling events in the Thermocline Ridge region of the southwestern Indian Ocean. Air sea interface and oceanic processes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation are studied using an Ocean General Circulation Model and satellite observations. Sensitivity experiments are designed to understand the ocean response to intraseasonal forcing with a special emphasis on 2002 cooling events, which recorded the strongest intraseasonal perturbations during the last well-observed decade. This event is characterized by anomalous Walker circulation over the tropical Indian Ocean and persistent intraseasonal heat flux anomaly for a longer duration than is typical for similar events (but without any favorable preconditioning of ocean basic state at the interannual timescale). The model heat budget analysis during 1996 to 2007 revealed an in-phase relationship between atmospheric fluxes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation and the subsurface oceanic processes during the intense cooling events of 2002. The strong convection, reduced shortwave radiation and increased evaporation have contributed to the upper ocean heat loss in addition to the slower propagation of active phase of convection, which supported the integration of longer duration of forcing. The sensitivity experiments revealed that dynamic response of ocean through entrainment at the intraseasonal timescale primarily controls the biological response during the event, with oceanic interannual variability playing a secondary role. This study further speculates the role of oceanic intraseasonal variability in the 2002 droughts over Indian subcontinent.

  12. Origin and source regions of nodule-bearing kimberlites and ultramafic lamprophyres in southern Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard

    but unconfirmed in kimberlite sensu stricto magmas. It is here termed digestion fractional crystallisation (DFC) and it is argued that the DFC process may account for much of the global varia-bility in kimberlite compositions. The bulk rock trace element geochemistry of the Majuagaa kimberlite is used...... melts in the kimberlites sensu stricto of the Maniitsoq region to relatively more SiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, TiO2 and K2O enriched ultramafic lamprophyres of the Sarfartoq and Sisimuit regions. Simple mixing modelling supports the formation of this sequence due to variable interaction of the primary melt...

  13. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  14. Sequence diversity of the C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zahra; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Naddaf, Saeed; Pourfallah, Fatemeh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Feizhaddad, Hossein; Rad, Mina Ebrahimi; Ebrahimi Rad, Mina; Tameemi, Marzieh; Assmar, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a strong vaccine candidate as it is associated with immunity to the parasite. This corresponds approximately to the conserved 17th block of the gene and is composed of two EGF- like domains. These domains exhibit only four single amino acid substitutions which show several potential variants in this region of the gene. As the variations might be important for a regional vaccine design, a study was carried out to determine the variations present in P. falciparum isolates from southern Iran. Besides the usual E-T-S-R-L and the Q-K-N-G-F types, we found Q-T-S-R-L, E-K-N-G-F, E-T-S-G-L, Z-T-S-G-L and Z-T-S-R-L types, where Z was E or Q signifying the presence of mixed clones in single isolates.

  15. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate landslide susceptibility along highway in northern Calabria, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Francesco; Conforti, Massimo; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Scarciglia, Fabio; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of landslides with linear infrastructures is often the cause of disasters. In Italy landslide impact on roads, railways and buildings cause millions of Euro per year in damage and restoration as well. The proposed study is aimed to the landslide susceptibility evaluation using a multidisciplinary approach: geological and geomorphological survey, statistical analysis and GIS technique, along a section of highway "A3 (Salerno-Reggio Calabria)" between Cosenza Sud and Altilia, northern Calabria. This study is included in a wider research project, named: PON01-01503, Landslides Early Warning-Sistemi integrati per il monitoraggio e la mitigazione del rischio idrogeologico lungo le grandi vie di comunicazione - aimed at the hydrogeological risk mitigation and at the early warning along the highways. The work was first based on air-photo interpretations and field investigations, in order to realize the geological map, geomorphological map and landslide inventory map. In the study area the geomorphology is strongly controlled by its bedrock geology and tectonics. The bedrock geology consists of Neogene sedimentary rocks that cover a thick stack of allochthonous nappes. These nappes consist of crystalline rocks mainly gneiss, phyllite and schist. A total of 835 landslides were mapped and the type of movement are represented mainly by slides and complex and subordinately flow. In order to estimate and validate landslide susceptibility the landslides were divided in two group. One group (training set) was used to prepare susceptibility map and the second group (validation set) to validate the map. Then, the selection of predisposing factors was performed, according with the geological and geomorphological settings of the study area: lithology, distance from tectonic elements, land use, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI) and plan curvature. In order to evaluate landslide susceptibility Conditional Analysis was applied to Unique Conditions Units (UCUs

  16. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alien plant invasions--incorporating emerging invaders in regional prioritization: a pragmatic approach for Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgidi, Theresa N; Le Maitre, David C; Schonegevel, Lucille; Nel, Jeanne L; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-07-01

    Plant invasions are a serious threat to natural and semi-natural ecosystems worldwide. Most management-orientated research on invasions focuses on invaders that are already widespread and often have major impacts. This paper deals with "emerging" invaders-those alien species with the potential to become important problems without timely intervention. A climate matching procedure was developed to define areas of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland that could be invaded by 28 plant species that had previously been classified as emerging invaders. Information on the location of populations of these species in the study area was combined with information on their distributions (as native or alien) in parts of Australia and the United States of America. These two countries had the best available distribution data for this study. They also share many invasive alien plant species with South Africa. Climatic data obtained for weather stations near points of known occurrence in these countries were used to define the climatically suitable areas for each species in the study area. Almost 80% of the remaining natural environment in southern Africa was found to be vulnerable to invasion by at least one of these species, 50% by six or more and 24% by 16 or more species. The most vulnerable areas are the highveld grasslands and the eastern escarpment. The emerging invaders with the greatest potential range included Acacia podalyriifolia and Cortaderia selloana. The globally important invaders Ulex europaeus and Lythrum salicaria had a more limited invasion potential but could still become major invaders. There was no relationship between the extent of the climatically suitable areas for the different species and an expert ranking of their invasion potential, emphasising the uncertainties inherent in making expert assessments based on very little information. The methods used in this analysis establish a protocol for future modelling exercises to assess the invasion potential of

  18. A synthesis of the Jurassic system in the southern Rocky Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter includes important stratigraphic revisions and nomenclatural changes made especially in the Colorado Plateau region in recent years. For the purpose of the discussion, these rocks are divided into six divisions. The stratigraphy and depositional environments of the rocks are discussed, along with the economic resources of these rocks which include uranium and hydrocarbons

  19. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for ...

  20. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  1. Submarine slope instability offshore western Calabria, Italy: possible triggering of tsunamigenic landslides by seismic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Gallotti, Glauco; Tinti, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Tyrrhenian margin offshore western Calabria (Italy) has experienced several mass movements involving varying volumes and shapes, as revealed by several geological surveys identifying slide scars and massive deposits. The hypothesis that at least some of these mass movements was tsunamigenic sounds perfectly reasonable. In this study, we focus on the continental edge offshore the Santa Eufemia Gulf and the Paola Basin, because the area experienced several strong earthquakes (Mw up to 7), some of them in the last centuries (see, for example, the 1905 earthquake and the late shocks of the 1783 sequence). Our aim is to study the seismic load as the trigger mechanism of mass failures: not all earthquakes generate tsunamis, but the conjunction of definite factors as seafloor shaking and pore water pressure could temporarily reduce soil shear stress, inducing failures and submarine tsunamigenic landslides. We have selected several sections of the Calabrian margin with different gradients and studied their slope stability by using the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation (MLD) method. We have applied typical Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs) obtained from local historical earthquakes by means of regression laws, determining the potentially unstable sectors, as well as the volumes of the material that can be set in motion. This in turn can be used as input for future tsunami modelling and hazard assessment. This work is a contribution to assess local hazard and risk in western Calabrian coast where earthquakes can trigger tsunamigenic submarine mass movements: the impact and the effects of such phenomena could be disastrous for coastal infrastructures and populations without the proper mitigation measures. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  2. Sar and Maad TL Dating of Caroselli from three sites in Calabria, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, Caterina; Renzelli, Diana; Barone, Pasquale; Pingitore, Valentino; Oliva, Antonino

    In this work three types of "Caroselli" from different sites in Calabria have been studied. The "Carosello" is a structural hollow element made of clay, placed in arches, in domes or even in the walls of buildings such as churches and houses, with the function of relieving vaults and main structures. Diagnostic tests have been conducted on the "Caroselli" in order to determine the presence of luminescent material, the final goal being the age assessment of such artifacts using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. Of course the historical frame of the buildings, to which "Caroselli" belong, is known from their style and architectural considerations. The scope of our dating is to supply additional information to clarify whether "Caroselli" were used from the very beginning of building construction or employed in subsequent restorations. The dating process has been conducted using two protocols, the Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose (MAAD) and the Single Aliquot Regenerative-dose (SAR), both by applying TL. The correction obtained by the SAR TL method is preferred because it allows a more accurate estimate of the equivalent dose and avoids problems arising from sample sensitivity. The results show that the three "Caroselli" can be respectively dated back to 1844±11, 1825±40, 1803±30 A.D.. Such results suggest that for two sites ("Madonna del Buonconsiglio" church and "Torre dello Zuino" colonial house), the "Caroselli", as structural elements, were used since the beginning of the building construction, while for the remaining site ("Pettoruto" church) probably the "Caroselli" were added in a successive restoration of the building, since the historical context of this building belongs to the fourteenth century.

  3. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  4. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  5. Assessment of regional air quality resulting from emission control in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Lyu, X P; Deng, X J; Guo, H; Deng, T; Li, Y; Yin, C Q; Li, F; Wang, S Q

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of emission control measures on the air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China, statistic data including atmospheric observations, emissions and energy consumptions during 2006-2014 were analyzed, and a Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multi-scale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model was used for various scenario simulations. Although energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 2014 and vehicle number significantly increased from 2006 to 2014, ambient SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 were reduced by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively, mainly due to emissions control efforts. In contrast, O 3 increased by 19%. Model simulations of three emission control scenarios, including a baseline (a case in 2010), a CAP (a case in 2020 assuming control strength followed past control tendency) and a REF (a case in 2020 referring to the strict control measures based on recent policy/plans) were conducted to investigate the variations of air pollutants to the changes in NO x , VOCs and NH 3 emissions. Although the area mean concentrations of NO x , nitrate and PM 2.5 decreased under both NO x CAP (reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively) and NO x REF (reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively), a rising of PM 2.5 was found in certain areas as reducing NO x emissions elevated the atmospheric oxidizability. Furthermore, scenarios with NH 3 emission reductions showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH 3 emissions, with decreasing percentages of 0-10.6% and 0-48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Controlling emissions of VOCs reduced PM 2.5 in the southwestern PRD where severe photochemical pollution frequently occurred. It was also found that O 3 formation in PRD was generally VOCs-limited while turned to be NO x -limited in the afternoon (13:00-17:00), suggesting that cutting VOCs emissions would reduce the overall O 3 concentrations while mitigating NO x emissions in the afternoon could reduce the peak O 3 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  6. Ambient Noise Tomography at Regional and Local Scales in Southern California using Rayleigh Wave Phase Dispersion and Ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E.; Lin, F. C.; Qiu, H.; Wang, Y.; Allam, A. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh waves extracted from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise have proven useful in imaging the shallow subsurface velocity structure. In contrast to phase velocities, which are sensitive to slightly deeper structure, Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratios) constrains the uppermost crust. We conduct Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase dispersion measurements in Southern California between 6 and 18 second periods, computed from multi-component ambient noise cross-correlations using 315 stations across the region in 2015. Because of the complimentary sensitivity of phase velocity and H/V, this method enables simple and accurate resolution of near-surface geological features from the surface to 20km depth. We compare the observed H/V ratios and phase velocities to predictions generated from the current regional models (SCEC UCVM), finding strong correspondence where the near-surface structure is well-resolved by the models. This includes high H/V ratios in the LA Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Salton Trough; and low ratios in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto and southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Disagreements in regions such as the Western Transverse Ranges, Salton Trough, San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones motivate further work to improve the community models. A new updated 3D isotropic model of the area is derived via a joint inversion of Rayleigh phase dispersions and H/V ratios. Additionally, we examine azimuthal dependence of the H/V ratio to ascertain anisotropy patterns for each station. Clear 180º periodicity is observed for many stations suggesting strong shallow anisotropy across the region including up to 20% along the San Andreas fault, 15% along the San Jacinto Fault and 25% in the LA Basin. To better resolve basin structures, we apply similar techniques to three dense linear geophone arrays in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino basins. The three arrays are composed by 50-125 three-component 5Hz geophones deployed for one month each with 15-25km

  7. New synonyms and a new name in Asteraceae: Senecioneae from the southern African winter rainfall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genera Othonna and Senecio undertaken for the forthcoming Greater Cape plants 2: Namaqualand-southern Namib and western Karoo (Manning in prep. led to a re-examination of the taxonomic status of several species. This was facilitated by the recent availability of high-resolution digital images on the Aluka website (www.aluka.org of the Drege isotypes in the Paris Herbarium that formed the basis of many species described by De Candolle in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. These images made it possible to identify several names whose application had remained uncertain until now. Each case is briefly discussed, with citation of additional relevant herbarium specimens. The following species are reduced to synonomy: O. incisa Harv. is included in O. rosea Harv.; O. spektakelensis Compton and O. zeyheri Sond. ex Harv. are included in O. retrorsa DC.; S. maydae Merxm. is included in S. albopunctatus Bolus, which is now considered to include forms with radiate and discoid capitula; S. cakilefolius DC. is included in  O. arenarius Thunb.; S. pearsonii Hutch, is included in O. aspertdus DC.; S. parvifolius DC. is included in S. carroensis DC.; S. eriobasis DC. is included in S. erosus L.f.; and S. lobelioides DC. is included in S. flavus (Decne. Sch.Bip. The name S. panduratus (Thunb. Less, is identified as a synonym of S. erosus L.f. and plants that are currently know n under this name should be called S. robertiifolius DC. The confusion in the application o f the names O. perfoliata (L.f. Jacq. and O. filicaulis Jacq. is examined. O. perfoliata is lecto- typified against a specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium (LINN  w ith radiate capitula. The name O. filicaulis correctly applies to a radiate species and is treated as a synonym of O. perfoliata. The vegetatively similar taxon with disciform capitula that is currently known as O. filicaulis should be known as (  undulosa (DC. J.C.Manning  & Goldblatt, comb. nov. The

  8. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2004-01-01

    The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS) stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect dur...

  9. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available on the spatial extent and timing of burning, as clouds may preclude hotspot detection and because the satellite may not overpass when burning occurs (Justice et al. 2002). Algorithms that use multi-temporal satellite data to map the areas affected by the passage... independent reference data from aircraft observations of prescribed fires and wildfires (Kaufman et al. 1998). However, aircraft campaigns are expensive to undertake in a regionally representative manner and are difficult to coordinate with cloud...

  10. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect during a magnetic storm at mid-latitude regions; the strong, positive disturbances during the storm's main phase at auroral latitude regions; the effects of storm-induced equatorward directed wind causing a positive disturbance at high and mid-latitude stations with appropriate time shift between higher and lower latitudes; daytime poleward movement of depleted plasma that causes temporary suppression of the equatorial anomaly during the start of the storm recovery phase; and prompt penetration of eastward electric fields to ionospheric altitudes and the production of nearly simultaneous TEC enhancement at all latitudes. In general, we found dominant negative disturbance over mid and high latitudes and positive disturbance at low latitudes. A comparison of storm-time behaviour of TEC determined from GPS satellites, and foF2 derived from ionosondes at a range of latitudes, showed reasonable agreement between the two independent measurements.

  11. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  12. Pottery and regional mobility in southern Sardinia (Italy during the Early Copper Age: A petrological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ALBERO-SANTACREU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado el análisis petrológico de cerámicas del yacimiento calcolítico de Su Coddu/Canelles (Cerdeña con el objetivo de identificar las materias primas utilizadas en la producción de cerámica y aproximarnos al origen de las vasijas. El estudio petrológico confirma la existencia de cerámicas relacionadas con una amplia diversidad de procedencias. Por un lado, se constatan una serie de fábricas que son compatibles con los depósitos arcillosos que se encuentran en el entorno del yacimiento. Por otro lado, se han identificado una serie de fábricas que deben asociarse con arcillas o vasijas con un origen regional o incluso supra-regional. La existencia de estas fábricas en el yacimiento evidencia que las comunidades calcolíticas del sur de Cerdeña desarrollaron una amplia movilidad en el territorio isleño, tanto a nivel local como regional. Esta amplia movilidad es indicativa de las interacciones y vínculos que establecieron las diversas comunidades que habitaban la región. En última instancia, la investigación realizada ha permitido aportar luz sobre el tipo de movilidad que desarrollaron las comunidades de la Edad del Cobre de las grandes islas del Mediterráneo y sobre cómo éstas llevaron a cabo la explotación de una amplia variedad de tipos de depósitos arcillosos.

