WorldWideScience

Sample records for caking

  1. Celebratory Cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  2. Cake formation and growth in cake filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.S.; Hsiau, S.S. [National Central University, Chungli (Taiwan)

    2009-06-15

    In this study we develop an experimental method to help understand the formation and growth of dust cakes. An on-line pressure-displacement measurement system is developed to measure the thickness of the dust cakes. A higher filtration superficial velocity resulted in a higher degree of compaction in the dust cakes and thus a higher specific cake resistance, hence a better collection efficiency could be achieved. The empirical equations for cake solidosity, and specific cake resistance as a function of the filtration superficial velocity are derived. We find that the cake filter is influenced by the cake thickness and the filtration superficial velocity. The results of this study can be applied to granular bed filters for the removal of dust particulates in advanced coal-fired power systems.

  3. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  4. Perancangan Promosi Amelia Cake & Bakery Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Susanti Aprillia; Bramantya, Bramantya; Sutanto, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Amelia Cake & Bakery meupakan sebuah bakery di Surabaya yang sudah berdiri sejak tahun 1984. Amelia Cake& Bakery memiliki beberapa produk andalan di antaranya Spikoe Resep Kuno, Walnut Cake, Pandan Kukus, danMascovis Cake. Tidak adanya promosi yang dilakukan oleh Amelia Cake & Bakery membuat bakery ini kurangdi kenal di kota Surabaya. Dengan adanya perancangan promosi ini diharapkan dapat membuat Amelia Cake &Bakery dikenal dan mampu bersaing dengan kompetitor-kompetitornya.

  5. The Icing or the Cake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, authors Kristina J. Doubet and Jessica A. Hockett argue that student engagement is more than a decorative icing on a cake; it's the cake itself. They cite research that an engaged student is more likely to invest in and understand the content being taught. With this in mind, the authors detail the following four principles that…

  6. "Toilet cake" encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhentao; Moreno, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Paradichlorobenzene (PDB) is an aromatic compound found in several household insect repellents and deodorizers. Paradichlorobenzene may cause dependence and damage when inhaled or ingested. Prior cases of PDB neurotoxicity involved ingestion or inhalation of mothballs or occupational exposure. We report the first case of PDB neurotoxicity from chronic toilet bowl deodorizers ("toilet cake") sniffing. A 19-year-old woman, 4 weeks postpartum, presented with gradual mental status deterioration, lethargy, and general weakness for 2 weeks. On physical examination, the patient was found to have a strong odor of deodorizer and diffuse hyperpigmented skin lesions, with scratch marks in neck, axillae, trunk, and 4 limbs. She was alert but unable to communicate or follow commands. Ataxia, hyporeflexia, cogwheel rigidity, and decreased muscle tone were also noted. Laboratory tests revealed only normocytic anemia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed enhancement within the splenium of the corpus callosum. Postpartum depression, psychosis, and panhypopituitarism were excluded. Family members reported on further questioning that the patient was a habitual "toilet cake" sniffer for an unknown period. A urine test for 2,5-dichlorophenol (a PDB metabolite) level was 620 mg/L (3100 times higher than the average concentration with household exposure). Her clinical condition and body odor remained unchanged during the 30-day hospitalization and the skin findings improved.

  7. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  8. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.

    2013-06-01

    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  9. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...... model. The calculation shows that the specific filter-cake resistance increases by a factor of 3 during the filtration. Thus, the impact of cake creep is significant when organic materials such as manure are filtered....

  10. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  11. Simulation of sheared, caking powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuster, A.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a visco-elastic contact model for DEM simulations, which takes caking into account and investigate the impacts of this time dependent inter particle cohesion force on the bulk behavior under biaxial deformation. Starting from the assumption that the cohesion force between two particles develops on a characteristic timescale tc, we show, that two regimes can be identified. If tc is small compared to the shear rate ˙γ, full cohesion is reached within the typical contact duration. The cohesion strength remains homogeneous throughout the sample. However, if tc ≫ ˙γ crystallization bridges at fluctuating contacts never fully recover. Heterogeneous cohesion forces and granules are the consequence.

  12. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  13. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  14. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  16. Wafer Cakes of Improved Amino Acid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Boidunyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the amino acid composition of newly developed wafer cakes with adipose fillings combined with natural additives. The appropriateness of the using non-traditional raw materials (powder of willow herb, poppy oilcake, carob, as well as skimmed milk powder in order to increase the biological value of wafer cakes and improve their amino acid composition is proven.

  17. Information Theoretic cutting of a cake

    CERN Document Server

    Delgosha, Payam

    2012-01-01

    Cutting a cake is a metaphor for the problem of dividing a resource (cake) among several agents. The problem becomes non-trivial when the agents have different valuations for different parts of the cake (i.e. one agent may like chocolate while the other may like cream). A fair division of the cake is one that takes into account the individual valuations of agents and partitions the cake based on some fairness criterion. Fair division may be accomplished in a distributed or centralized way. Due to its natural and practical appeal, it has been a subject of study in economics under the topic of "Fair Division". To best of our knowledge the role of partial information in fair division has not been studied so far from an information theoretic perspective. In this paper we study two important algorithms in fair division, namely "divide and choose" and "adjusted winner" for the case of two agents. We quantify the benefit of negotiation in the divide and choose algorithm, and its use in tricking the adjusted winner a...

  18. Deliquescence-induced caking in binary powder blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Adnan K; Taylor, Lynne S

    2006-01-01

    In this study, moisture-induced caking of deliquescent crystalline powder blends was investigated. Physical mixtures of sugars and citric acid anhydrous showed significant cake formation when cycled above and below the mixture critical relative humidity. It was found that combinations of glucose and citric acid underwent efflorescence to form crystalline solid bridges while fructose and citric acid cakes contained amorphous material. In conclusion, the reduced deliquescence point in deliquescent solid mixtures was found to cause caking.

  19. Contamination of cakes with toxigenic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of molds in cakes ranged up to 9.0 ´ 102 CFU/g. The highest number of molds was isolated on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18, and the lowest on Malt Yeast Extract 50% Glucose Agar (MY50G. Mycopopulation of cakes composed of species of genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Mucor, Phialophora, Penicillium, Fusarium and Ulocladium. Dominant species were A. niger, P. aurantiogriseum, P. brevicompactum, P. hirsutum, F. proliferatum and A. alternata. The most common potential producers were those of ochratoxin A (50.50%. The potential producers of fumonisins were present with 7.75%, moniliformin with 6.5% and sterigmatocystin with 0.75%. Potential producers of Alternaria toxins amounted to 4.5%. Aflatoxigenic molds were not isolated from the tested samples. Mycotoxicological analysis of the cakes did not determine the presence of aflatoxin, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  20. Effects of Dietary Substitution of Rubber Seed Cake for Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) five weeks old, Anak broilers were used in a 4-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of rubber seed cake for groundnut cake on the performance of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of rubber seed cake (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) substituted corresponding levels of ...

  1. Staling of cakes processed from wheat-tigernut ( Cyperus esculentus )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staling of cake resulted in increases in chemical properties such as moisture content, water soluble starch, retrogradation and peroxide value resulting in decreases in the sensory properties such as crumb texture and off-flavour development in the cakes. Staling of the cakes was significant under ambient storage conditions ...

  2. First results of the CAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarusi, T; Cecchini, S; Di Ferdinando, D; Giacomelli, G; Kumar, A; Patrizii, L; Togo, V; Valieri, C

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic- ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39** registered trademark and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A Ge V Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown.

  3. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.e. ...

  4. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  5. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  6. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SINGKONG SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TERIGU UNTUK VARIASI CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Panti Ariani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memperoleh variasi cake dari tepung singkong dengan mensubstitusi terigu. Karena terigu merupakan produk impor olahan dari gandum, sebagai usaha mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimental semu di laboratorium karena keterbatasan untuk mengontrol semua variabel yang relevan. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan lembar observasi untuk memperoleh data uji kualitas dari panelis terlatih, sedangkan data uji selera diperoleh dari masyarakat umum untuk mengetahui keberterimaan variasi cake singkong. Analisis data penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian memperoleh kualitas cake singkong pada kriteria yang sempurna pada, (a pound cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, (b roll cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah, (c chiffon cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta pengembangan (volume maksimal, (d bolu kukus dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas aroma terendah, (e sponge cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi semua kriteria terendah, (f brownies dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, (g fruit cake menggunakan buah-buahan lokal dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, dan (g rainbow cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah. Secara umum keberterimaan masyarakat sangat menyukai variasi cake singkong, tetapi sponge cake dan rainbow cake memperoleh keberterimaan terendah. Dengan demikian 8 jenis cake dapat menggunakan tepung singkong sebagai substitusi terigu untuk mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Kata kunci: tepung singkong, variasi cake, substitusi terigu Abstract The purpose of this study to obtain a cake variation of substituting wheat with cassava flour. Because wheat is imported products processed from wheat, in an effort to support increased food security. This study uses a

  7. Envy-free two-player m-cake and three-player two-cake divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lebert, Nicolas; Meunier, Frédéric; Carbonneaux, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Cloutier, Nyman, and Su (Mathematical Social Sciences 59 (2005), 26--37) initiated the study of envy-free cake-cutting problems involving several cakes. The classical result in this area is that when there are q players and one cake, an envy-free cake-division requiring only q-1 cuts exists under weak and natural assumptions. Among other results, Cloutier, Nyman, and Su showed that when there are two players and two or three cakes it is again possible to find envy-free...

  8. Effect of diets containing cocoa bean shell and coconut oil cake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulated diets were designated as D1 (cocoa bean shell, corn bran, soybean oil cake and cottonseeds oil cake) and D2 (coconut oil cake, corn bran, soybean oil cake and cottonseeds oil cake). All the tested diets contain around 28% protein and each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate ponds to evaluate growth, ...

  9. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  10. Effect of replacing Palm Kernel Cake with Sheabutter Cake on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter cake at 20% dietary level significantly (P 0.05) decreased shell thickness, shell weight, egg mass and shell surface area. Haugh unit and yolk index were not affected by the treatments. Shell weight and shell thickness were positively correlated. Yolk cholesterol and hen day egg production decreased as dietary ...

  11. Comparative utilization of shea butter cake and palm kernel cake by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of Shea butter cake (SBC), a by-product of fat extraction from Sheabutter nuts (Butyrospemium parodoxum) was compared with Palm Kernel Cate (PKC) to establish its potential as a poultry feedstuff. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment combining two factors, SBC and PKC at three levels of inclusion (5%, 10% and ...

  12. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  13. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... nitrogen excretion. Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein utilization) for all the processed neem seed cakes were ... Key words: Neem seed, processed cake, substitution, solvent extraction, nitrogen metabolism, albino rats. .... Urine out put was measured and the.

  14. Effect of sesame cake supplementation on feed intake, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Sesame oil cake is one of the byproducts available in the region, Humera, as sesame seed oil processing plant exists in the area. ... In Northwestern Zone of Tigray, sesame seed cake is available at cheaper price throughout the year. Wheat bran is also ...... Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3(2): 82-98. Kirton, A.H., Fourie, D.P ...

  15. Replacement of groundnut cake with rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of rubber seed cake (RSC) that could be used to replace groundnut cake (GNC) in practical diets of Oreochromis niloticus. RSC, a by-product of the oil extraction of the rubber tree seed and GNC were interchangeably replaced in the formulation of five experimental diets fed ...

  16. Removal of tannin from Shea nut cake by Pseudomonas strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 (70%) and enhanced biodegradation of tannin in the shea nut cake, removing up to 95% of total tannins in shea nut cake in 20 days. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(1), 17-22. Keywords: Tannins, biodegradability ...

  17. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake ... ate wealth and bridge the poverty gap between the ..... contaminated soil. Ray, (1994) reported Pseudomonas as the most predominant isolate in crude oil polluted soils and water. Pseudomonas has been reported to.

  18. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is to isolate bacteria with high shea nut cake degrading ability and consequently select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. More Gram negative bacteria were involved in shea nut ...

  19. Meta-Envy-Free Cake-Cutting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Tatsuaki

    This paper discusses cake-cutting protocols when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval in the real line. We propose a new desirable property, the meta-envy-freeness of cake-cutting, which has not been formally considered before. Though envy-freeness was considered to be one of the most important desirable properties, envy-freeness does not prevent envy about role assignment in the protocols. We define meta-envy-freeness that formalizes this kind of envy. We show that current envy-free cake-cutting protocols do not satisfy meta-envy-freeness. Formerly proposed properties such as strong envy-free, exact, and equitable do not directly consider this type of envy and these properties are very difficult to realize. This paper then shows meta-envy-free cake-cutting protocols for two and three party cases.

  20. Portable Biomass Gasifier Power Generation Using Non Edible Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vivek; Srividhya, PK; K Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Non edible seeds are used most of the applications but the dehydration of seed cakes is too difficult. And the same time the seeds could not feed food as animal. Hence, to adopt various techniques it can be used for other applications. 1 ton crude oil yield from 3 tons of seeds and the remaining becomes seed cake. After oil extraction using screw press machine, seed cake still has 10 % to 15 % of oil. Hence this is a good combustible material with calorific value of approximately 600 Kcal/m3...

  1. Changes in protein size distribution during wheat flour cake processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaest, Marine; Villemejane, Cindy; Berland, Sophie; Michon, Camille; Verel, Aliette

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation of egg and wheat proteins during cake mixing and baking was monitored by SE-HPLC after sequential extraction of dough and baked cakes in SDS-buffer first and then in SDS/DTE buffer. Three cake recipes were compared, including either only egg, only flour, or both flour and egg proteins. Dough mixing did not result in any changes in protein solubility or size distribution. Baking promoted protein aggregation and quickly resulted in the solubility loss of all proteins within the firs...

  2. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  3. Amylolytic fungi in starter cakes for rice beer production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Arup Jyoti; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Two types of starter cakes, viz. amou and perok-kushi, used in the production of rice beer in Assam, India, by the Bodo and Deori communities, respectively, were used for the isolation of amylolytic fungi...

  4. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  5. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  6. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  7. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  8. Disinfection of sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Takehisa, Masaaki

    Disinfection of municipal sewage sludge cake by gamma-irradiation was reviewed. Total bacterial count in the sludge cake did not vary markedly throughout all four seasons in Japan, and it was in the range of 1.6 × 10 8/g to 4.1 × 10 9/g. Coliform count in aerobically activated sludge was form 1.8 × 10 7/g to 4.8 × 10 8/g, while in anaerobically digested sludge it was less than 8.3 × 10 7/g. The dose to reduce the coliforms to undetectable levels ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad, depending on the season. In addition, it was observed that no coliforms reappeared in 0.5 Mrad irradiated sludge cake during storage at room temperature (6 - 16°C) and at 30°C. The adequate disinfection dose is therefore considered to be 0.5 Mrad. Pseudomonas cepacia was a predominant bacterium in non-irradiated sludge cake. In a range of 0.5 to 0.7 Mrad, the residual flora consisted of Bacillus species, and radioresistant Deinococcus proteolyticus, Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas radiora were isolated from sludge cake irradiated at dose levels of more than 1 Mrad. Bacterial regrowth and the growth of Escherichia coli K-12 seeded in irradiated sludge cake are discussed.

  9. Moisture sorption, compressibility and caking of lactose polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listiohadi, Y; Hourigan, J A; Sleigh, R W; Steele, R J

    2008-07-09

    The aim of this study was to conduct storage studies on the moisture sorption and caking properties of lactose powder containing different polymorphs (i.e. alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrous unstable, alpha-anhydrous stable, beta-anhydrous) and spray-dried lactose. The dry sample was compacted using a texture analyzer in paper cylinders and stored at relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 57% and 75% (25 degrees C, for 3 months). The samples were monitored for weight gain, moisture content, alpha/beta balance and hardness. A simple new method of powder compression for measuring the degree of hardness of caked lactose was developed using a texture analyzer. Clear distinctions were found in the storage behavior of the five different samples. Storage at various RHs caused severe caking to beta-lactose anhydrous and spray-dried lactose. The beta-lactose anhydrous was hygroscopic at 75% RH. The spray-dried lactose, which contained some amorphous lactose, was hygroscopic at all RHs studied. Its moisture sorption behavior differed from that of its major component, alpha-lactose monohydrate, by initially absorbing moisture then desorbing. alpha-Lactose monohydrate was less hygroscopic at 75% RH and it formed friable cakes. The alpha-lactose anhydrous stable was hygroscopic at 75% RH and initially formed hard cakes which became friable during storage. The unstable form of anhydrous alpha-lactose was hygroscopic at all levels of RH studied but did not cake.

  10. Morphological analysis and modelling of fine coal filter cake microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, F.S.; Lyman, G.J. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    The microstructure of fine coal filter cakes governs their formation rate and dewaterability, which are both critical to the efficient filtering and dewatering of fine coal. However, the principles by which the microstructure influences the transport properties of filter cakes are not well understood. The paper describes an example of application of the Boolean model that leads to a straightforward and realistic quantification of the three-dimensional microstructure of fine coal filter cakes. Such a model is attractive, since it relies on well-established random set theory, its characterisation involves standard image analysis of polished sections, and no empiricism is involved. Although the model was found to be ideally suited to the characterisation of fine coal filter cakes, the flexibility of its underlying theory makes it an excellent candidate for quantifying other porous media. The model not only permits easy access to the three-dimensional details of porous media but might also assist in predicting the transport properties of porous media because of its realism. Subsequent publications will discuss applications of the model to obtain three-dimensional computer simulations of filter cakes, and to predict single-phase permeability of filter cakes. 21 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs, and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

  12. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARM YAN YAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid oxidation process with 30% H2O2 at 60°C at atmospheric pressure. The process parameters are hot water treatment time, ratio of palm kernel cake to H2O2, liquid oxidation reaction temperature and time. Analysis of the process parameters on production cellulose from palm kernel cake was performed by using Response Surface Methodology. The recovered cellulose was further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Through the hot water treatment, hemicellulose in the palm kernel cake was successfully recovered as saccharides and thus leaving lignin and cellulose. Lignin was converted to water soluble compounds in liquid oxidation step which contains small molecular weight fatty acid as HCOOH and CH3COOH and almost pure cellulose was recovered.

  13. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. METHODS OF DUST CAKE REMOVAL FROM COLLECTING PLATES IN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS (ESP)

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Wierzbińska; Beata Kędzior

    2014-01-01

    In this paper methods of dust cake removal from collecting plates in electrostatic precipitators are presented. If dust cake removal from the collecting plates surface is not enough, the dust collection effectivity decreases. Some methods of dust cake removal from collecting plates are known: electromagnetic method, pneumatic method, acoustic method, plushing and mechanical rapping. The most effective and the most often used method of removal of dust cake, which is accumulated on the collecti...

  15. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  17. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  18. Optical in-situ measurement of filter cake height during bag filter plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood Saleem; Gernot Krammer [Graz University of Technology (Austria). Institute for Apparatus Design, Particle Technology, and Combustion

    2007-04-15

    A pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter test facility is operated at conditions similar to those of the industrial bag filters. The facility is equipped with a stereo vision based optical system for in-situ cake height distribution measurements on the bag filter surface. Experimental data are presented and data evaluation procedures are discussed to elaborate the features of the measuring system. The results show that the cake height distribution becomes narrower towards the end of filtration cycles. A steep pressure drop rise is observed at the start of a filtration cycle in the absence of re-attachment and a non-uniform bag cleaning, which may be attributed to different cake properties. The specific cake resistance remains constant over the linear part of the pressure drop curve indicating a non-compressible cake formation. The analysis of residual cake patches shows a large number of small sized cake patches and a few large sized cake patches on the filter surface. The cake patch size increases with the cake formation. The fractal analysis of patches boundary indicates preferential cake formation at the boundary of the residual cake patches shortly after regeneration.

  19. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  20. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  1. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil pressed cake

    OpenAIRE

    Burlein,Gustavo A. D.; Rocha,Marisa C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Blends of PHB and LDPE were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Castor oil pressed cake (CC) was used as filler for the blends. The mixture design technique was used to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the materials flexural properties. The results show that superior LDPE flexural properties may be obtained by the addition of PHB or castor oil cake to LDPE. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The te...

  2. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Elzânia Sales Pereira; Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro; Eduardo Lucas Terra Peixoto; Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel; André Luiz Csutódio Franco; Fernando Luiz Massaro Junior; Rafael Mizubuti Brito; Angela Rocio Parra

    2016-01-01

    It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet), and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet) under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1) than those fed the 70:30 diet....

  3. Layer-cake vs. fruit-cake stratigraphy of megadune-related snows of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D. U.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2009-12-01

    Published models of snow deposits of the East Antarctic Plateau visualize km-scale snow stripes in scattered megadune fields as actively-forming stratigraphic zones growing through later Holocene time in parallel with other patches and zones of more normal snow and ice, in effect a stratigraphy of lumps scattered like fruit-cake “goodies.” An alternate four-unit layer-cake model seems more appropriate based on superposition relationships in satellite images. In this model the oldest unit (#1) contains upslope-climbing, relic megadune sets and cosets of pseudo-beds beneath the striped surfaces. This unit is transitional upward into unit #2, divisible into several facies: a) abandoned megadune plains or wind-swept snow regs to use a sand desert term, b) sudden appearance of high topographic relief “Duke of York” dunes from the children’s song of the Grand Old Duke’s soldiers abandoned “neither up nor down,” c) extensions of megadune snow stripes growing into downslope-migrating, lobate dunes, and d) downslope-migrating sheets of coalesced, mostly lobate dune forms, commonly lineated on regional scales. Unit #3 is a pile of snow blankets, transverse and longitudinal dunes that commonly form snow ergs, another sand desert term. This unit is semi-transparent to radar as indicted by near-surface trends and patterns on Modis images disappearing on radar images to show clearly defined unit #2 facies patterns for the same area. These three stratigraphic units appear analogous to an abbreviated form of the aqueous Bouma sequence of fining upward turbiditic beds that pass from upper flow regime (UFR), upstream-climbing antidunes through transitional units into lower flow regime (LFR), downstream-migrating dunes. If megadunes are UFR, very rapid deposition necessitated massive supplies of moisture-rich air available only from open water in the Ross and Weddell Seas or across narrow winter ice shelves of the Southern Ocean, a climate much warmer than present

  4. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of rice bran oil spread on the physical, sensory and fatty acid profile of cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Rizwana; Kuna, Aparna; Azam, Mohibbe; Tilathoo, Ram; Kanuri, Manorama; Samala, Geetha

    2017-06-01

    Studies were carried out to replace hydrogenated fat (HF) with rice bran oil (RBO) and two varieties of rice bran oil spread RBOS1 and RBOS2 in the preparation of cake. Physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) study and fatty acid estimation with reference to trans fatty acids of cake made with control and experimental samples were studied. The best acceptable cake among the four i.e., RBOS2 cake was selected for consumer evaluation along with control (HF) cake. Results revealed that there was no significant difference in overall acceptability of cake made with HF and RBOS2. The internal structure and pore structure of RBOS2 cake was finer and smoother than the control cake as per SEM imaging. The pores within the core varied in diameter between 13.9 and 29.6 µm in control cake and between 16.9 and 58.6 µm in RBOS2 cake at 500 × magnification indicating good textural properties compared to HF cake. The fatty acids analysis results showed that the amount of total trans fatty acids (TFA) was 15.46% in HF cake, 3.56% in RBO cake, 4.54% in RBOS1 cake, and 3.78% in RBOS2 cake. The major trans fatty acids observed in all samples were elaidic acid (C18:1 trans-9) and Linolelidic acid (C18:2, trans-6). Elaidic acid was the highest in HF cake (6.64%) and the least in RBO cake (2.62%). Linolelidic acid was the highest in HF cake (8.48%) and the least in RBOS2 cake (0.91%). Trans Vaccenic acid was detected only in HF cake (0.34%). TFA content assumes significance in terms of its ill effects on the health of consumers, only if fat content is also high. Hence, consumption of the HF products might prove to be harmful, if consumed in large amounts and at higher frequencies. Therefore RBOS can be promoted as healthy fat for production of baked products.

  6. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  7. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  8. 175 Years of Linear Programming-Minimax and Cake Topography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 4-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. determining the optimum combination of palm kernel cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty (20) female grasscutters at 14 months of age were used for the study, which lasted for ten (10) weeks. The grasscutters were separated into five groups of 4 grasscutters each and fed five (5) diets, which differed in their levels of replacement of wheat offal at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels with palm kernel cake.

  10. The effect of Camelina sativa cake diet supplementation on sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tested milk came from ewes fed concentrate supplemented with 10 and 20% Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz cake (CSC). This plant containing unsaturated fatty acids as well as natural antioxidants (for example, tocopherol), may constitute an excellent source of energy in the feed ratio for animals, at the same time improving ...

  11. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  12. Replacement of soybean meal with fermented Thevetia cake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    80, Olympia laying hens that had been in lay for 20 weeks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments and fed over a 10 week period. The birds were individually caged thus there were 16 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatment contained expeller pressed thevetia cake which had undergone anaerobiosis.

  13. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted with 24 albino rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks to determine the effect of substitution of diets with processed neem seed cake on growth, performance and nitrogen metabolism of rats. Group 1 and those of groups II and III were fed experimental diets containing water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol ...

  14. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  15. How does particle size influence caking in lactose powder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, Melanie Anne; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    of ring shear testing. Controlling the amount of fines, characterized by a higher content of impurities, a larger specific surface area and a broader span of the PSD, was found critical to limit caking. More precisely, both the total surface area and the span of the PSD require close attention as they can...

  16. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  17. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as protein source in supplementary diets of Small East African goats. ... In the growth experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with six animals, while for the digestibility experiment the animals were divided into four groups, each with three ...

  18. Effects of Noug seed cake ( Guizotia Abyssinica ) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Noug seed cake ( Guizotia Abyssinica ) on the performance of growing White Bovan Cockerel in Ethiopian Highland. ... In the same vein, dressing percentage observed on various treatments did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05). Partial budget analysis revealed that the level of the inclusion of NSC in ...

  19. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  20. Effects of exposing adults of Amblyomma variegatum to neem cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a trap baited with an attractant blend comprising of attraction aggregation- attachment pheromone (AAAP), 1-octen-3-ol and CO2 and treated with Neem (Azadirachta indica) cake extracts (0.6% of azadirachtin) to attract and expose the ticks, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae) to the active ...

  1. Effect of sesame cake supplementation on feed intake, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-five yearling growing intact sheep were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and five replications. The experimental animals were supplied teff straw as basal ration. Different levels of sesame cake were supplemented in various treatment groups i.e. T1 (150 gm wheat bran, ...

  2. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of Cooled Cone Grinding Machine in Cocoa Cake Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of cocoa paste pressing has a function to separate the fatty component of cocoa from its cake. Cocoa paste is further processed into cocoa powder using grinding machine for cocoa cake. The cooled cone type of cocoa grinding machine is used to solve the problem of plug in the maschine caused by melting of fat in cocoa cake due to hot effect as a result of friction in the grinding machine. Grinding machine of cocoa has conical form of cylinder for grinding and stator wall wrapped by source of cold and closed with jacket wool. Research was conducted at Kaliwining Experimental Garden of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI using cocoa cake containing 26.75% originated from Forastero type of cocoa seed. The capacity and recovery of the machine was influenced by space between rotor cylinder and stator wall. Grinding machine operated at cooling temperature of 25.5oC and space between rotor – stator 0.9 cm and the capacity of 187.5 kg/hour with recovery of 200 mesh cocoa powder as much as 24%. The maximum  power of machine required  was 2.5 kW with efficiency of  energy transfer of 97%. Results of proximate analysis showed that there was no change of protein content, but protein and carbohydrate content increased after processing, i.e. from 5.70% and 59.82% into 5.80% and 61.89% respectively.Key words : cocoa cake, cooling, grinding, cocoa powder 

  5. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  6. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars......Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  8. Antioxidant efficacy of soybean cake extracts in soy oil protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Bashash, Moein; Khorshidi, Farideh; Serjouie, Alireza; Shirvani, Maryam Araj; Abbasi, Hajar; Sedaghatdoost, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and possibility of extracting compounds with antioxidant properties of soybean cake to extend the storage stability of soybean oil. Results showed that the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed for sample to solvent ratio 1:25 while extracting by 70% ethanol for 3 h). The most phenolic compounds equivalents (Gallic acid) was observed for sample to solvent ratio 1:25 while extracting by 70% methanol for 14 h. In addition, the soybean cake extract at concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm in soybean oil could significantly lower the peroxide, diene and p-anisidine values of soy oil during storage at 65 °C.

  9. Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Suat; Ozkan, Ahmet R

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the composition of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake in a fixed bed reactor at 400, 450, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C. The gas products mainly consisted of CO(2), CO, CH(4) and H(2)S at 500 degrees C. Empirical formula of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake was CH(1.59)O(0.16)N(0.116)S(0.003) for 500 degrees C. Bio-oils mainly contained oleic acid, 1H-indole, 2,3,5-trimethoxy toluene, toluene, (Z)-9-octadecanamide, psoralene, phenol and phenol derivatives at all pyrolysis temperatures. Both non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were determined in water phase of liquid product by Headspace-GC analysis. The heating values of bio-chars were found to be similar (24MJkg(-1)) at all pyrolysis temperatures.

  10. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  11. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (pMoringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (pmoringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  12. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  13. Starches from non - conventional sources to improve the technological characteristics of pound cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Lopes Almeida

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated and compared the effect of the utilization of five different non-conventional starches (chickpea, common bean, Peruvian carrot, sweet potato and white bean and four different commercial starches (cassava, corn, potato and rice in pound cake. Common bean starch, followed by Peruvian carrot starch were the non-conventional starch sources that showed tendency to improve the technological quality of pound cake, mainly in relation to corn starch, the most common commercial source. With these sources, the batters presented lower specific gravity and the cakes presented higher specific volume, lighter color, lower crumb moisture reduction during the storage period, and better texture attributes during all the cake shelf-life. Moreover, common bean starch provided higher scores in the cake sensory evaluation; especially for grain and texture attributes (moisture, tenderness and softness. Chickpea and white bean starches were more similar to corn starch in pound cake application.

  14. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  15. Investigation of caking by fat bridging in aged infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Tammie Wei Yi; Xu, Xu; Yeoh, Andrew Ti Heong; Zhou, Weibiao

    2017-03-01

    Three commercial infant formulas (denoted as P1, P2 and P3) were stored at 25, 45 and 60°C for up to 6weeks to study the caking phenomenon caused by fat bridging. At 60°C, both the surface free-fat content and the caking strength increased significantly. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of P1 showed that high-melting-point fatty acids were present on powder surface whereas low-melting-point fatty acids remained within powder particles. There was no preferential migration or retention of specific fatty acids in P2. The stearic acid content in the surface free-fat of P3 increased, largely due to a concentration gradient which contributed to the increased caking strength. The melting characteristics of surface free-fat analyzed by DSC were consistent with their fatty acid compositions analyzed by GC-MS/FID. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed higher occurrence of large fat globules after 6weeks' storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  17. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  18. Sunflower cake from biodiesel production fed to crossbred Boer kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly Agy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of the dry matter (DM, the crude protein (CP and the metabolizable energy intake (ME in megacalories per day (Mcal/day were not affected by the diets. In contrast, the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in g/kg BW, increased linearly. An increasing linear effect was also observed for the ether extract (EE intake, whereas a decreasing linear performance was observed for the non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC intake. The digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFC decreased linearly with the sunflower cake inclusion, whereas the digestibility of CP, NDF, and EE were not influenced by the diets. No effect was observed for the concentration of serum glucose or urea nitrogen serum. No effect was observed on the urea nitrogen serum in the hours after feeding; however, including sunflower cake in the diets resulted in a quadratic performance for the serum glucose concentrations in the hours after feeding. The average daily gain (ADG had a decreasing linear effect, and the food conversions of the DM, CP, NDF, NFC and ME had increasing linear effects. The feeding costs decreased with the level of sunflower cake.

  19. Utilization of expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake meal in the preparation of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, J K; Shinde, V S; Kadam, S S

    1991-07-01

    Expeller pressed partially defatted peanut cake obtained from skin-free kernels was used as graded supplements in the preparation of breads, sweet buns, cupcakes and yeast-raised doughnuts. Incorporation of cake meal lowered the specific volume and sensory properties, but improved the fresh weight, water holding capacity and protein content of the products. The products containing 10% peanut cake meal were found to be acceptable.

  20. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Olivares-Palma; S. J. Meale; PEREIRA, L. G. R.; MACHADO, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; F.C.F. Lopes; MAURÍCIO, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentat...

  1. Pengaruh Waktu dan Tekanan Terhadap Oil Content Cake pada Niagara Filter di PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Febrian, Didi

    2015-01-01

    Pada proses penyaringan minyak kotor menjadi minyak jernih dengan menggunakan Niagara Filter dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor seperti tekanan dalam penyaringan dan waktu dalam pengeblowan cake. Tekanan yang digunakan dalam penyaringan harus sesuai dengan standarisasi yaitu 4 – 5 bar. Mesin yang baik dapat mencapai hasil produksi sesuai target. Waktu pengambilan cake dilakukan tiga kali dalam sehari. Pengambilan cake dilakukan dengan menggunakan tekanan udara yang tinggi. Pre...

  2. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  3. Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Naik, S N; Khan, M Ashhar I; Sahoo, P K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol). The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg⁻¹) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg⁻¹). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg⁻¹) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg⁻¹). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg⁻¹ and 8347 TIU g⁻¹ of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L⁻¹ of crude concentrate obtained from cake. Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. METHODS OF DUST CAKE REMOVAL FROM COLLECTING PLATES IN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper methods of dust cake removal from collecting plates in electrostatic precipitators are presented. If dust cake removal from the collecting plates surface is not enough, the dust collection effectivity decreases. Some methods of dust cake removal from collecting plates are known: electromagnetic method, pneumatic method, acoustic method, plushing and mechanical rapping. The most effective and the most often used method of removal of dust cake, which is accumulated on the collecting plates in dry electrostatic precipitators, is mechanical flicking off method. Mechanism of action by using this method depends on the serial inducing of vibrates by hitting of special hammers on the collecting plates.

  5. Microbial protein and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal Souza Borja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal level of licury cake in the diet of Boer goats through microbial synthesis estimated based on the presence of purine derivatives in the urine and on blood urea and glucose parameters. Twenty uncastrated one-year-old ¾ Boer goats with an average body weight of 18 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Each animal was confined to a one m2 suspended stall with access to water ad libitum. The diets were formulated in accordance with the NRC (2007, and the ingredients were: 50% Tifton-85 (Cynodon sp hay, corn meal, soybean meal, premixed vitamin and mineral supplement, and licury cake. The treatments were: 1 0% of the goat’s total diet composed of licury cake (DM basis, 2 15% of the total diet composed of licury cake, 3 30% of the diet composed of licury cake, and 4 45% of the diet composed of licury cake. The experiment lasted for 17 days. The first 10 days were used to adapt the animals to the diets and facilities. The inclusion of the licury cake in the goat’s diets reduced the levels of blood nitrogen and glucose. Urinary excretion decreased linearly with the inclusion of licury cake in the diet. The inclusion of licury cake in the goat’s diets also caused a linear reduction in the excretion of allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine and total purine derivative (PD in urine samples. Based on the microbial protein production and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake, up to 15% of the goat diet may be composed of licury cake.

  6. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  7. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes, part 3: hydrophobic vials and the question of adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cake adhesion to the inside vial wall during lyophilization of amorphous trehalose cakes was determined by using hydrophobized vials. The degrees of cake shrinkage and cracking were determined independently by photographic imaging of the cake top surface in a dark cell. Additionally, measurements with microcomputed tomography were performed. Adhesion is found to be a determining factor in both cake shrinkage and cracking. The correlation between cake detachment from the vial inner wall and trehalose concentration indicates that adhesion of the frozen solute phase is a determining factor in shrinkage. The hydrophobized vials give reduced cracking at trehalose concentrations of up to 15%. The reduced wetting of the hydrophobized inside vial wall gives a planar cake topography with a uniform distribution of cracks within the cake. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Working with argan cake: a new etiology for hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Christophe; Herin, Fabrice; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Barrera, Coralie; Guidat, Cécile; Thaon, Isabelle

    2015-03-06

    Argan is now used worldwide in numerous cosmetic products. Nine workers from a cosmetic factory were examined in our occupational medicine department, following the diagnosis of a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) related to handling of argan cakes. Operators were exposed to three forms of argan (crude granulates, powder or liquid) depending on the step of the process. All workers systematically completed standardized questionnaires on occupational and medical history, followed by medical investigations, comprising, in particular, physical examination and chest X-rays, total IgE and a systematic screening for specific serum antibodies directed against the usual microbial agents of domestic and farmer's HP and antigens derived from microbiological culture and extracts of various argan products. Subjects with episodes of flu-like syndrome several hours after handling argan cakes, were submitted to a one-hour challenge to argan cakes followed by physical examination, determination of Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) and chest CT-scan on day 2, and, when necessary, bronchoalveolar lavage on day 4. Six of the nine workers experienced flu-like symptoms within 8 hours after argan handling. After challenge, two subjects presented a significant decrease of DLCO and alveolitis with mild lymphocytosis, and one presented ground glass opacities. These two patients and another patient presented significant arcs to both granulates and non-sterile powder. No reactivity was observed to sterile argan finished product, antigens derived from argan cultures (various species of Bacillus) and Streptomyces marokkonensis (reported in the literature to contaminate argan roots). We report the first evidence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to argan powder in two patients. This implies preventive measures to reduce their exposure and clinical survey to diagnose early symptoms. As exposure routes are different and antibodies were observed against argan powder and not

  9. Filtration of Nanoparticles: Evolution of Cake Structure and Pressure-Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    with constant solid volume fraction began to form, accompanied with build-up of pressuredrop which was in excellent agreement with classic cake filtration theory. An expression for the solid volume fraction of the cake (fsd,c) was obtained as a sole function of Pe. In addition, the filtration efficiency became...

  10. Assessment of surface caking of powders using the ball indentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinqin; Zafar, Umair; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Bi, Jinfeng

    2017-04-15

    Powder caking is a ubiquitous problem, which could significantly decrease product quality and lead to economic losses. Hence it is important to know the conditions under which it occurs. The caking behaviour of three powder materials (PVP, HPC and CaHPO 4 ) has been investigated by the ball indentation method (BIM) as affected by relative humidity (RH), temperature and time. The resistance to powder flow, as indicated by the hardness is measured by a ball indenting the powder bed surface. The surface hardness increases with increasing RH and temperature, indicating caking of the powder bed. Moreover, the temperature and RH show a coupled effect on powder caking. Irreversible caking is formed in PVP and HPC at 75% RH; the particles coalesce and the volume of powder bed is significantly reduced with time. However, the caking of CaHPO 4 is reversible. To examine the caking mechanism of PVP and HPC, the critical glass transition RH is determined at 25°C and 45°C. The values are 63% and 53% RH for PVP and 61% and 50% RH for HPC, respectively. The glass transition moisture content in the ball indentation experiments is comparable with that determined by the dynamic vapor sorption measurement. BIM could be a fast and effective method for the assessment of powder surface caking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an inspector are available, subject to examination by an inspector for freedom from contamination. If found to be free of contamination, importations of such cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be released from...

  12. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  13. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The growth performance of 18 Holstein and 20 Jersey heifer calves fed calf starter meals containing either cottonseed oil-cake meal (CSOCM) or soybean oil-cake meal (SBOCM) was compared. The diets were iso- nutritious in terms of crude protein and energy, and were fed from two weeks of age until two or ...

  14. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  15. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This result

  16. Nutritionally "Empty" but "Full" of Meanings: The Socio-Cultural Significance of Birthday Cakes in Four Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of birthday cakes with the purpose of reflecting upon birthday cake practices enacted in four early childhood settings in England. I argue that birthday cakes occupy an ambiguous place in early childhood practice: seen to be both "risky"--a term I problematise--"and"…

  17. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessasma, Mohamed; Silva Tavares, Homayra; Afrassiabian, Zahra; Saleh, Khashayar

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM). In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV), the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation) in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength).

  18. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guessasma Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM. In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV, the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength.

  19. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes. Part I: final-product assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine independently shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes based on photographic imaging of their top surface. An inverse correlation between cake shrinkage and cracking during freeze-drying is seen. Shrinkage relaxes the drying tension and gives little cracking, whereas if shrinkage is restrained then more cracking occurs. A lower shrinkage and greater cracking with higher disaccharide concentration correlates with change in cake hardness and brittleness. Adhesion of the cake to the inside vial wall could not be identified as a determining factor for shrinkage. Shrinkage is non-uniform across the cake's surface and is manifested largely in the peripheral region. A correlation between shrinkage and w(g)' for different disaccharides suggests that drying tension develops as non-frozen water is lost from the porous solid after sublimation of the ice phase has exposed the solid/gas interface. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria] to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of castor cake. Soil organisms were collected with Berlese-Tullgren funnels. There were temporal differences between the treatments, and the epigeous fauna was mainly represented by members of the Acari and Entomobryomorpha. Elapsed time is the major factor in determining the composition of the epigeous fauna community associated with composting, indicating that castor cake has no suppressive effect.

  1. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  2. Camelina sativa cake improved unsaturated fatty acids in ewe's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieślak, Adam; Zmora, Pawel; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia; Bielińska, Sylwia; Stanisz, Marek; Wójtowski, Jacek

    2011-08-30

    Camelina sativa cake (CSC), a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, in the case of ruminants, may improve the energy value of a diet and also increase the unsaturated fatty acid content in milk. Effects of basal diet (control), basal diet plus 30 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter (DM), basal diet plus 60 g kg(-1) of CSC in dietary dry matter on milk production and the fatty acid composition of ewe's milk with particular emphasis on the monoenes and conjugated isomers of linoleic acid content were examined. Elevated concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids, the effect of an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids in the trans configuration, as well as the increased content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulted from CSC supplementation. Total saturated fatty acid concentration was decreased. Milk from CSC-supplemented ewes was characterized by increased levels of beneficial nutritional factors, including mono- and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and was also by lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Taking into consideration all the obtained results and recommended fat concentrations in a daily ruminant ration, we recommend supplementing a dairy ewe's diet with 30 g kg(-1) DM of CSC cake in practice. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Pengaruh Penambahan Cake Terhadap Oil Content PKM (Palm Kernel Meal) Di Pk Crushing Plant PT. Multimas Nabati Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusup, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Oil Content Of Cake addition of PKM (Palm Kernel Meal) is done by mixing the PKM and Cake through the process of solvent extraction using N- hexane with PKM and Cake variation ratio of 50:1; 50:0.9; 50:0.8; 50:0.7; 50:0.6, and 50:0.5. Research has been done shows that the effect of the addition of cake on PKM can increase oil content in samples and cake mass is added to produce the oil content of the standard is 0.6 g. 092401057

  4. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  5. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  6. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (Pcakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sucrose reduction on the structural characteristics of sponge cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Souza Cavalcante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe consumption of reduced-calorie cakes has been increasing, however this has presented challenges to be overcome concerning the formation of their structure when the sucrose is substituted by alternative sweeteners, gums or thickening agents. The present study evaluated the internal characteristics of cakes with a reduction in sucrose, and the effects of its substitution on starch gelatinisation. Starting with a pre-established formulation, the sucrose was gradually substituted by a 1.0% mixture of sucralose in a 1.5% xanthan gum solution. In the substituted cake mix, the apparent viscosity and its thermal properties were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Specific volume (SV and cell count (CC were evaluated in the cakes. As the sucrose content decreased (52.17 to 10.00%, the specific volume (1.94 to 0.7 mL/g, cell count (36.2 to 4.0 cell/cm2 and the apparent viscosity of the batter (337.56 to 631.40 cP were also reduced. The results showed that substituting the sucrose contributed greatly to the formation of defects in the cake structure (holes. From the data obtained, and thermograms of standard cake batters and those with a reduction in sucrose, it can be concluded that sucralose reduced the temperature of starch gelatinisation, speeding the process and causing compaction of the cake structure during baking, favouring the formation of bubbles throughout the batter.

  9. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  10. Staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cake in a metropolitan area of South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maria Lúcia

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve people became ill with vomiting and diarrhoea approximately four hours after eating cake with a cream filling at a birthday party and on the day following. The cake had been prepared by a food handler who had long experience in preparing foods for such functions. Staphylococcus aureus that produced enterotoxin A was isolated from the nose, the fingernails, and a healed infection on the neck of the food handler, and from the cake. Enterotoxin A was detected in the remaining portion of the cake. The cake, while still warm, had been refrigerated for one hour after it was prepared before it was removed for the party; it was refrigerated after the party. The cake was large (6 kg and hence it was not adequately cooled in the hour during wich it was refrigerated before the party. The conclusion is that the cake was accidentally contaminated by the food handler and inadequately cooled before it was eaten.

  11. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as A Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-01-01

    Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use ...

  12. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as a Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningtias, Dianka

    2015-01-01

    Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use ...

  13. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Cold-pressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy

  14. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  15. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Wastewater is usually treated biologically, and a by-product from this treatment is waste-activated sludge with high water content. Sludge is therefore often filtrated to reduce the volume for handling and disposal, and to minimise the water content before incineration of the sludge. However......, it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...... a function of pressure as assumed when using the conventional models. Moreover, it is shown how the existing filtration models can be modified and the filtration process for activated sludge simulated....

  16. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Abdechamid et al., 2004). Yassim and Ismail (1994) have shown that seed cake of cotton and sunflower apart from improving soil fertility also prove effective in nematode control in cowpea plant. A Doc based fertilizer made up of ...

  17. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  18. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian-Xiong; van de Weert, Marco

    2013-01-01

    are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting...... critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed...... fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible....

  19. Treated Neem Kernel Cake. *1A. Aruwayo, 2S.A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, ... alkali treated neem kernel cake can be safely included in feed of sheep up to 20% levels for lambs. .... Nessler's reaction (Tannins and Maylor, 1968).

  20. Utilization of Coconut Oil Cake for the Production of Lipase Using Bacillus coagulans VKL1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GOWTHAMI, PALANISAMY; MUTHUKUMAR, KARUPPAN; VELAN, MANICKAM

    2015-01-01

    ... using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method...

  1. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  2. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Macauba palm coconuts are rich in essential nutrients for animal feed formulation and after oil extraction, a large amount of residual biomass is produced, which must be used rationally to environmental preservation. This study aimed to determine the nutritional value of macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata, cake and leaves, for its physical and chemical composition, dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility (IVD and in situ degradability. The test of in situ degradability was done using three rumen fistulated cattle. Analytical determinations were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition of Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP, Brazil. Six replicates were used for each analytical determination and were calculated the standard error. Macauba cake chemically assessed showed a low protein content (CP 4.5% and high content of acid detergent fibre (ADF 39.7% and average levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF 52.5%. ADF and NDF were the macauba palm cake majority fractions compared NDF and ADF (respectively of cocoa cake (37.6 and 45.5%, sunflower cake (28.2 and 38.4%, corn meal (11.3 and 20.2% and peanut cake (15.4 and 21.0. Macauba palm leaves had a good protein content (12.0% and fiber content comparable to tropical grass of good nutritional value. They can be used with no restriction on ruminants’ diets. The macauba palm cake high levels of lignin (16.5% justify the low dry matter IVD percentage (48%, while the leaves had 58%.of IVD. Macauba leaves total digestible nutrients (TDN 59.0% is similar to TDN usually observed for forages. Macauba cake can be considered (TDN = 64.0% similar to energetic food, due to the fat content (6.4%, however the high content of lignin (16.5% can limit its consumption. Macauba palm cake showed high ruminal degradability of DM and CP (fraction a = 51.3 and 59.9, respectively, while macauba palm leaves hah low solubility of DM and CP (fraction a = 3.18 and 5.28, respectively. Thus, the higher CP macauba leaves

  3. Soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a sequencing batch reactor with novel cake filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Zhou, Yan; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Mayanti, Bening; Yang, Adrian; Poh, Leong Soon; Gao, Xin; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-10-01

    The formation, composition and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were investigated in a novel system which coupled a sequencing batch reactor with a cake filtration system. Both suspended solids (SS) and turbidity were significantly removed, resulting in effluent SS of 0.12 mg L-1 and turbidity of 0.72 NTU after cake filtration. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates decreased respectively from 4.0 ± 0.4 and 7.1 ± 0.6 mg/L in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mixed liquor, to 0.85 ± 0.21 and 1.39 ± 0.29 mg/L in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW) distribution of SMPs revealed a substantial reduction in the intensity of high-MW peaks (503 and 22.71 kDa) after cake filtration, which implied the sludge cake layer and the underlying gel layer may play a role in the effectiveness of cake filtration beyond the physical phenomenon. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that polycarboxylate- and polyaromatic humic acids were the dominant compounds and a noticeable decrease in the fraction of these compounds was observed in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis with GC-MS set for detecting low-MW SMPs identified aromatics, alcohols, alkanes and esters as the dominant compounds. SMPs exhibited both biodegradable and recalcitrant characteristics. More SMPs (total number of 91) were accumulated during the SBR start-up stage. A noticeable increase in the aromatic fractions was seen in the SBR effluent accoutring for 39% of total compounds, compared to the SBR mixed liquor (28%). Fewer compounds (total number of 66) were identified in cake filtration effluent compared to the SBR effluent (total number of 75). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of Caking of Powders Using NQR Relaxometry with Inversion of the Laplace Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyavsky, N. Ya.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time, it has been proposed to study the processes of caking nonmetallic powders containing quadrupole nuclei using the distribution of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times in NQR. The results of experimental studies of the effect of caking samples on the distributions of relaxation times of T1 and T2 for the 14N NQR in powders of NaNO2 and C6H12N4 are presented.

  5. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penha Patrícia Cabral Ribeiro

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g, associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%. It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g, especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  6. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  7. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  8. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  9. Enhanced Rigidity of Natural Polymer Composite Developed from Oil Palm Decanter Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aqif Adam; Alawi Sulaiman; Che Mohd Som Said; Ayub Md Som; Meisam Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    A natural polymer composite (NPC) was developed from a palm decanter cake (OPDC), and its properties were determined. Oil palm decanter cake natural polymer composite (OPDC-NPC) samples were produced at different ratios of polypropylene (PP) and OPDC before being subjected to flexural, tensile, and water absorption tests. The results showed that by increasing the OPDC content from 5 to 15%, the rigidity as represented by the flexural strength and tensile strength increased from 29 to 43 MPa a...

  10. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Olivares-Palma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED of DM and CP (p<0.05. In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM was not affected (p = 0.70 by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05. The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  12. GOSSYPOL CONTENTS IN COTTONSEED CAKES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zahid, L. A. Lodhil, Z. I. Qureshil, N. Ahmadl, N.U. Rehmanl and M. S. Akhtar2

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes (CSC, prepared from different varieties of cotton grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan, were determined. For this purpose, cottonseed cake samples were collected from 14 districts of the Punjab including Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Kasur, Khanewal, Lahore, Multan, Okara, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh and Vehari. These samples were analyzed for the free and the total gossypol contents applying American Oil Chemist Society Official Methods, Ba 7-58 and Ba 8-78, respectively. The results showed that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes averaged 0.28 ± 0.02 and 1.44 ± 0.04 per cent, respectively. The highest values of the free and the total gossypol contents, 0.36 ± 0.02 and 1.59 ± 0.03 per cent respectively, were recorded in cottonseed cake samples collected from Vehari district, while the lowest values, 0.21 ± 0.01 and 1.29 ± 0.01 per cent respectively, were found in those collected from Lahore district. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes among districts. It was concluded that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes available in different parts of the province differed significantly (P<0.05

  13. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as a Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use of the Dragon fruit that is considered to be food wastes. This research aims to provide a new alternative natural food coloring in the Red Velvet Cake. Experimental research is used by doing experiments and planned and systematic testing to Red Velvet Cake, and by collecting primary data and secondary data as well. All data is presented in a descriptive with SPSS. From the results of mean average can be inferred that the Red Velvet Cake using natural food coloring from Red Dragon fruit is acceptable to the community.

  14. Antifungal properties of fermentates and their potential to replace sorbate and propionate in pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; Vroman, A; Eeckhout, M

    2016-11-21

    The major objective of this study was to assess the antifungal activities of commercially available 'clean label' fermentates and their potential to replace the preservative function of sorbate and propionate in cake. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part of the study the inhibitory activities of selected fermentates - FA, FB, FC and FD - towards Aspergillus tritici and Aspergillus amstelodami were assessed as a function of pH (5.0-6.5) on malt extract agar (MEA). In the second part of the study, challenge, shelf-life and sensorial tests were used to determine the suitability of these fermentates to replace potassium sorbate and calcium propionate in quarter pound cake. All the fermentates evaluated in this study all had significant (p0.05) in flavour from the reference cake (0.5% calcium propionate and 0.54% potassium sorbate). However, the challenge and shelf-life tests showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC were not as microbiologically shelf-stable as the reference cake, especially when sliced. Therefore, it can be concluded that whilst fermentates have appreciable antifungal effects, their use could potentially result in reduced shelf-stabilities. Robust challenge and shelf-life tests would be recommended before the marketing of cakes were propionate and/or sorbate has been replaced to ensure accurate shelf-lives are stated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  16. Preliminary studies of the dual role of cotton-seed cake as fish feed and fish pond fertilizer in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kolawole, C.O.

    1983-01-01

    Many locally available fish feeds have been tried in fish culture. These include guinea corn, soya bean, groundnut cake and rice bran. Cotton seed cake has been successfully used as a fishpond organic fertilizer at Ado-Ekiti Government fish farm. Three fishponds stocked respectively with common carps, Heterotis, Tilapia spp., Clarias lazera and Heterobranchus were fed with cotton seed cake. Carps, Tilapia and Heterotis increased rapidly in weight and length while the catifishes did not grow

  17. Green Sonoextraction of Protein from Oleaginous Press Rapeseed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Boukroufa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 W·cm−2 and temperature of 45 °C. Quantitatively UAE followed by two stages of conventional extraction gave the best total protein yield of 9.81 g/100 g DM. Qualitatively, the protein efficiency ratio (PER used as measure of the nutritive value (12S/2S ratio which indicates protein quality in terms of S-containing essential amino acids, was similar to that of the conventional extraction method. Small amounts of protein aggregate were observed in the HPLC profile of the extract.

  18. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  19. Paenibacillus relictisesami sp. nov., isolated from sesame oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Takefumi; Johari, Nurziha Binti; Tsuruya, Atsuki; Nair, Arun; Nakayama, Toru

    2014-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain KB0549T, was isolated from sesame oil cake. Cells were motile, round-ended rods, and produced central or terminal spores. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content of strain KB0549T was 51.9 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, strain KB0549T was affiliated with the genus Paenibacillus in the phylum Firmicutes and was most closely related to Paenibacillus cookii with 97.4% sequence similarity. Strain KB0549T was physiologically differentiated from P. cookii by the high content of anteiso-C17:0, inability to grow at 50 °C, spore position, and negative Voges-Proskauer reaction. Based on these unique physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Paenibacillus relictisesami sp. nov.; the type strain is KB0549T (=JCM 18068T=DSM 25385T).

  20. Anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake: a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Fernández-Cegrí, V; Raposo, F; Borja, R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the chemical and physical structure of a lignocellulosic biomass, its anaerobic digestion (AD) is a slow and difficult process. In this paper, the results obtained from a batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) test and fed-batch mesophilic AD assays of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) are presented. Taking into account the low digestibility shown during one-stage experiments the methane yield decreased considerably after increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 3 g VS L(-1) d(-1), SuOC was subjected to a two-stage AD process (hydrolytic-acidogenic and methanogenic stages), in two separate reactors operating in series where the methanogenic stage became acidified (with >1,600 mg acetic acid L(-1)) at an OLR as low as 2 g VS L(-1) d(-1). More recently, BMP assays were carried out after mechanical, thermal, and ultrasonic pre-treatments to determine the best option on the basis of the methane yield obtained.

  1. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  2. Amylolytic fungi in starter cakes for rice beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arup Jyoti; Miyaji, Tatsuro; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2017-09-05

    Two types of starter cakes, viz. amou and perok-kushi, used in the production of rice beer in Assam, India, by the Bodo and Deori communities, respectively, were used for the isolation of amylolytic fungi. Based on the sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions the fungi were identified as Amylomyces rouxii and Rhizopus oryzae, and given the strain names TU460 and TU465, respectively. Both the strains showed the ability to degrade and saccharify starch. The glucoamylase activity was considerably high in A. rouxii TU460 (14.92 μmol/min) as compared to R. oryzae TU465 (1.41 μmol/min), whereas α-amylase activity was found to be closely related, i.e. 7.02 and 6.09 unit mL-1, respectively. SDS PAGE for the determination of the molecular size of the glucoamylase enzymes revealed the production of two distinct units of 59 kDa and 31 kDa by A. rouxii TU460, and one unit of 72 kDa by R. oryzae TU465. LC MS/MS analysis revealed that no mycotoxins were produced by either of the strains. The overall study indicated a good amylolytic property of both strains and a potential for application in the starch processing industries.

  3. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  4. Economic Evaluation of Milk cake with different packaging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni D.N and Gaikwad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ten samples of milk cake were prepared with various combinations and levels of ingredients such as sugar, deshi ghee and coagulant. Out of these samples only top five of them were selected for the cost of production, on the basis of ten point hedonic scale. And then out of these top five combinations, the sample required highest cost for production was selected to estimate the cost of production by using the packaging materials. for P1,P4 and P5 samples, Rs. 91.47 for P3 and P8, within the process combinations it is seen that with increased level of deshi ghee, the cost proportionately increased (i.e. in P3 and P8 samples. The non-dairy product such as sugar and alum also play a very important role to reduce the cost and increase the profit. Sugar contributes about 140 gm of weight in one kg. of product and cost just Rs.2.80 which helped to increase return from product because it is cheaper than the solids in the milk. The product sold in market at the rate of Rs. 110 per kg. which required net total cost for production about Rs.79.54 and Rs.82.04 without packaging material and with packaging material respectively. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 224-226

  5. Detoxification and anti-nutrients reduction of Jatropha curcas seed cake by Bacillus fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phengnuam, Thanyarat; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2013-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from oil extraction of J. curcas seed. Although it contains a high amount of protein, it has phorbol esters and anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and saponin. It cannot be applied directly in the food or animal feed industries. This investigation was aimed at detoxifying the toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation with Bacillus spp. Two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Bacillus strains used in the study were Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with solid-state and submerged fermentations. Solid-state fermentation was done on 10 g of seed cake with a moisture content of 70% for 7 days, while submerged fermentation was carried out on 10 g of seed cake in 100 ml distilled water for 5 days. The fermentations were incubated at the optimum condition of each strain. After fermentation, bacterial growth, pH, toxic and anti-nutritional compounds were determined. Results showed that B. licheniformis with submerged fermentation were the most effective method to degrade toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the seed cake. After fermentation, phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 62%, 42% and 75%, respectively, while lectin could not be eliminated. The reduction of phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor was related to esterase, phytase and protease activities, respectively. J. curcas seed cake could be mainly detoxified by bacterial fermentation and the high-protein fermented seed cake could be potentially applied to animal feed. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Freezing on Lyophilization Process Performance and Drug Product Cake Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Reza; Gattu, Shravan K; Stewart, John M; Patel, Sajal M

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights the significance of the freezing step and the critical role it can play in modulating process performance and product quality during freeze-drying. For the model protein formulation evaluated, the mechanism of freezing had a significant impact on cake appearance, a potential critical product quality attribute for a lyophilized drug product. Contrary to common knowledge, a freezing step with annealing resulted in 20% increase in primary drying time compared to without annealing. In addition, annealing resulted in poor cake appearance with shrinkage, cracks, and formation of a distinct skin at the top surface of the cake. Finally, higher product resistance (7.5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g) was observed in the case of annealing compared to when annealing was not included (5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g), which explains the longer primary drying time due to reduced sublimation rates. An alternative freezing option using controlled ice nucleation resulted in reduced primary drying time (i.e., 30% reduction compared to annealing) and a more homogenous batch with elegant uniform (i.e., significantly improved) cake appearance. Here, a mechanistic understanding of the distinct differences in cake appearance as a function of freezing mechanism is proposed within the context of ice nucleation temperature, ice crystal growth, and presumed solute distribution within the frozen matrix. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  8. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian X; Van De Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilarity concept complicate the development phase of safe and cost-effective drug products. To streamline the development phase and to make high-throughput formulation screening possible, efficient solutions for analyzing critical quality attributes such as cake quality with minimal material consumption are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  10. Twin screw wet granulation: Effect of process and formulation variables on powder caking during production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    This work focuses on monitoring the behaviour and the mass of the built up/caking of powder during wet granulation using Twin Screw Granulator (TSG). The variables changed during this work are; powder (α-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)), the screw configuration (conveying and kneading elements) and the weight percentage of hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose (HPMC) dissolved in the granulation liquid (i.e. changing liquid viscosity). Additionally, the effect of these variables on the size distribution, of the granules produced, was determined. The experiments were conducted using an acrylic transparent barrel. A stainless steel barrel was then used to conduct the two extreme granulation liquid viscosities with two different screw configurations, using lactose only. This was done to compare the findings to those obtained from the transparent barrel for validation purpose. These variables showed to affect the behaviour and the mass of the powder caking as well as the size distribution of granules. Overall, the use of kneading element resulted in uniform behaviour in caking with higher mass. Furthermore, increasing the amount of HPMC resulted in a reduction of the mass of powder caking for lactose, while showing inconsistent trend for MCC. Furthermore, lactose showed to have a greater tendency to cake in comparison to MCC. The results, for lactose, obtained from the stainless steel barrel compared well with their corresponding conditions from the transparent barrel, as the screw configuration and HPMC mass varied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivis Díaz Aguila

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the effect of three phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.. The investigation was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the Citrico Arimao Enterprise. A Brown soil without carbonate differentiation was used, to which was carried out an agrochemical analysis previously. An experimental design totally randomized was used, with factorial arrangement 3 x 3 + 1, and three repetitions. As a source of phosphorous triple superphosphate, simple superphosphate and a natural phosphoric rock were used and the three levels of organic fertilization consisted of the application of filter cake, filter cake enriched with Azotofos biofertilizer and without filter cake. At 45 and 60 days, the morphometric variables, height, diameter of the stall, the mass of the aerial part and of the root were measured. Variance analyses for all the variables were carried out. The media were compared by Tukey test with a level of error probability of 5 %. The ASISTAT statistical package was used. The morphometric variables, height, diameter of the stall, fresh mass of the aerial part and roots of the tomato seedlings at 45 and 60 days increased with the addition of filter cake, enriched or not, and the application of the phosphoric rock.