  13. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  14. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for therapeutic purposes in the Atlantic Forest region, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribess, Bianca; Pintarelli, Gabrielli Melatto; Bini, Larissa Alida; Camargo, Anderson; Funez, Luís Adriano; de Gasper, André Luís; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-04-22

    Atlantic Forest is a biome in dangerous situation and it lacks wider information on species with medicinal purposes used by people in this area. In this study an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Apiúna district, Brazil with the goal of assessing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by rural communities in a region covered by Atlantic Forest. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a free list of plants used for medicinal purposes. The respondents were selected by snow ball method. Therefore, the therapeutic use of plants was investigated and the species cited was collected and identified. Local plant uses were evaluated using ethnobotanical indices of diversity and equitability, and then compared with those obtained in other regions of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Besides, the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated. A total of 162 species belonging to 61 families were recorded, mainly Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. Furthermore, the species cited, 45.06% were native and 54.94% were considered exotic. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were the symptoms and signs (17.42%), digestive system (15.33%) and, infectious and parasitic diseases (12.73%). Although, the ICF calculation showed that mental and behavioral (0.85), respiratory system (0.79) and, digestive and genitourinary system diseases (0.78 for both) were the categories with higher values reached. Usually, the administration is oral from leaves preparations. Folk medicine in rural communities in this region of Atlantic Forest is an important source of primary health care. The results indicate an available knowledge of medicinal plants uses in this area, when compared to other regions previously studied. The fact that this research was conducted next to a conservation area makes it possible to dispose the knowledge organized here into a tool for environmental education as well as preservation. Moreover, the pharmacological information will further

  15. Numerical simulation of surface solar radiation over Southern Africa. Part 1: Evaluation of regional and global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Morel, Béatrice; Wild, Martin; Pohl, Benjamin; Abiodun, Babatunde; Bessafi, Miloud

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the performance of climate models in reproducing surface solar radiation (SSR) over Southern Africa (SA) by validating five Regional Climate Models (RCM, including CCLM4, HIRHAM5, RACMO22T, RCA4 and REMO2009) that participated in the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment program over Africa (CORDEX-Africa) along with their ten driving General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 over SA. The model simulated SSR was thereby compared to reference data from ground-based measurements, satellite-derived products and reanalyses over the period 1990-2005. Results show that (1) the references obtained from satellite retrievals and reanalyses overall overestimate SSR by up to 10 W/m2 on average when compared to ground-based measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive, which are located mainly over the eastern part of the southern African continent. (2) Compared to one of the satellite products (Surface Solar Radiation Data Set—Heliosat Edition 2; SARAH-2): GCMs overestimate SSR over SA in terms of their multi-model mean by about 1 W/m2 (compensation of opposite biases over sub-regions) and 7.5 W/m2 in austral summer and winter respectively; RCMs driven by GCMs show in their multimodel mean underestimations of SSR in both seasons with Mean Bias Errors (MBEs) of about - 30 W/m2 in austral summer and about - 14 W/m2 in winter compared to SARAH-2. This multi-model mean low bias is dominated by the simulations of the CCLM4, with negative biases up to - 76 W/m2 in summer and - 32 W/m2 in winter. (3) The discrepancies in the simulated SSR over SA are larger in the RCMs than in the GCMs. (4) In terms of trend during the "brightening" period 1990-2005, both GCMs and RCMs (driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis ERA-Interim, short as ERAINT and GCMs) simulate an SSR trend of less than 1 W/m2 per decade. However, variations of SSR trend exist among different references data

  16. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with medium resolution MODIS-EVI time series at sub-regional scale in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Olena; Landmann, Tobias; Erasmus, Barend F. N.; Tewes, Andreas; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a lack of knowledge on spatio-temporal patterns of land surface dynamics at medium spatial scale in southern Africa, even though this information is essential for better understanding of ecosystem response to climatic variability and human-induced land transformations. In this study, we analysed vegetation dynamics across a large area in southern Africa using the 14-years (2000-2013) of medium spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS-EVI time-series data. Specifically, we investigated temporal changes in the time series of key phenometrics including overall greenness, peak and timing of annual greenness over the monitoring period and study region. In order to specifically capture spatial and per pixel vegetation changes over time, we calculated trends in these phenometrics using a robust trend analysis method. The results showed that interannual vegetation dynamics followed precipitation patterns with clearly differentiated seasonality. The earliest peak greenness during 2000-2013 occurred at the end of January in the year 2000 and the latest peak greenness was observed at the mid of March in 2012. Specifically spatial patterns of long-term vegetation trends allowed mapping areas of (i) decrease or increase in overall greenness, (ii) decrease or increase of peak greenness, and (iii) shifts in timing of occurrence of peak greenness over the 14-year monitoring period. The observed vegetation decline in the study area was mainly attributed to human-induced factors. The obtained information is useful to guide selection of field sites for detailed vegetation studies and land rehabilitation interventions and serve as an input for a range of land surface models.

  17. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra L.; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187–207 g C m−2 y−1, which are consistent with observed values (47–351 g C m−2 y−1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  18. Productivity and linkages of the food web of the southern region of the western Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Tosca; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Ainley, David G.; Daly, Kendra; Marrari, Marina; Ribic, Christine A.; Smith, Walker O.; Steele, John H.

    2014-03-01

    The productivity and linkages in the food web of the southern region of the west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf were investigated using a multi-trophic level mass balance model. Data collected during the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics field program were combined with data from the literature on the abundance and diet composition of zooplankton, fish, seabirds and marine mammals to calculate energy flows in the food web and to infer the overall food web structure at the annual level. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of variability in growth and biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and in the biomass of Antarctic krill predators on the structure and energy fluxes in the food web. Scenario simulations provided insights into the potential responses of the food web to a reduced contribution of large phytoplankton (diatom) production to total primary production, and to reduced consumption of primary production by Antarctic krill and mesozooplankton coincident with increased consumption by microzooplankton and salps. Model-derived estimates of primary production were 187-207 g C m-2 y-1, which are consistent with observed values (47-351 g C m-2 y-1). Simulations showed that Antarctic krill provide the majority of energy needed to sustain seabird and marine mammal production, thereby exerting a bottom-up control on higher trophic level predators. Energy transfer to top predators via mesozooplanton was a less efficient pathway, and salps were a production loss pathway because little of the primary production they consumed was passed to higher trophic levels. Increased predominance of small phytoplankton (nanoflagellates and cryptophytes) reduced the production of Antarctic krill and of its predators, including seabirds and seals.

  19. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  20. Investigating regional mobility in the southern hinterland of the Wari Empire: biogeochemistry at the site of Beringa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Tung, Tiffiny A

    2011-06-01

    Empires have transformed political, social, and environmental landscapes in the past and present. Although much research on archaeological empires focuses on large-scale imperial processes, we use biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology to investigate how imperialism may have reshaped regional political organization and regional migration patterns in the Wari Empire of the Andean Middle Horizon (ca. AD 600-1000). Radiogenic strontium isotope analysis of human remains from the site of Beringa in the Majes Valley of southern Peru identified the geographic origins of individuals impacted by the Wari Empire. At Beringa, the combined archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70802 - 0.70960, with a mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70842 ± 0.00027 (1σ, n = 52). These data are consistent with radiogenic strontium isotope data from the local fauna in the Majes Valley and imply that most individuals were local inhabitants, rather than migrants from the Wari heartland or some other locale. There were two outliers at Beringa, and these "non-local" individuals may have derived from other parts of the South Central Andes. This is consistent with our understanding of expansive trade networks and population movement in the Andean Middle Horizon, likely influenced by the policies of the Wari Empire. Although not a Wari colony, the incorporation of small sites like Beringa into the vast social and political networks of the Middle Horizon resulted in small numbers of migrants at Beringa. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Millie Nguyen; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja; Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Barington, Torben; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2018-02-23

    We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014. Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using the CODAC and INCODE classification systems, we found that the causes of death were unknown in 59/95 (62.1%). The second most common cause of death in CODAC was congenital anomalies in 10/95 (10.5%), similar to INCODE with fetal, genetic, structural and karyotypic anomalies in 11/95 (11.6%). The majority of the mothers were healthy, primiparous, non-smokers, aged 20-34 years and with a normal body mass index (BMI). Based on an unselected cohort from an entire region in Denmark, the cause of stillbirth and early neonatal deaths among full term infants remained unknown for the vast majority.

  2. Elemental identification of blue paintings traces present in historic cemeteries in the São Martinho region, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago G.; Richter, Fábio Andreas; Castro, Elisiana Trilha; Gonçalves, Samantha; Spudeit, Daniel A.; Micke, Gustavo A.

    2018-03-01

    Cemeteries are of great significance in many communities, often being considered of invaluable historical, artistic, architectural and cultural significance and thus they need to be preserved. In this regard, understanding the historical aspects and the construction techniques used is essential for their protection. The purpose of this paper is to describe historical aspects of the funerary heritage present in the region of São Martinho in southern Brazil, along with an analysis of the blue paint found in cemeteries of German colonies in the region studied. FTIR analysis suggests that the binder is composed mostly of a protein resin and a small amount of lipid. The morphology of the pigment was investigated by SEM and EDS and the spectra revealed that the major elements present in the blue pigment are Na, Al, Si and S, with an overlap in the elemental mapping, indicative of ultramarine pigments. The GC-MS results are consistent with the type of binder identified by FTIR and indicate a mixture of oils, probably from vegetal sources, and proteins.

  3. Distance associated with marriage migration in a northern and a southern region of Bangladesh: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Ataur

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the distribution of distance associated with marriage migration in the northern region of Rajshahi and the southern region of Khulna in Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 2007 on 2250 respondents who had migrated due to marriage. Of the wide variety of curves that fitted the distance-marriage/contact data, three are discussed: Pareto, exponential, and Pareto-exponential. Logistic regression models were used to identify the covariates of marriage distance migration. In general, the three functions work better for marriages, whereas Pareto-exponential functions are a superior fit for migrations and marriage distance. The models disclose that the distribution of distance is significantly associated with marriage migration (pPareto-exponential model was 100% stable and its shrinkage was 0.000000125. The main covariates associated with short-distance marriage migration were respondent's education, father's education and religion, whereas age at the time of marriage did not play a significant role in marriage migration. The risk of short-distance migration was greater in higher- than lower-educated Muslim families.

  4. Low Amplitude of Geomagnetic Secular Variations Recorded in Traps of the Southern Siberian Platform: Very Fast Emplacement or Regional Remagnetization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Pavlov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have studied the lowest part of the Permo-Triassic Siberian trap sequence which is located in the middle course of the Angara river (Southern Siberia). This sequenced is composed by 200m thick volcanoclastic rocks (tuffs with bombs of different composition) and includes numerous mafic subvolcanic bodies (dykes and sills). Altogether more than 20 sites representing tuffs, bombs, dykes and sills stretched along the valley of the Angara river over the distance more than 30 km have been sampled and studied. Obtained site mean paleomagnetic directions are tightly grouped, showing very lower scatter. Taking into account that amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the P-T boundary was about of same order as in Late Cenozoic (Pavlov et al., 2011) this lower scatter can be either a sequence of very fast traps emplacement which could have disastrous environmental impact or a result of subsequent regional remagnetization. The only geological event in the region which seems to be capable to cause this remagnetization is emplacement of Early Triassic sills in nearby areas. In such the case we should expect that mean paleomagnetic directions from these sills will be very close to these ones obtained from site presented in this report. We present results of paleomagnetic studies of these sills and make a choice in favor of one of discussed options. This work was supported by grants NSF EAR 0807585 ("The Siberian Traps and end-Permian extinction") and RFBR 09-05-01180, 10-05-00557.

  5. Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (southern Spain): Implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in southern Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual δ13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted δ13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.

  6. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es

  7. Source apportionment and health effect of NO_x over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C.H.; Lau, Alexis K.H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NO_x not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NO_x and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NO_x from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NO_x sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NO_x sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NO_x in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NO_x on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0–4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0–2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NO_x in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NO_x emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NO_x emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources. - Highlights: • WRF-CAMx modeling system with OSAT was used to study the source of NO_x over Pearl River Delta region in China. • The results indicated that local emission and regional transportation are important contributors for NO_x in this region. • Heavy duty diesel vehicle, marine emission and industrial point source are three important contribution sectors. • Long-term exposure to NO_x is estimated to cause 2119 respiratory deaths and 991 lung cancer deaths in PRD during 2011. - Result indicated that heavy duty

  8. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  9. Empowering Women for Development through Community-Driven Sustainable Programmes: A Response to Traditional Patriarchal Power in the Southern African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Dele; Lekoko, Rebecca; Alade, Eunice B.

    2004-01-01

    In the Southern Africa region, the act of prejudice against women mostly occurs where patriarchal power reigns. This type of power is felt in areas such as inheritance right, division of labour, access to political and economic resources and legal and social matters. Other areas of discrimination against women include access to educational and…

  10. Addressing the Issue of Gender Equity in the Presidency of the University System in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious

    2010-01-01

    The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional economic grouping of 15 countries whose common vision is to promote economic, social and political development and growth. Arguably, sustainable growth can be realized if there is equal access to all positions of power and influence in the area, but an investigation of 117…

  11. One new species of Amphinemura and description of the female of A. ancistroidea Li & Yang (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Raorao; Yang, Ding; Wang, Guoquan; Li, Weihai

    2017-06-11

    A new nemourid species, Amphinemura yao sp. nov. is described from the Daoyao Mountains of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China. Amphinemura ancistroidea Li & Yang, 2007 is newly recorded from Guangxi and the female is described for the first time including the internal vaginal complex. The new species is compared with related taxa.

  12. Techniques of remote sensing and GIS as tools for visualizing impact of climate change-induced flood in the southern African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study employs remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data to visualize the impact of climate change caused by flooding in the Southern African region in order to assist decision makers’ plans for future occurrences. In pursuit of this objective, this study uses Digital Elevat...

  13. A zinc, copper and citric acid biocomplex shows promise for control of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca in olive trees in Apulia region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca is associated with the “olive quick decline syndrome” in the Apulia region of southern Italy. To investigate control of this phytopathogen, a compound containing zinc and copper complexed with citric-acid hydracids (Dentamet®) was evaluated for in vitro ...

  14. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution

  15. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  16. First approaches towards modelling glacial hazards in the Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps

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    S. K. Allen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood and mass movements originating from glacial environments are particularly devastating in populated mountain regions of the world, but in the remote Mount Cook region of New Zealand's Southern Alps minimal attention has been given to these processes. Glacial environments are characterized by high mass turnover and combined with changing climatic conditions, potential problems and process interactions can evolve rapidly. Remote sensing based terrain mapping, geographic information systems and flow path modelling are integrated here to explore the extent of ice avalanche, debris flow and lake flood hazard potential in the Mount Cook region. Numerous proglacial lakes have formed during recent decades, but well vegetated, low gradient outlet areas suggest catastrophic dam failure and flooding is unlikely. However, potential impacts from incoming mass movements of ice, debris or rock could lead to dam overtopping, particularly where lakes are forming directly beneath steep slopes. Physically based numerical modeling with RAMMS was introduced for local scale analyses of rock avalanche events, and was shown to be a useful tool for establishing accurate flow path dynamics and estimating potential event magnitudes. Potential debris flows originating from steep moraine and talus slopes can reach road and built infrastructure when worst-case runout distances are considered, while potential effects from ice avalanches are limited to walking tracks and alpine huts located in close proximity to initiation zones of steep ice. Further local scale studies of these processes are required, leading towards a full hazard assessment, and changing glacial conditions over coming decades will necessitate ongoing monitoring and reassessment of initiation zones and potential impacts.