  12. Cake Compressibility Analysis of BPOME from a Hybrid Adsorption-Microfiltration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani; Abdulkareem, Sulyman Age

    2017-04-01

      This study investigates the utility of a hybrid adsorption-membrane process for cake compressibility evaluation of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME). A low-cost empty fruit bunch (EFB) based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for the upstream adsorption process with operation conditions of 60 g/L PAC dose, 68 min mixing time, and 200 rpm mixing speed to reduce the feed-water strength and alleviate probable fouling of the membranes. Two polyethersulfone microfiltration (MF) membranes of 0.1 and 0.2 μm pore sizes were investigated under constant transmembrane pressures (TMP) of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The compressibility factors (z), which was obtained from the slopes of power plots (function of specific cake resistance (α) and pressure gradient) were evaluated. The z values of 0.32 and 0.52, respectively obtained, for the 0.1 and 0.2 μm MF membranes provided compressible and stable z values as observed from their power plots. Besides, these membranes were found suitable for the measurement of z since the results are in consonance with the established principle of cake compressibility. Moreover, the upstream adsorption mitigated the clogging of the membranes which ultimately led to moderate resistances and cake compressibility. These are indications that with the secondary cake filtration, a sustainable flux can be achieved during BPOME filtration. The membranes exhibited close to 100% restoration after cleaning.

  13. Utilization of wild apricot kernel press cake for extraction of protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P C; Tilakratne, B M K S; Gupta, Anil

    2010-12-01

    The kernels of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) stones are utilized for extraction of oil. The press cake left after extraction of oil was evaluated for preparation of protein isolate for its use in food supplementation. The apricot kernels contained 45-50% oil, 23.6-26.2% protein, 4.2% ash, 5.42% crude fibre, 8.2% carbohydrates and 90 mg HCN/100 g kernels, while press cake obtained after oil extraction contained 34.5% crude protein, which can be utilized for preparation of protein isolates. The method standardized for extraction of protein isolate broadly consisted of boiling the press cake with water in 1:20 (w/v) ratio for 1 h, raising pH to 8 and stirring for a few min followed by filtration, coagulation at pH 4 prior to sieving and pressing of coagulant for overnight and drying followed by grinding which resulted in extraction of about 71.3% of the protein contained in the press cake. The protein isolate contained 68.8% protein, 6.4% crude fat, 0.8% ash, 2.2% crude fibre and 12.7% carbohydrates. Thus the apricot kernel press cake can be utilized for preparation of protein isolate to improve the nutritional status of many food formulations.

  14. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  15. Modeling of oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellag, Hocine

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influences of the factors, which can have effect on oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane, are studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculation of the extraction yield is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that the yield does not depend on the granulometry and the stirring rate, but depends on the temperature, the contact time and the liquid-solid ratio (L/S. Also, it depends on interactions between time and temperature and interactions between time and L/S. The comparison of the results given by the experiment and the model allows us to say that the model is satisfactory.En este artículo se estudia la influencia de los factores que pueden tener efecto en la extracción del aceite de orujo usando hexano. Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo mostraron que el rendimiento no depende de la granulometría ni de la velocidad de agitación, pero si depende de la temperatura, del tiempo de contacto y de la relación líquido-sólido (L/S. También depende de las interacciones entre el tiempo y la temperatura y entre el tiempo y la relación L/S. La comparación entre los resultados experimentales y el modelo nos permite decir que dicho modelo es satisfactorio.

  16. Evaluasi Mutu dan Penerimaan Panelis terhadap Rainbow Cake yang Dibuat dari Tepung Terigu dan Pati Sagu Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Riau is one of the sago starch-producing province in Indonesia. Nowadays, sago starch has been utilized to produce various types of tradisional foods. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rainbow cake produced by the addition of 30% sago starch and rainbow cake using 100% wheat flour and to evaluate panelist acceptance of these rainbow cakes. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two treatments and eight replications thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat and 0%sago starch and TS2 (70% wheat flour and 30%sago starch. The parameters observed were moisture, ash, sucrose and fat contents as well as panelist acceptance test. The results of this study indicated that rainbow cake of TS1 treatment (100% wheat flour and 0%sago starch had no significant difference with rainbow cake of TS2 treatment (70% wheat flour and 30% sago starch in case of ash and sucrose contents, but had significant effect on moisture and fat contents of rainbow cake. Based on the panelist acceptance test, the rainbow cake made from 70% wheat flour and sago starch 30% could be accepted by panelists similar to commercial rainbow cake.

  17. A note on envy-free cake cutting with polynomial valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    2015-01-01

    that relates the valuation functions to the number of queries required by the protocol. In this note we show that when the valuations can be represented as polynomial functions, there exists a protocol in the standard query model that is much simpler conceptually and has a runtime bound depending......The cake cutting problem models the fair allocation of a heterogeneous divisible resource among multiple players. The central fairness criterion is envy-freeness and a major open question in this domain is the design of a bounded protocol that can compute an envy-free allocation of the cake for any...... number of players. The only existing finite envy-free cake cutting protocol for any number of players, designed by Brams and Taylor [4], has the property that its runtime can be made arbitrarily large by setting up the valuation functions of the players appropriately. Moreover, there is no closed formula...

  18. UVB-Protective Effects of Isoflavone Extracts from Soybean Cake in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown by chromatography that aglycone, glucoside, acetylglucosideand malonylglucoside isoflavone extracts prepared from soybean cake showed betterantioxidant activities than isoflavone standards. Consequently, the aim of this study was toevaluate the protective effects of these isoflavone extracts against ultraviolet B (UVB-induced keratinocyte damage. Our results demonstrated that these soybean cake isoflavoneextracts could inhibit UVB-induced keratinocyte death. Moreover, they could inhibit UVB-induced intracellular release of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 Furthermore, these isoflavoneextracts differentially inhibited UVB-induced MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 andp38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by all tested isoflavone extracts, whereas JNKphosphorylation was inhibited by group I to group III isoflavone extracts. Since theseisoflavone extracts are relative stable and easily obtained than the isoflavone standards, wesuggest that soybean cake may be a useful potential source for developing effective skincare agents in against photoaging.

  19. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave assisted synthesis of polymer via bioplatform chemical intermediate derived from Jatropha deoiled seed cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Surendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a two-step catalytic process, where deoiled seed cake as a feed was rapidly depolymerized and converted to a chemical intermediate under mild conditions, and a polymer compound was subsequently synthesized in the presence of an initiator under microwave irradiation. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF is a significant chemical intermediate compound synthesized from a deoiled Jatropha seed cake under microwave irradiation in the presence of a heterogeneous acid activated Bentonite catalyst. This compound is suitable for the synthesis of polymers. Our study reveals that the synthesis process is an energy-efficient and cost-effective conversion of the deoiled seed cake into the polymer compound through the bioplatform chemical intermediate. The synthesized material was well characterized, confirming the formation and structures of the prepared catalysts.

  1. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  2. Cultivation and bioactivity assessment of Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies on olive oil press cakes substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Andrej; Svagelj, Mirjan; Berovic, Marin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong; Pohleven, Franc; Klinar, Dusan

    2009-11-30

    Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity.

  3. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  5. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  6. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  7. Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifakı, Yaşar Özlem; Şakıyan, Özge

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate dielectric properties with quality parameters, and to optimize cake formulation and baking conditions by response surface methodology. Weight loss, color, specific volume, hardness and porosity were evaluated. The samples with different DATEM (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) and chickpea flour concentrations (30, 40 and 50%) were baked in microwave oven at different power (300, 350, 400 W) and baking times (2.50, 3.0, 3.50 min). It was found that microwave power showed significant effect on color, while baking time showed effect on weight loss, porosity, hardness, specific volume and dielectric properties. Emulsifier level affected porosity, specific volume and dielectric constant. Chickpea flour level affected porosity, color, hardness and dielectric properties of cakes. The optimum microwave power, baking time, DATEM level and chickpea flour level were found as 400 W, 2.84 min, 1.2% and 30%, respectively. The comparison between conventionally baked and the microwave baked cakes at optimum points showed that color difference, weight loss, specific volume and porosity values of microwave baked cakes were less than those of conventionally baked cakes, on the other hand, hardness values were higher. Moreover, a negative correlation between dielectric constant and porosity, and weight loss values were detected for microwave baked samples. A negative correlation between dielectric loss factor and porosity was observed. These correlations indicated that quality characteristics of a microwave baked cake sample can be assessed from dielectric properties. These correlations provides understanding on the behavior of food material during microwave processing.

  8. The development of functional cake technology based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Posnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical researches on the development of technologies of functional pastries with quality indicators satisfying customer and market demands of small enterprises are highly relevant. The purpose of studies was to develop a technology of functional cake based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products - cellulose and syrup.The recipe of the cake “Stolichnyi” was taken as a control sample.Test cake samples were prepared with partial or full replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup (0–100% and raisins by Jerusalem artichoke fiber (0, 50, 100%. It was found that organoleptic quality indicators of products improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke syrup instead of sugar, their specific volume decreased slightly compared to the control – by 1.9–3.0%.Specific volume of cakes increased compared to the control by 5.4–11%improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichokefiber instead of raisins, but its surface became bumpier, there were deep cracks. Specific volume of products increased by 7.8–8.8%, the surface was convex, slightly bumpy with little nicked when Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiberwere introduced together.The humidity and the alkalinity of samples practically unchanged. The sample prepared with full replacement of sugar by syrup and raisins by fiber of Jerusalem artichoke had the best quality indicators.During storage for 5 days the smallest changes in the crumb condition and flavor were observed in cake samples with complete replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup, the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke fiber resulted in a slight elasticity decrease and friability crumbimprovement. The use of Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiber in the cakes manufacture allowsto receivegoods with high nutritional value, enriched with prebiotic inulin, to expand the range of functional pastry products.

  9. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  10. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  11. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  12. Filter cake impact on the textile filtersfor wastewater treatment hydraulic capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Spychała; Aleksandra Sowińska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the filter cake hydraulic conductivity and its impact on the hydraulic capacity of textile filters for wastewater treatment. The study was carried out using septic tank effluent filtered on four types of filters of different thickness (0.9, 1.8, 3.6 and 7.2 mm). The dry biomass content was 13.45–36.7 mg TS per 1 cm2 at organic loading rate of 0.04–0.07 mg BOD5 per 1 mg d.m. per day. The filter cake dry mass was related to filter thickness. The ...

  13. Building PHP Applications with Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Porebski, Bartosz; Nowak, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    The first detailed, unbiased comparison of the three leading PHP frameworksWeb developers have been eager for an impartial comparison of leading PHP frameworks so they can make educated decisions about the most effective tool for their needs. This guide uses Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework to solve key problems, providing source code examples and comparisons for each. It explains the approach and reviews the similarities and differences in the three frameworks, providing reliable information on which to base your decisions.Symfony, CakePHP, and Zend Framework are considered the leading PH

  14. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  15. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  16. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  17. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Roy; Sharma, Nishat; Prasad, G S

    2012-03-30

    Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem.Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH) 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on cost reduction and may lead to development of a cost

  18. Concentration, partial characterization, and immobilization of lipase extract from P. brevicompactum by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Di Luccio, Marco; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2011-07-01

    One relevant limitation hindering the industrial application of microbial lipases has been attributed to their production cost, which is determined by the production yield, enzyme stability among other. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration and immobilization of lipase extracts from Penicillium brevicompactum obtained by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake and castor bean cake. The precipitation with ammonium sulfate 60% of saturation of crude extract obtained with babassu cake as raw material showed an enhancement in hydrolytic and esterification activities from 31.82 to 227.57 U/g and from 170.92 to 207.40 U/g, respectively. Concentrated lipase extracts showed preference to medium-chain triglycerides and fatty acids. It is shown that the enzyme activity is maintained during storage at low temperatures (4 and -10°C) for up to 30 days. Higher esterification activities were achieved when the lipase extract was immobilized in sodium alginate and activated coal.

  19. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-01-01

    ... ) and biosurfactant production (6·4 mg ml –l ) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate...

  20. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  1. Treated Neem Kernel Cake. *1A. Aruwayo, 2S.A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (CSC) (Maigandi, 2001). The prices of GNC and CSC have been rising, thereby increasing the cost of production (Maigandi, 2001). Researchers therefore considered the use of alternative source of feed ingredients in order to ... dried for five days, crushed and the oil removed manually to produce the neem kernel cake. The.

  2. Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Properties of Alcoholic Extracts of Oilseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Arct

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare changes in the total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cakes before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Extraction with ethanol and hydrolysis with different commercially available glycosidases: α-amylase, β-glucosidase, β-glucanase and their combinations in a ratio of 1:1:1 were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content, iron-chelating activity and antioxidant activity according to DPPH and ABTS tests were measured in non-hydrolysed extracts and compared with the results obtained for the extracts after the application of immobilised enzymes. As a result, the hydrolysed extracts had a higher phenolic and reducing sugar content as well as higher iron-chelating and antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cake extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis was higher in comparison with non-hydrolysed extracts, i.e. 2 times (for the enzyme combination, and 1.5 and 2 times (for β-glucanase (p<0.05, respectively. The best results in increasing the flavonoid and sugar content as well as in iron-chelating activity were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseed cake extracts by β-glucanase. Oilseed cake extracts after hydrolysis with an enzyme combination in a ratio of 1:1:1 had the highest increase in antioxidant activity.

  3. Effect of Dietary Shea Nut Cake on the Growth and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 72-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary shea nut cake (SNC) on the growth, hematological and blood biochemical parameters of weaner rabbits. The double 3 x 3 Latin square design was employed for the experiment. The control diet (T1) contained 0% SNC, while the treatment diets T2 and ...

  4. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  5. Competing for a Slice of the Budget Cake: An Academic Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the different ways in which a library could obtain a larger slice of the budget cake. These include leveraging of library assets to enhance funding, relating funding to mission, the use of library statistics (both internal and external), lobbying, and a strong show of support from users. It notes that the ...

  6. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... cake, urea, muriate of potash and single super phosphate. Two separate experiments ... fuel and feed stock for animals. The nutrient composition ... but at the same time harness the benefits of the two type of fertilizers in crop ...

  7. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  8. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of the process. It was concluded that at the optimal process parameters (pH 2.0–2.5; CaCl2 concentration, 3.6 mol dm-3; temperature, 95 °C; solid/liquid ratio, 1:5, the leaching efficiency of lead and silver could reach the approximate value of 94 %. Applying the same optimal process parameters, the method was applied to the leaching of a lead–silver cake in a magnesium chloride solution, but with significantly lower efficiencies. The results show that leaching of lead and silver in a calcium chloride solution could be a prospective method for increasing the recovery of lead and silver during hydrometallurgical zinc production.

  9. Chemical, physical and sensory properties of orange cakes and breads with addition of inulin and oligofructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kelli Souza-Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inulin and oligofructose are fructans that can change important characteristics in original products when added in food. Two formulations of orange cakes (one containing 77.7g of inulin and another one 77.7g of oligofructose/inulin and two formulations of breads (one containing 130g of inulin and another one 175g of oligofructose/inulin were compared to the respective standard formulations (with no fructans in relation to chemical composition, texture, volume, color and sensory acceptability with a nine-point hedonic scale. The cakes and breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin showed greater amount of total dietary fiber in relation to standard products. The orange cake with inulin had lower cohesiveness and yellower dough when compared to the standard cake, but the addition of inulin and oligofructose/inulin reduced the acceptability for appearance, texture and flavor and the overall acceptability, although the acceptability for aroma was the same for the three products. The breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin were harder and less cohesive than the standard bread, and bread with inulin showed minor volume in relation to the standard. The bread with inulin also presented crust with lower luminosity, dough with higher intensity of redness and yellowness and higher intensity of color in relation to standard, besides different hue. In relation to sensory acceptability, the bread with oligofructose/inulin had higher overall acceptability and flavor when compared to standard bread.

  10. Measurement of Shrinkage and Cracking in Lyophilized Amorphous Cakes. Part II: Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of the kinetic development of shrinkage and cracking of an amorphous trehalose cake as they take place during lyophilization. A novel technique has been developed which monitors a vial in situ during the freeze-drying cycle. The 2-dimensional degrees of shrinkage and cracking in its top surface are determined quantitatively using a digital camera and evaluated using AxioVision. Shrinkage and cracking develop largely already during programmed primary drying and are coupled. For trehalose, sucrose and maltose no clear correlation between shrinkage and wg' is found. There is no dependence of cake rim detachment from the vial inner surface on the trehalose concentration. Cake adhesion is therefore likely not the only determining factor for detachment and shrinkage. If shrinkage can occur during primary drying, then this relaxes the drying tension produced by desorption of non-frozen water out of the amorphous structure left behind as the sublimation front passes through a volume element, and causes little or no cracking. If shrinkage is restrained, then the drying tension is relaxed by cracking of the brittle cake.

  11. The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake on the utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake (CSC) on the voluntary intake and utilization of sorghum glume (SG) by the goat. was studied in a 4 x 4 Latin Square digestibility trial. The study involved a total of 12 West African dwarf goats made up of 8 dry, non-pregnant does and 4 bucks aged between 14 and 20 ...

  12. Effects of dietary replacement of cotton seed cake with dried poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five concentrate supplements were formulated in which dried poultry litter (DPL) was included at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% dry weight in the rations which contained mainly maize bran, to replace 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cotton seed cake (CSC). The animals were fed on basal poor quality groundnut haulms ad lib in addition to ...

  13. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  14. Effects of substituting groundnut cake with ammoniated full-fat neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty-day-old broiler chicks (straight runs) were brooded, weighed and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of 20 chicks each in a completely randomized block design (CRBD). Each treatment had five replicates with five birds per replicate. AFFNKM replaced groundnut cake (GNC) at 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% ...

  15. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Praw meat the amount of 2-phenoxyethanol in treatment OCL was lower than in treatments C (P<0.01) and OC (P<0.05), while in cooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (P<0.05). Apart from these compounds, none of the lipid oxidation-derived volatiles was significantly affected by the dietary treatment. Therefore, the results suggest that the replacement of cereal concentrates with linseed and/or olive cake did not cause appreciable changes in the production of volatile organic compounds in lamb meat.

  16. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 67. Short communication. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf starter meals. N.M. Bangani, C.J.C. Muller. # and J.A. Botha. Department of Economic ...

  17. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  18. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  19. Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was

  20. Sunflower cake in diets for lambs: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumen parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study objective was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for sunflower cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by sunflower cake. Diets were formulated with 12.6% CP, respecting the roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, as source roughage was used hay Tifton-85 and as food concentrates used were: corn, soybean meal, sunflower cake and premix mineral vitaminic. Five lambs crossbred castrated with average weight of 29.64 ± 2.94 kg were used, distributed in latin square 5 x 5. There were no differences in intake dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and total digestible nutrients. The intake of ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC were increased linearly. For intake of total carbohydrates (TC was observed equation linear in relation to body weight and metabolic weight and quadratic when expressed in g day-1 with peak in 377.1 g kg-1 replacement of soybean meal by sunflower cake. There were no differences in digestibility DM, OM, CP, NDF, NFC and TC. There was a linear increase in the digestibility of ether extract (EE. The intake, feces, urinary and retained nitrogen were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in the diets. For the pH of liquor ruminal there was no difference for the different levels of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake. However, ruminal pH differed with respect to collection time for all experimental diets. There was no effect on diets and sampling time for concentration of NH3-N. It was concluded that the sunflower cake can be used as na alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% in concentrate mixture unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  1. In vitro starch digestion and cake quality: impact of the ratio of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the ratio of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on the in vitro starch digestion, predicted glycemic index (pGI), and the physicochemical properties of fiber-enriched cakes were evaluated. The hydration and pasting properties were affected by the ratio of SDF and IDF. According to the increase of IDF ratio (SDF ratio reduction) in 3 g fiber-enriched cakes, slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents increased, while the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased. The pGI values were significantly different with control in 3 g fiber-enriched cake containing more than 50% IDF contents (pfiber-enriched cake samples were not significantly different by SDF and IDF ratio. With the exception of the SDF 100% cake, volume index, hardness, and color values of the fiber-enriched cakes increased according to reductions in the SDF ratio. The cakes containing 3 g of total dietary fiber (the same ratio of SDF and IDF) per serving were shown to have low pGI and acceptable quality attributes. Specially, total dietary fiber amount and IDF ratio are more effective than SDF ratio to lower the pGI value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W.; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  3. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha W. Yunus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon. A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb, ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb, cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb, equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb, rubrofusarin (81 to 1125, tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb, 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb, and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb. Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  4. Effect of adding palm oil mill decanter cake slurry with regular turning operation on the composting process and quality of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Azmi; Sye, Chong Puay; Ishola, Tajudeen Abiodun; Suryanto, Hadi

    2010-11-01

    Formation of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and decanter cake slurry by adding palm oil mill effluent (POME) with regular turning operation was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial composting plant under the normal production process. The addition of decanter cake slurry has hastened the composting process of the EFB. The C/N ratio after 51 days for the mature compost with the decanter cake slurry was 18.65 while that of the matured compost without the decanter cake slurry remained high at 28.96. The compost formed from the addition of decanter cake to EFB and POME had 46.4% nitrogen, 17.9% phosphorus, 17.7% potassium and 23.1% calcium more than that without decanter cake. The use of compost produced from EFB, POME and decanter cake slurry could solve more environmental problems and enhance economic benefits in the oil palm industry.

  5. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

  7. Paste pumping and deposition field trials and concepts on Syncrude's dewatered mature fine tailings MFT centrifuge cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ahmed, I.; Labelle, M.; Brown, R. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a paste pumping and deposition field study conducted on dewatered mature fine tailings (MFT) located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operation. Bench scale rheological examinations of centrifuge cakes and design field testing are used to determine the pumpability of MFT centrifuge cakes. The study included a transportation assessment for the conveyor and positive displacement pumps and pipelines, as well as geotechnical and environmental analyses of bulk materials. Flocculant optimization and centrifuge operational parameter assessments were conducted. Pressure differential and flow rate data were captured in the field studies in order to determine pipeline friction loss. The study showed that pipe friction factors can be obtained using the Bingham plastic model. A natural deposition angle was determined for the MFT centrifuged cake. The study showed that the cake must be sheared in order to reduce yield stress before pumping. It was concluded that displacement pumps can be used to reduced pipeline friction factors. tabs., figs.

  8. Effects of feeding camelina cake to weaned pigs on safety, growth performance, and fatty acid composition of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Beltranena, E

    2017-06-01

    Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk. Individual pigs, pen feed added, and orts were weighed weekly. Feces were collected on d 26 and 27. A blood sample was taken on d 29 from 24 pigs with the lowest BW/pen, which were then euthanized and necropsied. Gross pathological examination was conducted, and organ weights were measured. Samples of liver, back fat, belly fat, and jowl fat were collected for fatty acid analysis. Increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly decreased ( 0.001) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, GE and ash but did not affect ATTD of CP and P. For the entire trial (d 0 to 28), increasing camelina cake inclusion by 6% linearly decreased ( 0.001) ADFI by 74 g/d, ADG by 51 g/d, and BW by 0.8 kg but did not affect feed efficiency (G:F). Increasing camelina cake inclusion linearly increased ( 0.001) liver weight relative to BW, linearly decreased ( 0.050) kidney weight, but did not affect spleen, heart, and thyroid weights. Increasing camelina cake inclusion did not result in serological (large-animal standard panel, T3, and T4) or gross clinical (morphology) findings that might suggest toxicity. In liver, back fat, belly fat, and jowl fat, increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly increased ( 0.050) total n-3 fatty acids and shorter-chain n-3 and n-6 fatty acids but did not increase docosahexaenoic acid (n-3) or arachidonic acid (n-6). In conclusion, feeding

  9. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado; Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro; Magno José Duarte Cândido; Fernando Henrique Teixeira Gomes; Marcos Cláudio Pinheiro Rogério; Divan Soares da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females) were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved) and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex an...

  10. Modulatory effect of fibre-enriched cake on alloxan-induced diabetic toxicity in rat brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia and it is fast becoming a scourge in sub-Saharan Africa. The nutritional properties of developed fibre-enriched cake and its protective potential against diabetic induced neurotoxicity in rats were investigated. Fibre-enriched cake was developed from selected fruits and analysed for its nutritional and sensory attributes. Rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan and treated with the formulated cake. After 14 days treatment, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Their brain tissues were accessed for reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles which cover for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Induction of diabetes led to significant reduction (p < 0.05 of GSH, catalase, SOD activities and protein content. Feeding on the formulated cake led to their significant increase. Decreased lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, and increased concentration of HDL were also observed on feeding with the cake. These results indicate an antioxidant protective potential of the fibre-enriched cake against diabetic-induced brain toxicity. Thus, it can serve as an adjunct to dietary therapy for diabetes.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of a special carbohydrate-whey protein cake after exhaustive cycling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Kiskini, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Goutzourelas, Nikos; Pournaras, Spyros; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Intense exercise induces increased levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a special cake (consisting of carbohydrate to whey protein 3.5:1) vs. an isocaloric carbohydrate cake on inflammatory markers after exhaustive cycling in humans. Nine subjects received either the experimental or placebo cake in a counterbalanced fashion using a crossover, double-blind, repeated-measures design. They performed one trial involving a 2h exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60-65% VO2max followed by a 4h recovery and then a second trial involving an 1h exercise at 60-65% VO2max which was increased at 95% VO2max. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise, 30 min and 4h post-exercise, post-time Trial and 48 h post-time Trial. Cakes were consumed immediately post-exercise and every 1h for the next 3h. The results showed that consumption of the experimental cake reduced significantly (p<0.05), 4h post-exercise, the pro-inflammatory protein levels IL-6 and CRP compared to the control group by 50% and 46% respectively. Moreover, in the experimental cake group, the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher by 118%, 4h post-exercise, compared to the control group but not statistically significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Persian Gums and Tragacanth on Texture and Sensory Characteristics of Non-Gluten ‎Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Ghasemi

    2017-08-01

    Methods: The effect of addition of Persian gums, Tragacanth, and a combination of both of these compounds at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% on texture, color, and sensory characteristics of these cakes was evaluated in this study. Results: The results showed that solidity and viscosity factors were elevated by addition of gum to cake. Using of gums in cakes leads to moisture maintenance inside the cake texture and thus improves mastication property. Furthermore, the results of porosity evaluation showed that addition of Persian gums and Tragacanth decreases the size and increases the number of gas cells inside the cake texture and improves porosity. The best porosity was related to the sample containing 1.5% Persian gum and Tragacanth. The treatment that contained 0.75% Persian gum and 0.75% Tragacanth had the highest acceptability among consumers. Conclusions: Results showed that Persian and Tragacanth gums, whether used independently or in combination, can improve the quality and organoleptic characteristics of gluten-free cakes.

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  14. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  15. The production and evaluation of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, Hasan Ferdi [Anadolu Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-oil cake pyrolysis experiments were achieved in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 48.69 wt% was obtained in nitrogen atmosphere with nitrogen flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 deg C with a heating rate of 5 deg Cs{sup -1}. Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies on the pyrolytic oil showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  16. Research on Improving Low Rank Coal Caking Ability by Moderate Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogenation test of low metamorphic coal was carried out by using a continuous hydrogen reactor at the temperature of (350-400)°C and the initial hydrogen pressure of 3 ~ 6Mpa. The purpose of the experiment was to increase the caking property, and the heating time was controlled from 30 to 50min. The test results show that the mild hydrogenation test, no adhesion of low metamorphic coal can be transformed into a product having adhesion, oxygen elements in coal have good removal, the calorific value of the product has been improved significantly and coal particles during pyrolysis, swelling, catalyst, hydrogenation, structural changes and the combined effects of particles a new component formed between financial and is a major cause of coal caking enhancement and lithofacies change, coal blending test showed that the product can be used effectively in the coking industry.

  17. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  18. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  19. Prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, C; Siegert, W; Kluth, H; Bennewitz, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in prececal amino acid digestibility between commonly used slow- and fast-growing broiler strains when the regression approach is applied. ISA J-275 and Ross 308 were selected as common representatives of slow- and fast-growing broiler strains, respectively. The experimental diets with soybean cake at levels of 0, 100, and 200 g/kg were offered for ad libitum consumption between 22 and 29 d post-hatch. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Each treatment was tested with six pens comprising 10 birds each. Digesta samples were collected on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileocecal-colonic junction. The prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake was calculated by linear regression simultaneously for both strains. There was no significant interaction between broiler strain and inclusion level of soybean cake with respect to the prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of complete diets; there was a significant strain effect for 5 out of the 16 measured amino acids. The prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of soybean cake did not differ significantly between strains and was numerically almost identical. The results of the present study provide evidence of the transferability between broiler strains of prececal amino acid digestibility data, determined using the regression approach, thus improving the accuracy of diet formulation without drawbacks. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohdaly, Adel A A; Sarhan, Mohamed A; Smetanska, Iryna; Mahmoud, Awad

    2010-01-30

    Growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of raw materials to identify new antioxidants. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. In this study the antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of three industrial by-products, sugar beet pulp, sesame cake and potato peel, extracted with various solvents were examined. Since different antioxidant compounds have different mechanisms of action, several methods were used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of extracts. Among the six solvents tested, methanol gave the highest extract yield of potato peel and sugar beet pulp, while diethyl ether gave the highest extract yield of sesame cake. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction ability for phenolic compounds, with total phenolics amounting to 2.91, 1.79 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight in potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts respectively, and also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in the three assays used. All three methods proved that potato peel extract had the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. On the basis of the results obtained, potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity. Therefore they could be used as preservative ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor cake for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Matos Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the metabolizable energy and the digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor cake nutrients for broilers. A total of 180 Cobb-500TM broilers from 21 to 32 days of age was randomly distributed in three treatments with six replicates of 10 broilers - 5 males and 5 females. The experimental treatments were a reference-diet and two test-diets composed of 80% of reference-diet and 20% of detoxified castor cake or castor meal. The adaptation period ranged from 21 to 27 days of age and the total excreta collection period ranged from 28 to 32 days of age. The detoxified castor meal presented apparent metabolizable energy of 2,032 kcal/kg of natural matter, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance of 1,829 kcal/kg of natural matter and the digestibility coefficients of 57.8% dry matter, 68.4% crude protein, 10.5% crude fiber, 35.9% nitrogen free extract, 80.0% ether extract and 26.6% ash. In the detoxified castor cake, the apparent metabolizable energy content was 2,550 kcal/kg of natural matter, the nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy balance was of 2,320 kcal/kg of natural matter and the digestibility coefficients of 60.6% for dry matter, 77.2% for crude protein, 14.0% for crude fiber, 45.7% for nitrogen free extract, 85.4% for ether extract and 28.2% for ash. The metabolizable energy and digestibility of nutrients in detoxified castor cake are higher than in the detoxified castor meal.

  3. Phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ivis Díaz Aguila; Leónides Castellanos González; Mairely Sarduy Díaz; Layda Toledo Vazquez; Cid Naudi Silva Campos; Renato de Mello Prado; Enrique Parets Selva; Leandro Rossato Moda

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the effect of three phosphorus sources, filter cake and microorganisms on the morphometric variables in tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The investigation was carried out under greenhouse conditions in the Citrico Arimao Enterprise. A Brown soil without carbonate differentiation was used, to which was carried out an agrochemical analysis previously. An experimental design totally randomized was used, with factorial arrangement 3 x 3 + 1, and three ...

  4. Xylanase production by Penicillium canescens on soya oil cake in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Assamoi Allah; Jacqueline, Destain; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for the organic residues from various sectors of agriculture and industries over the past few decades. Their application in the field of fermentation technology has resulted in the production of bulk chemicals and value-added products such as amino acid, enzymes, mushroom, organic acids, single-cell protein, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. (Ramachandran et al., Bioresource Technology 98:2000-2009, 2007). In this work, the production of extracellular xylanase by the fungus Penicillium canescens was investigated in solid-state fermentation using five agro-industrial substrates (soya oil cake, soya meal, wheat bran, whole wheat bran, and pulp beet). The best substrate was the soya oil cake. In order to optimize the production, the most effective cultivation conditions were investigated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in plastic bags with 5 and 100 g of soya oil cake, respectively. The initial moisture content, initial pH, and temperature of the culture affected the xylanase synthesis. The optimal fermentation medium was composed by soya oil cake crushed to 5 mm supplemented with 3% and 4% (w/w) of casein peptone and Na(2)HPO(4) x 2H(2)O. After 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C and under 80% of initial moisture, a xylanase production level of 18,895 +/- 778 U/g (Erlenmeyer flasks) and 9,300 +/- 589 U/g (plastic bags) was reached. The partially purified enzyme recovered by ammonium sulfate fractionation was completely stable at freezing and refrigeration temperatures up to 6 months and reasonably stable at room temperature for more than 3 months.

  5. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter t...

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2012-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  7. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  8. Physicochemical Characterization of Oil Palm Decanter Cake (OPDC) for Residual Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Naimah Sahad; Ayub Md Som; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin; Noriznan Mokhtar; Zainuri Busu; Alawi Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    A characterization study on oil palm decanter cakes (OPDC) was performed to gain an in-depth understanding of the material’s characteristics to aid in potential residual oil recovery. The OPDC was characterized by a high moisture content, high biodegradability, high organic content, and a nutrient-rich composition. Microscopic observation showed that the oil attachments in OPDC, and a vast majority of the droplets, were less than 50 μm in size. Furthermore, contact angle measurement revealed ...

  9. Relationship Between Composition, Structure and Permeability of Drilling Filter Cakes Relations entre la composition, la structure et la perméabilité des cakes de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available During drilling operations there is a need to build mud cakes as impervious as possible on the wall of the borehole to prevent damage by fluid loss. To establish the relationship between the filtration properties of mud filter cakes and their structure, drilling fluids containing montmorillonite clay, flexible (Drispac or rigid (xanthan anionic polymers, electrolytes and barite were investigated. Standard API filtration and polymer adsorption measurements were performed. The cake structure was vizualized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Our study establishes the mechanism of filtration reduction properties of drilling filter cakes. Filtration measurements and cryomicroscopy show that a well dispersed suspension forms a well connected, homogeneous network that prevents fluid loss. Addition of salts to the drilling fluid promotes the aggregation of the clay particles and introduces heterogeneities so that the fluid loss is increased. Addition of anionic polymers causes a better dispersion of the clay particles in the suspension which lowers the filtration rate. In the presence of both salts and polymers, there is a competition effect between the salt-induced aggregation of the clay particles and the dispersion due to polymers, largely governed by the concentration and valence of the electrolytes and the flexibility of the polymers. During the filtration process more filtration reduction properties are obtained by non adsorbed polymers which clog the pores of the cake network and further reduce the filtration rate. The different behavior of the flexible (Drispac and the rigid polymer (xanthan, can be used to optimize their applications in drilling fluids depending on field conditions (temperature, salt conditions. Afin d'éviter l'endommagement des puits par une perte de fluides, il est nécessaire de former, au cours du forage, un cakeaussi imperméable que possible sur la paroi des puits. L'objectif de l'étude est d'établir des relations

  10. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  11. The Enigmatic Mushtikas and the Associated Triangular Terracotta Cakes: Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For over four decades, now, mushtikas and its common associate, the triangular terracotta cakes have been believed to be part of ‘fire altars’. This is, in spite of the fact that, either or both of these have been found from hearths, ovens, kilns, as flooring material, on walls, in passages, streets, bathrooms and therefore obviously near commodes. Further, the great variety of central stele and construction material, size and shape, materials found within ‘fire altars’ suggest that, all the above were devoid of religious symbolism and used to achieve domestic or industrial objectives. The cakes being primarily associated with run of the mill economic activities ended up in diverse and defiling contexts. However, like many cultures across time and space Harappans may also have used the medium of fire for offering sacrifices. Therefore the existence of ‘fire altars’ is not denied as such, but these then should not have the ubiquitous cakes, at the least.

  12. Anti-Photoaging Effects of Soy Isoflavone Extract (Aglycone and Acetylglucoside Form from Soybean Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones, found in soybean and soybean products, have been reported to possess many physiological activities such as antioxidant activity, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, reduction of cardiovascular risk, prevention of osteoporosis and alleviation of postmenopausal syndrome. In our previous study, soy isoflavone extract ISO-1 (containing 12 soy isoflavones from soybean cake was demonstrated to prevent skin damage caused by UVB exposure. In this study, soy isoflavone extract from soybean cake was further purified and evaluated for the protective effects on UVB-induced damage. The results revealed that Fraction 3, which contains the aglycone group (daidzein, genistein and glycitein and acetylglucoside group (acetyldaidzin, acetylgenistin and acetylglycitin of soy isoflavones, could inhibit UVB-induced death of human keratinocytes and reduce the level of desquamation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema and epidermal thickness in mouse skin. Furthermore, topical application of Fraction 3 increased the activity of catalase and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression in mice exposed to UVB. In addition, in comparison with ISO-1 and genistein, the Fraction 3 possessed much greater protective effects on both UVB-induced oxidative stress and keratinocyte death than other fractions. Therefore, the soy isoflavone extract Fraction 3 from soybean cake is a desirable anti-photoaging agent for skin care.

  13. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  14. The influence of different pretreatment methods on biogas production from Jatropha curcas oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir Jan; Kułażyński, Marek; Sikora, Ilona; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Drought and pest resistance, together with high oil content in its seeds, make Jatropha curcas a good oil source for biodiesel. Oil cake from J. curcas is not suitable for animal feeding and thus may be profitably used for additional energy production by conversion into biogas; however, the anaerobic digestion process must be optimized to obtain good efficiency. We subjected oil cake to thermal and acidic pretreatment to deactivate protease inhibitors and partially hydrolyze phytate. We then digested the samples in batch conditions to determine the effects of pretreatment on biogas production. Thermal pretreatment changed the kinetics of anaerobic digestion and reduced protease inhibitor activity and the concentration of phytate; however, biogas production efficiency was not affected (0.281 m 3  kg -1 ). To evaluate the possibility of recirculating water for SSF hydrolysis, ammonium nitrogen recovery from effluent was evaluated by its precipitation in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate).Concentration of ammonium ions was reduced by 53% (to 980 mg L -1 ). We propose a water-saving concept based on percolation of J. curcas cake using anaerobic digestion effluent and feeding that percolate into a methanogenic bioreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  16. Purification and fermentation in vitro of sesaminol triglucoside from sesame cake by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuling; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yongkang; Su, Di; Sun, Yi; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2013-02-27

    Sesaminol triglucoside (STG), the most abundant lignan glycoside existing in sesame cake/meal, has exhibited various biological activities. However, little information about its in vitro fermentation with intestinal microbiota is available. Therefore, the effect of STG from sesame cake on the fermentation of human fecal microbiota was evaluated. First, high-purity STG was successfully prepared from defatted sesame cake by extraction with 80% ethanol and simple purification procedures of polyamide column chromatography and Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography. Then the influence of STG on intestinal microbiota was conducted by monitoring bacterial populations and analyzing the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). We found that STG could significantly induce an increase in numbers of Lactobacillus - Enterococcus group and Bifidobacterium in fermentation in vitro with human fecal microbiota, while it did not stimulate the bacterial growth of Eubacterium rectale - Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium histolyticum group, and Bacteroides - Prevotella group. Furthermore, it was found that concentrations of formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in STG culture increased significantly during the fermentation, and its total SCFA concentration was relatively higher than those of the control and glucose cultures at 6 and 12 h fermentation. Our findings provided further evidence for the importance of human intestinal bacteria in the bioactivity of STG and its metabolites in the maintenance of human health.

  17. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  18. Effects of sawdust-CPAM on textile dyeing sludge dewaterability and filter cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haijian; Ning, Xun-An; Liang, Xiujuan; Feng, Yinfang; Liu, Jingyong

    2013-07-01

    Sawdust was used as a filter aid for the textile dyeing sludge dewatering in this study. Results showed that sawdust conditioning in conjunction with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) presented much better dewaterability than CPAM alone. The optimal sawdust and CPAM dosage for the best dewaterability was found to be 60 wt.% (mass percent) and 15 kg/t DS (dry solid), the time to filter (TTF) and the yield at 90% degree of the filtration completion (YN90) were 5s and 15.6 kg/m(2)h under the conditions, respectively. TTF and YN90 were more appropriate parameters than specific resistance to filtration (SRF) for assessing the sludge dewaterability as affected by physical conditioners. The moisture content of various filter cake layers gradually became the same with the increase of sawdust dosage. The flocculated sludge cake became relatively incompressible after sawdust conditioning. Sawdust acts to maintain the permeability during the compressed filtration by resisting cake compression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  20. Effective control of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake to plant parasitic nematodes and fungi in black pepper diseases in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Duc Hieu; Ngo, Xuan Quang; Do, Dang Giap; Le, Thi Anh Hong; Nguyen, Vu Thanh; Smol, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Neem cake is a product of the cold pressing from the neem kernels to obtain neem oil. Bio-active substances from neem cake extracted solutions were evaluated for their potential to control the root knot nematodes and other pests of plants. In this study different concentrations of the solution extracted from neem cake was tested against the second stage juveniles of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne spp. and four phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Collectotr...

  1. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  2. Influence of anti-caking agent on the water sorption isotherm and flow-ability properties of vacuum dried honey powder

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhadi, Bambang; Roos, Yrjö H.

    2017-01-01

    Honey powder is a hygroscopic powder due to its composition and structure. The addition of anti-caking agent was aimed to increase the stability of honey powder. The present study aimed to study the influence of anti-caking agent on the water sorption isotherm and flow-ability properties of vacuum dried honey powder. Anti-caking agents, calcium silicate and calcium stearate, were added in honey powder. The addition of anti-caking agent influenced water sorption and flow-ability properties of ...

  3. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  4. The nematicidal and the fertilizing effect of argan, castro and neem cake on cucurbits (cucumber and melon) grown under greenhouse in Agadir region (South of Morocco).

    OpenAIRE

    AZIM, Khalid

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of oil cake amendments (argan, neem, castor cake and ground castor) on control of Meloidogyne spp., soil fertility, and the growth and yield of cucumber grown under greenhouse in south-western Morocco. The results show that oil cakes induce a reduction in gall formation, soil nematodes density, root rot infestation, and an improvement of plant height and yield as compared to the control. Argan cake improved yield by 112% compared to the control. ...

  5. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2015-06-23

    Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM) flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days) and long-term (90 days) experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  6. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B N; Adam, Jamila K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min) confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio) for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10-2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii.

  7. Solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake for optimization of lipase, protease and detoxification of anti-nutrients in Jatropha seed cake using Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Mohankumar Bavimane; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Devappa, Somashekar

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a byproduct generated after biodiesel production. Presence of anti-nutritional compounds and toxins restricts its application in livestock feed. The disposal of the JSC is a major environmental problem in the future, due to the generation of huge quantity of JSC after biodiesel extraction. Hence the JSC was assessed for its suitability as substrate for production and optimization of lipase and protease from Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98 by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The present study was also focused on the biodetoxification of anti-nutrients and toxins in JSC. The SSF parameters were optimized for maximum production of lipase and protease. Under the optimized conditions, the JSC supplemented with maltose and peptone (2%), adjusted to pH 7.0, moisture content 40%, inoculated with 1 × 10(7) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 25°C, produced maximum lipase, 1288 U/g and protease, 3366 U/g at 96 h. The anti-nutrients like phytic acid (6.08%), tannins (0.37%), trypsin inhibitors (697.5 TIU/g), cyanogenic glucosides (692.5 μg/100 g), and lectins (0.309 mg/ml), were reduced to 1.70%, 0.23%, 12.5 TIU/g, 560.6 μg/100 g and 0.034 mg/ml respectively. The main toxic compound phorbol esters content in the JSC was reduced from 0.083% to 0.015% after SSF. Our results indicate that viability of SSF to utilize the huge amount of seed cake generated after extraction of biodiesel, for production of industrial enzymes and biodetoxification of anti-nutrients, toxins. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure and distribution of inorganic components in the cake layer of a membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Xia, Siqing; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory-scale submerged anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater was operated to investigate the structure and distribution of the inorganic cake layer buildup on the membrane. BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and both map and line scan of energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were performed for cake layer characterization. BCR results showed that Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Ba were the predominant inorganic elements in the cake layer, and they occurred mostly as crystal particles. Crystal SiO2 was the dominant inorganic compound while Ca in the form of CaSO4 (dominant) and CaCO3 were also present, but exerted little effect on the cake layer structure because most of these compounds were deposited as precipitates on the reactor bottom. EDX results indicated that Si and Al accumulated together along the cross-sectional cake layer in the form of Si-Al (SiO2-Al2O3) crystal particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  11. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  12. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications. PMID:21339978

  13. The effect of filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphorus used as a fertilizer on the sugarcane ratoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henriques Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphate on sugarcane ratoons. The experiment was performed from November 2007 to December 2009 at Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with the first factor consisting of doses of filter cake (0; 1; 2 and 4 mg ha-1 and the second doses consisting of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 with 4 replicates. The following variables were evaluated: the number of tillers per meter, the leaf area index, soluble solids (ºBrix, stalk and sugar yield in the second crop cycle. We found a residual effect in the sugarcane ratoon after applying filter cakes enriched with soluble phosphate in the planting furrow. The initial tillering, leaf area index, stalk and sugar yield in the cane ratoon benefit from the application of filter cakes and soluble phosphate in the planting furrow. The best combination is filter cakes at a dose between 1.0 and 2.0 mg ha-1 with 100 to 200 kg ha-1 soluble phosphate applied at planting. This method obtains higher stalk and sugar yields for sugarcane ratoons.

  14. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC sesame oil cake (SOC, groundnut oil cake (GOC, palm kernel cake (PKC and olive oil cake (OOC were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB. GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1 resulted higher enzyme titres than the individual substrates. Maximum amount of enzyme (9196 U/gds was obtained when SSF was carried out using WB + GOC, having initial moisture of 64% and supplemented with lactose and ammonium nitrate (1% each at 30ºC for 72h using 2 mL spore suspension (6x10(7spores/ml. Partial purification of the enzyme using ammonium sulphate fractionation resulted in 2.4-fold increase in the activity. The enzyme showed molecular weight of 68 KDa by SDS-PAGE. Except Mn, all other metal ions such as Ca, K, Na, Mg were found to be inhibitory for the enzyme activity. The enzyme was optimally active at 50(0C and pH 5.0.Fermentação no Estado Sólido foi empregada na produção de alfa-amilase usando Aspergillus niger. Diferentes tipos de torta foram utilizadas, como torta de óleo de coco (COC, torta de de óleo de amendoim (GOC torta de óleo de sesamo (SOC, torta de palma (PKC e torta de óleo de oliva (OOC foram selecionadas para serem usadas como substratos para produção de enzima e comparadas com o farelo de trigo (WB, GOC foi escolhido por ser o que produziu maiores concentrações de enzima. A combinação WB e GOC (1:1 resultou em maiores títulos da enzima quando em comparação com os substratos individuais. A máxima concentração de enzima (9196 U/ gms foi obtida quando a FES foi conduzida utilizando WB + GOC, com umidade de 64% e suplementada com lactose e nitrato de amônia (1% cada a 300C por 72 horas utilizando 2 mL de uma suspensão de esporo (6x107sporos/ml. A purifica

  15. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  16. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Ngomoyogoli, Judith Emery Kanemoto; Woguia, Alice Louise; Yanou, Nicolas Njintang

    2013-12-11

    High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile.

  19. Effect of citric acid on the utilization of olive cake diets for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at improving the utilization of olive cake (OC containing-diets for laying hens by citric acid supplementation at 0.1 and 0.2%. Olive cake was collected and dried by sunny warm air at an average temperature of 45°C with continuous stirring until completely dried. Then, the OC was included in isonutritive diets at 0, 10 and 20%. Additionally, citric acid was added at 0, 0.1 and 0.2%. This resulted in 3(OC levels×3(citric acid concentrations, producing 9 different treatments. Each treatment was represented by eight replicates of three laying hens each. The diets were fed to laying hens from 40 to 56 weeks of age. Olive cake inclusion up to 20% without citric acid supplementation in the diets of laying hens did not affect laying performance, egg quality or liver function indices, but 10% and 20% OC diets increased feed intake and impaired the feed conversion ratio (FCR compared with the control group. Citric acid added at 0.1% to the diets of laying hens containing 20% OC yielded similar FCR to the unsupplemented control. In addition, citric acid supplementation at 0.1% significantly decreased relative weight of liver compared with the other levels of citric acid, which is obvious in OC-free diet, and it significantly increased relative weight of ovary compared with the control diet, which is obvious in different diets. In conclusion, OC could be used in the laying hens’ diets at 20% when supplemented with 0.1% citric acid without negative effects on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites.

  20. Qualidade tecnológica e sensorial de bolos elaborados com soro de leite Technological and sensory quality of cakes produced with milk whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo utilizar soro de leite in natura concentrado e desidratado na elaboração de bolos e avaliar a influência deste na composição química e nas características tecnológicas e sensoriais do produto. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente por análise de variância (ANOVA, as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p The objective of this work was to make cakes with the addition of liquid, concentrated and dry milk whey to analyze the influence of this ingredient on the chemical composition, and on the technological and sensorial characteristics of cakes. Results were evaluated with variance analysis, the average compared by Tukey's test (p < 0.05 and results of sensorial preference test-rankings were evaluated with the Friedman method. The cakes with the addition of whey presented an increase in protein and ash content when compared with standard cakes. The technological characteristics score of cakes made with liquid whey was higher than the score of cakes made with the addition of concentrated and dry whey. However in the sensorial evaluation through preference test-ranking, cakes with the addition of dry and concentrated whey were preferred by the panelists compared to the cakes with added liquid whey.

  1. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  2. GROWTH RATE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO IN MAJOR CARPS FED ON RICE POLISHING AND MAIZE OIL CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qadoos, I. Ahmad and P. Akhtar1

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In two earthen ponds of 200 m2 areas, major carps were stocked in the ratio of 20 Labeo rohita, 15 Catla catla and 15 Cirrhinus mrigala. One pond was given rice polishing and the other pond was given maize oil cake as supplementary feed, both at rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish daily for 136 days. The overall growth rate was recorded to be 92.06 g/day in pond given rice polishing and 120.68 g/day in that given maize oil cake. The overall feed conversion ratio was 2.47 for rice polishing and 2.79 for maize oil cake.

  3. Effect of processing on 14C-chlorfenvinphos residues in maize oil and bioavailability of its cake residues on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, F M; El-Maghraby, S I

    2010-05-01

    Maize seeds obtained from 14C-chlorfenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and cake amounted to 10%, 6% and 69%, respectively of original residues inside the seeds. The 14C-activity in the crude oil could be a gradually reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are the most effective steps in these processes. The refined oil contained small amount of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain the parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailability. After feeding rats for five days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5%), while about 20% excreted in the feces. About 15% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs.

  4. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  5. [Small bowel obstruction and gastric ulceration resulting from rice cake ingestion -computed tomography diagnosis in eight patients-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akihiko; Amano, Yuji; Uchida, Yasushi; Kagawa, Kouji; Takatori, Kento; Kitajima, Naoto; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Yuki, Takafumi; Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2013-10-01

    Here we report the cases of eight patients who developed small bowel obstruction and/or gastric ulcers after ingesting rice cake, the traditional Asian food, and were managed conservatively. This report adds to the existing literature on gastrointestinal disorders induced by rice cake ingestion, which are characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction, perforation, and ulceration and are occasionally accompanied by peritonism. These conditions tend to occur in 50-60-year-old males who wear dentures or eat rapidly. Therapeutically, hard rice cake remnants in the upper gastrointestinal tract can be broken up by endoscopic snaring and can be detected by computed tomography as homogeneous high-density material at approximately 145 (range:120-206) Hounsfield units.

  6. Rice Bran Oil Extraction by Screw Press Method: Optimum Operating Settings, Oil Extraction Level and Press Cake Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakit SAYASOONTHORN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of rice bran ‘cake’ or discharge from a screw press corresponds to the level of oil produced in the extraction process. The relationships between operating settings, oil extraction level and cake appearance were studied. Cake characteristics reliably indicate the expected oil recovery extraction level. These conclusions applyed to both Chainat 1 rice bran and parboiled rice bran. Variables were the speed of the screw press (set at five levels from 8.5 to 19.8 r/min and corresponding clearance distances between the screw and barrel (set between 1.0 and 1.9 cm. Results showed that the maximum levels of extraction were 4.17% for the rice bran and 8.20% for the parboiled rice bran. At the maximum extraction level, the apparatus continuously discharged cake that were hard, crispy, flaky, shiny and polished on one side but dull and coarse on the other.

  7. Cakes, custard and category theory easy recipes for understanding complex maths

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Most people imagine maths is something like a slow cooker: very useful, but pretty limited in what it can do. Maths, though, isn't just a tool for solving a specific problem - and it's definitely not something to be afraid of. Whether you're a maths glutton or have forgotten how long division works (or never really knew in the first place), the chances are you've missed what really makes maths exciting. Calling on a baker's dozen of entertaining, puzzling examples and mathematically illuminating culinary analogies - including chocolate brownies, iterated Battenberg cakes, sandwich sandwiches

  8. Induced migration of fines during waterflooding in communicating layer-cake reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    to more crossflow between layers and lowers the water sweep efficiency. However, this ratio facilitates the fluid diversion caused by the fines migration, leading to a more efficient enhanced oil recovery. The positive contribution from the mobility ratio to the increased oil recovery due to fines......The effects of fines migration induced by injection of water with a different salinity than the reservoir brine are incorporated into the upscaling model for waterflooding in a layer cake reservoir with good communication between the layers. Mobilization and re-capturing of the reservoir fines may...... migration seems to be limited....

  9. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (pled to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of the sake cake from pre-germinated brown rice for food use

    OpenAIRE

    牛越, 静子; 小木曽, 加奈

    2010-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice prepared by soaking brown rice in 37℃ water for 24-48 hours to initiate germination of sprouts not exceeding 0.5-1.0 mm in length. On the other hand, the rice bran and the embryo bud are removed from the brewer's rice brown rice during the brewing of sake, because of removing a rough taste. It is thought that sake and sake cake that fermented the pre-germinated brown rice remained without removing the element of the rice bran and the embryo bud. However, the sake m...

  11. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  12. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter B. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults soil common to the USA Appalachian Plateau region. Three poultry litter components (broiler cake, total cleanout, and bedding material from a broiler house were evaluated and compared to a soil control. Chemical amendments lime (CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4, aluminum sulfate (AlSO4, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 were added to the poultry litter components to determine their impact on C and N mineralization. Litter component additions increased soil C mineralization in the order of broiler cake > total cleanout > bedding > soil control. Although a greater concentration of organic C was observed in the bedding, broiler cake mineralized the most C, which can be attributed to differences in the C : N ratio between treatments. Chemical amendment in addition to the manured soil also impacted C mineralization, with AlSO4 generally decreasing mineralization. Nitrogen mineralization was also significantly affected by poultry litter component applications. Broiler cake addition increased N availability followed by total cleanout compared to soil control, while the bedding resulted in net N immobilization. Chemical amendments impacted N mineralization primarily in the broiler cake amended soil where all chemical amendments decreased mineralization compared to the no chemical amendment treatment. This short-term study (35-day incubation indicates that N availability to crops may be different depending on the poultry litter component used for fertilization and chemical amendment use which could

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs fed with sunflower cake replacing cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernandes Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed sunflower cake to replace the protein of cottonseed meal. The experiment was conducted at the sheep sector at the Farm School, State University of Londrina. Thirty Santa Inês lambs, intact males, with age and weight at the beginning of the experiment of 80 days and 21.45 ± 2.16 kg, respectively, were used. It was used a completely randomized experimental design. The animals were divided into 5 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment, according to the amount of protein of cottonseed meal replaced by protein of the sunflower cake (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of replacement. Carcasses were evaluated and the Longissimus dorsi was removed for analyzes of shear force, color, pH, marbling, water loss by pressure, sensory analysis, chemical analyses and lipid oxidation. Hot and cold carcass yields showed quadratic distributions, where the best values were found for treatments with low inclusion of sunflower cake. Carcass measurements, as well as cut yields were not affected by the content of sunflower cake. Regarding the parameters of lamb meat, only water losses during cooking and shear force were affected, being quadratic and linear, respectively. The meat was more tender in animals fed higher amounts of sunflower cake. The tasters of the sensory panel did not identify differences between treatments, and classified the meat with moderate odor intensity, good tenderness, low to moderate juiciness and medium acceptability. The replacement of cottonseed meal protein by sunflower cake protein in the levels used, did not affect the majority of the carcass characteristics and the meat quality.

  14. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  15. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  16. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliński, Robert; Stodolak, Bożena; Byczyński, Łukasz; Poreda, Aleksander; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2-4%.

  17. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  18. Equilibrium and kinetic study for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using olive cake based activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani; E.S.A. Rawash; G.A. El-Chaghaby

    2016-01-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the removal of p-nitrophenol by adsorption onto olive cake based activated carbon having a BET surface area of 672 m²/g. The batch adsorption experimental results indicated that the equilibrium time for nitrophenol adsorption by olive cake-based activated carbon was 120min. The adsorption data was modeled by equilibrium and kinetic models. The pseudo- first and second order as well as the Elovichkinetic models were applied to fit the experimental d...