  17. Pioneer study of population genetics of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from the central coastand southern Andean regions of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacís, Anita G; Marcet, Paula L; Yumiseva, César A; Dotson, Ellen M; Tibayrenc, Michel; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Grijalva, Mario J

    2017-09-01

    Effective control of Chagas disease vector populations requires a good understanding of the epidemiological components, including a reliable analysis of the genetic structure of vector populations. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the most widespread vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador, occupying domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats. It is widely distributed in the central coast and southern highlands regions of Ecuador, two very different regions in terms of bio-geographical characteristics. To evaluate the genetic relationship among R. ecuadoriensis populations in these two regions, we analyzed genetic variability at two microsatellite loci for 326 specimens (n=122 in Manabí and n=204 in Loja) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (Cyt b) sequences for 174 individuals collected in the two provinces (n=73 and=101 in Manabí and Loja respectively). The individual samples were grouped in populations according to their community of origin. A few populations presented positive F IS, possible due to Wahlund effect. Significant pairwise differentiation was detected between populations within each province for both genetic markers, and the isolation by distance model was significant for these populations. Microsatellite markers showed significant genetic differentiation between the populations of the two provinces. The partial sequences of the Cyt b gene (578bp) identified a total of 34 haplotypes among 174 specimens sequenced, which translated into high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.929). The haplotype distribution differed among provinces (significant Fisher's exact test). Overall, the genetic differentiation of R. ecuadoriensis between provinces detected in this study is consistent with the biological and phenotypic differences previously observed between Manabí and Loja populations. The current phylogenetic analysis evidenced the monophyly of the populations of R. ecuadoriensis within the R. pallescens species complex; R. pallescens and R. colombiensis were more

  18. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

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    M. Cocco

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  19. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  20. Sequence analysis and typing of Saprolegnia strains isolated from freshwater fish from Southern Chinese regions

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    Siya Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprolegniasis, caused by Saprolegnia infection, is one of the most common diseases in freshwater fish. Our study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of saprolegniasis in Chinese regions of high incidence. Saprolegnia were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular methods targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA and building neighbor-joining (NJ and maximum parsimony (MP phylogenetic trees. The ITS sequences of eight isolated strains were compared with GenBank sequences and all strains fell into three clades: CLADE1 (02, LP, 04 and 14, CLADE2 (S1, and CLADE3 (CP, S2, L5 and the reference ATCC200013. Isolates 02 and LP shared 80% sequence similarity with S. diclina, S. longicaulis, S. ferax, S. mixta, and S. anomalies. Further, isolates 04 and 14 shared 80% similarity with S. bulbosa and S. oliviae. Finally, extremely high ITS sequence similarities were identified between isolates S1 and S. australis (100%; CP and S. hypogyna (96%; and S2, L5, ATCC200013 and S. salmonis (98%. This research provides insights into the identification, prevention and control of saprolegniasis pathogens and the potential development of effective drugs.

  1. Flowering phenology in the arid winter rainfall region of southern Africa

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    M. Struck

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of physical factors on the flowering phenology of a succulent karroid community in the winter rainfall region of the northwestern Cape, South Africa, based upon a three year study on permanent plots, is examined, (in the permanent plots, flowering of the shrubby species extended over a period of 4 to 4'/i> months each year, while blooming ot the therophytes peaked m the first half of the flowering season. Species composition and numbers of individuals in the therophytes and geophytes offering flowers varied greatly according to the pattern and amount of seasonal precipitation. Despite these variations a consistent flowering sequence between the years was observed. Possible relations between the flowering phenology and the climatic variables are discussed in detail. The present data suggest that the onset of flowering is determined indirectly by the first drop in temperature in autumn, indicating the beginning of the rainy season and presumably the start of the growing period, and/or by the increase of temperatures in the beginning of spring. The pattern and amount of rainfall within a given season mainly influenced the duration of anthesis and the number of flowers produced.

  2. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  3. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

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    CM Furtado

    Full Text Available The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  4. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

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    Serge Payette

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  5. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  6. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in carbonate aquifers of southern Latium region, central Italy

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    Giuseppe Sappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spring and well water samples, from carbonate aquifers of Latium region, have been characterized to determine the hydrochemical processes governing the evolution of the groundwater. Most of the spring samples, issuing from Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci Mts., are characterized as alkaline earth HCO3 waters, however, some samples show a composition of Cl--SO4 -- alkaline earth waters. Groundwater samples from Pontina Plain shows three different hydrochemical facies: alkaline earth HCO3 type, Cl-- SO4 -- alkaline earth type and Cl--SO4 -- alkaline type waters. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the sampled waters show an interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies. Most of the springs and wells was kinetically saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum. This indicates that the groundwater has capacity to dissolve the gypsum along the flow paths. The electrical conductivity and Cl- concentrations of the sampled waters show a positive trend with the decrease in the distance from the coast, highlighting seawater intrusion in the coastal area. According to hydrochemistry results and geochemical modeling, the dominant factors in controlling the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater are: (i water rock interaction with calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic lithologies; (ii seawater intrusion in the coastal area; (iii dissolution and/or precipitation of carbonate and (i.e. dolomite and calcite evaporate minerals (gypsum determined by saturation indexes; (iv mineral weathering process; (the high Mg/Ca ratio due to the weathering of Mg-rich dolomite.

  7. Regional hydrology of the Blanding-Durango area, southern Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Thordarson, W.; Oatfield, W.J.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Rueger, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Principal findings of this study that are pertinent to an assessment of suitability of the hydrogeologic systems to store and contain radioactive waste in salt anticlines of adjacent areas are: water in the upper ground-water flow system discharges to the San Juan River - a major tributary of the Colorado River. Discharge of water from the upper aquifer system to streambed channels of the San Juan River and its tributaries during low-flow periods primarily is through evapotranspiration from areas on flood plains and maintenance of streamflow; the lower ground-water system does not have known recharge or discharge areas within the study area; subsurface inflow to this system comes from recharge areas located north and northeast of the study area; the upper and lower ground-water systems are separated regionally by thick salt deposits in the Blanding-Durango study area of the Paradox basin; potential exists in mountainous areas for downward leakage between the upper and lower ground-water systems, where salt deposits are thin, absent, or faulted; no brines were found in this study area with outflow to the biosphere; water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh. Water in the lower ground-water system generally is brackish or saline; and ground-water flow disruptions by contiguous faults probably are common in the upper ground-water system. These disruptions of flow are not apparent in the lower ground-water system, perhaps because available hydrologic data for the lower ground-water system are scarce. The above major findings do not preclude the potential for waste storage in salt; however, they do not allow the prediction of detailed ground-water flow rates and directions through this area. 55 references, 13 figures, 15 tables

  8. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

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    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  9. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

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    Estrada-Castillón Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality, Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest; the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses. Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for

  10. Spatiotemporal Variability of Humidity Across the Contiguous United States and Southern Canada Using Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ruben John

    The objective of this dissertation was to show that there is now enough observed humidity data available so that estimates of humidity, along with their necessary assumptions, can be replaced by measured humidity data. The range of applications that depend on humidity data is huge, ranging from water use efficiency of plants and plant stress to human health and agricultural practices. Biases due to the use of estimated humidity can be expected to have short and long impacts, decreasing the accuracy and precision of these, and many other, applications. Data from local, regional, and national observation networks was gathered, and custom quality control routines were written to remove bad data points from over 45000 stations, leaving 12533 usable stations. While still not at the same number of observations as temperature or precipitation, this number is nearly ten times as high as two decades ago. The work I performed consists of three major components, corresponding to the three main chapters of this dissertation. In chapter one, I describe data sources and quality control methods, along with some basic statistics of humidity, describing which geographic variables often used to predict temperature and precipitation can be used to do the same for humidity. Chapter two defines specific diurnal patterns (or "types") of dew point across the United States, including their attributes, causes, and potential influences. Chapter three analyzes biases in evapotranspiration, heat indices, and relative humidity levels that are a direct result of using estimated humidity data. Chapter four discusses contributions this work makes to the scientific community, and potential further research to build on what is presented here. While it may seem that the science of humidity should be well beyond data gathering and bias analysis, the fact remains that humidity is still very commonly estimated through the use of minimum temperature, and diurnal changes in dew point are often ignored

  11. Artificial snowmaking possibilities and climate change based on regional climate modeling in the Southern Black Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Philipp; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Steiger, Robert [alpS - Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Technologies, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Winter sport, especially ski tourism - is one of those sectors of tourism that will be affected by climate change. Ski resorts across the Alps and in the adjacent low mountain ranges react to warm winter seasons by investing in artificial snowmaking. But snowmaking in warm winter seasons is fraught with risk, because sufficiently low air temperature will become less frequent in the future. The present study deals with the ski resort Feldberg, which has 14 ski lifts and 16 ski slopes which is the biggest ski resort in the German Federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg. The impact of climate change in this region is extraordinary important because winter tourism is the main source of revenue for the whole area around the ski resort. The study area is in altitudinal range of 850 to 1450 meters above sea level. At the moment, it is possible to supply one third of the whole area with artificial snow, but there is plan for artificial snowmaking of the whole Feldberg area by the year 2020. Based on this, more detailed investigations of season length and the needed volume of produced snow are necessary. A ski season simulation model (SkiSim 2.0) was applied in order to assess potential impacts of climate change on the Feldberg ski area for the A1B and B1 emission scenarios based on the ECHAM5 GCM downscaled by the REMO RCM. SkiSim 2.0 calculates daily snow depth (natural and technically produced snow) and the required amount of artificial snow for 100 m altitudinal bands. Analysing the development of the number of potential skiing days, it can be assessed whether ski operation is cost covering or not. Model results of the study show a more pronounced and rapid shortening of the ski season in the lower ranges until the year 2100 in each climate scenario. In both the A1B and B1 scenario runs of REMO, a cost-covering ski season of 100 days cannot be guaranteed in every altitudinal range even if snowmaking is considered. In this context, the obtained high-resolution snow data can

  12. Trace Element Compositions and Defect Structures of High-Purity Quartz from the Southern Ural Region, Russia

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    Jens Götze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz samples of different origin from 10 localities in the Southern Ural region, Russia have been investigated to characterize their trace element compositions and defect structures. The analytical combination of cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, and trace-element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS revealed that almost all investigated quartz samples showed very low concentrations of trace elements (cumulative concentrations of <50 ppm with <30 ppm Al and <10 ppm Ti and low abundances of paramagnetic defects, defining them economically as “high-purity” quartz (HPQ suitable for high-tech applications. EPR and CL data confirmed the low abundances of substitutional Ti and Fe, and showed Al to be the only significant trace element structurally bound in the investigated quartz samples. CL microscopy revealed a heterogeneous distribution of luminescence centres (i.e., luminescence active trace elements such as Al as well as features of deformation and recrystallization. It is suggested that healing of defects due to deformation-related recrystallization and reorganization processes of the quartz lattice during retrograde metamorphism resulted in low concentrations of CL activator and other trace elements or vacancies, and thus are the main driving processes for the formation of HPQ deposits in the investigated area.

  13. Hydrothermal vent fields discovered in the southern Gulf of California clarify role of habitat in augmenting regional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Caress, David; Clague, David; Escobar, Elva; Lundsten, Lonny; Paduan, Jennifer B; Rouse, Greg; Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Spelz-Madero, Ronald; Zierenberg, Robert; Vrijenhoek, Robert

    2017-07-26

    Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes. Out of 116 macrofaunal species observed or collected, only three species are shared among all four vent fields, while 73 occur at only one locality. Foundation species at basalt-hosted sulfide chimneys on the AR differ from the functional equivalents inhabiting sediment-hosted carbonate chimneys in the PB, only 75 km away. The dominant species of symbiont-hosting tubeworms and clams, and peripheral suspension-feeding taxa, differ between the sites. Notably, the PB vents host a limited and specialized fauna in which 17 of 26 species are unknown at other regional vents and many are new species. Rare sightings and captured larvae of the 'missing' species revealed that dispersal limitation is not responsible for differences in community composition at the neighbouring vent localities. Instead, larval recruitment-limiting habitat suitability probably favours species differentially. As scenarios develop to design conservation strategies around mining of seafloor sulfide deposits, these results illustrate that models encompassing habitat characteristics are needed to predict metacommunity structure. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  15. Environmental radiation and potential ecological risk levels in the intertidal zone of southern region of Tamil Nadu coast (HBRAs), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punniyakotti, J; Ponnusamy, V

    2018-02-01

    Natural radioactivity content and heavy metal concentration in the intertidal zone sand samples from the southern region of Tamil Nadu coast, India, have been analyzed using gamma ray spectrometer and ICP-OES, respectively. From gamma spectral analysis, the average radioactivity contents of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the intertidal zone sand samples are 12.13±4.21, 59.03±4.26, and 197.03±26.24Bq/kg, respectively. The average radioactivity content of 232 Th alone is higher than the world average value. From the heavy metal analysis, the average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations are 3.1, 80.24, 82.84, 23.66, 91.67, and 137.07ppm, respectively. The average Cr and Ni concentrations are lower, whereas other four metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations are higher than world surface rock average values. From pollution assessment parameter values, the pollution level is "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of dredging operations on soft bottom macrofauna in a harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil

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    C. E. Bemvenuti

    Full Text Available An evaluation was made of the effects of dredging on the soft bottom community in the channel of the Rio Grande harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil. During four seasonal cruises, samples were collected from nine biological stations, one of which was located outside the dredged area. Three macrobenthic samples were collected on each cruise from each station, using a 0.08 m² van Veen grab. A cluster analysis was applied to group summer and autumn cruise stations before the dredging period, revealing larger numbers of species (35-36 spp. and higher densities of organisms. The station located outside the dredging area was always included in this group, regardless of the sampling period or conditions of salinity. Another group comprised the winter and spring stations during the dredging period. This group was characterized by stations with the fewest species (20-18 spp. and the lowest and most variable organism densities. The efficient strategies of resilience of the dominant estuarine species may minimize the effects of dredging on the biota through the rapid recolonization of the soft bottom of the harbor channel.

  17. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

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    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  18. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys along southern margin of Indravati basin, Central India - a guide to unconformity related uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, I.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Sreenivas, R.; Chari, M.N.; Dash, J.K.; Roy, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical methods play vital role at various stages in mineral exploration programme particularly in case of buried deposits. The unconformity related uranium deposits owing to their concealed nature are explored by geophysical methods as an indirect tool. Regional ground gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted to decipher the basin configuration, presence of fault/ fractures and basic activity. These structural features may form favorable criteria for mineralisation. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data along the southern margin of Mesoproterozoic Indravati basin has been correlated with ground follow up geological investigation. There exists a good correlation between interpreted faults, fracture zones and mafic activity from the magnetic and gravity surveys with available borehole data in the area. Further, 2D models generated from magnetic data have paved the way for planning boreholes and thereby reorienting the sub-surface exploration programme. Evidence of alteration and fracturing intercepted from the borehole correlates well with the low gravity and magnetic. Hence, gravity and magnetic surveys can be effectively utilized in delineating basement configuration and to estimate sediment thickness besides deciphering post sedimentary fault/fractures which are favorable factors for unconformity related uranium mineralisation. (author)

  19. Evidence for a climate-induced ecohydrological state shift in wetland ecosystems of the southern Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Owen; Mushet, David M.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Changing magnitude, frequency, and timing of precipitation can influence aquatic-system hydrological, geochemical, and biological processes, in some cases resulting in system-wide shifts to an alternate state. Since the early 1990s, the southern Prairie Pothole Region has been subjected to an extended period of increased wetness resulting in marked changes to aquatic systems defining this region. We explored numerous lines of evidence to identify: (1) how the recent wet period compared to historical variability, (2) hydrological, geochemical, and biological responses, and (3) how these responses might represent a state shift in the region’s wetland ecosystems. We analyzed long-term climate records and compared how different hydrological variables responded in this wet period compared to decades before the observed shift. Additionally, we used multi-decadal records of waterfowl population and subsurface tile drain records to explore wildlife and human responses to a shifting climate. Since 1993, a novel precipitation regime corresponded with increased pond numbers, ponded-water depths, lake levels, stream flows, groundwater heights, soil-moisture, waterfowl populations, and installation of subsurface tile drains in agricultural fields. These observed changes reflect an alteration in water storage and movement across the landscape that in turn has altered solute sources and concentrations of prairie-pothole wetlands and has increased pond permanence. Combined, these changes represent significant evidence for a state shift in the ecohydrological functioning of the region’s wetland ecosystems, a shift that may require a significant refinement of the previously developed “wetland continuum” concept.

  20. The Evoluation Impact of the Geological Environment in Expansion of Ancient Civilization at Butrint - Foenike Region, Southern Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaja, V. S.; Durmishi, S.; Vincani, F. N.