  19. GROWTH RATE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO IN MAJOR CARPS FED ON RICE POLISHING AND MAIZE OIL CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Qadoos, I. Ahmad and P. Akhtar1

    2003-01-01

    In two earthen ponds of 200 m2 areas, major carps were stocked in the ratio of 20 Labeo rohita, 15 Catla catla and 15 Cirrhinus mrigala. One pond was given rice polishing and the other pond was given maize oil cake as supplementary feed, both at rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish daily for 136 days. The overall growth rate was recorded to be 92.06 g/day in pond given rice polishing and 120.68 g/day in that given maize oil cake. The overall feed conversion ratio was 2.47 for rice polishing...

  20. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  1. Feeding sunflower cake from biodiesel production to Santa Ines lambs: Physicochemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Graycy Vasconcelos de Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the inclusion of sunflower cake in the diets of lambs on meat quality. Forty male, uncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 20.9 ± 0.41 kg were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The lambs were fed 500 g/kg hay and 500 g/kg concentrate (corn, soybean meal, urea, ammonium sulfate and sunflower cake in their diet, and the experimental treatments were 0, 10, 20, and 30% sunflower cake inclusion (DM basis. The inclusion of sunflower cake in the diet did not affect (P > 0.05 the content of ash and protein, overall acceptance, or sensory aroma of the lamb meat. Total lipids and moisture content of the longissimus lumborum muscle increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05 with sunflower cake inclusion. The C16:0, ΣSFA, ΣMUFA:ΣSFA ratio, Δ-9 desaturase enzyme and atherogenicity index in the longissimus lumborum muscle decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05 with sunflower cake inclusion in lamb diets, whereas a linear increase occurred (P ≤ 0.05 in C12:0, C18:0, ΣMUFA, ΣPUFA, ΣPUFA:ΣSFA and ΣPUFA:ΣMUFA ratios, Σn-6, Σn-3, desirable fatty acids, h:H index, elongase activity, and flavor, tenderness and juiciness sensory qualities in lamb meat. Among the panelists, the highest preference (35.9% was for meat with 30% sunflower cake inclusion in the diet. Sunflower cake up to 30% of total DM can be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs, because lipid nutritional quality and the sensory qualities of the lamb meat increase, in addition to improvement in nutraceutical compounds, such as the CLA content, and in the AI, PUFA:SFA and PUFA:MUFA ratios, desirable fatty acids content and h:H ratio, which are beneficial to the health of consumers.

  2. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of amylase from parthenocarpic date (Phoenix dactylifera): effect on cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Chakroun, Mouna; Triki, Mehdi; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2017-08-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The objective of the present study was to extract biomolecules from parthenocarpic fruit by producing value-added products from the fruits. The extraction of amylolytic activity from parthenocarpic fruit (AmyPF) was optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD). Partial purification of about 250-fold with an activity yield of 47% was achieved. The amylase exhibited a specific activity of 80 U mg-1 protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5 and 55 °C respectively. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH (5-10), and significant stabilization was observed at 60 °C. The purified enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases. Given the economic and industrial relevance of amylases used in the food industry, three different concentrations of AmyPF (0.007, 0.014 and 0.018 U g-1 ) were incorporated into a cake formulation, resulting in a decrease in density, moisture retention and water activity and an increase in hardness. The beneficial effect of AmyPF on the technological characteristics of cakes was confirmed by sensory evaluation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  4. PROSES EKSTRAKSI-STRIPPING UO2(NO32 BERIMPURITAS HASIL PELARUTAN YELLOW CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Muchsin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available PROSES EKSTRAKSI-STRIPPING  UO2(NO32 BERIMPURITAS HASIL PELARUTAN YELLOW CAKE (YC. Uranil nitrat/UO2(NO32  merupakan bahan dasar/umpan yang dipakai sebagai bahan bakar baik reaktor riset maupun reaktor daya. Proses ekstraksi-stripping  perlu dilakukan terhadap UO2(NO32, karena di dalam UO2(NO32 tersebut masih terdapat impuritas yang terikut selama berlangsungnya proses pelarutan Yellow Cake. Untuk mendapatkan larutan UO2(NO32 yang memenuhi persyaratan murni nuklir (nuclear grade, maka harus dilakukan proses pemurnian dengan ekstraksi-stripping menggunakan 3 (tiga parameter yaitu laju alir umpan, keasaman umpan pada proses ekstraksi, dan keasaman pada proses stripping.  Mekanisme proses ekstraksi terjadi UO2(NO32 akan masuk ke fasa organik TBP, sedangkan impuritasnya berada dalam fasa air (rafinat. Uranium dalam fasa organik dilakukan proses stripping dengan menentukan keasaman (sebagai parameter, sehingga diperoleh larutan campuran UO2(NO32 murni nuklir (nuclear grade. Kondisi proses ekstraksi diperoleh laju air  umpan 15 L/jam, keasaman umpan pada proses ekstraksi sebesar ±3 M dan diperoleh kadar uranium sebesar  48.5365 gU/L, sedangkan proses stripping diperoleh UO2(NO32 sebesar  64,7860 gU/L pada keasaman 0,04 M.

  5. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  6. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  7. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-01

    Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, and low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet-cooked starch. The resulting starch-lipid composites (SLC) had 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1% to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation. Practical Application:  This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the confectionary industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives to the consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  9. Recovery of oils from press cakes by CO2-based technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardeau Tiphaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a context of a strong demand for vegetable oils, the development of new “green” processes is essential to provide methods that avoid the use of organic solvents, work at relatively low temperatures and preserve the quality of the final products. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE process meets these objectives. In this study, five meals (hemp, flax, sesame, poppy and walnut were subjected to SFE at 45 °C and 250 bar in the presence of ethanol as co-solvent. Using this method, between 77 and 98% of the lipids present in the meal could be extracted. Except for poppy, 50% of the lipids present in the cake were recovered as a separate oily liquid phase. SFE was not selective toward certain types of triglycerides: the oils obtained exhibited the same fatty acid profile than the total lipid extracts from the cakes. In contrast, the composition in minor lipid components was dependent on the type of meal investigated. For example, hemp lipid extract was particularly rich in chlorophyll.

  10. Hygroscopic behavior and degree of caking of grugru palm (Acrocomia aculeata) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dalany Menezes; Clemente, Edmar; da Costa, José Maria Correia

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of grugru palm powder through adsorption isotherms and its degree of caking. The powders of grugru palm (T1 - without maltodextrin, T2 - with 8 % of maltodextrin) were obtained by oven drying at 65 °C for 25 h. The experimental data was obtained through static gravimetric method at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C with different saturated salt solutions. The models of GAB, BET, Henderson, and Oswin were fitted to experimental data. The values of hygroscopicity were 6.39 and 5.17 % and degrees of caking were 3.11 and 0.03 % for T1 and T2, respectively. The adsorption isotherms from mathematical models can be classified as Type III. The GAB and Oswin models were the best representing the behavior of the powder isotherms, T1 and T2, respectively. The grugru palm powder proved to be non-hygroscopic and non-agglomerating. The T2 with 8 % of maltodextrin presented the lowest hygroscopicity.

  11. Characterisation of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) seed oil and defatted cake from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenontin, Sebastien Tindo; Wotto, Valentin D; Lozano, Paul; Pioch, Daniel; Sohounhloue, Dominique K C

    2009-01-01

    A sample of Blighia sapida seeds collected in Benin has been analysed and the results are compared to the scarcely available literature data. The chemical analysis of seed oil shows a saponification value of 145 and an iodine value of 66, consistent with the high mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) content (63.8 wt%). The most interesting feature is the prominent concentration of eicosenoic acid (48.4 wt%). Arachidic acid being the main component within the saturated group, the C20 FAs fraction accounts for 68.4 wt%, thus making the peculiar composition of this oil. Among the unsaponifiable fraction (2.4 wt%), the major sterol is stigmasterol (54.6 wt%), surprisingly over passing beta-sitosterol. Tocols (338 ppm) contains mainly alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Regarding the defatted cake, results show the prominent position of starch and a noticeable amount of proteins and fibers (44.2, 22.4, 15.6 wt%, respectively). Seventeen amino acids were identified together with valuable minerals (total ashes 3.5 wt%). Possible uses of oil and defatted cake are discussed.

  12. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  13. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to diode array detection (DAD and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product, secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, flavones (luteolin and apigenin and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  14. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes. Part IV: Effects of freezing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-11-10

    The shrinkage and cracking of pure trehalose cakes during lyophilization has been determined quantitatively using different protocols for the freezing step. The influences of shelf cooling rate and of a two-step freezing protocol with holding and annealing phases were investigated. A small change in the shelf cooling rate from 0.4°C to 0.2°C per minute produced surprisingly large increases in shrinkage and reductions in cracking over all trehalose concentrations up to 30% w/v. The two-step freezing protocol also increased shrinkage and reduced cracking in the final-product cakes, especially at trehalose concentrations ≥ 15% and with large vial fill height. A combination of two-step freezing with use of TopLyo vials produced less than 1.5% cracking even at high trehalose concentrations and large fill height. The results give further confirmation of the causal linkage of shrinkage and cracking during lyophilization, and also illustrate how cracking can be greatly reduced by manipulating the freezing protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Pritam; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2008-05-01

    This contribution reports the potential of vermicomposting technology in the management of horse dung (HD) spiked sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida under laboratory conditions. A total of six vermicomposters filled with different ratios of HD and SMFC were maintained for this study. The growth and fecundity of E. foetida was monitored for 12 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixture containing vermicomposter. Earthworms' biomass gain and reproduction was favorably up to 50% HD+50% SMFC feed composition. Maximum cocoons were also recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixtures, however increasing proportions of SMFC in different vermicomposters affected the growth and fecundity of worms. A significant decrease in C:N ratio and increase in total kjeldahl nitrogen, total available phosphorus and calcium contents was recorded. The heavy metals content was higher in the vermicompost obtained in all the reactors than initial feed substrates. Based on investigations it is concluded that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of filter cake if it is mixed in 1:1 ratio with horse dung.

  16. Amino acid composition and biological effects of supplementing broad bean and corn proteins with Nigella sativa (black cumin) cake protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Gaby, A M

    1998-10-01

    The biological effects of supplementing broad bean (Vicia faba) or corn (Zea maize) meal protein with black cumin (Nigella sativa) cake protein as well as their amino acid composition were investigated. The percentage of total protein content of Nigella cake was 22.7%. Lysine is existent in abundant amounts in faba meal protein, while leucine is the most abundant in corn meal protein (chemical score = 156) and valine is higher in Nagella cake protein. compared with rats fed sole corn or faba meal protein, substitution of 25% of corn or faba meal protein with Nigella cake protein in the diet remarkably raised the growth rate of rats and resulted in significant higher levels of rat total serum lipids and triglycerides. Also, the supplemented diet caused significant increases in serum total protein and its two fractions albumin and globulin and insignificantly increase the activity of serum phosphatases and transaminases within normal ranges. The supplementation did not have any adverse nutritional effects in the levels of lipid fractions in the serum.

  17. Total control of chromium in tanneries - thermal decomposition of filtration cake from enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocurek, P; Kolomazník, K; Bařinová, M; Hendrych, J

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of chromium recovery from chrome-tanned waste and thus with reducing the environmental impact of the leather industry. Chrome-tanned waste was transformed by alkaline enzymatic hydrolysis promoted by magnesium oxide into practically chromium-free, commercially applicable collagen hydrolysate and filtration cake containing a high portion of chromium. The crude and magnesium-deprived chromium cakes were subjected to a process of thermal decomposition at 650°C under oxygen-free conditions to reduce the amount of this waste and to study the effect of magnesium removal on the resulting products. Oxygen-free conditions were applied in order to prevent the oxidation of trivalent chromium into the hazardous hexavalent form. Thermal decomposition products from both crude and magnesium-deprived chrome cakes were characterized by high chromium content over 50%, which occurred as eskolaite (Cr2O3) and magnesiochromite (MgCr2O4) crystal phases, respectively. Thermal decomposition decreased the amount of chrome cake dry feed by 90%. Based on the performed experiments, a scheme for the total control of chromium in the leather industry was designed.

  18. Olive cake, citrus pulp and wheat straw silage as an ingredient in lamb diets: 2. Effects on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Chies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean area, the use of some agricultural by-products, difficult to be eliminated, in the feeding of animals, represents a key element for the valorization of bioenergetic resources. Among the agricultural by-products which may be found at a low price in our area, the olive cake and the citrus pulp of orange have awaked great interest...

  19. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  1. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  2. Dietary olive cake reduces the oxidation of lipids, including cholesterol, in lamb meat enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Pauselli, M; Servili, M; Mourvaki, E; Serra, A; Monahan, F J; Lanza, M; Priolo, A; Zinnai, A; Mele, M

    2013-03-01

    Over 40 days, lambs were fed: concentrate (C), concentrate containing 20% linseed (L), concentrate containing 35% olive cake (OC), or concentrate containing 10% linseed and 17% olive cake (OCL). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and peroxidation index (PI) in phospholipids were increased by the L and OCL treatments (P=0.007 and P=0.003, respectively). The OC and OCL diets increased the concentration of tocopherol in muscle (P<0.001). Compared to the OC and OCL diet, the L diet increased fatty acid oxidation, measured as conjugated dienes (CD; P=0.003), peroxides (PV; P<0.001) and TBARS (P=0.002) in minced muscle over 11 days of storage in high-oxygen atmosphere. Also, the L diet increased (P<0.001) the levels cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). In conclusion, feeding olive cake improved the oxidative stability of lamb meat and the combination of olive cake and linseed improved the fatty acid composition of meat without compromising its oxidative stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a soft sensor for the fast estimation of dried cake resistance during a freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2013-07-15

    This paper deals with the determination of dried cake resistance in a freeze-drying process using the Smart Soft Sensor, a process analytical technology recently proposed by the authors to monitor the primary drying stage of a freeze-drying process. This sensor uses the measurement of product temperature, a mathematical model of the process, and the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial as a function of time, as well as the coefficient of heat transfer between the shelf and the product and the resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow. It does not require expensive (additional) hardware in a freeze-dryer, provided that thermocouples are available. At first, the effect of the insertion of the thermocouple in a vial on the structure of the product is investigated by means of experimental tests, comparing both sublimation rate and cake structure in vials with and without thermocouple. This is required to assess that the temperature measured by the thermocouple is the same of the product in the non-monitored vials, at least in a non-GMP environment, or when controlled nucleation methods are used. Then, results about cake resistance obtained in an extended experimental campaign with aqueous solutions containing different excipients (sucrose, mannitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), processed in various operating conditions, are presented, with the goal to point out the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  5. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried...

  6. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendonça, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, José Antônio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Maiorka, Paulo César; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake. PMID:28620618

  7. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  8. Cake shrinkage during freeze drying: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhatla, S; Obert, J P; Luthra, S; Bhugra, C; Pikal, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate, by experimental studies and theoretical analysis, the phenomenon of cake shrinkage during the lyophilization process and to investigate the effect of shelf temperature during primary drying and secondary drying on the degree of cake shrinkage. Freeze-drying experiments were performed using 5% w/v sucrose where the drying protocols were altered in order to produce differing product temperature profiles. Resistance data during freeze drying were evaluated by the Manometric Temperature Measurement (MTM) method. Theoretical simulation of the freeze-drying process was performed using the Passage Freeze-Drying software. The difference between the glass transition temperature and the product temperature (Tg-T) obtained from the theoretical analysis was calculated and used for correlation with experimental shrinkage data. The Brunauer, Emmeth, Teller (BET) Specific Surface Area (SSA) Analysis was used as a method to quantify the degree of shrinkage. Samples were also analyzed for pore volume by mercury porosimetry. The SSA analysis on the freeze-dried samples showed an increase in SSA when samples were freeze dried at a lower shelf temperature during primary drying and at a slower ramp rate during secondary drying. The trend in surface area values was consistent with that obtained for pore size values. However, differences obtained among the various samples are small and cake diameter measurements showed that there was approximately 17% shrinkage even in the sample freeze dried at temperatures well below the Tg' and Tg. Variations in process and product temperature only accounted for an additional 2%-3% shrinkage. Resistance data obtained at various primary drying shelf temperatures showed a good correlation with surface area. The Tg-T behavior of the freeze-dried samples showed that a slow ramp rate of 0.1 degrees C/min during secondary drying maintains a product well below the Tg at all times and a higher ramp rate gives negative

  9. Effects of Hydrolyzed Rapeseed Cake Extract on the Quality Characteristics of Mayonnaise Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Jeung-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Combined fractions (H2 O and 30% and 50% ethanol) of crude rapeseed cake extracts with 80% ethanol were hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. The hydrolyzed extract showed significantly higher contents of total phenolics (41.8 mg SAE/g) and sinapic acid (425.8 mg/g), as well as higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity (91.98 RSC%) than the crude extract (P extract was remarkably higher than that of the crude extract against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast, as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Hydrolyzed extract (100, 250, or 500 ppm) was added to mayonnaise dressing, and several quality characteristics of the dressing were investigated by assessments of microbial, physical, and oxidative stabilities during 8 wk of storage. Microbial stability was higher in the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added (4.3 to 4.6 Log CFU/g) than the control (4.9 Log CFU/g). Physical characteristics of the dressing with hydrolyzed extract added were better than those of the control, based on increased viscosity and reduced emulsion separation. Hydrolyzed extract increased oxidative stability in a concentration-dependent manner, and the dressing with added 500 ppm of hydrolyzed extract resulted in a lower free fatty acid content (4.8% at week 8), peroxide value (13.5 meq/kg at week 6), and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (66.2 μg/100 g at week 8) than the control. Therefore, it is expected that hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract containing high sinapic acid content can be used in emulsion system as a value-added ingredient. Crude extract of rapeseed cake was fractionated and alkaline-hydrolyzed to convert sinapine into sinapic acid, and the produced hydrolyzed extract showed higher antimicrobial and antioxidative activities than the crude extract. When the hydrolyzed extract was added to mayonnaise dressing, microbial stability increased along with physical characteristics and oxidative

  10. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil. PMID:17048300

  12. Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.

  13. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  14. Application of biosurfactant produced from peanut oil cake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii in biodegradation of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii cultured with peanut oil cake as the carbon source yielded 5.35 mg ml(-1) of biosurfactant production. Five sets of microcosm biodegradation experiments were carried out with crude oil as follows: set 1 - bacterial cells+crude oil, set 2 - bacterial cells+crude oil+fertilizer, set 3 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant, set 4 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant+fertilizer, set 5 - with no bacterial cells, fertilizer and biosurfactant (control). Maximum degradation of crude oil was observed in set 4 (75%). Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in set 4 was 7% higher degradation level in microcosm experiments. It is evident from the results that biosurfactants alone is capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  16. Pyrolysis and combustion of oil palm stone and palm kernel cake in fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuan, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, X; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the main characteristics of the thermo-chemical conversion of oil palm stone (OPS) and palm kernel cake (PKC). A series of combustion and pyrolysis tests were carried out in two fixed-bed reactors. The effects of heating rate at the temperature of 700 degrees C on the yields and properties of the pyrolysis products were investigated. The results from the combustion experiments showed that the burning rates increased with an increase in the air flow rate. In addition, the FLIC code was used to simulate the combustion of the oil palm stone to investigate the effect of primary air flow on the combustion process. The FLIC modelling results were in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of predicting the temperature profiles along the bed height and the composition of the flue gases. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of rapeseed press-cake on Maillard reaction in a cookie model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Wilkin, Jonathan Desmond; Fiore, Alberto

    2018-03-15

    Rapeseed press-cake (RPC) is a byproduct of rapeseed oil production, rich in proteins and fiber. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cold pressed RPC, RPC fiber isolate and RPC alkaline extract on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) in cookies. Both compounds were influenced by the ingredients: the addition of RPC led to a significant dose-dependent increase of HMF in the cookies and to an increase of acrylamide up to 66.9%. On the contrary, acrylamide concentration was reduced down to 39.6% in presence of the alkaline extract and down to 4.4% in the presence of the fiber extract. The Michael addition of free amino acids to acrylamide was further investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) revealing that cysteine was the preferred nucleophile for acrylamide elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave assisted thermal treatment of defective coffee beans press cake for the production of adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Anne A; Alves, Cibele C O

    2010-02-01

    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes (methylene blue--MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared by microwave treatment, providing a significant reduction in processing time coupled to an increase in adsorption capacity in comparison to conventional carbonization in a muffle furnace. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial solution pH were investigated. Adsorption kinetics was better described by a second-order model. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models, with Langmuir providing the best fit. The results presented in this study show that microwave activation presents great potential as an alternative method in the production of adsorbents.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the synthane gasifier for non-caking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukanic, G.W.; Cobb, J.T.; Haynes, W.P.; McMichael, W.J.; Strakey, J.P.; Schehl, R.R.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1980-11-01

    A mathematical model based on IGT kinetics has been developed to simulate the gasification of coal in the Synthane gasifier. Two computer codes have been prepared that incorporate this model. The first, called the analytical code, has been designed primarily to evaluate model parameters from runs on the 4-inch Synthane PDU gasifier. The second, called the predictive code, has been designed to predict temperatures for the zones within the model as well as the effluent products from a stipulation of run conditions. In the present report some 35 Synthane runs for the non-caking western coal Montana Rosebud have been analyzed. Parity plots have been prepared to check the efficacy of the model and of the computer codes developed.

  20. Snack Cake 'Dissection': A Flipped Classroom Exercise to Engage Undergraduates With Basic Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a brief classroom activity for introducing basic neuroanatomical terminology and concepts to undergraduates in a survey-level course. Prior to completing the activity, students watched a short online lecture discussing the relevant material. During class, students worked in groups to 'dissect' snack cakes using the information they learned in the video and then reported and shared their 'results' using anatomical terminology. Quantitative feedback suggests that students found that the exercise was useful practice, that it helped increase their confidence in their ability to learn neuroanatomy, and that it helped increase their interest in the material generally. Data from an online anatomy quiz further supports the exercise's efficacy. Overall, the data suggest that this exercise may be a worthwhile addition to courses that introduce neuroanatomy to undergraduates.

  1. Snack Cake ‘Dissection’: A Flipped Classroom Exercise to Engage Undergraduates With Basic Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a brief classroom activity for introducing basic neuroanatomical terminology and concepts to undergraduates in a survey-level course. Prior to completing the activity, students watched a short online lecture discussing the relevant material. During class, students worked in groups to ‘dissect’ snack cakes using the information they learned in the video and then reported and shared their ‘results’ using anatomical terminology. Quantitative feedback suggests that students found that the exercise was useful practice, that it helped increase their confidence in their ability to learn neuroanatomy, and that it helped increase their interest in the material generally. Data from an online anatomy quiz further supports the exercise’s efficacy. Overall, the data suggest that this exercise may be a worthwhile addition to courses that introduce neuroanatomy to undergraduates. PMID:26557799

  2. Multivariate Study of Inulin Addition on the Quality of Sponge Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbikowska Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of reducing fat content in fatty sponge-cake products by addition of inulin. 200 g/kg, 440 g/kg, 680 g/kg and 100% of fat was substituted with 20 g/kg, 35 g/kg, 50 g/kg, and 62.5 g/kg of inulin, respectively. The authors used two types of fat: with low and high content of trans isomers – containing 2.1 g/kg and 511.2 g/kg of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, respectively. An analysis of crumb quality and the evaluation of sensory discriminants were undertaken.

  3. Improving nutrient values of palm kernel cake (PKC by reducing shell contamination and enzymes supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinurat AP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC in poultry feed is limited due to shell contamination and its low nutritive values, despite the increase of PKC production. Therefore, a series of experiment was conducted in order to improve nutritive values of palm kernel cake (PKC by sieving and enzyme supplementation. First experiment was designed to reduce shell content using shiever with different diameters (1, 2 and 4 mm. Shell content was measured manually to determine the effect of the sieving. The second experiment was carried out by blowing the after sieving at 2 mm shieve PKC, to produced heavy, medium and light fractions. The shell content and nutrient contents of the medium and light fractions were compared to those of unsieved PKC. In the third experiment, the sieved PKC was supplemented with 2 enzymes with different concentrations, i.e., BS4 at 10, 15 and 20 ml/kg PKC and a commercial multi enzymes at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg PKC. Digestibility of nutrients (dry matter, crude protein and TME were measured by force feeding method with six replications for each sample. Results of the study showed that sieving with 2 mm diameter siever without blowing was effective in reducing about 50% of PKC shell and improved crude protein, ether extract and amino acids, contents and reduced the crude fiber content of the PKC. Supplementation of enzymes improved the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the true metabolisable energy (TME of the PKC. Optimum improvement was obtained when PKC was supplemented with 20 ml BS4 enzymes/kg PKC. Similar improvement was obtained by supplementation of commercial multi enzymes at 2 g/kg PKC. Therefore, in order to improve the nutritive values of PKC, it is suggested to sieve the PKC followed by supplementation of enzyme prior to feeding.

  4. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Study on the effect and mechanism of hydrothermal pretreatment of dewatered sewage sludge cake for dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Han, Zhe; Liu, Xiuyu; Li, Jing; Liu, Feng; Feng, Suping

    2013-08-01

    In China, over 17 million tons dewatered sewage sludge cake (DSSC), with about 80% water content, was generated from wastewater treatment plants in 2010. High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. In this study, the combination of hydrothermal and mechanical treatments has been chosen in order to improve sludge dewaterability. Sludge thermogravimetry analysis was conducted to determine 180 degrees C as the upper-limit hydrothermal temperature. Five temperatures (60, 80, 120, 150, 180 degrees C) were chosen to study the effects of hydrothermal treatment temperature and the holding time on dewaterability. The higher the hydrothermal temperature, the better was the dewaterability character. The water contents of solid products were positively correlated with the hydrothermal holding time at predetermined temperatures in this study. Degradation of macromolecules into acidic compounds could be the reason of pH decrease of separated liquid. Destruction of zoogloe and decomposition of organic matters improved the sludge dewaterability. Sludge dewaterability experiencing hydrothermal processes in this study was negatively correlated with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content. With the rising temperature, sludge flocculate disaggregated to small particles generally, this could also be one of the important reasons for sludge dewaterability. High water content is the bottleneck of sludge treatment and disposal. Up to now, only a small amount of research has been conducted to determine whether the dewaterability of dewatered sewage sludge cake can be improved by hydrothermal pretreatment. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability by hydrothermal pretreatment is uncertain. In this study, a new sludge disposal method and corresponding parameters were given. The mechanism of sludge dewaterability was analyzed extensively by extracellular polymeric substances, scanning electron microscope images, element contents, and caloric values, etc. This

  6. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  7. Fatty acid profile of milk from cows fed palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the fatty acid profile of milk from cows fed palm kernel cake (PKC, 12 Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept in the feedlot, distributed into a triple 4 × 4 Latin square, and fed the following treatments: 1 control; 2 inclusion of 50 g PKC/kg in the total dry matter (TDM; 3 inclusion of 100 g PKC/kg in the TDM; and 4 inclusion of 150 g PKC/kg in the TDM. Milk samples from the morning and afternoon milkings were collected in the amount of 1% of the daily production of each animal; subsequently, 100-mL subsamples were frozen for analysis of the fatty acid profile. Inclusion of PKC did not change the concentration of short-chain fatty acids or myristoleic (C14:1, pentadecenoic (C15:1, palmitic (C16:0, and palmitoleic (C16:1 fatty acids. Concentrations of medium-chain and lauric (C12:0 and myristic (C14:0 fatty acids increased linearly (P 0.05 on the long-chain fatty acids and those of the omega 6 and 3 series; on the ratio between poly-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids; or on the ratio between the fatty acids of the omega 6/omega 3 series. The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid was not influenced (P > 0.05 by inclusion of PKC in the diet. Addition of palm kernel cake to the diet of lactating cows influences the concentration of medium-chain fatty acids, and of lauric (C12:0, myristic (C14:0, and pentadecanoic (C15:0 fatty acids in their milk.

  8. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  9. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana C. Freitas; Ruann J. S. Castro; Maria A. Fontenele; Antonio S. Egito; Cristiane S. Farinas; Gustavo A. S. Pinto

    2013-01-01

    ...) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF...

  10. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of “Green” Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimarães, José; Trindade Cursino, Ana; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria; Ramos, Luiz; Satyanarayana, Kestur

    2016-01-01

    ...) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste...

  11. Pea and Broad Bean Pods as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber: The Impact on Texture and Sensory Properties of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L* and a* color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Investigation of mud density and weighting materials effect on drilling fluid filter cake properties and formation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, K. A.; Lashin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Drilling fluid density/type is an important factor in drilling and production operations. Most of encountered problems during rotary drilling are related to drilling mud types and weights. This paper aims to investigate the effect of mud weight on filter cake properties and formation damage through two experimental approaches. In the first approach, seven water-based drilling fluid samples with same composition are prepared with different densities (9.0-12.0 lb/gal) and examined to select the optimum mud weight that has less damage. The second approach deals with investigating the possible effect of the different weighting materials (BaSO4 and CaCO3) on filter cake properties. High pressure/high temperature loss tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were carried out on the filter cake (two selected samples). Data analysis has revealed that mud weigh of 9.5 lb/gal has the less reduction in permeability of ceramic disk, among the seven used mud densities. Above 10.5 ppg the effect of the mud weight density on formation damage is stabilized at constant value. Fluids of CaCO3-based weighting material, has less reduction in the porosity (9.14%) and permeability (25%) of the filter disk properties than the BaSO4-based fluid. The produced filter cake porosity increases (from 0.735 to 0.859) with decreasing of fluid density in case of drilling samples of different densities. The filtration loss tests indicated that CaCO3 filter cake porosity (0.52) is less than that of the BaSO4 weighted material (0.814). The thickness of the filter cake of the BaSO4-based fluid is large and can cause some problems. The SEM analysis shows that some major elements do occur on the tested samples (Ca, Al, Si, and Ba), with dominance of Ca on the expense of Ba for the CaCO3 fluid sample and vice versa. The less effect of 9.5 lb/gal mud sample is reflected in the well-produced inter-particle pore structure and relatively crystal size. A general recommendation is given to

  13. Increasing dietary inclusions of camelina cake fed to pigs from weaning to slaughter: Safety, growth performance, carcass traits, and n-3 enrichment of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Beltranena, E

    2017-07-01

    Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat/barley-based diets including camelina variety 'Celine' cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18% in the nursery phase and 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% in the grower-finisher phase) replacing soybean meal over 5 feeding phases (d 0 to 7, d 7 to 28, d 28 to 56, d 56 to 84, and d 84 to slaughter). Individual pigs and pen feed added were weighed. On d 106, a blood sample was collected from the pig with the lowest BW per pen, which was then euthanized. A pathologist conducted a gross clinical examination, and organs were weighed. Liver, back fat, and belly and jowl fat were sampled for fatty acid analysis. Pigs were slaughtered at approximately 125 kg BW. Increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly decreased ( cake inclusion linearly increased days to slaughter ( cake inclusion linearly increased liver and pancreas weight ( cake inclusion did not result in gross clinical or serological findings that would indicate toxicity. Increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly increased ( cake to pigs at up to 18% in the nursery phase and 15% in the grower, developer, and finisher phases did not result in clinical signs of toxicity and enriched carcass fat depots with -3 fatty acids. The observed decrease in ADFI and, consequently, ADG as camelina cake inclusion increased resulted in pigs fed 15% reaching slaughter weight 27 d later than controls.

  14. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical ap...

  15. Gluten free cakes made with broken rice and cassava peel
    Bolos sem glúten a base de arroz quebrado e casca de mandioca

    OpenAIRE

    Thaísa Anders Carvalho Souza; Manoel Soares Soares Júnior; Maria Raquel Hidalgo Campos; Thaynara Stella Carvalho Souza; Tiago Dias Dias; Fernanda Assumpção Fiorda

    2013-01-01

    The agribusiness rice and cassava generate significant volumes of broken grains (byproducts) and bark (waste). The improper disposal of waste is waste of cassava feedstock, which could be better utilized, due to the large amount produced and its nutritional value. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying dried cassava peel in the formulation of mixtures of gluten free cakes instead of rice flour. The cakes were formulated with different substitution levels of...

  16. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  17. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  18. Nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis and ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing cottonseed cake in substitution of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosani Valéria Marcelina Matoso Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cottonseed cake is a co-product obtained after extraction of oil cottonseed, and because of their bromatological characteristics has potential use in ruminant feed, can increase the economy efficiency of animal production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate diets with cottonseed cake in substitution of soybean meal through nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis and the ingestive behavior of lambs. Forty crossbred Santa Inês × Dorper non-castrated rams with average initial weight of 20.9 ± 2.5 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and ten replicates, and fed diets containing cottonseed cake in substitution of 0, 33, 66 and 100% of soybean meal. The diets were composed of corn, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and hay, with forage:concentrate reason of 50:50, isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. The animals were confined individually in pens with slatted floor, the evaluations of ingestive behavior, which included observations of the feeding, rumination and idle times were performed in a period of 24 hours, in 5-minute intervals. At 97 days of experiment, a spot urine sample was collected from all animals to quantify the concentrations of nitrogen, creatinine, allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine in the urine. The data were subjected to variance analysis and regression, adopting ?= 0.05. There was no significant difference between treatments for nitrogen balance, the synthesis of nitrogen compounds, and microbial efficiency. In addition, there was no effect of replacing soybean meal by cottonseed meal on feeding behavior of animals. Cottonseed cake can replace soybean meal up to 100% in diets for lambs.

  19. Increased production of antioxidative sesaminol glucosides from sesame oil cake through fermentation by Bacillus circulans strain YUS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Akiyama, Junko; Shimoyama, Takao; Yazaki, Shin-Ichi; Ui, Sadaharu; Hirose, Yuko; Mimura, Akio

    2003-10-01

    Bacillus circulans strain YUS-2 was isolated as the strongest antioxidant-producer in fermentation of sesame oil cake (SOC, defatted residue yielded from sesame seed oil production). Two major strong antioxidants from fermented SOC were purified and identified as known sesaminol triglucoside and sesaminol diglucoside, however, our results demonstrated that the fermentation process with B. circulans YUS-2 was highly effective to gain the extraction efficiency of the sesaminol glucosides.

  20. Pembuatan Sponge Cake Bebas Gluten dari Tepung Komposit Beras Ketan, Ubi Kayu, Pati Kentang, dan Kedelai dengan Penambahan Hidrokoloid

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Riris Marito

    2015-01-01

    The research was aimed to study the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of sponge cake from composite flour of glutinous rice, cassava, potato starch, and soybean with the addition of hidrocoloid. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors : the proportion of glutinous rice flour : cassava flour : potato starch : soybean in composite flour (T) : (30%:50%:15%:5%; 30%:45%:15%:10%; 30%:40%:15%:15% and 100% wheat flour as control) and xanthan gum co...

  1. Yield and nutritional content of Pleurotus sajor caju on wheat straw supplemented with raw and detoxified mahua cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh

    2013-12-15

    The effect of supplementation of wheat straw (WS) with raw/detoxified mahua cake (MC) on yield and nutritional quality of Pleurotus sajor caju was studied. Raw cake significantly enhanced the yield compared to control and could be tolerated up to a 10% addition. Detoxification further improved the mushroom yield giving a maximum of 1024.7 g kg(-1) from WS supplemented with 20% saponin free detoxified mahua cake. Chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that they are rich in proteins (27.4-34.8%), soluble sugars (28.6-32.2%) and minerals. Glucose, trehalose and glutamic acid, alanine were the major sugars and amino acids detected by HPLC analysis, respectively. HPLC studies further confirmed the absence of saponins (characteristic toxins present in MC) in both fruit bodies and spent. Degradation of complex molecules in spent was monitored via FTIR. The study proved beneficial for effective management of agricultural wastes along with production of nutrient rich and saponin free fruit bodies/spent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic study for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using olive cake based activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to evaluate the removal of p-nitrophenol by adsorption onto olive cake based activated carbon having a BET surface area of 672 m²/g. The batch adsorption experimental results indicated that the equilibrium time for nitrophenol adsorption by olive cake-based activated carbon was 120min. The adsorption data was modeled by equilibrium and kinetic models. The pseudo- first and second order as well as the Elovichkinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data and the intraparticle diffusion model was assessed for describing the mechanism of adsorption. The data were found to be best fitted to the pseudo-second order model with a correlation coefficient (R2=0.986. The intraparticle diffusion mechanism also showed a good fit to the experimental data, showing two distinct linear parts assuming that more than one step could be involved in the adsorption of nitrophenol by the activated carbon. The equilibrium study was performed using three models including Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The results revealed that the Temkin equilibrium model is the best model fitting the experimental data (R2=0.944. The results of the present study proved the efficiency of using olive cake based activated carbon as a novel adsorbent for the removal of nitrophenol from aqueous solution.

  3. Rare Hybrid Dimers with Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities from a Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Oil Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing-Rong; Wang, Xia; Dong, Jin-Run; Qin, Xu-Jie; Li, Zhong-Rong; Yang, Han; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. However, during the production process of seed oil, a large amount of the oil cake is thrown away or fermented as fertilizer to improve the homing rate of pigeons. Therefore, to solve the ecological problem and develop its new function, we investigated the chemical constituents of a safflower seed oil cake, and six new hybrid dimers, (±)-carthatins A-F (1-6, respectively), with a phenylpropanoid and a feruloylserotonin fused via a dihydrofuran ring, together with four known compounds, including sinapyl alcohol (7), coniferyl alcohol (8), serotobenine (9), and feruloylserotonin (10), were isolated. The extensive nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, combined with electronic circular dichroism analysis and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography, allowed the complete structural assignments of (±)-carthatins A-F. Moreover, we evaluated their anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. Racemic carthatins A and B (1 and 2, respectively) showed anti-acetylcholinesterase effects with IC50 values of 17.96 and 66.83 μM, respectively. To some extent, our findings provide a new scaffold of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which could be beneficial for developing therapeutic molecules for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and supporting folk application of a safflower seed oil cake.

  4. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides from Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Sandhya, M; Ponnusami, V

    2014-07-01

    The feasibility of coupled biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Enterobacter aerogenes and Rhodobacter sphaeroides using Calophyllum inophyllum oil cake was studied under dark and photo fermentation conditions. The utilization of a non-edible acidic oil cake (C. inophyllum), and exploitation of a modified minimal salt media led to reduction in the cost of media. Cost of fermentation is reduced by implementation of alternate dark-photo fermentative periods and through the use of a co-culture consisting of a dark fermentative (E. aerogenes) and a photo fermentative (R. sphaeroides) bacterium. The biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate produced were 7.95 L H2/L media and 10.73 g/L media, respectively, under alternate dark and photo fermentation and were 3.23 L H2/L media and 5.6g/L media, respectively under complete dark fermentation. The characteristics of the oil cake and alternate dark (16 h) and photo (8h) fermentative conditions were found to be supportive in producing high biohydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  7. Evaluation of quality measurement of Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky during ripening

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    Daniela Strnadová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky is smear-ripened cheese, which is produced from sour industrial curd. Brevibacterium linens, which are added during the production process, are reproducing and make gold-yellow smear cover. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical analysis of the quality of Olomouc cake of cheese. Changes in chemical composition were evaluated during different stages of production and at the same time it was detected whether changes in chemical composition during the manufacturing process are same in spring as well as in summer, without statistically significant differences. Dry matter of Olomouc cake of cheese was ranged from 35 % to 39 %. The increase of dry matter during production is evident, but these changes were in the most cases not statistically signifiant (P > 0.05. The value of titratable acidity of the cheese considerably changes during the manufacturing process, it has a decreasing tendency. Titratable acidity of cheese after shaping was 106.64 (136.12 SH and at the end of life it was 49.91 (65.06 SH. These changes were very highly statistically significant (P 0.05 in cheese from summer period. Content of salt is increased from 5.30 % to 5.98 %, respectively 6.10 %. In spring period the oposite changes in most cases occured (P 0.05.

  8. Growth and production of tomato fertilized with ash and castor cake and under varying water depths, cultivated in organic potponics

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    Daniela Pinto Gomes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of ash (40, 80, and 120 g per plant, castor cake (140 and 280 g per plant and water depth (135, 165, 191, and 213 mm on the growth and production of organic tomato cultivated in pots in a greenhouse. The experimental design was randomized blocks, and the irrigation was managed using an automatic irrigation device. The following variables were evaluated: plant heights, numbers of leaves, bunches, flowers and fruits, total mass of fruits, mass of marketable fruits, mass of fruits with blossom-end rot, total diameter of fruits, and diameter of marketable fruits. Most of the growth variables showed gains with the application of 140 g of ash and 280 g of cake. The dose of 280 g of castor cake was responsible for the greatest mass of marketable fruits (1.78 kg per plant, regardless of the ash dose. The water deficit reduced values of most of the variables of growth and production. The irrigation depth of 213 mm was responsible for the greatest mass of marketable fruits (4.04 kg per plant. The highest water use efficiencies, 37.00 and 37.93 kg m-3, were observed at irrigation depths of 191 and 213 mm, respectively.

  9. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ingestive behavior of sheep fed Brazil nut cake in the diet

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    Aline Fernanda Oliveira Ramos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ingestive behavior of sheep when fed a corn-silage-based diet with varying levels (0%, 15%, 30%, and 60% of Brazil nut cake (NC (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.. Sixteen mongrel sheep with an average weight of 33 ± 6.04 kg were randomly distributed between four treatments. Data were tested for assumptions of normality, subjected to an analysis of variance, and adjusted in regression equations and by Williams’ test, to estimate the W point. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM and insoluble neutral detergent fiber (NDF decreased linearly (P = 0.013 and P = 0.002 by 5.0 g and 2.41 g d-1, respectively, for every 1% of NC added to the diet. The time the animals spent feeding (288.75 min d-1 was not significantly affected; time spent idle increased linearly (P= 0.0002 by 3.10 min, and time spent during rumination decreased linearly by 2.62 min (P = 0.001 for each 1% addition of the co-product. The number of ruminated boluses (NRB displayed a decreasing effect (P = 0.004 of 4.61 d-1 for each 1% of NC. For ruminating chews, the time spent per bolus (37.5 sec and the number per bolus (56.14 did not differ (P > 0.05 between treatments. However, the total chewing time (TCT decreased linearly (P = 0.002 by 0.05 h d-1 and the number of chews per day displayed a quadratic effect (P = 0.008, with a maximum value estimated at 17.5% of NC in the diet. Rumination efficiency did not differ between the treatments (101.95 g DM h-1 and 36.76 g NDF h-1. The feeding efficiency (FE had a linear reduction (P = 0.045 of 0.42 g NDF h-1, but was similar for g DM h-1 (172.5. The daily intake of DM and NDF showed W points estimated at 51.96% and 30.67% NC, respectively. The variables NRB, TCT, and FE (g NDF h-1 had W points estimated at 56.64%, 56.19%, and 56.33% NC, respectively. The Brazil nut cake, when present at levels greater than 56% of the diet’s DM, affects the ingestive behavior of the animals, particularly rumination-related variables

  11. Fermentation kinetics and ruminal parameters of animals fed diets containing Brazil nut cake inclusion levels

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    Juliana Cristina de Castro Budel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion effect of 0 (control, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 100% dry matter (DM of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. cake (BNC aiming at replacing corn silage was assessed on fermentation kinetics and effective degradability (ED by means of in vitro gas production at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A randomized block design was used with six treatments, three blocks, and two replications per block. France’s model was fit to the data. An in vivo experiment, conducted in fistulated ovine, assessed the effects of BNC inclusion levels of 0, 15, 30, and 45% DM replacing corn silage on ruminal parameters. Ruminal fluid samples were collected postprandial at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 h for determining the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, pH, and N–NH3. A completely randomized design with repeated measures in time was used, with four treatments and three replications. Results of acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate to propionate ratio, pH, and NH3 were submitted to analysis of variance and regression (linear and quadratic considering treatment, time and interaction of both. In addition, the F test with a 5% (P 0.40, acetic acid (P > 0.41, propionic acid (P > 0.85, butyric acid (P > 0.62 and pH (P > 0.57. BNC replacements of 0, 15, 30 and 45% did not change (P > 0.05 total SCFA concentration, as well as acetic acid concentration in ovine. When including 45% DM of BNC, concentrations (mMol/100 mL of propionic (P < 0.001 and butyric (P < 0.022 acids was reduced in the ruminal fluid. The highest concentrations at measurement times were observed 4 hours after feeding. The pH values presented a quadratic effect on both inclusion (P < 0.001 and time (P < 0.001. An interaction was observed between treatment and time for N–NH3 concentration (mg/ml (P < 0.001 and acetic to propionic acids ratio (P < 0.014. Fermentation kinetics was negatively affected by Brazil nut cake inclusion to corn silage-based diet. Therefore, the use of this

  12. Characterization of Bacterial Mannanase for Hydrolyzing Palm Kernel Cake to Produce Manno-oligosaccharides Prebiotics

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    W. Utami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is a promising source of prebiotics, since it contains high amount of β-mannan which can be further hydrolyzed to manno-oligasaccharides (MOS, a prebiotic. Therefore, this research was carried out to analyze the capability of a bacterial isolate (A2 isolates previously isolated from soils sample from around IPB campus to hydrolyze PKC. Based on 16S-DNA analysis, isolate A2 was identified as Brevibacillus borstelensis. Mannanase of A2 isolate had an optimum condition at 90 oC and pH 7. Mannanase activity of crude extracts using Locust Bean Gum (LBG and PKC as substrates were 0.37U/mL and 0.032U/mL, respectively. However, the most favorable production of oligosaccharides based on the degree of polymerization was obtained after 72-h of incubation with the ratio of substrate:enzyme, 1.2:1, on 1.5% PKC as substrate. The manno-oligosaccharides prebio-tic obtained was found to interfere the growth of both lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and pathogenic microflora (Escherichia coli. E. coli apparently could not use this prebiotic as the carbon sources, in contrast to L. casei. Substitution of carbon source in medium with prebiotics reduced the capability of L. casei to produce organic acids. It is concluded that local A2 isolate (B. borstelensis produces mannanase which can be used to produce prebiotics from PKC.

  13. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

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    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC, whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly P<0.05 decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly P<0.05 increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC compared with untreated PKC.

  14. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

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    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  15. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

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    Mohammad Zarei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain. Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1% and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25% compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.

  16. Optimization of MBR hydrodynamics for cake layer fouling control through CFD simulation and RSM design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yu, Dawei; Liu, Mengmeng; Zheng, Libing; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Fang; Fan, Yaobo

    2017-03-01

    Membrane fouling is an important issue for membrane bioreactor (MBR) operation. This paper aims at the investigation and the controlling of reversible membrane fouling due to cake layer formation and foulants deposition by optimizing MBR hydrodynamics through the combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and design of experiment (DOE). The model was validated by comparing simulations with measurements of liquid velocity and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a lab-scale submerged MBR. The results demonstrated that the sludge concentration is the most influencing for responses including shear stress, particle deposition propensity (PDP), sludge viscosity and strain rate. A medium sludge concentration of 8820mgL-1 is optimal for the reduction of reversible fouling in this submerged MBR. The bubble diameter is more decisive than air flowrate for membrane shear stress due to its role in sludge viscosity. The optimal bubble diameter was at around 4.8mm for both of shear stress and PDP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production and characterization of bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuping, Zou [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yulong, Wu; Mingde, Yang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kaleem, Imdad [School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chun, Li [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tong, Junmao [Food College, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, Xinjiang (China)

    2010-12-15

    Renewable fuels are major alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Biomass in the form of agricultural and industrial residues is fast becoming popular among new renewable energy sources. Hydrothermal liquefaction can thermochemically convert biomass residues into bio-oil. This work investigates the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta cake under various liquefaction temperatures, holding times, and catalyst dosages. A maximum bio-oil yield of 25.8% is obtained at a reaction temperature of 360 C and a holding time of 50 min using 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst. The various physical and chemical characteristics of bio-oil obtained under the most suitable conditions are determined, and a detailed chemical compositional analysis of bio-oil is performed using an elemental analyzer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bio-oil is composed of fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, ketones, and aldehydes. Its empirical formula is CH{sub 1.44}O{sub 0.29}N{sub 0.05}, and its heating value is 30.74 MJ/kg. The bio-oil product is a possible eco-friendly green biofuel and chemical. (author)

  18. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment of sunflower oil cake on biomethane potential focusing on fibre composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; Angeles De la Rubia, M; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C on fibre composition and the biomethane potential of sunflower oil cake (SuOC). An increase in pretreatment temperature from 25 to 200°C caused a decrease in hemicellulose content in the solid pretreated fraction from 13 to 6% while the lignin content increased by 16%. Soluble compounds also increased with temperature. Digestion of solid fractions from pretreatments at 25, 100, 150 and 200°C in batch assays at 35±1°C resulted in methane yields of 114±9, 105±7, 82±7 and 53±8mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. The corresponding methane yields for the liquid fractions were 276±6, 310±4, 220±15 and 247±10mL CH(4) g(-1)COD(added), respectively. Therefore the overall methane yield was highest for SuOC pretreated at 100°C; however, this value was only 6.5% higher than that achieved after pretreatment at 25°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of liquid and solid product from pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra deoiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutia, Rahul Singh; Kataki, Rupam; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new feedstock, Pongamia glabra deoiled cake (PGDC), is reported for pyrolysis. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale fixed-bed pyrolyzer at temperatures ranging from 350 to 600°C with varying heating rates of 10, 20, 40°C/min in nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 30.60% was observed at 500°C with heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1). The biochar obtained had a porous structure and was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy along with elemental analysis. The representative bio-oil sample was characterized by CHN analyzer, GC-MS, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The bio-oil has a calorific value of 28.19MJ/kg and contains a higher amount of aliphatic compounds. The present investigation suggests that within the realm of biomass energy conversion technologies the PGDC can be used as a feedstock for pyrolysis conversion, thereby serving the demand of second generation biofuels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exo-polygalacturonase production by Penicillium roqueforti on pumpkin oil cake in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peričin Draginja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pumpkin oil cake (PuOC, individual and in combination with wheat bran (WB, as substrate for the production of Exo-polygalacturonase (Exo-p by starter culture Penicillium roqueforti in solid state fermentation (SSF has been evaluated. The kinetics of enzyme production was investigated using PuOC alone in the range from 13 to 168 h, with moisture contents varying from 44% the ability to grow and produce Exo-p activity on this substrate, reaching a maximum value of 1451.75 U/g.d.w PuOC by the 5th day of fermentation. Fermentation experiments indicated that the water activity (aw influenced the enzyme production. A medium with aw 0.932 and the fermentation time of 5 days were selected, as these conditions resulted in the highest pectolytic activity and were used for further investigation. A next step in this research was to examine the effect of the substrate combination, PuOC with wheat bran (WB, in different ratios. The addition of WB as carbon sources was found to have a significant influence on the enzymes yields. Exo-p activities were the highest with initial water activity of a w 0.932 and PuOC supplementation with WB (1:0.67.

  1. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

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    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  3. Structural characterization and evaluation of prebiotic activity of oil palm kernel cake mannanoligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidas, Naveena Reddy; Saminathan, Mookiah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Maity, Prasenjit; Islam, Syed Sirajul; Manshoor, Nurhuda; Shaari, Khozirah

    2017-11-01

    In this study, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) were isolated from palm kernel cake by aqueous extraction using high temperature and pressure. Structural characterization of MOS was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, ESI-MS/MS and 1D/2D NMR. The prebiotic activity of MOS was evaluated in vitro using two probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Sugar analysis indicated the presence of mannose in each of the oligomers. Methylation and 1D/2D NMR analysis indicated that the MOS have a linear structure consisting of (1→4)-β-d-mannopyranosyl residues. ESI-MS/MS results showed that the isolated mannan oligomers, MOS-III, MOS-IV, MOS-V and MOS-VI consist of tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-saccharides with molecular weights of 689, 851, 1013 and 1151Da, respectively. Based on the in vitro growth study, MOS-III and MOS-IV was found to be effective in selectively promoting the growth of Lactobacillus reuteri C1 strain as evidenced by the optical density of the culture broth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of sunflower oil cake degradation with three different anaerobic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Bárbara; Portillo, María Del Carmen; González, Juan M; Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; De La Rubia, María Ángeles; Borja, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower oil cake (SuOC) is the solid by-product from the sunflower oil extraction process and an important pollutant waste because of its high organic content. For the anaerobic digestion of SuOC three different industrial reactors were compared as inoculum sources. This was done using a biochemical methane production (BMP) test. Inoculum I was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating soft-drink wastewaters. Inoculum II was a flocculent biomass from a full-scale reactor treating biosolids generated in an urban wastewater treatment plant. Inoculum III was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating brewery wastes. The highest kinetic constant for methane production was achieved using inoculum II. The inoculum sources were analyzed through PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and fingerprinting before (t = 0) and after the BMP test (t = 12 days). No significant differences were found in the bacterial community fingerprints between the beginning and the end of the experiments. The bacterial and archaeal communities of inoculum II were further analyzed. The main bacteria found in this inoculum belong to Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Of the Archaea detected, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales made up practically the whole archaeal community. The results showed the importance of selecting an appropriate inoculum in short term processes due to the fact that the major microbial constituents in the initial consortia remained stable throughout anaerobic digestion.

  5. Biosorption and desorption of Nickel on oil cake: batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moonis Ali; Ngabura, Mohammad; Choong, Thomas S Y; Masood, Hassan; Chuah, Luqman Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption potential of mustard oil cake (MOC) for Ni(II) from aqueous medium was studied. Spectroscopic studies showed possible involvement of acidic (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) groups in biosorption. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 8. Contact time, reaction temperature, biosorbent dose and adsorbate concentration showed significant influence. Linear and non-linear isotherms comparison suggests applicability of Temkin model at 303 and 313 K and Freundlich model at 323K. Kinetics studies revealed applicability of Pseudo-second-order model. The process was endothermic and spontaneous. Freundlich constant (n) and activation energy (Ea) values confirm physical nature of the process. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities for 5 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 0.25 and 4.5 mg/g, while for 10 mg/L initial Ni(II) concentration were 4.5 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively. Batch desorption studies showed maximum Ni(II) recovery in acidic medium. Regeneration studies by batch and column process confirmed reutilization of biomass without appreciable loss in biosorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  7. UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTER FROM SUGAR CANE FILTER CAKE USING ETHANOL AS SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés María San Anastacio Rebollar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for the obtaining of unsaponificable matter starting from the sugar cane filter cake, in the one that only ethanol 96 °GL is used as solvent. The wax is extracted of the mud with ethanol (with a purity of 96 ºGL by means of a leaching out process using a mud/ethanol ratio of 0.05 kg/L to 70 ºC, atmospheric pressure, agitation speed of 700 rpm and extraction time of 2,5 hours. Under these conditions 86.21 % of extraction is obtained. Then, the obtained extract reacts with alcoholic NaOH to 70 ºC during 75 minutes to atmospheric pressure and shaking to 200 rpm. The employment of the proposed methodology allows to obtain 1.942 g of impure unsaponifiable matter starting from 50 g of mud and 1.05 L of ethanol 96 °GL.

  8. Granular-bed Filtration Assisted by Filter Cake Formation: Advanced Design and Experimental Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarder, Kavitha Pathmanathan

    2011-07-01

    (mean diameter of 4 and 9 m) as test dust at room temperature and at 120 degrees C. The filter illustrated excellent results however failure in the conventional puff-back method to supply sufficient sharp pressure pulse led to improper removal of filter cake. Accordingly, there is a need for an improved means of supplying puff-back gas to the tall wide panel beds. A novel high speed valve, a new method and apparatus for creating a longitudinally disposed sharp puff of gas for renewal of gas-entry surfaces was built and tested independently. The quick opening valve consists of a standard cylinder with air outlet holes, a rod with nylon plugs and an actuator. The valve was built in the laboratory; several adjustments were made along the test until the time for emptying of the pressure in the tank was less than 50 ms. It was then integrated with the second test rig, referred to as third test rig. Tests were performed at room temperature with the aid of high-speed camera to obtain visualization of the movement of the granular beds during puff-back with and without the presence of filter cake. Filtration test were performed at elevated temperature of 120 degrees C. Tests were performed from low to high filtration velocities with sintered bauxite spherical particles (mean diameter of 470 {mu}m) and olivine sand particles (mean diameter of 545 m) as filtration medium and standardized test dust (mean diameter of 4 m). The results and video file analysis revealed that the new puff-back method is capable of removing the entire filter cake, resulting in stable residual pressure profile and very low dust penetration compared to the conventional puff-back. An industrial scale panel bed filter testing is the fourth test rig. The field test was performed with a single filter module of louver design L-56 at a 450-kw biomass combustion plant at Bjertnaes Sag As in Jevnaker in Norway. The test was performed with a slip stream from the main stream of exhaust gas before emitting to the

  9. Phenolic extracts of coconut oil cake: a potential alternative for synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Nalawatta SENEVIRATNE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limitations of natural antioxidants include relatively low antioxidant activity, narrow range of food systems where the antioxidants are effective and limited thermal stability compared to synthetic antioxidants. In the present study, the phenolic extract of coconut oil cake (COCE was tested for antioxidant activity-related food stabilization. Heat stabilities of COCE and synthetic antioxidants were determined by measuring the indubbction time of sunflower oil enriched with heat-treated antioxidants. In the β-carotene-linoleate emulsion used for testing antioxidant activity, COCE can retain 96 ± 2% of initial colour intensity while BHT can retain 89 ± 2% of initial colour intensity at 60 µg mL–1 concentration after two hours. TBARS contents (MDA equivalents / kg of meat in COCE-treated and control pork samples after 14 days was 2.80 ± 0.57 and 22.55 ± 2.30 respectively. Heat stability varies in the order butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT < (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA < COCE < tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ. The results of these experiments suggest that COCE is a versatile and thermally stable natural antioxidant mixture effective in stabilizing many food systems.

  10. Production and Characterization of Organic Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatrophacurcas Seed Cake and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylen G. Eroa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The processing of Jatrophacurcas (tubang-bakod to produce biodiesel entails wastes in the form of seedcake which can be converted into valuable product that can help nurture and improve soil properties. The College of Industrial Technology and the Chemical Engineering Department of Batangas State University (BatstateU conducted an experimental study which includes the composting of the combination of Jatropha Seed-Cake(JSC and Chicken Manure(CM , formulating ratios of JSC and CM andcharacterization of the organic fertilizer produced. Generally, this study aimed to promote proper waste disposal by producing an organic fertilizer from the waste of biodiesel production which uses Jatropha plant and proving the feasibility of making the fertilizer as the main source of nutrient for plants. Specifically, the nutrients that were considered were Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K and the Carbon: Nitrogen (C:N ratio. Composting lasted for 6 weeks, three formulations were used, 30(CM:70(JSC, 50(CM:50(JSC and 70(CM:30(JSC. The result implies that theorganic fertilizers produced can be a good substitute to the commercially available fertilizers.

  11. Improvement of texture and sensory properties of cakes by addition of potato peel powder with high level of dietary fiber and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jeddou, Khawla; Bouaziz, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Chaari, Fatma; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma

    2017-02-15

    Demand for health oriented products such as low calories and high fiber product is increasing. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the addition of potato peel powders as protein and dietary fiber source on the quality of the dough and the cake. Powders obtained from the two types of peel flour showed interesting water binding capacity and fat absorption capacity. Potato peel flours were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentration. The results showed that peel powders additionally considerably improved the Alveograph profile of dough and the texture of the prepared cakes. In addition color measurements showed a significant difference between the control dough and the dough containing potato peels. The replacement of wheat flour with the potato powders reduced the cake hardness significantly and the L(*) and b(*) dough color values. The increased consumption of cake enriched with potato peel fiber is proposed for health reasons. The study demonstrated that protein/fiber-enriched cake with good sensory quality could be produced by the substitution of wheat flour by 5% of potato peel powder. In addition and technological point of view, the incorporation of potato peel powder at 5% increase the dough strength and elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profi le of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Duliński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 a nd ATCC 64063, and the phytate (InsP6 content, myo-inositol phosphate profi le and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass frac tion of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of fl axseed oil cake by R. oligo sporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33 %, respectively. The strains had diff erent phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of fl axseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of fl axseed o il cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4 %.