    2003-12-01

    The rise, creation and decline of the ancient civilization depended on paleo-geographic development changing at the geological environmental.This region is a worldknown archaeological site protected by UNESCO. The area under investigation occupies about 80 km2 and encompassing a large expanse of land at southern and northern side of the Butrinti lake, which is with oval shape and 21.5 depth. Throughout its long history, Butrint had an interactive relationship with its hinterland and the even-changing coastline. Preliminary research suggests that in the Holocene the Lake of Butrint was a sea inlet that stretched 20 km to north of Butrint, as far as the city of Foenike, later Epirot capital. Today the Butrint Lake is just 7.5 km long, being the result of gradual silting up this inlet with soils brought down by Bistrica River in the north side and Pavllo River in the South from surrounding mountain ranges. The goal of this study is investigation of the link between the evolution of Butrinti lake and hydrologicacal systems of the lake, its silting history and how this has impacted and interacted with land and human activity. Histories of terrestrial erosion, near-shore sediment redistribution, times, subsidence and compaction, land-sea interaction are obvious now. Geophysical observation consist of vertical electric soundings (V.E.S.) and magnetic measurements inside a layout of 80 km2. The soundings data, particularly resistivity variations are the base for sedimentologic studies due to the lack of boreholes. For a gravel deposition, in addition to the usual parameter maps as resistivity and thickness maps, combined multiparametric characterization maps have been plotted. Based on the sedimentologic and structural factors studied and geophysical maps and cross-sections, plenty of geomorphic problems are resolve. The evaluations of the regional water bearing are estimated, separating salty waters area.

  1. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesel, Jessica R.; Hockaday, William C.; Kolka, Randall K.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition of postfire SOM. We sampled the forest floor layer (i.e., full organic horizon) and 0-10 cm mineral soil from stands dominated by coniferous (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) or deciduous (Populus tremuloides Michx.) species 1-2 months after the 2011 Pagami Creek wildfire in northern Minnesota. We used solid-state 13C NMR to characterize SOM composition across a gradient of fire severity in both forest cover types. SOM composition was affected by fire, even when no statistically significant losses of total C stocks were evident. The most pronounced differences in SOM composition between burned and unburned reference areas occurred in the forest floor for both cover types. Carbohydrate stocks in forest floor and mineral horizons decreased with severity level in both cover types, whereas pyrogenic C stocks increased with severity in the coniferous forest floor and decreased in only the highest severity level in the deciduous forest floor. Loss of carbohydrate and lignin pools contributed to a decreased SOM stability index and increased decomposition index. Our results suggest that increases in fire severity expected to occur under future climate scenarios may lead to changes in SOM composition and dynamics with consequences for postfire forest recovery and C uptake.

  2. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Mark, B. G.; Burns, P.; Portocarrero, C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes), which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca) and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis), and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume). These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  3. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  4. Knowledge and attitude towards the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among healthcare personnel in the southern region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbag, Huda F; El-Mekki, Awad Ahmed; Al Bshabshe, Ali Aobaid Ali; Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Al-Dosry, Ahasen A; Mirdad, Rasha T; AlKhttabi, Nora F; Abbag, Lubna F

    2018-03-07

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, and is named for the crown-like spikes on its surface. The clinical presentation of MERS-CoV infection ranges from asymptomatic to very severe disease, and the classical presentation includes fever, cough chills, sore throat, myalgia, and arthralgia. A cross-sectional study of 339 healthcare personnel was conducted over an 8-month period in the Aseer region of Saudi Arabia using a structured survey that included demographic information and questions testing participant's knowledge. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents properly identified the causative agent of MERS-CoV as an RNA virus (66.4%, n=225) that is enveloped (68.1%, n=231). On the other hand, few respondents identified the proper number of strains or the genus (16.5% and 17.4%, respectively). More than half of the study sample identified the disease as zoonotic (57.2%, n=194). Similarly, 89.1% (n=302) identified that camels and bats are prone to infection with coronaviruses. Only 23.9% (n=81) properly identified March through May as the season with the highest transmission rate. There was a massive lack of adequate knowledge regarding prevalence of antibodies. Only 18.3% (n=62) of respondents identified PCR as the proper diagnostic confirmatory test for MERS-CoV infection. Regarding MERS-CoV clinical features, 76.4% (n=259) recognized the presence of sub-clinical infection, 64.7% (n=218) indicated that cases should be immediately isolated, and 46.9% (n=159) identified the main cause of mortality as respiratory failure. There is limited microbiological and virological knowledge of MERS-CoV infection among healthcare personnel in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, although the clinical aspects are known. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Musculoskeletal Problems Among Greek Perioperative Nurses in Regional Hospitals in Southern Peloponnese : Musculoskeletal Problems in Perioperative Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Helen; Zyga, Sofia; Stergioulas, Apostolos; Kipreos, George; Panoutsopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    The surgery unit is a particularly labor-intensive environment in the hospital. Studies reflect the correlation of labor risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries among nurses but few have investigated the relationship to perioperative nurses. The purpose of this study is the identification and definition of ergonomic risk factors in the operating room and their connection with musculoskeletal disorders in perioperative nurses in regional hospitals in Greece. Forty four Greek perioperative nurses working in regional hospitals in southern Peloponnese participated. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, which consisted of three parts (investigating musculoskeletal symptoms, description of work, psychometric evaluation). The analysis was done with the statistical program SPSS.19. Symptoms of musculoskeletal problems emerged. Specifically, 54.4% in the lumbar, 47.7% in the neck, 45.5% in the shoulder, followed by smaller percentages of the hip, knee, elbow and ankle. 6.8% of participants indicated no musculoskeletal symptoms in the last year while 74.9% of those who had symptoms presented them in two or more areas. Activities rated as a major problem among others were the manual handling, tools with weight and vibration etc. 100% of respondents agreed that the work in the surgery unit is demanding and has anxiety. The lack of support from the government (81.8%), combined with the low perioperative nurses (6.8%) having the opportunity to participate in administrative decisions concerning them were related to problems in the organization and management of work. Apart from engineers target factors, a main aim should be the organization of work within the framework of a national policy based on European directives on the protection and promotion of the health and safety of workers.

  6. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  7. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  8. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teixiera, Paula S. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lada, Charles J. [Harvard-Smithsonian CFA, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  9. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  10. Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda

    2014-05-01

    The Pollino Massif marks the transition from the Southern Appenninic to the Calabrian Arc. On the western side it is characterized by a moderately sized seismicity (about 9 M > 4 events in the last 50 years), well documented in the last 400 years. The moment tensor solutions available in this area yields, mainly, normal faults with coherent Southern Appeninic trend. This remains true also for the events that are localized on the calabrian side of Pollino, South of the massif. In most of the Sibari plane, seismic activity is very scarce, while it is again rather marked on its southeastern corner, both onshore and offshore. The above observations point to the perspective that the stress field of a vast portion of Northern Calabria still resembles that of the Southern Appenines. In this frame, it becomes important to investigate the offshore seismicity of the Sibari Gulf and the deformation pattern within the Sibari Plane. The latter might function as a hinge to transfer the deformation of the extensional fault system in the Pollino area to a different offshore fault system. Since return times of larger events might be very long, we need to investigate the true seismic potential of the offshore faults and to verify whether they are truly strike slip or if they could involve relevant thrust or normal components, that would add to the risk that of potentially associated tsunamis. Despite their importance in the understanding of the seismotectonic processes taking place in the Southern Appenninic - Calabrian Arc border and surrounding areas, the seismicity and the seismogenic volumes of the Sibari Gulf until now has not been well characterized due to the lack of offshore seismic stations. The seismicity of the Calabrian is monitored by the Italian National Seismic Network (INSN) managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and by the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network (CRSN) managed by the University of Calabria. Both the network comprise only on

  11. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  12. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  13. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Jean Birks, S.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Widespread naturally occurring As in groundwater with concentrations up to 179 μg/L. • 50% of the 816 water wells sampled exceeded 10 μg/L of As. • As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the groundwater samples. • Shallow groundwater As is derived from arsenian pyrite oxidation. • In deeper sediments, As release is associated with Fe(III) reduction. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest

  14. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available spatial planning office under-girded by a southern African spatial development perspective protocol. The office could become a fountain of enhanced spatial knowledge management and a platform for generating economic integration intervention levers...

  15. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  16. Willow clones with high biomass yield in short rotation coppice in the southern region of Tohoku district (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Yu; Seto, Shoko; Nishio, Mari; Minato, Kazuya; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to select willow (Salix spp.) clones with a high potential for use as biomass energy crops in the southern region of Tohoku district in Japan. Cuttings of 8 willow clones were planted on an abandoned farmland near Sendai (av. annual temp., 10.9 o C) in March 2006, grown throughout the year and cut back in late December 2006 to resprout from the remaining stools in March 2007. The biomass yield in December 2007, after the first growing season, was highest in Salix pet-susu clone KKD, followed by Salix pseudolinearis clone FXM and Salix sachalinensis clone SEN. The biomass yield on December 2008, after the second growing season, was again highest in clone KKD followed by clone FXM, S. pet-susu clone HB471 and S. sachalinensis clone SEN; the average annual yield of dry mass after the second growing season being 3.09, 2.58, 2.17 and 1.85 kgDM plant -1 for the clones in this order. Plant growth form differed among the clones. Clones FXM and SEN had several shoots of almost uniform base diameter, whereas clones KKD and HB471 showed plagiotropic growth with one thick and several thin shoots. The calorific values of dried stem segments were similar among clones, ranging from 18.7 to 19.1 kJ g -1 . The dried stem segments contained 78.9-81.2 wt.% hollocellulose, 27.2-32.3 wt.% lignin and 2.1-4.0 wt.% extractives with ethanol-benzene, depending on clones. Based on these results, we could select four clones (KKD, FXM, HB471 and SEN) suitable for biomass production by SRWC in this area.

  17. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) developed in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca; Felício, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira; Miranda, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues; Pires, Tassia Cavalcante; Bispo, Eliete da Silva; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2018-01-01

    Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes 'witch's broom disease', research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease; however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, such as Aspergillus, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of aflatoxin (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa clones developed in Brazil. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination were determined in 130 samples from 13 cocoa clones grown in the south of Bahia by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The method was evaluated for limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.90 μg kg -1 ), limit of quantification (0.10-2.50 μg kg -1 ) and recovery (RSD) (89.40-95.80%) for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 and OTA. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 38% of the samples in the range of

  18. Paleospring tufa deposition in the Kurkur Oasis region and implications for tributary integration with the River Nile in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen; Sallam, Emad S.

    2017-12-01

    Though southern Egypt is currently hyperarid, relict freshwater carbonate deposits called tufas near Kurkur (region centered at 23° 54‧ N, 32° 19‧ E) indicate that ambient rainwater-fed alkaline springs formerly sourced drainages in the Sinn El-Kaddab or Eocene scarp, and precipitated carbonate tufa deposits at waterfall cascades, pools, and streams. Petrographic analysis enables the reconstruction of a variety of vegetated microenvironments during Quaternary time. The Kurkur tufas are very porous rocks with an abundance of fossil plant casts and molds making up the petrofabrics at the macroscale. The tufas also preserve laminations of successive generations of calcified remains of microbes visible at the microscopic scale. Original carbonate framework architectures are massive carbonate structures to the decameter scale, with characteristic highly porous and permeable rock fabrics, including vegetation-rich phytoherms and stromatolite forms. The tufas are relatively pristine, preserving their original rock textures with minimal post-depositional alteration. Structural controls affecting the development of tufa deposits near Kurkur include fissure, cracks and fault planes that would have enhanced groundwater recharge and emergence of carbonate-saturated springs from perched aquifers above the Nubian Aquifer System during periods of greater effective rainfall in the past when the water table was significantly higher. The Kurkur tufas are relict archives from phases when groundwater discharge supported comparatively more vegetation than the modern day, and spring flows sustained baseflow in the Wadi Kurkur tributary of the Upper Nile. Episodes of tufa deposition along now-defunct tributaries therefore reflect phases of a more integrated Nile drainage system.

  19. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.

  20. [Psychiatric patients at the police station in the southern South Holland region: assessment by the District Health Service forensic doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardoom, H A; Huisman-Wolfs, M M; Nijs, H G T

    2002-09-21

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of ambulant psychiatric patients who were either brought to the police station or who came by themselves, but who were not kept in a cell, as a basis for the development of a reception protocol. Descriptive. The data from the medical records from 2000 kept by the forensic doctors employed by the district health services for the Southern South Holland region were inventoried. On request by the police, the forensic doctors examined 203 clients. The majority of these were middle-aged men who did have a place of residence. The reason for police involvement was bizarre or confused behaviour in public. Half of the patients had received or were receiving some form of psychiatric treatment from the mental health service. In approximately half of the cases the forensic doctor found a solution together with the police. In the other half of the cases the forensic doctor asked the crisis intervention team at the mental health service for an evaluation. Two thirds of these patients were hospitalised and one third was sent away. Because examination by both the forensic doctor and the mental health service psychiatrist and other procedures were lengthy (up to 6 hours), patients had to spend a long time in a holding cell at the police station that was not designed for stays of this length of time, and often lacked toilet facilities. The forensic doctor treated about half the clients without the need of assistance from the crisis intervention psychiatrist. The temporary accommodation for these confused clients was inadequate.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  2. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  3. Regional drought in the southern of South America: physical aspects Seca regional no sul da América do Sul: aspectos físicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonidas Minetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the indices of monthly and annual climatic drought in six regions in southern South America and their associations with seventeen predictors, the probable physical causes of droughts are analyzed. These indices are used in operational climate monitoring and describe the atmospheric temperature and sea surface temperature (SST near South America. Subtropical anticyclone activity over both coasts of South America is one of the main predictors, together with its interaction with the continental depression and SST at the coast of Brazil. The highest predictability concentrates in November-December-May and the lowest in March, June and August. In the sub regional scale, the main predictors respond to atmospheric pressure anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean for Argentinean Northwest (NOA, SST in the Brazilian coast for Argentinean Northeast (NEA, anticyclonic conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic for the Central West (CO, the latter and their interaction with the continental depression for Humid Pampa (PH, anticyclonic activity over the Pacific for the Patagonia (PAT and trans cordillera circulation for Central Chile and Comahue (CHI.As causas físicas prováveis das secas em seis regiões no sul da América do Sul são analisadas, através de índices da seca climática mensal e em suas associações com dezessete preditores. Esses indices são usados no monitoramento operacional do clima, e descrevem a temperatura atmosférica e a temperatura de superfície do mar (TSM perto de América do Sul. A atividade do anticiclone subtropical sobre ambas as costas de América do Sul é um dos preditores principais, junto com sua interação com a depressão continental e a SST na costa do Brasil. A previsibilidade mais elevada concentra-se nos meses Novembro-Dezembro-Maio e a mais baixa, em março, junho e agosto. Na escala regional secundária, os principais preditores respondem às anomalias da pressão atmosférica sobre o Oceano Atlântico para

  4. Setting the agenda in emergency medicine in the southern African region: Conference assumptions and recommendations, Emergency Medicine Conference 2014: Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D. Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first international emergency medicine (EM conference in Botswana was held on 15th and 16th May 2014 at the Gaborone International Convention Centre. The support from key stakeholders positioned the conference, from its conception, to deliver expert guidance on emergency medicine relevance, education and systems implementation. The conference theme was aptly: “Setting the Agenda in Emergency Medicine in the Southern African Region.” Over 300 local, regional and international delegates convened to participate in this landmark event. Country representation included Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Nigeria and the United States of America. Conference assumptions intersected emergency care, African burden of injury and illness and the role of the state; the public protection ethic of emergency care, and the developmental, economic and health interest in promoting EM. The recommendations addressed emergency care relevance; health systems research as an imperative for emergency systems development in southern Africa; community agency as a requisite for emergency care resilience; emergency care workers as pivotal to the emergency medical system, and support of EM system implementation. The conference recommendations – by way of setting an agenda, augur well for emergency care development and implementation in the southern African region and are likely to prove useful to the southern African countries seeking to address health service quality, EM advocacy support and implementation guidance. Emergency medicine is the only discipline with ‘universality’ and ‘responsivity’ at the point of need. This implies the widespread potential for facilitation of access to health care: a public health goal nuanced by the African development agenda.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta José M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be

  6. A conceptual model for groundwater flow and geochemical evolution in the southern Outaouais Region, Québec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montcoudiol, N.; Molson, J.; Lemieux, J.-M.; Cloutier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical and isotope data help constrain the 2D conceptual flow model. • Stable isotopes indicate recharge occurring under conditions similar to current climate. • Mixing was found between younger ( 3 H) and older ( 14 C and 4 He) groundwater. • Mixing occurred under natural flow conditions and/or was induced during sampling. • The new conceptual model shows dominant local and intermediate flow systems. - Abstract: A conceptual model was developed for a hydrogeological flow system in the southern Outaouais Region, Quebec, Canada, where the local population relies heavily on groundwater pumped from shallow overburden aquifers and from deeper fractured crystalline bedrock. The model is based on the interpretation of aqueous inorganic geochemical data from 14 wells along a cross-section following the general flow direction, of which 9 were also analysed for isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H, 3 H, δ 13 C, 14 C) and 4 for noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe, Kr). Three major water types were identified: (1) Ca–HCO 3 in the unconfined aquifer as a result of silicate (Ca-feldspar) weathering, (2) Na–Cl as a remnant of the post-glacial Champlain Sea in stagnant confined zones of the aquifer, and (3) Na–HCO 3 , resulting from freshening of the confined aquifer due to Ca–Na cation exchange. Chemical data also allowed the identification of significant mixing zones. Isotope and noble gas data confirm the hypothesis of remnant water from the Champlain Sea and also support the hypothesis of mixing processes between a young tritium-rich component with an older component containing high 4 He concentrations. It is still unclear if the mixing occurs under natural flow conditions or if it is induced by pumping during the sampling, most wells being open boreholes in the bedrock. It is clear, however, that the hydrogeochemical system is dynamic and still evolving from induced changes since the last glaciation. As a next step, the conceptual model will serve as a

  7. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  8. The response of Antarctica MLT region for the recent Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) over Southern Hemisphere (SH): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaraiah, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, J. H.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Riggin, D. M.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2017-12-01

    A minor Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) was noticed in the southern hemisphere (SH) during the September (day 259) 2010 along with two episodic warmings in early August (day 212) and late October (day 300) 2010. The signature of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) response was detected using the ground based and space borne observations along with the model predictions. The changes in the mesosphere wind field were studied from the observations of both meteor radar and MF radar located at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W) and Rothera (68oS, 68oW), Antarctica, respectively. The zonal winds in the mesosphere reversed approximately a week before the September SSW occurrence. We have also analyzed the MLT tides using both the radars and noticed strong enhancement of semi-diurnal tide (SDT) a few days later the cessation of 2010 SSW. We note the similar enhancement during the 2002 major SSW. Specifically, the SDT amplitude enhancement is greater for the 2010 SSW than 2002 SSW. We found that strong 14-16 day PWs prevailed prior to the 2010 minor SSW and disappeared suddenly after the SSW in the mesosphere by generating the quasi-secondary waves of periodicity 3-9 days. The mesosphere wind reversal is also noticed in "Specified Dynamics" version of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM) and Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy (GAIA) simulations. The similar zonal wind weakening/reversal in the lower thermosphere between 100 and 140 km are simulated by GAIA. Further, we observed the mesospheric cooling in consistency with SSWs using Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data. However, the GAIA simulations showed warming between 130 and 140 km after few days of SSW. Thus, the observation and model simulation indicate for the first time that the 2010 minor SSW also affects dynamics of the MLT region over SH in a manner similar to the 2002 major SSW.

  9. Origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a naturally iron-fertilized region of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.; Caparros, J.; Leblanc, K.; Obernosterer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural iron fertilization of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters induces annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms off the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). To examine the origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM), D- and L-amino acids (AA) were quantified at bloom and HNLC stations. Total hydrolyzable AA accounted for 21-25% of surface particulate organic carbon (%POCAA) at the bloom sites, but for 10% at the HNLC site. A marked decrease in %POCAA with depth was observed at the most productive stations leading to values between 3 and 5% below 300 m depth. AA contributed to only 0.9-4.4% of dissolved organic carbon (%DOCAA) at all stations. The only consistent vertical trend was observed at the most productive station (A3-2) where %DOCAA decreased from ~ 2% in the surface waters to 0.9% near 300 m. These AA yields revealed that POM and DOM were more rapidly altered or mineralized at the bloom sites compared to the HNLC site. Alteration state was also assessed by trends in C / N ratio, %D-AA and degradation index. Different molecular markers indicated that POM mostly originated from diatoms and bacteria. The estimated average proportion of POM from intact phytoplankton cells in surface waters was 45% at the bloom station A3-2, but 14% at the HNLC site. Estimates based on D-AA yields indicated that ~ 15% of POM and ~ 30% of DOM was of bacterial origin (cells and cell fragments) at all stations. Surprisingly, the DOM in HNLC waters appeared less altered than the DOM from the bloom, had slightly higher dissolved AA concentrations, and showed no sign of alteration within the water column. Unfavorable conditions for bacterial degradation in HNLC regions can explain these findings. In contrast, large inputs of labile organic molecules and iron likely stimulate the degradation of organic matter (priming effect) and the production of more recalcitrant DOM (microbial carbon pump) during iron-fertilized blooms.

  10. Raised Holocene paleo-shorelines along the Capo Vaticano coast (western Calabria, Italy): Evidence of co-seismic and steady-state deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Cecilia Rita; Ferranti, Luigi; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Detailed mapping of geomorphological and biological sea-level markers around the Capo Vaticano promontory (western Calabria, Italy), has documented the occurrence of four Holocene paleo-shorelines raised at different altitudes. The uppermost shoreline (PS1) is represented by a deeply eroded fossiliferous beach deposit, reaching an elevation of ∼2.2 m above the present sea-level, and by a notch whose roof is at ∼2.3 m. The subjacent shoreline PS2 is found at an elevation of ∼1.8 m and is represented by a Dendropoma rim, a barnacle band and by a wave-cut platform. Shoreline PS3 includes remnants of vermetid concretions, a barnacle band, a notch and a marine deposit, and reaches an elevation of ∼1.4 m. The lowermost paleo-shoreline (PS4) includes a wave-cut platform and a notch and reaches an elevation of ∼0.8 m. Radiocarbon dating of material from individual paleo-shorelines points to an average uplift rate of 1.2-1.4 mm/yr in the last ∼6 ka at Capo Vaticano. Our data suggest that Holocene uplift was asymmetric, with a greater magnitude in the south-west sector of the promontory, in a manner similar to the long-term deformation attested by Pleistocene terraces. The larger uplift in the south-western sector is possibly related to the additional contribution, onto a large-wavelength regional signal, of co-seismic deformation events, which are not registered to the north-east. We have recognized four co-seismic uplift events at 5.7-5.4 ka, 3.9-3.5 ka, ∼1.9 ka and <1.8 ka ago, superposed on a regional uplift that in the area, is occurring at a rate of ∼1 mm/yr. Our findings places new constrains on the recent activity of border faults south of the peninsula and on the location of the seismogenic source the 1905 destructive earthquake.

  11. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  12. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  13. Results 3 decades after the plantation trials with palebark pine in the mountain of the coastal chain in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In Italy the palebark pine (Pinus leucodermis Antoine forms natural populations present in Calabria and Lucania at the borderline between the two regions on calcareous soils and litho-soils. The surface range is about 5700 hectares, distributed in four natural groups of vegetation, two Apennine areas (Alpi, Spina -Zàccana, Pollino and two coastal areas (Palanuda-Pellegrino, Montéa. In the mountain areas the species becomes exclusive and shows resistance to climate harshness at high elevation, ability to colonise ecologically difficult sites, aptitude and specific reliability to artificial spreading. The experimental plan, carried out without any repetition because technically unfeasible in the area, estimated three input variables: plastic bag-grown S2F2 and bare-rooted seedlings S2T2, inter-distance on the terrace (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, elevation a.s.l. (1400m, 1550m, 1700m. 4 yrs old seedlings, one half plastic bag-grown and one half bare-rooted, were transplanted in autumn in each site on 24 terraces (4x3x2 handmade in summer. Each sampled area was made up of four adjacent terraces for an overall length of 184 m. Transplanting operations were completed in December and an enclosure was set up to protect the plantation from grazing. As a whole, the experimental areas was shaped as a rectangle. Additional terraces, carried out in the lower part, were planted with bare-rooted Austrian pine and Silver fir seedlings at an inter-distance of 1m and provided the direct comparison with the same thesis of palebark pine. Maintenance practices were undertaken in June and in July of the first and second year to eliminate weeds and shrubs along the terraces. The mensurational surveys were carried out in 1982-1983-1987-1994-2007-2009. The quite complete mortality of Austrian pine and Silver fir transplants in 1983-84 made impossible any further

  14. Simulation of Regional Ground-Water Flow in the Suwannee River Basin, Northern Florida and Southern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Suwannee River Basin covers a total of nearly 9,950 square miles in north-central Florida and southern Georgia. In Florida, the Suwannee River Basin accounts for 4,250 square miles of north-central Florida. Evaluating the impacts of increased development in the Suwannee River Basin requires a quantitative understanding of the boundary conditions, hydrogeologic framework and hydraulic properties of the Floridan aquifer system, and the dynamics of water exchanges between the Suwannee River and its tributaries and the Floridan aquifer system. Major rivers within the Suwannee River Basin are the Suwannee, Santa Fe, Alapaha, and Withlacoochee. Four rivers west of the Suwannee River are the Aucilla, the Econfina, the Fenholloway, and the Steinhatchee; all drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Perhaps the most notable aspect of the surface-water hydrology of the study area is that large areas east of the Suwannee River are devoid of channelized, surface drainage; consequently, most of the drainage occurs through the subsurface. The ground-water flow system underlying the study area plays a critical role in the overall hydrology of this region of Florida because of the dominance of subsurface drain-age, and because ground-water flow sustains the flow of the rivers and springs. Three principal hydrogeologic units are present in the study area: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system. The surficial aquifer system principally consists of unconsoli-dated to poorly indurated siliciclastic deposits. The intermediate aquifer system, which contains the intermediate confining unit, lies below the surficial aquifer system (where present), and generally consists of fine-grained, uncon-solidated deposits of quartz sand, silt, and clay with interbedded limestone of Miocene age. Regionally, the intermediate aquifer system and intermediate con-fining unit act as a confining unit that restricts the exchange of water between the over

  15. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb, and the Latin world, especially in southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has an another treasure, yet poorly known and only partially recovered, with a history of over six thousands of years, with people proud of their history, culture, customs and traditions with unique cities, impressive by the mixture of cultures and races, its islands

  16. Quaternary volcano-tectonic activity in the Soddo region, western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Sani, F.; Philippon, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Willingshofer, E.; Molin, P.

    We present an analysis of the distribution, timing, and characteristics of the volcano-tectonic activity on the western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift in the Soddo area (latitudes between ~7°10'N and ~6°30'N). The margin is characterized by the presence of numerous normal faults, with

  17. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured.

    For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported.

    Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding.

    Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of

  18. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  19. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Southern Maryland Wood Treating Site, Hollywood, MD, September 8, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Southern Maryland Wood Treating Site (`the Site`), in Hollywood, Maryland. This is the second and final phase of remedial action for the Site. This phase addresses soil and sediment contamination and non-aqueous phase liquids (`NAPLs`) which are the principal threats remaining at the Site and are a source of contamination to the ground water and surface water.

  1. Sensitivity to Regional Earthquake Triggering and Magnitude-Frequency Characteristics of Microseismicity Detected via Matched-Filter Analysis, Central Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, C. M.; Townend, J.; Chamberlain, C. J.; Warren-Smith, E.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismicity recorded since 2008 by the Southern Alps Microseismicity Borehole Array (SAMBA) and other predominantly short-period seismic networks deployed in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, reveals distinctive patterns of triggering in response to regional seismicity (magnitudes larger than 5, epicentral distances of 100-500 km). Using matched-filter detection methods implemented in the EQcorrscan package (Chamberlain et al., in prep.), we analyze microseismicity occurring in several geographically distinct swarms in order to examine the responses of specific microearthquake sources to earthquakes of different sizes occurring at different distances and azimuths. The swarms exhibit complex responses to regional seismicity which reveal that microearthquake triggering in these cases involves a combination of extrinsic factors (related to the dynamic stresses produced by the regional earthquake) and intrinsic factors (controlled by the local state of stress and possibly by hydrogeological processes). We find also that the microearthquakes detected by individual templates have Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency characteristics. Since the detected events, by design, have very similar hypocentres and focal mechanisms, the observed scaling pertains to a restricted set of fault planes.

  2. Concentrations of 210Po in fish and shellfish from southern region of Japan and evaluation of 210Po intake from seafood for Japanese people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Nakao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po in fish and shellfish, mostly collected from southern region of Japan were analyzed. Values ranged from 0.2 to 229 Bq/kg fresh weight and higher concentrations were observed in samples analyzed with viscera. Intake of 210 Po through fish and shellfish was evaluated at different Japanese cities based on statistical consumption data. Phytoplankton, Heterosigma akashiwo was collected during a harmful algal bloom and 210 Po was analyzed. The phytoplankton occupied only 4.4% of 210 Po in seawater and a large fraction of 210 Po was observed in the particulate form. (orig.)

  3. [Ecological risk assessment of human activity of rapid economic development regions in southern Jiangsu, China: a case study of Dantu District of Zhenjiang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-Ling; Xiang, Bao; Wang, Bao-Liang; Jin, Xia; Hu, Yu; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2014-04-01

    This article investigated the spatiotemporal variation of landscape ecological risk in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City with statistical method based on the ETM remote sensing data in 2000 and 2005, and the TM remote sensing data in 2010, and quantitative index of regional ecological risk assessment was established with the employment of landscape index, so as to enhance the ecosystem management, prevent and reduce the regional ecological risk in southern Jiangsu with rapid economic development. The results showed that the fragmentations, divergence, and ecological losses of natural landscape types, such as forestland, wetland, waters, etc., were deteriorated with the expansion of built-up lands from 2000 to 2010. The higher ecological risk zone took up 5.7%, 9.0%, and 10.2% of the whole region in 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively, which mainly distributed in the plain hilly region. During the study period, the area aggravating to the higher ecological risk zone was approximately 296.2 km2, 48% of the whole region. The ecological risk rose up in most of the region. The interference of rapid economic development to landscape patterns was even more intensive, with obvious spatial differences in ecological risk distribution. The measures of exploiting resources near the port, utilizing natural wetlands, constructing industrial parks, and rapid urbanization, etc., intensified the ecological risk and accelerated the conversion rate. Prompt strategies should be established to manage the ecological risk of this region.

  4. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  5. Beyond the Perimeter of Depoliticization. The Evolution of the Global Governance of Refugees and its Territorialisation in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafrancesca D'Agostino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the evolution of the global governance of refugees in light of studies on depoliticisation. Following theories on governmentality, it emphasizes the centrality of the concept of de-politicisation when examining the narratives and practices implemented to establish an extraterritorial asylum system of humanitarian containment, detached from any ideals of inclusion and rehabilitation. At the same time, we recall diverse empirical evidence in order to stress the importance of considering the divergent effects of depoliticisation in geographically and culturally distant contexts. The survey in Ca-labria, Italy, presents in fact the political attempt by its inner areas to foster autonomous practices of in-clusion that contrast the securitarian shift of the global asylum system, as well as its national implications, recognising refugees as a strategic factor of economic growth and social innovation. In particular, we re-veal the mechanisms through which new forms of local citizenship have emerged here, along with institu-tional solutions specifically connoted by a bilateral and place-based approach to forced migration. These efforts persist despite the breakup of the current European refugee crisis which, however, now opens new dilemmas by diminishing the viability of refugee relocation within the internal areas as a truly sustainable process.

  6. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  7. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  8. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  9. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and water resources in the headwaters region of the Yellow River: links and potential for forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lü

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the rainfall-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO and runoff-ENSO relationships and examines the potential for water resource forecasting using these relationships. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, Niño1.2, Niño3, Niño4, and Niño3.4 were selected as ENSO indicators for cross-correlation analyses of precipitation and runoff. There was a significant correlation (95% confidence level between precipitation and ENSO indicators during three periods: January, March, and from September to November. In addition, monthly streamflow and monthly ENSO indictors were significantly correlated during three periods: from January to March, June, and from October to December (OND, with lag periods between one and twelve months. Because ENSO events can be accurately predicted one to two years in advance using physical modeling of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, the lead time for forecasting runoff using ENSO indicators in the Headwaters Region of the Yellow River could extend from one to 36 months. Therefore, ENSO may have potential as a powerful forecasting tool for water resources in the headwater regions of Yellow River.

  10. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault and implications to regional seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Masson, Frederic; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov

    2018-01-01

    Detailed analysis of crustal deformation along the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is presented. Using dense GPS measurements we obtain the velocities of new near- and far-field campaign stations across the fault. We find that this section is locked with a locking depth of 19.9 ± 7.7 km and a slip rate of 5.0 ± 0.8 mm/yr. The geodetically determined locking depth is found to be highly consistent with the thickness of the seismogenic zone in this region. Analysis of instrumental seismic record suggests that only 1% of the total seismic moment accumulated since the last large event occurred about 800 years ago, was released by small to moderate earthquakes. Historical and paleo-seismic catalogs of this region together with instrumental seismic data and calculations of Coulomb stress changes induced by the 1995 Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake suggest that the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is in the late stage of the current interseismic period.