  13. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  14. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B. [Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jimenez, A.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. De Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y{sub M,ult}) decreased considerably from 227{+-}23 to 107{+-}11 ml CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g{sup -1} VS{sub added} when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g{sup -1} VS{sub added} was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates. (author)

  15. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  16. Formation of flower- or cake-shaped stereocomplex particles from the stereo multiblock copoly(rac-lactide)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Tang, Zhaohui; Qiu, Xueyu; Pang, Xuan; Yang, Yongkun; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-01-01

    Flower- or cake-shaped particles with uniform particle size ranging from nanometers to micrometers were prepared from the stereo multiblock copoly(rac-lactide)s (smb-PLAs) by precipitating the polymer from its solution in methylene chloride/ethanol via three different methods: slowly lowering the solution temperature, slowly evaporating the solvent, and slowly adding a nonsolvent. Under the same condition, sheet-shaped crystals in 10 mum size but not particles were obtained from the pure PLLA with almost the same molecular weight. Electron diffraction and WAXD data demonstrated that the stereocomplex particles belonged to the monoclinic system. All three methods resulted in particles with identical morphology and almost the same particle size. At a given stereoregularity of 88%, as the molecular weight of the polymer increased from 8700 to 23,200 Da, the crystallinity decreased, the particle morphology changed from flower-shaped to cake-shaped, and the diameter and height of the particles increased from 0.8 and 0.45 to 3.6 microm and 2.0 microm, respectively. The initial concentration of the polymer solution influenced the particle size slightly but affected the morphology markedly. On the basis of the above experimental observations, it was proposed that the smb-PLA particles of flower- or cake-shape were formed in four steps: (1) complexation in solution of the smb-PLA chains; (2) particle nucleation; (3) particle growth in the width direction; and (4) particle growth in the height direction. The curvature of the paired smb-PLA chains and the inner stress governed the particle size, and the interconnection between the neighboring particles determined the layered structure and the package density of the particles formed.

  17. Fungal production of single cell oil using untreated copra cake and evaluation of its fuel properties for biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Mahesh; Gupta, Rohini; Barve, Kadambari; Zinjarde, Smita; Govindwar, Sanjay; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel production. Copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, Aspergillus terreus IBB M1. The SCO extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by transesterification and evaluated on the basis of fatty acid profiles and key fuel properties for biodiesel. The fungus produced a biomass (8.2 g/l) yielding 257 mg/g copra cake SCO with ~98% FAMEs. The FAMEs were mainly composed of saturated methyl esters (61.2%) of medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) with methyl oleate (C18:1; 16.57%) and methyl linoleate (C18:2; 19.97%) making up the unsaturated content. A higher content of both saturated FAMEs and methyl oleate along with the absence of polyunsaturated FAMEs with ≥4 double bonds is expected to impart good fuel quality. This was evident from the predicted and experimentally determined key fuel properties of FAMEs (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, cetane number), which were in accordance with the international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The low cost, renewable nature, and easy availability of copra cake, its conversion into SCO without any thermochemical pretreatment, and pelleted fungal growth facilitating easier downstream processing by simple filtration make this process cost effective and environmentally favorable.

  18. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  19. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  20. Bodyweight and carcass characteristics of Somali goats fed hay supplemented with graded levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Solomon; Betsha, Simret

    2008-10-01

    The experiment was conducted for ninety days of feeding trial at Haramaya University, Ethiopia using twenty four yearling male Somali goats weighing 20.4 +/- 2.02 (mean +/- SD) with the objectives to evaluate the effect of supplementation of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture (3:1) on body weight (BW) gain and carcass characteristics of Somali goats. The experiment was arranged with six blocks and four treatments in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control) and supplementation with 200 g (T2), 300 g (T3) and 400 g (T4) peanut cake and wheat bran mixture on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) hay DM intake, but increased (P < 0.001) total DM intake at 300 g DM (T3) and 400 g DM (T4) level of supplementation compared to the control treatment. Daily BW gain, final BW, empty BW, hot carcass weight and dressing percent were higher (P < 0.001) in the supplemented treatments. Goats on the medium (T3) level of supplementation had significantly heavier (P < 0.001) liver and more muscle deposition, whereas those on hay alone (T1) exhibited heavier bone, head as well as gut contents (P < 0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of Somali goats with the different levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture promoted BW gain, dressing percentage and increased the proportion of edible offals. Similarity between the different levels of supplementation used in this study with regard to BW and carcass characteristics favours the use of the low (T2) or medium (T3) level than the high (T4) level of supplementation.

  1. Physical And Chemical Evaluation Of Chocolate Cake Covered With Gelatin, Stearic Acid, Modified Starch Or "carnaúba" Wax Edible Icing [avaliação Físico-química De Bolo De Chocolate Com Coberturas Comestíveis à Base De Gelatina, ácido Esteárico, Amido Modificado Ou Cera De Carnaúba

    OpenAIRE

    Osawa C.C.; Fontes L.C.B.; Miranda E.H.W.; Chang Y.K.; Steel C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable edible icing or frosting is an alternative to synthetic packaging that causes environmental concerns. This work evaluated the effect of different types of frosting on the physical-chemical properties of chocolate cake during storage in comparison to cakes without icing or frosting (C) and cakes without frosting packed in polypropylene (CP). The following frostings were applied to the cakes: 10% gelatin (GE), 10% gelatin with 10% stearic acid (GE+SA), 18% "carnaúba" wax (CW), 10%...

  2. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  3. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S K; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (poil cake protein.

  4. Colorimetric evaluation of phenolic content and GC-MS characterization of phenolic composition of alimentary and cosmetic argan oil and press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis B; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2005-11-16

    The global phenolic content of argan oil and press cake samples (alimentary and cosmetic) was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and the phenolic composition of argan oil (alimentary and cosmetic) and press cake (alimentary) samples were analyzed by GC-MS after extraction with 80:20 (v/v) methanol:water and silylation. Identification of chromatographic peaks was made by mass selective detection. Nineteen simple phenols were detected, 16 in press cake, 6 in the alimentary oil, and 7 in the cosmetic oil, among which 15 compounds [3-hydroxypyridine (3-pyridinol), 6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine, catechol, resorcinol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillin, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl alcohol, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, hydroxytyrosol, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, and catechin] were identified for the first time in such materials.

  5. An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

  6. The estimated nutritive value of three common grassland species at three primary growth harvest dates following ensiling and fractionation of press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McEniry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   In a Green Biorefinery processing green biomass one possible application for the press-cake fraction is as a feedstuff for ruminants. This study investigates the effects of ensiling and fractionation on the estimated nutritive value of three grassland species harvested at different stages of maturity. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., var. Gandalf, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L., var. Pizza and red clover (Trifolium pratense L., var. Merviot were grown in field plots and harvested and ensiled in laboratory silos. These silages were subsequently fractionated into press-cake and press-juice fractions. Loss of soluble, fermentable organic matter during ensiling increased the relative proportions of fibre and crude protein. Fractionation resulted in the substantial reduction of herbage soluble nutrient and mineral content, increasing the fibre content and reducing digestibility and crude protein. The low energy and protein content of the press-cake fraction, especially at later harvest dates, will limit its use in ruminant diets.

  7. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju.-Woon; Seo, Ji.-Hyun; Kim, Jae.-Hun; Lee, Soo.-Young; Kim, Kwan.-Soo; Byun, Myung.-Woo

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  8. Phytase production by thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile in solid-state fermentation and its application in dephytinization of sesame oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2006-06-01

    The phytase production by Sporotrichum thermophile TLR50 was recorded on all the commonly used animal feed ingredients tested to varying degrees in solid-state fermentation. Enzyme production increased to 180 U/g of dry moldy residue (DMR) in sesame oil cake at 120 h and 45 degrees C at the initial substrate-to-moisture ratio of 1:2.5 and aw of 0.95. Supplementation of sesame oil cake with glucose and ammonium sulfate further enhanced phytase titer (282 U/g of DMR). An overall 76% enhancement in phytase production was achieved owing to optimization. The mold secreted acid phosphatase, amylase, xylanase, and lipase along with phytase. By the action of phytase, inorganic phosphate was liberated efficiently, leading to dephytinization of sesame oil cake.

  9. Utilization of Palm Kernel Cake as a Novel Substrate for Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger USM AI1

    OpenAIRE

    Darah Ibrahim; Sheh-Hong Lim

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to optimize the cultural conditions of phytase production by Aspergillus niger USM AI1 using palm kernel cake (PKC) as the substrate in a solid state fermentation (SSF) system. The optimized cultural conditions of 10 g of PKC with a particle size of ≤0.5 mm, an inoculum size of 1x105 spores/ mL, moisture content of 60% (v/w), and a mixing frequency of once every 48 hours produced 4.91±0.17 U/g dried substrate of phytase and 1.14±0.04 mg glucosamine/ g dried s...

  10. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed press-cake

    OpenAIRE

    Radočaj Olga F.; Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly ...

  11. Performance of growing lambs fed processed karanj (Pongamia glabra) oil seed cake as partial protein supplement to soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, N M; Sastry, V R B; Saha, S K; Wankhade, U D; Lade, M H; Kumar, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether processed karanj (Pongamia glabra) oil seed cake can be used as a supplement to partially replace soybean meal (SBM). Male lambs (n = 24) of uniform body weight (12.88 +/- 0.15 kg) were equally allotted at random to a SBM-based control (CON) and three test concentrate mixtures, containing detoxified solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) using three processing methods: water washing (WW), 2.5% lime (LM) and 0.4% binder (BN) treatment. The processed SKC replaced 50% nitrogen of SBM of CON. The respective concentrate mixtures were fed along with ad libitum chaffed oat (Avena sativa) straw for 196 days. Dry matter intake was significantly (p 0.05) between the CON and WW diets but significantly lower in LM and BN groups. Yield of greasy wool was lower (p < 0.05) in BN group. Comparable dry matter and nutrient (crude protein and total digestible nutrients) conversion efficiency was observed on CON and WW diet but the lambs on the LM and BN diets exhibited lower (p < 0.01) conversion efficiency. It is concluded that SKC after water washing could replace 50% of SBM nitrogen in protein supplementation.

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  13. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azri, Farah Asilah

    2017-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal’s health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB1 was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS) were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB1-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB1-BSA and free AFB1 for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox) was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm2 to 1.298 cm2 due to the electrode

  14. Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Aflatoxin B1 in Palm Kernel Cake and Feed Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Asilah Azri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins in feed samples affects the animal’s health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB1 was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and chitosan (CS were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement. N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB1-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB1-BSA and free AFB1 for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB1 antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm2 to 1.298 cm2 due to the electrode

  15. Olive cake, citrus pulp and wheat straw silage as an ingredient in lamb diets: 1. Effects on growth and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean area the olive cake and the citrus (orange pulp are two important agro-industrial by-products. Their elimination can have high costs. These two by-products are used separately or as part of mixture in animal feeding since many years (Accardi et al., 1979; Dattilo and Congiu, 1995; Hadjipanayiotou, 1999; Scerra et al., 2001...

  16. Determination of diffusion and partition coefficients of model migrants by direct contact and vapour phase transfer from low-density polyethylene films into cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Sendón, Raquel; Paseiro Losada, Perfecto

    2017-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to determine the migration kinetics of one photoinitiator, benzophenone, and two optical brighteners, Uvitex OB and 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene (DPBD) from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films into cake. We assessed transfer by both direct contact and also the vapour phase. To perform the migration tests by direct contact, plastic films enriched with the additives were placed between two cake slices. To evaluate the migration through the gas phase, cake and the fortified LDPE film were placed with no direct contact in a glass container that was hermetically closed. Samples were stored at different time-temperature conditions. Target compounds were extracted from the films with ethanol (70 ºC, 24 h) and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Relevant parameters such as partition and diffusion coefficients between food and plastic film were calculated. The Arrhenius equation was applied to estimate the diffusion coefficient at any temperature. The data indicates that migration of benzophenone occurs in a significant extent into cake by both direct contact and through the gas phase (no direct contact. Conversely, very little migration occurred for Uvitex OB by direct contact and none through the gas phase. Results for benzophenone suggest that migration through the gas phase should be considered when evaluating migration from food packaging materials into food.

  17. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Min-Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Kim, Byung Kok; Kim, Kwang Sik; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Suk Man; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:23905018

  18. Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quali...

  19. Utilisation of Jatropha press cake as substrate in biomass and lipase production from Aspergillus niger 65I6 and Rhizomucor miehei CBS 360.62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hidayat, C.; Hastuti, P.; Heeres, Hero; van der Maarel, Marc

    Jatropha curcas L. is a tropical plant that grows well on poor soils in arid regions and produces oil-rich, unedible seeds. The oil from these seeds can be used in the production of biodiesel. In addition, the press-cake waste that is left after oil extraction contains approximately 40% of protein.

  20. Old ingredients for a new recipe? Neem cake, a low-cost botanical by-product in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent an important threat to millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Control programmes mainly rely on chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. In recent years, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, with a special focus on the evaluation of plant-borne mosquitocidal compounds. Major examples are neem-based products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) that have been proven as really effective against a huge range of pests of medical and veterinary importance, including mosquitoes. Recent research highlighted that neem cake, a cheap by-product from neem oil extraction, is an important source of mosquitocidal metabolites. In this review, we examined (i) the latest achievements about neem cake metabolomics with special reference to nor-terpenoid and related content; (ii) the neem cake ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquito vectors; (iii) its non-target effects against vertebrates; and (iv) its oviposition deterrence effects on mosquito females. Overall, neem cake can be proposed as an eco-friendly and low-cost source of chemicals to build newer and safer control tools against mosquito vectors.

  1. Effect of replacing ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and ingestive behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Vieira, J F; Barbosa, A M; Silva, T M; Bezerra, L R; Nascimento, N G; de Freitas, J E; Jaeger, S M P L; Oliveira, P de A; Oliveira, R L

    2017-11-01

    Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (Psupplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (Psupplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat without negative effects on productive parameters.

  2. Cake formation and consolidation: main factors governing the applicable flux in anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBR) treating acidified wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.; Lier, van J.B.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) was operated for over 200 days, with a volatile fatty acid mixture as substrate. Gas sparging was used for mixing and to provide membrane surface shear. Results show that cake formation was entirely governing the applicable flux.

  3. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with rumen content supplemented with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, A A; Rumak, S; Oluwafemi, R A

    2015-12-18

    Rabbits are also herbivores which efficiently convert fodder to food. They are prolific and converter of plant proteins of little or no use to people as food into high-value animal protein. Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in calories and low in fat and cholesterol contents, being considered as a delicacy and a healthy food product. Feeding rabbits with concentrates is expensive and therefore in order to reduce cost of production, hence the use of rumen content in this study as alternative feedstuff without competition. A total of thirty six (36) weaner rabbits (oryctalagus cuniculus) of different body weight and age where use in this experiment to determine the effects of replacing rumen content with or without enzyme supplementation for groundnut cake. This feeding trial which lasted for 8 weeks was carried out in order to determine the replacement value of groundnut cake with rumen content with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbit. A 3x2 factorial experiment was adopted such that there where three (3) replacement level of rumen content (0, 25 and 50 %) for groundnut cake by two supplemental level (no enzyme and enzyme supplement). The results showed that increased inclusion level of rumen content has significant effects (p feed intake, rate of weight gain, feed to gain ratio, nitrogen retention, faecal nitrogen, total nitrogen output and nitrogen digestibility. The weight gained by rabbits fed on 0, 25 and 50 % were all comparable (p > 0.05) with weight gained value of 7.62,7.44 and 7.36 g respectively. Similarly there was a significant (p effect of supplement added on the body weight gain of the experimental animals. There was significant effect (p feed to gain ratio. However, there was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of the treatment on urinary nitrogen. Significant (p effects of supplementation was observed on the feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio, faecal nitrogen, nitrogen retention and nitrogen digestibility but

  4. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  5. Enzymes evaluation for the polymeric filter cake removal; Avaliacao de enzimas para remocao de reboco formado por fluidos polimericos de base agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Langone, Marta A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Queiroz Neto, Joao C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In the drilling wells in horizontal or complex configurations, the drilling fluid contact with the productive zone can reduce the productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as the filter-cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter-cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species which will react with any encountered that is acid soluble or oxidizable. An alternative is the use of enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze only certain specific substrates, are inherently environmentally friendly, the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, so the enzymes produces an uniform filter cake degradation. In this work, the kinetic behaviors of an enzymatic filter-cake breaker and a commercial thermo stable enzymatic complex were analyzed. Both kinetic profiles were very similar, as well as its electrophoresis analysis. The protein in each product showed identical molecular weight. The commercial enzymatic complex stability remained 58.56% of enzymatic activity after 30 days at 40 deg C. Stability at wellbore conditions can be considered similar for both products. At 65 deg C they showed the same enzymatic activity after 8 hours. After 3 hours at 80 deg C, the commercial enzymatic complex remained 29.89% of the initial activity and the filter-cake breaker 61.73%, while at 95 deg C remained 4.39% and 11.60% of the initial activity, respectively, after 15 minutes. (author)

  6. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  7. Enhanced mannan-derived fermentable sugars of palm kernel cake by mannanase-catalyzed hydrolysis for production of biobutanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Rahman, Norliza A; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2016-10-01

    Catalytic depolymerization of mannan composition of palm kernel cake (PKC) by mannanase was optimized to enhance the release of mannan-derived monomeric sugars for further application in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of PKC was studied by evaluating effects of PKC concentration, mannanase loading, hydrolysis pH value, reaction temperature and hydrolysis time on production of fermentable sugars using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA results revealed that all factors studied had highly significant effects on total sugar liberated (Psugars of 71.54±2.54g/L were produced including 67.47±2.51g/L mannose and 2.94±0.03g/L glucose. ABE fermentation of sugar hydrolysate by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 resulted in 3.27±1.003g/L biobutanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of "Green" Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-27

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology.

  9. Assessment of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake from a two-phase olive oil mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A study of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake or olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from the two-phase olive oil mill industry was carried out. Eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 50.0-10.7 days were studied. An increase of 935.7 % in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) over the initial acidic concentration in the OMSW (1.4 g L(-1) expressed as acetic acid) was achieved. The results showed a maximum total VFA generation rate of 5.05 g COD L(-1)d(-1), this rate being achieved at the same hydraulic retention time as the maximum acetic acid production (8.2 g L(-1)) and as the maximum acidification degree (34.4 %).

  10. Evaluation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Borja, R

    2009-09-01

    The influence of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of the hydrolytic-acidogenic step of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) were assessed. The experiments were performed in laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactors at mesophilic (35 degrees C) temperature. Six OLR (ranging from 4 to 9 g VS L(-1) d(-1)) for four HRTs (8, 10, 12 and 15 days) were tested to check the effect of each operational variable. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis yields obtained for all HRTs and OLRs assayed were in the range of 20.5-30.1%. In addition, the acidification degree of the substrate was mainly influenced by the OLR but not by the HRTs, the highest value (83.8%) being achieved for an HRT of 10 days and an OLR of 6 g VS L(-1) d(-1).

  11. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors was investigated by a single-factor test and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of saponin were extraction temperature 68°C, alkali solution pH 9.1, acid isolation pH 4.1, and liquid-solid ratio 15.9 : 1. The extraction rate of saponin was 76.12% at the optimal extraction conditions.

  12. Water activity and temperature effects on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum on a sponge cake analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellana, M; Magrí, X; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    1999-11-01

    Eurotium is a widespread storage fungal genus that has been frequently isolated from bakery products. The objective of this study was (i) to obtain a method for studying the growth of xerophilic fungi on bakery products, and (ii) to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)), temperature, isolate and their interactions on mycelial growth of Eurotium spp. on an analogue medium of sponge cake. Statistical analysis showed that there were intra-isolate differences (P<0.001) due to a(w), temperature, isolate, and two- and three-way interactions. Optimum growth of all isolates over a(w) x temperature range tested showed optima at 0.90 a(w) and 30 degrees C, with an interval of growth rate of 3.8-5.1 mm x d(-1). At 0.75 a(w), growth was less than 0.15 mm x d(-1), if there was any.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE SOLVENT CAKE OF TAGETES PATULA L. INFLORESCENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chervonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big molecular weight conditions are responsible for some properties, which are absent in low molecular compounds. Therefore, its determination allows revealing of some physical and technological properties of biopolymers and prediction of the possibility of their practical application. The aim of this work was to determine an average molarweight, to study the superficial properties at the border of “solution-air” phases, and to establish an isoelectric spot of water solutions of pectin substances (PS, isolated from a solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences. Materials and methods. Polysaccharide complexes were isolated from the solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences of Carmen species which was left after a raw material extraction with ethanol 40% with the method of Kochetkov and M. Sinnera. The time of water and PS solutions flow out was measured by the use of a capillary Ostwald viscosimeter; different types of viscosity were calculated. The density of solutions was determined by using a picnometric method, however due to the closeness of density of the analyzed solutions and water, they were not considered in the calculation of the relative viscosity. Series of solutions with 0.01 to 0.5% concentrations were prepared from 1% PS water solutions to determine a surface activity. Monometric liquid tension variations were set in Rehbinder’s apparatus in the moment of an air bubble appearance on the surface of PS solution. Isoelectric spot (IES of PS was determined in acetate buffer solution with pH within 3.2 to 6.2 by using the viscometer method. Results and discussion. Fractioning of the obtained polysaccharide complexes showed that efficiency of the pectin substances amounted to 2.2%. Calculation shows that an average molar weight of PS amounted to 45272 g/mol. About the degree of interaction between macromolecules of polymer and solvent, structural properties of macromolecule, the degree of its branching can be judged by the

  14. Evidence of solute-solute interactions and cake enhanced concentration polarization during removal of pharmaceuticals from urban wastewater by nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs, Antonin; Mendret, Julie; Petit, Eddy; Brosillon, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to help understanding the distinctive influence of the matrix and of the flux decline (e.g. through the cake enhanced concentration polarization (CECP) phenomenon) on the removal mechanisms of four pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent by nanofiltration (NF). PhACs which are commonly encountered in secondary treated effluent were spiked in various matrix (real and synthetic) to investigate the separate and synergetic effects of the organic and ionic environment on PhACs rejection by two commercial membranes (NF-90 and NF-270). With pure water, rejection of NF membranes is dependent on the type of PhACs and of the permeate flux variations. Then, it appeared that the rejection of PhACs by NF-90 was poorly influenced by the type of compounds, because of the prevalence of steric mechanisms, but rather influenced by permeate flux variations and thus to fouling. For this tight NF membrane, CECP impacts PhACs rejection at the start of filtration while after a dense cake is formed, it became enhanced. On the contrary, rejections of PhACs by the NF-270 were enhanced during the filtration of the real wastewater in comparison with spiked pure water. It appeared that for loose-NF membranes, PhACs rejection is mainly governed by solute-solute interactions (EfOM-compound association) or electrostatic membrane-solute interactions. Finally, it seems that calcium concentration of the effluent is a critical parameter for the rejection of PhACs as it alters both the availability of sites for PhACs association and the fouling layer density. Rejections of the NF-270 were negatively impacted in the presence of Ca(2+). Such a study has practical implications for further understanding of the fate of trace organic compounds during nanofiltration of wastewater for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of olive oil phenolic compounds in rat tissues after administration of a phenolic extract from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Borràs, Xenia; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and accumulation of olive oil phenolic compounds in the body are topics lacked of information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability, metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds from olive cake. The metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds were examined by UPLC-MS/MS after an acute intake of a phenolic extract from olive cake, analyzing plasma and tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testicle and thymus) 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion using Wistar rats as the in vivo model. The results showed a wide distribution of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in the tissues, with a main detoxification route through the kidneys. Highlighting the quantification of the free forms of some phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein derivative in plasma (Cmax 4 h: 24 nmol/L) and brain (Cmax 2 h: 2.8 nmol/g), luteolin in kidney (Cmax 1 h: 0.04 nmol/g), testicle (Cmax 2 h: 0.07 nmol/g) and heart (Cmax 1 h: 0.47 nmol/g); and hydroxytyrosol in plasma (Cmax 2 h: 5.2 nmol/L), kidney (Cmax 4 h: 3.8 nmol/g) and testicle (Cmax 2 h: 2.7 nmol/g). After a single ingestion of olive oil phenolic compounds, these were absorbed, metabolized and distributed through the blood stream to practically all parts of the body, even across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Cookie made from blend of Brewers′ Spent Grain (BSG, Groundnut cake and Sorghum Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawoye Babatunde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bakery and pastry products such as cookies are usually produced from wheat flour and as such contribute to high foreign exchange for tropical countries where such cereal is not cultivated. In view of this, we evaluated the engineering economics for the utilization of dried brewers′ spent grain, groundnut cake and sorghum flour in the industrial production of cookies. The production was based on the assumption that the cash flow was uniform over the plant life (i.e. 10 years with no salvage value. The equipment required for the production process was identified and estimates obtained from equipment manufactures. The production of the cookies was based on constant mass flow rate of 90 packets/min. The effects of uncertainties on cookie production were evaluated by varying the operation days (330, 300 and 250 days and also by varying the price of some key variables required for the production processes. The results indicate that the capital cost (fixed and working capital and the annual production cost (APC were US$1.39×106 and US$10.08×106/year, respectively. The after tax annual revenue was US$1.63×106/yr. The return on investment (ROI, single payback period (SPBP, discounted payback period, gross margin and internal rate of return (IRR of the plant were 63%, 1.58 years, 2.08 years, 23% and 77.52%, respectively. The result also showed that the production plant is feasible and could be operated for 330, 300 and 250 days. The difference between operation times lies in the profitability, which decreases as the number of days reduces. Based on the result of this analysis, brewers’ spent grain, groundnut cake, and sorghum flour can be utilized in industrial production of cookies with guaranteed profitability.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  18. Effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Murat; Atimtay, Aysel T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The tests included co-combustion of 50-50% by wt. mixtures of Bursa-Orhaneli lignite+olive cake and Denizli-Kale lignite+olive cake, with and without limestone addition. Ash samples were subjected to XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. While MgO was high in the bottom ash for Bursa-Orhaneli lignite and olive cake mixture, Al2O3 was high for Denizli-Kale lignite and olive cake mixture. Due to high Al2O3 content, Muscovite was the dominant phase in the bottom ash of Denizli Kale. CaO in the bottom ash has increased for both fuel mixtures due to limestone addition. K was in Arcanite phase in the co-combustion test of Bursa/Orhaneli lignite and olive cake, however, it mostly appeared in Potassium Calcium Sulfate phase with limestone addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Sporotrichum thermophile xylanase by solid state fermentation utilizing deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake and its application in xylooligosachharide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Khare, S K

    2014-02-01

    De-oiled Jatropha curcas seed cake, a plentiful by-product of biodiesel industry was used as substrate for the production of a useful xylanase from Sporotrichum thermophile in solid state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions, 1025U xylanase/g (deoiled seed cake) was produced. The xylanase exhibited half life of 4h at 45°C and 71.44min at 50°C respectively. It was stable in a broad pH range of 7.0-11.0. Km and Vmax were 12.54mg/ml and 454.5U/ml/min respectively. S. thermophile xylanase is an endoxylanase free of exoxylanase activity, hence advantageous for xylan hydrolysis to produce xylooligosachharides. Hydrolysis of oat spelt xylan by S. thermophile xylanase yielded 73% xylotetraose, 15.4% xylotriose and 10% xylobiose. The S. thermophile endoxylanase thus seem potentially useful in the food industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake Waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Budi; Hidayat, Nur; Bata, M

    2001-01-01

    Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry that have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of the research is to find the effe...

  2. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR, CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1, and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2. Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days. At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  3. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  4. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-11-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  5. Economic Analysis of the Production of Amylases and Other Hydrolases by Aspergillus awamori in Solid-State Fermentation of Babassu Cake

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Freire, Denise Maria Guimar?es; Castilho, Leda dos Reis

    2010-01-01

    Amylases are one of the most important industrial enzymes produced worldwide, with their major application being in ethanol manufacturing. This work investigated the production of amylases by solid-state fermentation of babassu cake, using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori IOC-3914. Lab-scale experiments were carried out to generate input data for simulations of an industrial plant for amylase production. Additionally to the target enzymes, other hydrolases (cellulases, xylanases, an...

  6. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage. PMID:27800420

  7. Numerical modelling of cake formation and fluid loss from non-Newtonian muds during drilling using eccentric/concentric drill strings with/without rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, K.A.; Wakeman, R.J.; Chiu, T.W.; Meuric, O.F.J.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a numerical procedure for modelling mud cake growth and fluid invasion during drilling. Two three-dimensional finite element programs have been developed, one to model the non-Newtonian flow of the drilling mud in the annulus between the drill string and the borehole wall, and the other to model the non-Newtonian multiphase flow of the fluid base of the mud into the surrounding porous formation. These are integrated into a time-stepping routine and a crossflow microfiltration model is employed to predict the increase in cake thickness at nodes on the borehole wall at each time step. The procedure is applied to the model of a borehole with an eccentric drill string giving the thickness of the cake, the velocity of the permeating fluid and the saturation of the fluid In the surrounding formation at different times. The effects of changing the eccentricity of the drill string and the power law exponent of the mud are also investigated. (author)

  8. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  10. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  11. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  13. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1).

  14. Analysis of Bioactive Components of Oilseed Cakes by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-(Bioassay Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemp, flax and canola seed cakes are byproducts of the plant oil extraction industry that have not received much attention in terms of their potential use for human food instead of animal feed. Thus, the bioactivity profiling of these oilseed cakes is of interest. For their effect-directed analysis, planar chromatography was combined with several (bioassays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, acetylcholine esterase inhibition, planar yeast estrogen screen, antimicrobial Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri assays. The streamlined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC-bioassay method allowed the discovery of previously unknown bioactive compounds present in these oilseed cake extracts. In contrast to target analysis, the direct link to the effective compounds allowed comprehensive information with regard to selected effects. HPTLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry via the elution-head based TLC-MS Interface was used for a first characterization of the unknown effective compounds. The demonstrated bioactivity profiling on the feed/food intake side may guide the isolation of active compounds for production of functional food or for justified motivation of functional feed/food supplements.

  15. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  16. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  17. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Herbacetin Diglucoside from Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Seed Cakes and Its Quantification using an RP-HPLC-UV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophélie Fliniaux

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.