  11. Prevalence of penicillin and erythromycin resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates reported by laboratories in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A; Tiemersma, E; Scicluna, E; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; de Kraker, M; Monen, J; Grundmann, H

    2009-03-01

    Information about the epidemiology of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae within southern and eastern countries of the Mediterranean region is incomplete, as reports have been sporadic and difficult to compare. Over a 36-month period, from 2003 to 2005, the ARMed project collected 1298 susceptibility test results of invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae from blood and spinal fluid cultures routinely processed within 59 participating laboratories situated in Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Overall, 26% (335) of isolates were reported as non-susceptible to penicillin, with the highest proportions being reported from Algeria (44%) and Lebanon (40%). During the same time period, the highest proportions of pneumococci that were not susceptible to erythromycin were reported from Malta (46%) and Tunisia (39%). Proportions of dual non-susceptibility in excess of 5% were found in laboratories in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey. ARMed data on the antimicrobial resistance epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region provided evidence of high rates of resistance, especially to penicillin. This evidence calls for a greater focus on the identification of relevant drivers of resistance and on the implemention of effective practices in order to address the problem of resistence.

  12. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  13. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-03-14

    Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Construction of a restriction map and gene map of the lettuce chloroplast small single-copy region using Southern cross-hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, K R

    1996-01-01

    The small single-copy region (SSCR) of the chloroplast genome of many higher plants typically contain ndh genes encoding proteins that share homology with subunits of the respiratory-chain reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. A map of the lettuce chloroplast SSCR has been determined by Southern cross-hybridization, taking advantage of the high degree of homology between a tobacco small single-copy fragment and a corresponding lettuce chloroplast fragment. The gene order of the SSCR of lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts is similar. The cross-hybridization method can rapidly create a primary gene map of unknown chloroplast fragments, thus providing detailed information of the localization and arrangement of genes and conserved open reading frame regions.

  15. Regional characteristics of land use in northeast and southern Blue Ridge province: Associations with acid-rain effects on surface-water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liegel, L.; Cassell, D.; Stevens, D.; Shaffer, P.; Church, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) is one of several being conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to assess risk to surface waters from acidic deposition in the eastern United States. In one phase of DDRP, land use, wetland, and forest cover data were collected for statistical samples of 145 northeast lakes and 35 southern Blue Ridge Province stream watersheds. Land use and other data were then extrapolated from individual to target watershed populations in both study regions. Project statistical design allows summarization of results for various subsets of the target population. The article discusses results and implications of the land-use and land-cover characterization for both regions

  16. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  17. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  18. Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ackerley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation approach from the Australian component of the international palaeoclimate synthesis effort (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records – OZ-INTIMATE to compare atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM simulations and proxy reconstructions. The approach is used in order to identify important properties (e.g. circulation and precipitation of past climatic states from the models and proxies, which is a primary objective of the Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PalaeoEnvironment (SHAPE initiative. The AOGCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP mid-Holocene (ca. 6000 years before present, 6 ka and pre-industrial control (ca. 1750 CE, 0 ka experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The largest uncertainty between the models and the proxies occurs over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP. The analysis shows that the lower temperatures in the Pacific at around 6 ka in the models may be the result of an enhancement of an existing systematic error. It is therefore difficult to decipher which one of the proxies and/or the models is correct. This study also shows that a reduction in the Equator-to-pole temperature difference in the Southern Hemisphere causes the mid-latitude westerly wind strength to reduce in the models; however, the simulated rainfall actually increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia as a result of higher convective precipitation. Such a mechanism (increased convection may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy, opportunities for better model–proxy integrated research are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica; Barr, Cameron; Bostock, Helen; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn; Gouramanis, Chris; McGregor, Helen; Mooney, Scott; Phipps, Steven J.; Tibby, John; Tyler, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    This study uses the simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation approach from the Australian component of the international palaeoclimate synthesis effort (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records - OZ-INTIMATE) to compare atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations and proxy reconstructions. The approach is used in order to identify important properties (e.g. circulation and precipitation) of past climatic states from the models and proxies, which is a primary objective of the Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PalaeoEnvironment (SHAPE) initiative. The AOGCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) mid-Holocene (ca. 6000 years before present, 6 ka) and pre-industrial control (ca. 1750 CE, 0 ka) experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The largest uncertainty between the models and the proxies occurs over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP). The analysis shows that the lower temperatures in the Pacific at around 6 ka in the models may be the result of an enhancement of an existing systematic error. It is therefore difficult to decipher which one of the proxies and/or the models is correct. This study also shows that a reduction in the Equator-to-pole temperature difference in the Southern Hemisphere causes the mid-latitude westerly wind strength to reduce in the models; however, the simulated rainfall actually increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia as a result of higher convective precipitation. Such a mechanism (increased convection) may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy), opportunities for better model-proxy integrated research are discussed.

  20. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  1. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Direct Trade of Woods for the Spanish Shipbuilding Industry and other Goods from the Southern Baltic Sea Region, 1700-1783

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Reichert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the first approach to theme of the direct trade between the southern region of the Baltic Sea and Spain, the issue very little known and generalizes by Spanish historiography. Thus, for help of the digital records of the Sound Strait, the checkpoint where ships paid a right of transit it to the Danish Crown, was conducted an analysis of the maritime movement and its volume between both regions in the period of 1700-1783. The results of this research were deepened with the employ of the Polish, Spanish and European historiographies that allowed establishing new perspectives of the commerce life of both regions (Spain and countries of the South Baltic. The primary focus of study focused on the presentation of economic, geopolitical and maritime aspects of this direct trade, where mayor attention was offered to the analysis of wood and timber shipments for the Spanish shipbuilding industry. Finally, the purpose of this work was to demonstrate that actually existed the direct trade between the South Baltic and Spain, which perhaps was small in a global context, however showed its utility against Anglo Dutch monopoly in traffic with different regions of this sea.

  3. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2013-01-01

    in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600...... of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p... of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium....

  4. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Friederich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini–Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW–SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE–SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east–west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW–SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except

  5. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  6. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  7. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these

  8. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  9. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  10. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  11. A Two Time-scale response of the Southern Ocean to the Ozone Hole: Regional Responses and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Seviour, W.; Waugh, D.; Pradal, M. A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing ozone on the climate of the Southern Ocean is evaluated using an ensemble of coupled climate models. By imposing a step change from 1860 to 2000 conditions we are able to estimate response functions associated with this change. Two time scales are found, an initial cooling centered in the Southwest Pacific followed by cooling in the Pacific sector and then warming in both sectors. The physical processes that drive this response are different across time periods and locations, as is the sign of the response itself. Initial cooling in the Pacific sector is not just driven by the increased winds pushing cold water northward, but also by a decrease in surface salinity reducing wintertime mixing and increased ice and clouds reflecting more shortwave radiation back to space. The decrease in salinity is primarily driven by a southward shift of precipitation associated with a shifting storm track, coupled with decreased evaporation associated with colder surface temperatures. A subsurface increase in heat associated with this reduction in mixing then upwells along the Antarctic coast, producing a subsequent warming. Similar changes in convective activity occur in the Weddell Sea but are offset in time.

  12. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  13. A survey into process and worker's characteristics in the wood furniture industry in Songkhla Province, southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiseranee, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1998-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the wood furniture industry was conducted in southern Thailand in February 1993. The aim was to examine the manufacturing process, occupational hazards at the workplace, workers' demographic characteristics, period of employment, incidence rate of work related injury and some reproductive history of workers. Altogether 69 managers and 1,000 workers participated in the study. There are 2 main types of wood industry, rubberwood and hardwood. The rubberwood industry is semi-automated with advanced technology, has a female-dominated workforce of 200-300 workers per factory and overseas-market orientation. The hardwood industry is based in small-scale workplaces ranging from 20 to 60 workers, domestic-market orientation and has a male-dominated workforce. Most of the workers were young, single, of low education and were high turnover rate laborforce, with arduous work and long working hours per week. Solvent was the most frequent chemical exposure. The person-year incidence of chemical exposure in female workers was higher than in male workers for every group of chemicals. The incidence of accidents was twice as high as the official rate. The standardized fertility ratio of female wood workers was only 51.6% of that of the Thai female population. There was a high abortion rate among women who became pregnant inside the wood industry compared to that among pregnancies outside the wood factory. Wood industry workers were exposed to occupational hazards and accident-prone work conditions.

  14. Environmental challenges posed by veld fires in fragile regions: The case of the Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This original research confronted challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires in the Bulilima and Mangwe Districts of Matabeleland in the South Province in southern Zimbabwe. Veld fires have affected the fauna and flora, polluted air and water, and destroyed livelihoods. The study aimed at establishing challenges to environmental sustainability posed by veld fires, identifying the type of environment upon which veld fires have impacted, analysing legal issues and other interventions surrounding the control of veld fires and suggesting new control measures for veld fires. A qualitative research design and quota sampling were used. The study involved 30 participants. Data was collected through a questionnaire, an interview guide and participant observation. Challenges to environmental management and sustainability posed by veld fires include property damage, reduced soil fertility, destruction of vegetation, air and water pollution and destruction of wildlife. Most veld fires are a result of human actions that emanate from the disposal of cigarettes, the burning of vegetation when preparing fields, the use of fire by hunters, smoking out bees and the making of fires by motorists along highways. The government should consider reviewing the current environmental statues. Fireguards should be wide enough to lessen veld-fire impact. Lastly, veld-fire campaigns and rehearsals should be run on a regular basis. It is hoped that this work would make a significant contribution through improving the current thinking about environmental management and sustainability, thereby benefiting policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders.

  15. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  16. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  17. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  18. Geophysical techniques for detecting magmas and high-temperature fluids. Their application to the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Umeda, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of volcanism on the geological environments include a dynamic destruction and subsidence of basement rocks, caused by the intrusion and eruption of magma. To ensure the long-term stability of geological disposal system, a possibility of renewed volcanism at the site might be examined based on the geotectonic data of the deep underground using geophysical and geochemical approaches. This paper describes an overview of geophysical approaches for detecting magmas and/or high temperature fluids related to volcanism within the crust and uppermost mantle. Moreover, we present the images of the seismic velocity and electrical resistivity structure beneath the Onikobe-Narugo volcanic region and the southern Kii Peninsula, carried out in JNC's R and D program. (author)

  19. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  20. Factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community of the southern triangle macro-region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Michelle Helena Pereira de; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Nascimento, Janaína Santos; Santos, Álvaro da Silva

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to establish the socioeconomic and health factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community. An analytical study with a cross-sectional and quantitative approach was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with 3430 senior citizens in 24 municipalities in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used for socioeconomic and health variables, as well as the Katz scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Descriptive, bivariate statistical analysis was performed and a multiple linear regression model (p environmental domain and from the aspect of autonomy, a key influencing factor being negative health perception.

  1. Detection and molecular characterization of Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in hard ticks collected from Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Hayashi, Kei; Andoh, Masako; Tateno, Morihiro; Endo, Yasuyuki; Asada, Masahito; Kusakisako, Kodai; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hozumi, Nodoka; Nakadohzono, Fumiko; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the distribution of tick-borne parasites, we established a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system to detect the most common agents of tick-borne parasitic diseases, namely Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon parasites. We collected host-seeking or animal-feeding ticks in Kagoshima Prefecture, the southernmost region of Kyusyu Island in southwestern Japan. Twenty of the total of 776 tick samples displayed a specific band of the appropriate size (approximately 1.4-1.6kbp) for the 18S rRNA genes in the novel nested PCR (20/776: 2.58%). These PCR products have individual sequences of Babesia spp. (from 8 ticks), Theileria spp. (from 9 ticks: one tick sample including at least two Theileria spp. sequences), and Hepatozoon spp. (from 3 ticks). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these sequences were close to those of undescribed Babesia spp. detected in feral raccoons in Japan (5 sequences; 3 sequences being identical), Babesia gibsoni-like parasites detected in pigs in China (3 sequences; all sequences being identical), Theileria spp. detected in sika deer in Japan and China (10 sequences; 2 sequences being identical), Hepatozoon canis (one sequence), and Hepatozoon spp. detected in Japanese martens in Japan (two sequences). In summary, we showed that various tick-borne parasites exist in Kagoshima, the southern region in Japan by using the novel nested PCR system. These including undescribed species such as Babesia gibsoni-like parasites previously detected in pigs in China. Importantly, our results revealed new combinations of ticks and protozoan parasites in southern Japan. The results of this study will aid in the recognition of potential parasitic animal diseases caused by tick-borne parasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Population-Level Transcriptomic Responses of the Southern Ocean Salp Salpa thompsoni to Environment Variability of the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, A. C.; Batta Lona, P. G.; Maas, A. E.; O'Neill, R. J.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    In response to the changing Antarctic climate, the Southern Ocean salp Salpa thompsoni has shown altered patterns of distribution and abundance that are anticipated to have profound impacts on pelagic food webs and ecosystem dynamics. The physiological and molecular processes that underlay ecological function and biogeographical distribution are key to understanding present-day dynamics and predicting future trajectories. This study examined transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression in relation to biological and physical oceanographic conditions in coastal, shelf and offshore waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region during austral spring and summer 2011. Based on field observations and collections, seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of salps of different life stages were associated with differences in water mass structure of the WAP. Our observations are consistent with previous suggestions that bathymetry and currents in Bransfield Strait could generate a retentive cell for an overwintering population of S. thompsoni, which may generate the characteristic salp blooms found throughout the region later in summer. The statistical analysis of transcriptome-wide patterns of gene expression revealed differences among salps collected in different seasons and from different habitats (i.e., coastal versus offshore) in the WAP. Gene expression patterns also clustered by station in austral spring - but not summer - collections, suggesting stronger heterogeneity of environmental conditions. During the summer, differentially expressed genes covered a wider range of functions, including those associated with stress responses. Future research using novel molecular transcriptomic / genomic characterization of S. thompsoni will allow more complete understanding of individual-, population-, and species-level responses to environmental variability and prediction of future dynamics of Southern Ocean food webs and ecosystems.

  3. Pb-Pb geochronology in zircon of the basement rocks of the southern portion of the Araguaia Belt - Paraiso do Tocantins region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcanjo, Silvia Helena de Souza; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso

    2000-01-01

    Recent geochronological studies of the basement orthogneisses of the northern region of the Araguaia belt showed the occurrence of both Archean (2.85 Ga) and Early Proterozoic (1.85 Ga) rocks. The oldest gneisses were grouped in the Colmeia Complex, the younger were named the Cantao Gneiss. In the southern portion of the Araguaia belt, the basement sequences include metavolcanic-sedimentary rocks, tonalitic, calc-silicate, and alkaline gneisses, and granitic rocks. All of these sequences have been considered as Archean in age, although no geochronological data are available to test this hypothesis. The metavolcanic-sedimentary rocks are included in the Rio do Coco Group, while the granitic rocks are represented by the Serrote and Matanca granites. The tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses were grouped with Colmeia and Rio do Mangues Complexes, and the alkaline gneisses in the Monte Santo Suite. These gneisses were investigated geochronologically by single zircon Pb-evaporation methods in order to define their stratigraphic interrelationships, and to contribute to a greater understanding of the geological evolution of this crustal segment. The single zircon ages of the tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses range between 1.8 and 2.1 Ga. An age of about 1.0 Ga, was obtained for the alkaline gneisses of Serra da Estrela (Monte Santo Suite). These data along with the single zircon age of 1.85 Ga. published for the Serrote Granite, indicate the widespread occurrence of Proterozoic rocks in the basement of the southern part of Araguaia belt. However, the existence of Arquean sequences in this region can not be discarded since the volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Rio do Coco Group have not as yet been dated. The correlation of tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses with the Colmeia Complex was not confirmed, so these gneisses have been grouped with the Early proterozoic Rio dos Mangues Complex. Thus, it is suggested that a significant part of the basement of the southern

  4. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  5. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamao; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhao, Shuyu; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Qiyuan; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Youzhi; Wang, Ping; Tie, Xuexi

    2018-05-11

    An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.

  6. Mantle heterogeneity in northeastern Africa: evidence from Nd isotopic compositions and hygromagmaphile element geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrat, J.A.; Jahn, B.M.; Auvray, B.; Hamdi, H.; Joron, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basaltic rocks from the Gulf of Tadjoura and southern Red Sea regions have been analysed for their Nd isotopic compositions and major and trace element concentrations. The wide variation in isotopic and geochemical compositions of the basaltic rocks is best explained by the mixing phenomenon involving a variety of mantle source components. To test the mixing hypothesis, a combined use of Nd isotopes and hygromagmaphile elemental ratios is proven very powerful. Three reservoirs have been identified as minimum components in their petrogenesis: (1) DMM (depleted MORB mantle), a mantle source depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE), which is the principal component of the N-MORB type basalts of this region; (2) REC (Ramad enriched component), equivalent to the hot-spot type of source detected in the south of Red Sea; (3) TEC (Tadjoura enriched component), a rather unique component located in the region of Tadjoura Gulf; it is characterised by a relative depletion in Rb, K, Th and U in a primitive mantle- or chondrite-normalised incompatible element pattern; this component could have been produced by mantle metasomatism of an originally depleted mantle. Mixing in various proportions of the above components is considered to be the principal mechanism for the formation of basalts with such diverse isotopic and trace element compositions. (orig.)

  7. PROBING THE PHYSICS OF NARROW LINE REGIONS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. THE SIDING SPRING SOUTHERN SEYFERT SPECTROSCOPIC SNAPSHOT SURVEY (S7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  8. Regular use of dental services among adults and older adults in a vulnerable region in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luciene Petcov; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira; Jeronymo, José Carlos Milanez; Bastos, Gisele Alsina Nader

    2012-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of regular use of dental care services by adults and older adults residing in vulnerable community and to identify associated factors. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 3,391 adults and older adults residing in areas of social vulnerability in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from July to December of 2009. A systematic sampling method was used the selection probability proportional to the population of each of the the 121 census sectors. The outcome for regular use of dental care services was defined as regular use of dental services, regardless of the presence of dental problems. A standardized questionnaire was administered, which included demographic, socioeconomic, type of dental care services, self-perception of dental health and self-perceived needs variables. A chi-square test for heterogeneity was used for bivariate analyses, and a Poisson regression with a robust variance and Wald tests were performed for the adjusted analysis. The prevalence of regular use of dental services was 25.7%. The prevalence was higher among people with >12 years schooling (PR 2.48 [95%CI:1.96;3.15]), higher income (PR 1.95[95%CI: 1.03;1.53]), use of private health services (PR 1.43 [95%CI: 1.20;1.71]),excellent self-perceived oral health (PR 4.44 [95%CI: 3.07;6.42]) and a self-perceived need for consultation related to routine checkup (RP 2.13 [95%CI: 1.54;2.96]). Inequalities were found in the regular use of dental services. Integrated approaches that raise awareness of oral health, improve self-care and expand access to dental services, may contribute to increase the use of dental services on a regular basis.

  9. Hepatitis A virus strains circulating during 1997-2015 in Campania, a Southern Italy region with periodic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Angela; Coppola, Nicola; Spada, Enea; Bruni, Roberto; Taffon, Stefania; Equestre, Michele; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Sagnelli, Caterina; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Tosone, Grazia; Mascolo, Silvia; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-11-01

    In Italy, the incidence of hepatitis A has progressively declined over the last 30 years, though not homogeneously throughout the country. In Campania, Southern Italy, high annual incidence rates have been reported and several periodic outbreaks have occurred. To investigate the phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among HAV strains circulating in Campania over the period 1997-2015, 87 hepatitis A cases were investigated. The most frequent risk factor was the consumption of raw/undercooked shellfish (75/87, 86.2%). During 1997-2002 most viral strains were subtype IA (16/23, 70%); the phylogenetic pattern suggests that the incidence peaks observed in 2000-2001 had likely been caused by multiple strains. During a large 2004 outbreak, almost all viral variants were subtype IB (38/41, 93%); most of them (22/38, 58%) were recognized to be one of two main strains (differing for just a single nucleotide), the remaining sequences were strictly related variants. In 2014/2015, only IA strains were observed; two phylogenetically related but distinct strains were responsible, respectively, for a small cluster in 2014 and an outbreak in 2015. In each outbreak, several strains unrelated to those responsible for most cases were detected in a minority of patients, documenting a background of sporadic cases occurring even in the course of outbreaks; some of them proved to be identical to strains detected 11-14 years previously. Overall, the data suggest that several related and unrelated HAV strains have endemically circulated over the last 15 years in Campania, with some strains gaining epidemic transmission likely because of a local combination of multiple factors, including inadequate waste water purification and dietary habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Wild plants, pregnancy, and the food-medicine continuum in the southern regions of Ghana and Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance In West Africa, women utilize wild plant species to maintain and enhance their health throughout the duration of pregnancy. These plants are a culturally resilient and financially accessible form of nourishment for pregnant women in the region, many of whom are

  11. Regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the sea level in the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Kexiu; Wang, Aimei; Feng, Jianlong; Fan, Wenjing; Liu, Qiulin; Xu, Yao; Zhang, Zengjian

    2018-05-01

    Based on coastal tide level, satellite altimetry, and sea surface temperature (SST) data of offshore areas of China's coast and the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the regional characteristics of the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the sea level in the China Sea were investigated. Singular value decomposition results show a significant teleconnection between the sea level in the China Sea and the SST of the tropical Pacific Ocean; the correlation coefficient decreases from south to north. Data from tide gauges along China's coast show that the seasonal sea-level variations are significantly correlated with the ENSO. In addition, China's coast was divided into three regions based on distinctive regional characteristics. Results obtained show that the annual amplitude of sea level was low during El Niño developing years, and especially so during the El Niño year. The ENSO intensity determined the response intensity of the annual amplitude of the sea level. The response region (amplitude) was relatively large for strong ENSO intensities. Significant oscillation periods at a timescale of 4-7 years existed in the sea level of the three regions. The largest amplitude of oscillation was 1.5 cm, which was the fluctuation with the 7-year period in the South China Sea. The largest amplitude of oscillation in the East China Sea was about 1.3 cm. The amplitude of oscillation with the 6-year period in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea was the smallest (less than 1 cm).

  12. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Features of Children with Cerebral Palsi Applied to our Centre from Southern Eastern Anatolian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Nacitarhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a general term which is used to describe a group of disorders that define muscle control impairment due to lesion in the developing brain. The aim of the present study was to indicate the common features of the children with cerebral palsy and their families in South Eastern region of Turkey, the most underdeveloped community in our country. In addition, the rate of marriage between the relatives (consanguineous marriage is higher in this region than the other regions.A total of 258 children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were enrolled to our study. These children were born in South Eastern Anatolian region and live here throughout their childhood. Their families were also living in this region. The members of the families were interviewed with the questionnaire to obtain information. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Graphpad Prism Ver 3.00.68.99 percent of the patients in our study were men, and 31.01 percent were women. They were between the ages of 10-375 months, average was 75.43±59.15 months. Rate of people, who was not under any social security guarantee, was 15.5%. 50.3% of mothers were not literate. Families’ income was 8.5% good, 42.6% poor. In families, there was 33.3% rate of relationship between partners (consanguineous marriage. In 15.5% of families, there was another retarded child. 55 percent of mothers were never been under health check in pregnancy period. Retarded child was usually from first delivery (26.3%. 3.1% of our patients had twin pregnancy. Only 59,6% of the whole births were given at the hospital or by the help of a midwife. Children were suckled along 6.4±6.4 months. Only 8,5% of the children were being educated.Finally, we concluded that reducing convertible risk factors caused by the low education level of our region, underdeveloped socioeconomic conditions and some traditions (e.g. consanguineous marriage and delivery in house instead of health organization has

  13. Lowstand Turbidites and Delta Systems of the Itararé Group in the Vidal Ramos region (SC, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gimena Puigdomenech

    Full Text Available Turbidites have captioned the attention of sedimentologists during the last decades due their importance as hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, their relationship to delta systems still deserves further studies. This paper presents examples from a late deglacial to early post-glacial deltaic and turbidite strata exposed in the surroundings of Vidal Ramos (Santa Catarina State, Brazil, southern portion of the Paraná Basin. There, the uppermost part of the Mafra Formation and the Rio do Sul Formation onlap the Proterozoic basement and comprises an up to 360 m thick package. It includes (base to top black shales, mass transport deposits (MTD and sandy turbidites (Mafra Formation as well as thin bedded turbidites (tbt, including one interval of black shales and sandy turbidites, overlain by proximal delta front sandstones (Rio do Sul Formation. The analysis of the succession shows two more than 150 m thick coarsening-upwards deltaic successions composed of turbidite sand sheets at their base (prodelta, followed by partially collapsed thin bedded turbidites (delta slope wedge and delta front sandstones. Both turbidite sand-sheets abruptly overlay black shale intervals related to maximum flooding surfaces and therefore record correlative conformities. A detailed stratigraphic section elaborated from the correlation of four logs (1/100 suggests that distal delta front sands includes both thin bedded turbidites and wave reworked sands whereas the proximal delta front was dominated by long-lived underflows (hyperpycnal flows. The succession suggests that the most expressive turbidite beds (base of the delta systems have resulted from relative sea-level falls (early lowstand whereas the thin-bedded turbidites were related to the development of the late lowstand wedge. Black shales represent the transgressive systems tract and HST were not deposited or preserved in the area. High sediment supply associated with lowstand tracts could explain the occasional

  14. Kukimbia: the impact of environmental refugees in Southern Africa: A regional perspective on climate-induced migration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available areas identified. 3. To develop local adaptive management strategies for environmental migration in the case study areas identified. 7 Project scales Descriptors Global / regional National Sub-national / Local Unit of analysis SADC... • Documentary • Policy briefs • Policy guidelines • Reports and publications • Community of Practice (CoP) Impact • Better preparedness at different levels of scale • Institutional enhancement • Improvement in capacity/capability and skills...

  15. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, Southern Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Salzmann; C. Huggel; M. Rohrer; W. Silverio; B. G. Mark; P. Burns; C. Portocarrero

    2012-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temp...

  16. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  17. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  18. Evaluation of the Tindouf Basin Region in Southern Morocco as an Analog Site for Soil Geochemistry on Noachian Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Elizabeth A; Claire, Mark W; Kounaves, Samuel P

    2018-02-09

    Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The Moroccan samples show the greatest similarity with those from Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, and the Atacama, while being consistently depleted compared to University Valley and enriched compared to Taylor Valley. The NO 3 /Cl ratios are most similar to Victoria Valley and Atacama, while the SO 4 /Cl ratios are similar to those from Beacon Valley, Victoria Valley, and the Atacama. While perchlorate concentrations in the Moroccan samples are typically lower than those found in samples of other analog sites, conditions in the region are sufficiently arid to retain oxychlorines at detectable levels. Our results suggest that the Tindouf Basin in Morocco can serve as a suitable analogue for the soil geochemistry and subsequent aridification of the Noachian epoch on Mars. Key Words: Mars analogues-Antarctica-Morocco-Oxyanions-Perchlorate-Nitrate. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  19. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H-α emission regions in Southern Milky Way (Rodgers+ 1960)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. W.; Campbell, C. T.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    The Catalogue of Rodgers, Cambell, and Whiteoak (RCW), was the result of a survey of emission nebulae carried out at Mt. Stromlo Observatory from December 1957 to April 1959. The entire region of the Milky Way southward of the Palomar sky survey with a latitude of plus or minus 15 degrees of the galactic equator was photographed in the light of hydrogen alpha with comparison plates obtained in yellow light. This work roughly complements the Sharpless (Sh2, see Cat. ) survey published in 1959. (2 data files).

  1. Basaltic ring structures of the Serra Geral Formation at the southern Triângulo Mineiro, Água Vermelha region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Fernando Estevão Rodrigues Crincoli; Caxito, Fabricio de Andrade; Moraes, Lucia Castanheira de; Marangoni, Yara Regina; Santos, Roberto Paulo Zanon dos; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The Serra Geral Formation constitutes a continental magmatic province on the southern part of South America within the Paraná basin. Basaltic magmatism of the Serra Geral Formation occurred as extrusions at around 134.5 to 131.5 My ago. The formation is part of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province, spanning South America and southwestern Africa. The main extrusion mechanism was probably through fissures related to extensional regime during the breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous. Basaltic ring structures (BRS) with tens of meters of diameter, cropping out downstream of Grande river at Água Vermelha hydroelectric dam in southern Triângulo Mineiro region, enable the study of the mechanism of extrusion. The origin of the BRS has been subject to differing interpretations in the past, either collapsed lava flows or central conduits. Detailed geological mapping at 1:1000 scale, stratigraphic, petrographic and gravimetric analysis of the most well preserved of the BRS, with a 200 m diameter, has enabled the description of thirteen different basalt lava flows, along with single a central lava lake and a ring dyke structure. The central flow, interpreted as a preserved lava lake, comprises vesicle- and amygdale-rich basalt, spatter, ropy and degassing structures. The most basal of the thirteen lava flows has massive basalt containing geodes filled with quartz. Above, the lava flows show massive basalt with vertical columnar jointing where is possible to identify the top and bottom of each individual flow, with gentle dips towards the perimeter of the structure. A prominent ring dyke dipping towards the lava lake presents horizontal columnar jointing and cuts the basal and central flows. The gravimetric analysis shows a weak negative Bouguer anomaly on the center of the BRS. The proposed model describes the volcanism of the region in three main steps: (1) fissure flow occurs with lava input; (2) this lava cools and crystallizes cementing most of the fissures

  2. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  3. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  4. Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Kadhim Al-Dualimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A prior study on the performance of high-efficient models for a heliostat field and solar receiver at various candidate locations (e.g., certain regions in the south of Turkey helped determine suitable locations for installing solar tower power plant units. This study considered the fact that solar tower power plants are affected by the working conditions of a particular site, which helps realize the highest performance of the solar power tower plant. An optimized heliostat field consisting of 2650 SENER heliostats and a model of a solar receiver based on the data obtained using Gemasolar in Seville, Spain, was used as a reference in this work. Each heliostat position is specified using an optimization algorithm that refines previously proposed models, and two parameters are added to this model to further optimize the heliostat layout. Then, a sample analytical thermal model is used for predicting the radiative and convective heat losses from the receiver system. Article History: Received March 13rd 2016; Received in revised form Jun 22nd 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available onlineHow to Cite This Article: Ra'ad, K, M, A. and Mehmet, S, S. (2016, Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 151-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.151-161

  5. An integrated geodetic and seismic study of the Cusco Fault system in the Cusco Region-Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Tavera, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Cusco Fault system is composed by six main faults (Zurite, Tamboray, Qoricocha, Tambomachay, Pachatusan, and Urcos) extending in a NW-SE direction over the Cusco Region in southeastern Peru. From these, the Tambomachay is a normal fault of 20 km length, strikes N120°E and bounds a basin filled with quaternary lacustrine and fluvial deposits. Given its 5 km distance to Cusco, an historical and Inca's archeological landmark, it represents a great seismic hazard for its more than 350,000 inhabitants. The Tambomachay fault as well as the other secondary faults have been a source of significant seismic activity since historical times being the more damaging ones the Cusco earthquakes of 1650, 1950 and more recently April 1986 (M 5.8). Previous geological studies indicate that at the beginning of the Quaternary the fault showed a transcurrent mechanism leading to the formation of the Cusco basin. However, nowadays its mechanism is normal fault and scarps up to 22m can be observed. We report the current dynamics of the Tambomachay fault and secondary faults based on seismic activity imaged by a network of 29 broadband stations deployed in the Cusco Region as well as the deformation field inferred from GPS survey measurements carried out between 2014 and 2016.

  6. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  7. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  8. Long-term outcome of autistic spectrum disorder: a retrospective case study in a southern italian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Francesca Felicia; Martino, Federica; Rinaldi, Annalisa; Cerracchio, Angelo; Salvati, Giovanni; Orza, Mariano; Lembo, Claudia; Panzarino, Gianvito; Di Paolantonio, Claudia; Verrotti, Alberto; Farello, Giovanni; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2017-09-20

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours, as well as associated features including intellectual disability and impaired sensorimotor function. Despite a growing interest in this devastating disorder for families and young parents, there are no certainties as regards its aetiology, although a significant genetic background is considered to be important. Since there is little information about the social adaptation and quality of life of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder, we decided to study and evaluate the long-term outcome and quality of life in a sample of children, adolescent and young adults. This is a case study of subjects diagnosed with ASD and followed by clinics and rehabilitation centers in Campania region, in the south of Italy. The study sample was composed by 110 patients (83 males, 27 females), aged between 8.1 and 28.0 years (mean 20.6; median 21.2; SD ± 4.85), recruited in 8 rehabilitation centers of Campania region. A follow-up interview was performed by means of a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers of patients at a mean age of their son/daughter of 20.6 years (median 21.2 years; range 8.1-28.0). Reports from parents or caregivers show an overall improvement with regard to social and adaptive abilities in a group of teen-agers and young adults with ASD. Major concerns on significant quality of life parameters such as independent living, work experiences, friendships and relationships, accommodation type, recreational activities and personal autonomy were persisting. The present study shows an overall improvement with regard to social and adaptive abilities in a large number of subjects. Considerable problems are related to autonomy, employment opportunities and social relationships of these patients. Parents need more recreational activities and continuous support with facilities for families.