  18. FERMENTED SOYBEAN CAKE AND ALBUMIN FORMULA AS NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PREVENTS PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AND AKI IN STROKE PATIENTS

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    Nanny Djaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death in every hospital in Indonesia. The death rate of newly formed or recurrent stroke is estimated around 750.000 case every year nation wide, 200.000 of which are recurrent stroke. Stroke patients have higher risk to develop another stroke attack. In 5 years time, the recurrence of stroke attack is estimated around 30–43%. In many cases, elderly stroke patients who were admitted to the hospital with recurrent stroke attack also suffer from anorexia which leads to hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and impaired renal function marked by a rise in ureum level with or without elevation in blood creatinin levels. This study uses pre and post nutrition intervention method. Hospital’s fermented soybean cake and albumin blend formula was given through nasogastric tube. The amount of calorie was adjusted according to basal needs x 1,3 and consisted of carbohydrate, protein 1 gram/kg BB (albumin : fermented soybean cake=3:1 and 25% fat. This formula was given to 11 stroke patients who had been admitted to Atma Jaya Hospital for at least 10 days and met the inclusion & exclusion criteria, such as did not receive parenteral blood and albumin transfusion without history of renal failure. All the patients’ intake and fluid balance were monitored. The average albumin level of these patients was ±3,1 mg/dL(pre intervention. After receiving nutrition (NGT and fluid (parenteral nutrition intervention, the result is as follows: There was an average of±5 mg increase in Natrium level during day 3–5 of hospital stay. There was an average of±0,3 mg increase in Kalium level during day 2–3 of hospital stay. There was an average of ±15 mg reduction of Ureum level during day 5–7 of hospital stay When there was inadequate calorie intake, protein from muscle might be broken down marked by a rise in blood ureum level with or without an increase in creatinin level. In this condition, electrolyte level, such as

  19. Municipal solid waste and dung cake burning: discoloring the Taj Mahal and human health impacts in Agra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Raj M.; Nagpure, Ajay S.; Luo, Lina; Tripathi, Sachchida N.; Ramaswami, Anu; Bergin, Michael H.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2016-10-01

    The Taj Mahal—an iconic World Heritage monument built of white marble—has become discolored with time, due, in part, to high levels of particulate matter (PM) soiling its surface (Bergin et al 2015 Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 808-812). Such discoloration has required extensive and costly treatment (2015 Two Hundred Sixty Second Report on Effects of Pollution on Taj Parliament of India Rajya Sabha, New Delhi) and despite previous interventions to reduce pollution in its vicinity, the haze and darkening persists (Bergin et al 2015 Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 808-812 2015 Two Hundred Sixty Second Report on Effects of Pollution on Taj Parliament of India Rajya Sabha, New Delhi). PM responsible for the soiling has been attributed to a variety of sources including industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust and biomass burning, but the contribution of the emissions from the burning of open municipal solid waste (MSW) may also play an important role. A recent source apportionment study of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at the Taj Mahal showed biomass burning emissions, which would include MSW emissions, accounted for nearly 40% of organic matter (OM)—a component of PM—deposition to its surface (Bergin et al 2015 Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 808-812) dung cake burning, used extensively for cooking in the region, was the suggested culprit and banned within the city limits (2015 Two Hundred Sixty Second Report on Effects of Pollution on Taj Parliament of India Rajya Sabha, New Delhi), although the burning of MSW, a ubiquitous practice in the area (Nagpure et al 2015 Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 12904-12), may play a more important role in local air quality. Using spatially detailed emission estimates and air quality modeling, we find that open MSW burning leads to about 150 (±130) mg m-2 yr-1 of PM2.5 being deposited to the surface of the Taj Mahal compared to about 12 (±3.2) mg m-2 yr-1 from dung cake burning. Those two sources, combined, also lead to an estimated 713 (377

  20. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  1. Esterification of oil adsorbed on palm decanter cake into methyl ester using sulfonated rice husk ash as heterogeneous acid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Erwin, Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2017-02-01

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m2.g-1 after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17:1 for 5 hours at 120 °C.

  2. Egg performance, egg quality, and nutrient utilization in laying hens fed diets with different levels of rapeseed expeller cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SWIATKIEWICZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of rapeseed expeller cake (RC in the diet of laying hens on egg performance, egg quality, retention and excretion of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus, and metabolizability of energy. The experiment was carried out with 72 Bovans Brown hens, from 28 to 53 weeks of age. Experimental treatment consisted of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric corn-soybean diets (as calculated: 17% crude protein, 11.6 MJ/kg metabolizable energy, 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% calcium and 0.37% available phosphorus, containing 0, 4, 6 or 8% RC. The RC used was produced from double zero rapeseed and contained 29.3% crude protein, 17.4% crude fat, 10.8% crude fibre, 0.63% calcium, 0.97% phosphorus, 1.91% lysine and 0.84% methionine. During the experimental period, the dietary level of RC had no significant effects on egg performance and egg quality parameters. Boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with 8% RC were characterized by an inferior flavour to those from other groups. There were no treatment effects on nitrogen balance or metabolizability of energy, though the highest dietary level of RC negatively affected retention and excretion of calcium and phosphorus.;

  3. Peptides from sesame cake extend healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans via upregulation of skn-1 and inhibition of intracellular ROS levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuanhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    The peptides from sesame cake (PSC) which are the main by-product of agricultural processing of sesame were prepared. To evaluate benefits of PSC for health and longevity, antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects were studied in vitro and in a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. PSC exhibited antioxidant activity in vitro, and induced beneficial effects on lifespan and several health parameters of C.elegans, including pharyngeal pumping rate, locomotion and lipofuscin accumulation. In a mev-1 mutant, PSC increased lifespan, and it enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in wild-type nematodes. After treatment with PSC, SOD activity, GSH content, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, leading to low intracellular ROS levels in C. elegans. PSC up-regulated skn-1 mRNA, and its target gene gcs-1, and abolished the extension of lifespan in skn-1 mutant, indicating that PSC-mediated longevity is dependent on activation of the skn-1/Nrf-2 transcription factor. Current results warrant research into the use of PSC as nutraceuticals for overall health improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  5. In vitro study on digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate: evaluation of impact on bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaštag, Zužana; Popović, Ljiljana; Popović, Senka; Peričin-Starčević, Ivana; Krimer-Malešević, Vera

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate prepared by alcalase (AH) was studied to evaluate the impact of the main gastrointestinal proteases on its antiradical and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The in vitro digestion was performed in a model system under optimized reaction conditions, first by pepsin and then with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin, simultaneously. The treatment with the gastrointestinal proteases led to a significant increase of the degree of hydrolysis, up to 55.95 ± 3.1% in the final digest. After the digestion, the 2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation activity of AH was increased from 7.59 ± 0.1 to 10.25 ± 0.3 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient/mg (p 0.05) in the final digest. These results showed an advantage of AH to increase the antiradical and resist ACE inhibitory activity during digestion by main gastrointestinal proteases, appearing as promising bioactive food ingredient.

  6. Evaluation of carbons derived from Gingelly oil cake for the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashanmugam, K B; Srinivasan, K

    2010-10-01

    The adsorption of lead(II) onto activated carbons prepared from Gingelly Oil Cake (GOC) by using thermal, sulphuric and zinc chloride activations was investigated. The effects of experimental parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and adsorbents dosage on the lead(II) removal were studied. The data were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetic data fitted well with Lagergren pseudo first order and pseudo second order models. The maximum adsorption capacity for lead(II) on adsorbents calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 105.26 mg/g and 114.94 mg/g for thermally activated and sulphuric acid activated carbons respectively. R2 values show that Langmuir model fits best to sulphuric acid activated carbon and Freundlich model fits best to thermally activated and zinc chloride activated carbons. The kinetic rates were best fitted to pseudo second order model. FT-IR analysis was used to obtain information on the nature of possible interaction between adsorbents and metal ions. SEM images confirmed the adsorption of lead(II) onto GOC adsorbents through morphological observations. Thermodynamic study showed the feasibility of process and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. The adsorbents were also tested for the removal of lead(II) from lead battery synthetic wastewater. The results indicate that carbons derived from GOC could be used to effectively adsorb lead(II) from aqueous solutions and wastewaters.

  7. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  8. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fa Zong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1 and C5 (2, were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1 and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2 through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB.

  9. HDO of guaiacol over NiMo catalyst supported on activated carbon derived from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ospina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical activation methods were used to prepare two different activated carbons (ACs from castor de-oiled cake. H2O/CO2 mixture was used as the physical activating agent, and for chemical activation potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was used. For both materials, textural and chemical properties were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal programmed reduction (TPR, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ACs were used as supports for NiMo sulfide catalysts, which were prepared by wetness impregnation and in-situ sulfided for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol (GUA as a model compound of bio-oil. The HDO reaction was carried out in a typical batch reactor at 5 MPa of H2 and 350 °C. Under the same test conditions, commercial catalysts were also tested in the reaction. Although the commercial catalysts displayed higher GUA conversion, the prepared catalysts showed higher activity and non-oxygenated and saturated products yield. 

  10. A simple versatile solution for collecting multidimensional clinical data based on the CakePHP web application framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Clinical trials aiming for regulatory approval of a therapeutic agent must be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP). Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) are specialized software solutions geared toward GCP-trials. They are however less suited for data management in small non-GCP research projects. For use in researcher-initiated non-GCP studies, we developed a client-server database application based on the public domain CakePHP framework. The underlying MySQL database uses a simple data model based on only five data tables. The graphical user interface can be run in any web browser inside the hospital network. Data are validated upon entry. Data contained in external database systems can be imported interactively. Data are automatically anonymized on import, and the key lists identifying the subjects being logged to a restricted part of the database. Data analysis is performed by separate statistics and analysis software connecting to the database via a generic Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) interface. Since its first pilot implementation in 2011, the solution has been applied to seven different clinical research projects covering different clinical problems in different organ systems such as cancer of the thyroid and the prostate glands. This paper shows how the adoption of a generic web application framework is a feasible, flexible, low-cost, and user-friendly way of managing multidimensional research data in researcher-initiated non-GCP clinical projects. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  12. Preparation a new sorbent based on polymeric ionic liquid for stir cake sorptive extraction of organic compounds and inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Wang, Yulei; Hong, Qiuyun; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-11-01

    A new multi-interaction sorbent (MIS) based on polymeric ionic liquid was prepared and used as extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE). In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, an ionic liquid, 1-vinylbenzyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was used as monomer to copolymerize in situ with divinylbenzene to form the MIS. The influences of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance were investigated thoroughly. The MIS was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Parabens and aromatic amines were used to investigate the extraction performance of MIS-SCSE for apolar and strongly polar analytes, respectively. The extraction parameters for parabens and aromatic amines were optimized. At the same time, simple and sensitive analytical methods for parabens and aromatic amines in real samples were developed by the combination of MIS-SCSE and HPLC/DAD. Some inorganic anions, such as F(-), Br(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-) and SO4(2-), were used to test the extraction performance of MIS-SCSE for anions. Results indicated that mechanism involved in the extraction of MIS is the multi-interaction modes including π-π, hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, dipole-dipole and anion-exchange interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen dynamics model for a pilot field-scale novel dewatered alum sludge cake-based constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q; Hu, Y S; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A model simulating the effluent nitrogen (N) concentration of treated animal farm wastewater in a pilot on-site constructed wetland (CW) system, using dewatered alum sludge cake (DASC) as wetland substrate, is presented. The N-model was developed based on the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation software and is considering organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) as the major forms of nitrogen involved in the transformation chains. Ammonification (AMM), ammonia volatilization, nitrification (NIT), denitrification, plant uptake, plant decaying and uptake of inorganic nitrogen by algae and bacteria were considered in this model. pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and nitrogen concentrations were considered as forcing functions in the model. The model was calibrated by observed data with a reasonable agreement prior to its applications. The simulated effluent detritus nitrogen, NH4-N, NO3-N and TN had a considerably good agreement with the observed results. The mass balance analysis shows that NIT accounts for 65.60%, adsorption (ad) (11.90%), AMM (8.90%) followed by NH4-N (Plants) (5.90%) and NO3-N (Plants) (4.40%). The TN removal was found 52% of the total influent TN in the CW. This study suggested an improved overall performance of a DASC-based CW and efficient N removal from wastewater.

  14. Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+ or without (- probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p 0.05 except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05 in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

  15. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population, and urinary purine derivatives excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on two-stage olive cake: effect of PEG supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Ruiz, D R; Moumen, A; Martín García, A I; Molina Alcaide, E

    2004-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted in Granadina goats and Segureña wethers fed at maintenance level to evaluate the effect of including a mixture of barley and a new by-product derived from olive oil extraction (two-stage dried olive cake) on ruminal degradation and passage kinetics (Exp. 1), fermentation pattern and protozoa population (Exp. 2), and urinary purine derivatives excretion (Exp. 3). Polyethylene glycol was supplied to the animals to evaluate the effects of tannins contained in the by-product. The experimental diets were as follows: alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay plus a concentrate, formulated with two-stage dried olive cake, barley, and a mineral-vitamin mixture either with or without the addition of polyethylene glycol to the drinking water. The inclusion of two-stage dried olive cake in the diet resulted in an increase of condensed tannins. Ruminal VFA concentration in goats and wethers increased (P two-stage dried olive cake decreased (P fermentation patterns were also similar in goats and wethers and were affected by polyethylene glycol supply. In general, Entodiniomorphida and Holotricha protozoa counts were higher (P two-stage olive cake condensed tannins.

  16. Feeding Dry Olive Cake Modifies Subcutaneous Fat Composition in Lambs, Noting Cake Resistance to Degradation and Peroxidation Alimentación con Alperujo Modifica la Composición de Grasa Subcutánea en Corderos, con una Nota en la Resistencia del Alperujo a Degradación y Peroxidación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Vera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the extent to which lamb carcass quality and fat composition could be altered by applying a dry olive cake-based ration instead of a conventional ration or pasture feeding. Three treatments were compared in a completely randomized experiment using 36 single male Suffolk Down lambs with an initial age and live weight of 80 d and 25 kg, respectively. The three treatments were: (a suckling lambs kept with their mothers on annual Mediterranean grassland (GRAZE; (b weaned stall-fed lambs on a control ration (CONC; and (c weaned stall-fed lambs on an olive cake-based ration (CAKE. At the end of the 28-d experimental period, lambs were slaughtered, carcass quality evaluated, and samples of subcutaneous fat analyzed for fatty acids. Treatments did not differ in weight gain or carcass weight and quality, but highly significant differences were found in several fatty acid contents. CAKE animals had reduced palmitic acid as well as increased oleic and stearic acid contents. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indices improved with cake feeding. Principal component and discriminant analyses clearly differentiated treatments suggesting they could be applicable for traceability purposes. A laboratory experiment demonstrated that with or without added vitamin E, the dry olive cake did not alter its lipid properties with increased storage time.El propósito del experimento aquí reportado fue determinar en qué grado se puede modificar la composición y calidad de la carcasa de corderos con el suministro de una ración basada en el alperujo de oliva, en comparación con una ración convencional o con el pastoreo directo. Se compararon tres tratamientos usando un diseño completamente al azar con 36 corderos machos Suffolk Down de partos únicos, y con edad y peso inicial de 80 d y 25 kg, respectivamente. Los tres tratamientos consistieron en; (a corderos lactantes mantenidos con sus madres en una pastura anual de tipo

  17. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  18. Impact of ultrasonic pretreatment under different operational conditions on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake in batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cegrí, V; de la Rubia, M A; Raposo, F; Borja, R

    2012-09-01

    In this study ultrasonic (US) pretreatment was investigated with the aim of improving the anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), the solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. Five ultrasonic pretreatment assays were conducted at specific energy (SE) and sonication times in a range from 24,000 kJ/kg TS and 16.6 min (assay 1: US1) to 597,600 kJ/kg TS and 331.2 min (assay 5: US5), respectively, all operating at a constant sonication frequency (20 kHz) and ultrasonic power (120 W). As regards ultrasonic pretreatment, the working conditions of the first assay (US1) using samples of SuOC at 2% (w/v) showed to be the most appropriate in terms of both lignin and hemicellulose degradation (57.7% and 66.7%, respectively) and cellulose increase (54% increase with respect to its initial concentration). The percentage of COD solubilization increased from only 14% to 21% when SE was 25 times higher. Results obtained in batch anaerobic digestion experiments (biochemical methane potential - BMP - tests) conducted at 35°C of the solid and liquid fractions released from the different ultrasonic conditions tested, indicated that for the first experiment (US1) the average ultimate methane yield obtained was 53.8% higher than that achieved for untreated SuOC. Finally, the kinetic constants of the anaerobic digestion of the solid and liquid fractions released after the ultrasonic pretreatment were virtually independent of the operation conditions assayed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Gurhan; Yildiz-Akgul, Filiz; Kocaman, Veli

    2017-03-01

    The current study compared the effects of dietary levels of two phase stoned olive cake (OC) in form of silage (OCS) on milk production and quality of Saanen goats. The OCS included in total mixed ration (TMR) at dry matter proportions of 0.0 (OC0), 0.10 (OC10), and 0.20 (OC20). The TMR were fed to a total of 18 goats in a completely randomized design for a period of 5 weeks. Dietary treatments had no effect on the milk yield of Saanen goats, but the daily milk fat production was greater (p<0.05) at feeding OC20. The total phenolic (TP) compounds contents increased (p<0.01) in each increment of OCS in TMR and this was also reflected in the TP contents of milk. The C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 saturated fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) with increasing dietary level of OCS, but the decrease (p<0.001) in C16:0 and the increase (p<0.01) in C18:0 in milk fat occurred similarly at each inclusion level of OCS. Only OC20 reduced (p<0.05) the total saturated FA, yet the reduction (p<0.01) in n6/n3 ratio and atherogenicity index occurred in both OC10 and OC20. Two phase stoned OCS increases milk quality not only through modifying the milk FA composition, but also by increasing the milk TP content. These favorable changes in milk quality are closely associated with the dietary level of OCS.

  20. Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study compared the effects of dietary levels of two phase stoned olive cake (OC in form of silage (OCS on milk production and quality of Saanen goats. Methods The OCS included in total mixed ration (TMR at dry matter proportions of 0.0 (OC0, 0.10 (OC10, and 0.20 (OC20. The TMR were fed to a total of 18 goats in a completely randomized design for a period of 5 weeks. Results Dietary treatments had no effect on the milk yield of Saanen goats, but the daily milk fat production was greater (p<0.05 at feeding OC20. The total phenolic (TP compounds contents increased (p<0.01 in each increment of OCS in TMR and this was also reflected in the TP contents of milk. The C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 saturated fatty acids (FAs in milk fat decreased (p<0.01 with increasing dietary level of OCS, but the decrease (p<0.001 in C16:0 and the increase (p<0.01 in C18:0 in milk fat occurred similarly at each inclusion level of OCS. Only OC20 reduced (p<0.05 the total saturated FA, yet the reduction (p<0.01 in n6/n3 ratio and atherogenicity index occurred in both OC10 and OC20. Conclusion Two phase stoned OCS increases milk quality not only through modifying the milk FA composition, but also by increasing the milk TP content. These favorable changes in milk quality are closely associated with the dietary level of OCS.

  1. Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Widiyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein  of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%, F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%, F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD, variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin, the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P 0.05. While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.

  2. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological and Sensory Assessment of Stored ‘Zogale’-A Snack Food Produced from Peanut (Arachis hypogeae) Cake and Boiled Moringa oleifera Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    D.I. Gernah; B.M. Egga; E.J. Umoh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of boiling time on the microbiological and sensory quality of “Zogale” was determined. Moringa leaves were boiled for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after which the various portions were blended with coarsely grounded peanut cake (kulikuli), in a ratio of 75 Moringa Moringa leaves: 25 kulikuli, giving zogale samples A, B, C and D respectively, ( in line with the composition of the market sample E, which served as control). The samples were stored on the shelf (30- 34°C) and in the refrigerat...

  4. Mannanase Production by Aspergillus niger USM F4 Via Solid Substrate Fermentation in a Shallow Tray Using Palm Kernel Cake as a Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Rashid, S.; Che Omar, I.; Ibrahim, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger USM F4 produced high level of mannanase activity when cultivated in a shallow tray system (45 x 40 x 7 cm3) using palm kernel cake (PKC), an easily available cheap agricultural waste which are found abundantly in Malaysia.Methodology and Results: A range of 0.25 to 1.5 cm bed heights were investigated in tracking in the most suitable condition and maximum production of mannanase. The highest mannanase production of 918.68 U/g substrate was obtai...

  5. The Effect of Urea and Sulphur Level in Mixing of Cassava Waste Fermented and Soybean Cake waste on Nitrogen Balance and Digestibility of Energy of Local Male Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Haryanto; Nur Hidayat; Bata, M

    2001-01-01

    Cassava waste and soybean cake waste are by - product from home industry  that  have been used as animal feed. It contain high crude fibber, there fore it must be processed or added with another nutrients before feeding to animal to get a good performance. A research have been  conducted in Experimental Farm and Laboratory Animal of  Feed and Nutrition, Animal Science Faculty, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto at October- Nopember 2001. The purpose of  the research is to find the effe...

  6. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  7. Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftah, Omar Ali Saied; Grbavčić, Sanja; Zuža, Milena; Luković, Nevena; Bezbradica, Dejan; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil cake is a by-product from the olive oil processing industry and can be used for the lipase and protease production by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated, and the results showed that the supplementation of the substrate with maltose and starch as carbon sources and yeast extract as a nitrogen source significantly increased the lipase production. The best results were obtained with maltose, whereas rather low lipase and protease activities were found with glucose and oleic acid. Response surface methodology and a five-level-three-factor central composite rotatable design were used to evaluate the effects of the initial moisture content, inoculum size and fermentation time on both lipase and protease activity levels. A lipase activity value of ≈25 U g(-1) and a protease activity value of 110 U g(-1) were obtained under the optimized fermentation conditions. An alkaline treatment of the substrate appeared to be efficient, leading to increases of 39% and 133% in the lipase and protease production, respectively. The results showed that the olive cake could be a good source for enzyme production by solid state fermentation.

  8. Enhancing Nutritional Contents of Lentinus sajor-caju Using Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS. PMID:27790187

  9. Enhancing Nutritional Contents ofLentinus sajor-cajuUsing Residual Biogas Slurry Waste of Detoxified Mahua Cake Mixed with Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Kumar, Ashwani; Alam, Pravej; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Residual biogas slurries (BGS) of detoxified mahua cake and cow dung were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS). Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg -1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase ( p ≤ 0.05) in protein content (29.6-38.9%), sugars (29.1-32.3%) and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn) was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%), lignin (%), celluloses (%), and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N, and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake) in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%), hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1%) and lignin (27.4-39.23%) in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of L. sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  10. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30.  The total intake of  dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented  and soyabean cake waste with dry matter  ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant  (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999   Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  11. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  12. Bio-detoxification of phorbol esters and other anti-nutrients of Jatropha curcas seed cake by fungal cultures using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath, B S; Mohankumar, B V; Somashekar, D

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha seed cake, a byproduct after biodiesel extraction, has several anti-nutrients and toxins. Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the detoxification of the Jatropha seed cake (JSC) using different fungal cultures. The reduction in the anti-nutritional components such as tannins, phytates, saponins, lectin and protease inhibitor, and phorbol esters on 6th, 9th, and 12th day of fermentation was analyzed. The phorbol ester content in the unfermented JSC was 0.83 mg/g, and the maximum degradation of phorbol esters to the extent of 75% was observed in the case of JSC fermented with Cunninghamella echinulata CJS-90. The phytate degradation in the fermented JSC was in the range of 65-96%. There was a gradual reduction of saponin content in the JSC from 6th to 12th day, and the reduction of saponin was in the range of 55-99% after solid-state fermentation. The trypsin inhibitor activity and lectin were 1,680 trypsin inhibitor units (TIU) per gram and 0.32 hemagglutinating unit in the unfermented JSC, respectively. Trypsin inhibitor activity and lectin could not be detected in JSC after 12th day of solid-state fermentation. Tannins accounted for 0.53% in unfermented JSC, and there was a marginal increase of tannins after solid-state fermentation. The results indicate that biological detoxification could be a promising method to reduce anti-nutritional compounds and toxins in the JSC.

  13. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  14. Carbonization and liquid-crystal (mesophase) development. 21. Replacement of low-volatile caking coal by petroleum pitch in coal blends for metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.

    1981-06-01

    Cokes were prepared in a 7 kg oven from blends of high-volatile and low-volatile caking coals, using ratios of 1:1 and 3:7 To the 1:1 blend was added 7.5% of either Ashland A240 or A170 petroleum pitch or SFBP petroleum pitch 1. Micum m$SUB$3$SUB$0 and m$SUB$1$SUB$0 indices were determined on cokes from the 7 kg oven, using the 1/5 micum drum. Optical textures were assessed using polarized light microscopy of polished surfaces of cokes. The effect of additive is to increase the strength of cokes. The pitch can be an effective replacement of low-volatile caking coal. The analysis by optical microscopy shows that with the stronger cokes from the 7 kg oven there has occurred an interaction between the coal and pitch at the interface of coal particles to produce a solution or fluid phase which carbonizes to a coke with an optical texture of fine-grained mozaics. This material could be responsible for the enhancement of coke strength, being associated with pore wall material rather than with a change in porosity. The results agree with previous work using cokes prepared in the laboratory on a small scale. (17 refs.)

  15. Carbonization and liquid-crystal (mesophase) development. 20. Co-carbonization of a high-volatile caking coal with several petroleum pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.

    1981-06-01

    A high-volatile caking coal and five petroleum pitches were carbonized singly and coal/pitch systems were co-carbonized to 1273 K in the ratio of 75 wt% coal and 25 wt% pitch. Optical textures of cokes from the single carbonizations and co-carbonizations are assessed in terms of modification to the coal-coke by the pitch and unmodified pitch-coke using a point-counting technique. The pitches differ considerably in their carbonization behaviour. Each pitch can be placed into one of three groups defined in terms of their interaction with the high-volatile caking coal. A passive pitch does not modify the coal-coke but apparently carbonizes independently of the coal. An active pitch modified some of the coal-coke. No pitch-coke can be detected. A super-active pitch modifies the coal-coke extensively beyond the extent expected from a 25% addition. No pitch-coke can be detected. The effects are related to the ability of the pitch to cause depolymerization of the coal. Quinoline-insoluble material in pitch may inhibit modification. (8 refs.)

  16. Effects of different dietary inclusion levels of macadamia oil cake on growth performance and carcass characteristics in South African mutton merino lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Nkosi, Douglas B; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2017-04-01

    Growth performance and carcass characteristics of South African mutton merino fed graded levels of macadamia oil cake were assessed. A total of 60 South African mutton merino lambs were used in the experiment (initial live weight 25.0 ± 0.45 kg). Five diets with different inclusion levels of macadamia oil cake (MOC) were formulated: T1 (0% MOC, control), T2 (5% MOC), T3 (10% MOC), T4 (15% MOC) and T5 (20% MOC). Effects of inclusion level of MOC on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not significant (P > 0.05). Effects of inclusion levels of MOC on feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sheep were significant (P < 0.05). Highest proportion (71.2%) of sheep in the study had a carcass fat classification of 2, followed by a proportion of 17.3% sheep with a carcass fat classification of 3 and lastly 11.5% sheep had carcass fat classification of 4. Warm and cold carcass mass, chest circumference, carcass length and dressing percentage were higher in sheep fed on 5% MOC compared to other treatment diets (0, 10, 15 and 20% MOC) (P < 0.05). Fat rib eye had a greater area in sheep fed on 5% MOC (P < 0.05). It was concluded that 5% MOC provided the best results in terms of carcass characteristic measurements in sheep.

  17. Residues of ¹⁴C-ethion along the extraction and refining process of maize oil, and the bioavailability of bound residues in the cake for experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, H; Abdel-Hameed, R M; Witczak, A

    2013-08-01

    Maize seeds obtained from ¹⁴C-ethion treated plants contained about 0.01 % of the originally applied radioactivity 1 month following the last pesticide application. Hexane and methanol extracts of the seeds accounted for 35 % and 22.5 % of the radioactive residues, respectively, with 40 % remaining in the seed cake. Commercial processing procedures resulted in a gradual decrease in the total amount of ¹⁴C-residues in oils with aged residues. The refined oil contained ¹⁴C-residues that amounted to about 30 % of the amount that was originally present. The major residues in processed oil are ethion monooxon, O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate and O,O-diethyl S-hydroxymethyl phosphorodithioate, in addition to one unknown compound. After feeding rats with the cake containing ethion bound residues, a substantial amount (71 %) of ¹⁴C-residues was eliminated in the urine, while about 12 % was excreted in the feces. About 5 % of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs. The bound residue was quite readily bioavailable to the rats.

  18. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B; Thybaut, Joris W; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil.

  19. Enhancing nutritional contents of Lentinus sajor-caju using residual biogas slurry waste of detoxified mahua cake mixed with wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residual biogas slurries (BGS of detoxified mahua cake (DMC and cow dung (CD were used as supplements to enhance the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju on wheat straw (WS. Supplementation with 20% BGS gave a maximum yield of 1155 gkg-1 fruit bodies, furnishing an increase of 95.1% over WS control. Significant increase (p≤0.05 in protein content (29.6-38.9%, sugars (29.1-32.3% and minerals (N, P, K, Fe, Zn was observed in the fruit bodies. Principle component analysis (PCA was performed to see the pattern of correlation within a set of observed variables and how these different variables varied in different treatments. PC1 and PC2 represented 90% of total variation in the observed variables. Moisture (%, lignin (%, celluloses (% and C/N ratio were closely correlated in comparison to Fe, N and saponins. PCA of amino acids revealed that, PC1 and PC2 represented 74% of total variation in the data set. HPLC confirmed the absence of any saponin residues (characteristic toxins of mahua cake in fruit bodies and mushroom spent. FTIR studies showed significant degradation of celluloses (22.2-32.4%, hemicelluloses (14.1-23.1% and lignin (27.4-39.23% in the spent, along with an increase in nutrition content. The study provided a simple, cost effective approach to improve the yield and nutritional quality of Lentinus sajor-caju by resourceful utilization of BGS.

  20. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.