  9. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  10. Ocean circulation in the southern Benguela region from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene: tracking Agulhas leakage into the SE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Benjamin; McClymont, Erin; Felder, Sojna; Leng, Melanie

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the warmth of the middle Pliocene to the large amplitude, 100 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene provides a way to understand the forcings and impacts of regional and global climate change. Here, we investigate changes in ocean circulation over the period from 3.5 Ma to present using a marine sediment core, ODP Site 1087 (31o28'S, 15o19'E, 1374m water depth). ODP 1087 is located in the South-east Atlantic Ocean, outside the Benguela upwelling region. Its location allows investigation of the history of the heat and salt transfer to the Atlantic Ocean from the Indian Ocean ("Agulhas leakage"), which plays an important part in the global thermohaline circulation. It is not known how this transfer reacted to generally warmer global temperatures during the mid-Pliocene, nor to the transition to a globally cooler climate in the early Pleistocene. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the history of ODP 1087. These include the U37K' index to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, pigment analysis for understanding productivity changes, and foraminifera assemblage analysis to detect the presence of different water masses at the site. We have identified changes in SSTs and biological productivity that we argue to reflect shifts in the position of the Benguela upwelling cells, and a changing influence of Agulhas leakage. Our new data reveal a different organization in the Southeast Atlantic. It shows that during the Pliocene ODP 1087 was dominated by Benguela upwelling which had shifted south. We find no evidence for Agulhas leakage during the mid Pliocene, which could mean that Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced during the mid Pliocene. The implications of these results for understanding Plio-Pleistocene climate changes will be explored here.

  11. Water-rock-tailings interactions and sources of sulfur and metals in the subtropical mining region of Taxco, Guerrero (southern Mexico): A multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquin; Díaz Villaseñor, Elvia; Ramírez Guzmán, Alejandro; Cortés, Alejandra; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Dótor Almazán, Azucena; Rivera Bustos, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-isotope (H, O, S, Sr, Pb) systems coupled with conventional (major and trace element) hydrogeochemical analysis were applied to determine the origin of water, to model water-rock-tailings interactions and for source apportionment of sulfur and associated toxic metals in the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico. Oxygen and H isotopes indicate that meteoric water in the zone is rainwater undergoing varying degrees of isotopic fractionation by atmospheric evaporation whereas Sr isotopes trace the interaction of pristine water from volcanics of the regional recharge zone and subsequently flowing through sandstone and shale to spring points. Leachates form from two distinctive sources (spring water and surface water) having differential interactions with bedrocks prior to entering the tailings. Compared to pristine water, leachates are enriched in sulfate, metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloids (e.g. As). The sulfur isotopic composition of ore-sulfides, leachates, secondary precipitates, regional surface water and hypogenic sulfates is described in terms of a two-component mixing model with shale of Mexcala and limestone of Morelos formations representing the light and heavy end-members, respectively, whereas Sr isotopic composition is bracketed combining three lithogenic (Mexcala/Morelos, Tilzapotla and Taxco Schist) sources. Finally, leachates have a mixture of lead from ore-sulfides and Taxco Schist Formation (Family I) or from ore-sulfides alone (Family II). The application of multiple environmental isotopic techniques is an outstanding tool for elucidating complex interactions of water with bedrocks and tailings and for determining the source of sulfur and toxic metal from mining and other metal polluted environments. - Highlights: • We applied multi-isotope techniques to model water-bedrocks-tailings interaction. • Spring water records fractionation by evaporation and interaction with local rocks. • The sulfur cycle is modeled in

  12. Impacts of mean annual air temperature change on a regional permafrost probability model for the southern Yukon and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bonnaventure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature changes were applied to a regional model of permafrost probability under equilibrium conditions for an area of nearly 0.5 × 106 km2 in the southern Yukon and northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Associated environmental changes, including snow cover and vegetation, were not considered in the modelling. Permafrost extent increases from 58% of the area (present day: 1971–2000 to 76% under a −1 K cooling scenario, whereas warming scenarios decrease the percentage of permafrost area exponentially to 38% (+ 1 K, 24% (+ 2 K, 17% (+ 3 K, 12% (+ 4 K and 9% (+ 5 K of the area. The morphology of permafrost gain/loss under these scenarios is controlled by the surface lapse rate (SLR, i.e. air temperature elevation gradient, which varies across the region below treeline. Areas that are maritime exhibit SLRs characteristically similar above and below treeline resulting in low probabilities of permafrost in valley bottoms. When warming scenarios are applied, a loss front moves to upper elevations (simple unidirectional spatial loss. Areas where SLRs are gently negative below treeline and normal above treeline exhibit a loss front moving up-mountain at different rates according to two separate SLRs (complex unidirectional spatial loss. Areas that display high continentally exhibit bidirectional spatial loss in which the loss front moves up-mountain above treeline and down-mountain below treeline. The parts of the region most affected by changes in MAAT (mean annual air temperature have SLRs close to 0 K km−1 and extensive discontinuous permafrost, whereas the least sensitive in terms of areal loss are sites above the treeline where permafrost presence is strongly elevation dependent.

  13. Regional climate assessment of precipitation and temperature in Southern Punjab (Pakistan) using SimCLIM climate model for different temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Asad; Nasim, Wajid; Mubeen, Muhammad; Sarwar, Saleem; Urich, Peter; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Wajid, Aftab; Khaliq, Tasneem; Rasul, Fahd; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Mubarak, Hussani; Mirza, Nosheen; Wahid, Abdul; Ahamd, Shakeel; Fahad, Shah; Ullah, Abid; Khan, Mohammad Nauman; Ameen, Asif; Amanullah; Shahzad, Babar; Saud, Shah; Alharby, Hesham; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Adnan, Muhammad; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Qazi Shoaib

    2018-01-01

    Unbalanced climate during the last decades has created spatially alarming and destructive situations in the world. Anomalies in temperature and precipitation enhance the risks for crop production in large agricultural region (especially the Southern Punjab) of Pakistan. Detailed analysis of historic weather data (1980-2011) record helped in creating baseline data to compare with model projection (SimCLIM) for regional level. Ensemble of 40 GCMs used for climatic projections with greenhouse gas (GHG) representative concentration pathways (RCP-4.5, 6.0, 8.5) was selected on the baseline comparison and used for 2025 and 2050 climate projection. Precipitation projected by ensemble and regional weather observatory at baseline showed highly unpredictable nature while both temperature extremes showed 95 % confidence level on a monthly projection. Percentage change in precipitation projected by model with RCP-4.5, RCP-6.0, and RCP-8.5 showed uncertainty 3.3 to 5.6 %, 2.9 to 5.2 %, and 3.6 to 7.9 % for 2025 and 2050, respectively. Percentage change of minimum temperature from base temperature showed that 5.1, 4.7, and 5.8 % for 2025 and 9.0, 8.1, and 12.0 % increase for projection year 2050 with RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 and maximum temperature 2.7, 2.5, and 3.0 % for 2025 and 4.7, 4.4, and 6.4 % for 2050 will be increased with RCP-4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively. Uneven increase in precipitation and asymmetric increase in temperature extremes in future would also increase the risk associated with management of climatic uncertainties. Future climate projection will enable us for better risk management decisions.

  14. Innovative solutions for intractable water problems in the face of climate change in southern and East African sub regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Makurira, Hodson; Magole, Lapologang; Meck, Maideyi; Mkandawire, Theresa; Mul, Marloes; Ngongondo, Cosmo

    2018-06-01

    This issue has a total of thirty-two (32) papers; and covers the IWRM sub themes of Hydrology, Land and People, Water Resources Management, Water and Environment and Wastewater and Sanitation. Water issues have become more and more complex as the supply side is affected by issues of quantity, availability and vulnerability due to natural factors such as climate change and urbanization. These challenges call for new management strategies and governance styles. Access to clean freshwater is a basic requirement for enhanced quality of life and development by all. However, this access has three main components that must be met adequately as this issue illustrates. These components are firstly, the quantity of water available; secondly, the quality and thirdly supply and appropriate delivery of this precious resource to domestic, commercial and industrial users. The demand side has also become more challenging, especially in urban areas as more and more people move from the rural areas to the cities. It has become a daily challenge in many African cities to supply water to these new urban dwellers and more so in unplanned settlements. These issues require a way and manner of delivering solutions and new innovative ideas. The topics in this issue vary from climate variability and how we are to improve our management strategies to mitigation, through to vulnerability of water resources and how to strengthen governance issues that plague some institutions in our region.

  15. Seemingly Unrelated Regression Approach for GSTARIMA Model to Forecast Rain Fall Data in Malang Southern Region Districts

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    Siti Choirun Nisak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting models can be used to predict phenomena that occur in nature. Generalized Space Time Autoregressive (GSTAR is one of time series model used to forecast the data consisting the elements of time and space. This model is limited to the stationary and non-seasonal data. Generalized Space Time Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (GSTARIMA is GSTAR development model that accommodates the non-stationary and seasonal data. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS is method used to estimate parameter of GSTARIMA model. Estimation parameter of GSTARIMA model using OLS will not produce efficiently estimator if there is an error correlation between spaces. Ordinary Least Square (OLS assumes the variance-covariance matrix has a constant error ~(, but in fact, the observatory spaces are correlated so that variance-covariance matrix of the error is not constant. Therefore, Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR approach is used to accommodate the weakness of the OLS. SUR assumption is ~(, for estimating parameters GSTARIMA model. The method to estimate parameter of SUR is Generalized Least Square (GLS. Applications GSTARIMA-SUR models for rainfall data in the region Malang obtained GSTARIMA models ((1(1,12,36,(0,(1-SUR with determination coefficient generated with the average of 57.726%.

  16. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  17. MULTIFUNCTIONAL ANO MULTIMEDIA GIS SYSTEM FOR THE INVENTORY ANO THE MANAGEMENT OF THE WETLANOS OF PUGLIA REGION (SOUTHERN ITALY

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    F. BRUNO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Puglia region is characterised by an homogeneous calcareous basement, affected by karst processes. so as to have a noticeable water reservoir. lts wetlands are the result of the complex interaction or geo-hydrological. climatic and biogeographical factors. The conservation of these remnant wetlands is menaced by human activity: land reclamation, pumping of water table, loading of pollutants, tourism and poaching. In order to conserve these habitats a two phases project was carried out. In the first phase the wetlands were identified and mapped in a GIS system. In this way 36 wetlands were mapped. These areas were grouped into the following categories: ponds and marshes (15. artificial basins and saltpans (6. meanders (5, lakes (3, swamps (3,estuaries (2. lagoon (I. gulf (I. A description has been hot linked to each area: physical and biological characteristics, previous land uses, environmental perturbations; level of protection; restoration activities to be undertaken. In the second phase three sample areas were chosen to develop a method for their characterisation. The areas are: l-Torre Guaceto, a brackish marsh bounded by sand-banks, 2-Frattarolo swamp, a salt swamp characterised by grasslands mainly composed by halophytes. 3-Lago Salso, an artificial al basin created for agricultural and hunting purposes, characterised by a mosaic of vegetation, mainly composed of hydrophytes and hygrophilous species, and of sheets of water, which represent an idoneous nesting and roosting area for many bird species, A spatio-temporal GIS database was developed using 19 digital orthophotos in order to analyse the changes that have occurred in the last fifthy years. Then the efficiency of a quantitative evaluation index was verified, This index was calculated using a GIS extension named Wetlands Rapid Assessment Procedure (WRAP. This procedure is based on the ranking of the ecological factors chosen for the evaluation: wildlife. vegetation, buffer area

  18. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

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    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant

  19. Poor quality data challenges conclusion and decision making: timely analysis of measles confirmed and suspected cases line list in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endriyas, Misganu; Solomon, Tarekegn; Belayhun, Bekele; Mekonnen, Emebet

    2018-02-12

    Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Timely analysis of measles surveillance data is crucial for epidemic control and can show disease control program status. Therefore, this study aimed to show vaccination status and delay in seeking health care using surveillance data. A retrospective study was carried out in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. We reviewed 2132 records from measles surveillance line list data from July 2013 to January 2014. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. From a total of 2132 confirmed and suspected measles cases, 1319 (61.9%), had at least one dose of measles containing vaccine; the rest 398 (18.7%) and 415 (19.5%) were unvaccinated and had unknown status respectively. About two fifth, 846 (39.7%), cases visited health facilities within 48 h of onset of clinical signs/symptoms with a median of 2.0 days, IQR (1.0, 3.0). Majority of the measles cases were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles containing vaccine and vaccination data or vaccine potency at lower level was unclear. Delay in seeking healthcare was noted as only about two fifth of cases visited health facilities within 48 h of clinical manifestation. Vaccination and surveillance data quality and factors associated with delay in seeking health care should be investigated.

  20. Kuwentong Buhay ng Isang Pambansa- Demokratikong Rebolusyonaryong Bakla sa Rehiyon ng Katimugang Mindanao (A Life Story of a Gay National-Democratic Revolutionary in Southern Mindanao Region

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    Rowell D. Madula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2005, the New People’s Army facilitated its f irst gay (male to male marriage in Compostela Valley. Guerillas Ka Jose and Ka Andres have sworn before the red flag to become partners as they wage a nationaldemocratic revolution. Members of the LGBT community have long been deprived of their right to marry persons they love. The stance of the Roman Catholic Church remains the biggest hurdle why same-sex marriage in the Philippines has yet to be allowed. Despite this, there are still some who are pushing for this. The national-democratic revolution of the Communist Party of the Philippinesnew People’s Army-National Democratic Front of the Philippines (CPP-NPANDFP is one of the most organized removolution in the history of the country. Aside from political and economic changes, the group is also pushing for a cultural revolution. This includes changes in the ideological perspective to and among members of the LGBT community. This study attempts to analyze the life and experiences of gay members of the CPP-NPA-NDFP from the Southern Mindanao Region. Experiences from gender identif ication until the participation to the national-democratic revolution are part of the life story.

  1. APPLICATION OF LiDAR DATE TO ASSESS THE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD – AN EXAMPLE FROM PODHALE REGION (SOUTHERN POLAND

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    M. Kamiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  2. Impact of city effluents on water quality of Indus River: assessment of temporal and spatial variations in the southern region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilham; Khan, Azim; Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Zafar, Shabnam; Hameed, Asma; Badshah, Shakeel; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Ullah, Hidayat; Yasmeen, Ghazala

    2018-04-04

    The impact of city effluents on water quality of Indus River was assessed in the southern region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Water samples were collected in dry (DS) and wet (WS) seasons from seven sampling zones along Indus River and the physical, bacteriological, and chemical parameters determining water quality were quantified. There were marked temporal and spatial variations in the water quality of Indus River. The magnitude of pollution was high in WS compared with DS. The quality of water varied across the sampling zones, and it greatly depended upon the nature of effluents entering the river. Water samples exceeded the WHO permissible limits for pH, EC, TDS, TS, TSS, TH, DO, BOD, COD, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NO 3 - , and PO 4 2- . Piper analysis indicated that water across the seven sampling zones along Indus River was alkaline in nature. Correlation analyses indicated that EC, TDS, TS, TH, DO, BOD, and COD may be considered as key physical parameters, while Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , F - , NO 3 - , PO 4 2- , and SO 4 2- as key chemical parameters determining water quality, because they were strongly correlated (r > 0.70) with most of the parameters studied. Cluster analysis indicated that discharge point at Shami Road is the major source of pollution impairing water quality of Indus River. Wastewater treatment plants must be installed at all discharge points along Indus River for protecting the quality of water of this rich freshwater resource in Pakistan.

  3. MERCATO AGROALIMENTARE E CATENA DEL VALORE: PROPOSTE PER IL SISTEMA INTEGRATO DI PIATTAFORME LOGISTICHE MULTIFUNZIONI DELLA CITTÀ METROPOLITANA DI REGGIO CALABRIA

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    Maurizio Malaspina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of a sustainable mobility project for the use of assets requires evaluations regarding the balances that regulate the territory and its functions that necessarily involve the introduction of the concept of quality. The efficiency of public transport and collective services, the well-kept historical center, the suburbs integrated and connected with the entire city, a strong morphological and cultural identity of the settlement, are, on the whole, the results that a careful project of the territory should be able to achieve. This contribution intends to deal with the issue of public mobility and accessibility in a view of territorial development linked to the use of the urban area asset of Reggio Calabria.

  4. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated