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Sample records for cake simulant relevant

  1. Energy requirements during sponge cake baking: Experimental and simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureta, M. Micaela; Goñi, Sandro M.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Olivera, Daniela F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sponge cake energy consumption during baking was studied. • High oven temperature and forced convection mode favours oven energy savings. • Forced convection produced higher weight loss thus a higher product energy demand. • Product energy demand was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied. • The greatest energy efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode. - Abstract: Baking is a high energy demanding process, which requires special attention in order to know and improve its efficiency. In this work, energy consumption associated to sponge cake baking is investigated. A wide range of operative conditions (two ovens, three convection modes, three oven temperatures) were compared. Experimental oven energy consumption was estimated taking into account the heating resistances power and a usage factor. Product energy demand was estimated from both experimental and modeling approaches considering sensible and latent heat. Oven energy consumption results showed that high oven temperature and forced convection mode favours energy savings. Regarding product energy demand, forced convection produced faster and higher weight loss inducing a higher energy demand. Besides, this parameter was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied, with an average error between experimental and simulated values in a range of 8.0–10.1%. Finally, the energy efficiency results indicated that it increased linearly with the effective oven temperature and that the greatest efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode.

  2. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Mansur, E. de.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 37 0 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  3. Celebratory Cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  4. Optimization of MBR hydrodynamics for cake layer fouling control through CFD simulation and RSM design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yu, Dawei; Liu, Mengmeng; Zheng, Libing; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Fang; Fan, Yaobo

    2017-03-01

    Membrane fouling is an important issue for membrane bioreactor (MBR) operation. This paper aims at the investigation and the controlling of reversible membrane fouling due to cake layer formation and foulants deposition by optimizing MBR hydrodynamics through the combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and design of experiment (DOE). The model was validated by comparing simulations with measurements of liquid velocity and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a lab-scale submerged MBR. The results demonstrated that the sludge concentration is the most influencing for responses including shear stress, particle deposition propensity (PDP), sludge viscosity and strain rate. A medium sludge concentration of 8820mgL -1 is optimal for the reduction of reversible fouling in this submerged MBR. The bubble diameter is more decisive than air flowrate for membrane shear stress due to its role in sludge viscosity. The optimal bubble diameter was at around 4.8mm for both of shear stress and PDP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  6. Summarizing Simulation Results using Causally-relevant States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Marathe, Madhav; Swarup, Samarth

    2016-01-01

    As increasingly large-scale multiagent simulations are being implemented, new methods are becoming necessary to make sense of the results of these simulations. Even concisely summarizing the results of a given simulation run is a challenge. Here we pose this as the problem of simulation summarization: how to extract the causally-relevant descriptions of the trajectories of the agents in the simulation. We present a simple algorithm to compress agent trajectories through state space by identifying the state transitions which are relevant to determining the distribution of outcomes at the end of the simulation. We present a toy-example to illustrate the working of the algorithm, and then apply it to a complex simulation of a major disaster in an urban area. PMID:28042620

  7. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SINGKONG SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TERIGU UNTUK VARIASI CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Panti Ariani

    2016-08-01

    quasi-experimental research in the laboratory because of the limitations to control all the relevant variables. Data collection instrument uses observation sheets to obtain quality test data from trained research, while the taste test data obtained from the general public to determine the acceptability of variation cassava cake. The data analysis was conducted by qualitative descriptive study. Research results obtained quality cake cassava on the criteria perfectly on, (a pound cake with a substitution of 80% of the main ingredient, (b roll cake with substitution of 100% main ingredient, but the quality of the texture of the lowest, (c chiffon cake with substitution of 100% the main ingredient, and development (volume maximum, (d steamed sponge with the substitution of 80% of the main ingredient, but the quality of the aroma room, (e sponge cake with a substitution of 80% of the main ingredient, but all the criteria lows, (f brownies with substitution 100% main ingredient, as well as all the supreme criterion, (g fruit cake using local fruits by substitution of 100% main ingredient, as well as all the supreme criterion, and (g rainbow cake by substituting 100% main ingredient, but the texture quality lowest. In general acceptability of the community is like the variety of cassava cake, but the cake and rainbow sponge cake obtain the lowest acceptance. Thus the 8 types of cake can be used as a substitution of cassava flour wheat to support increased food security. Keywords: cassava flour, cake variation, substitution wheat

  8. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  9. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  10. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  11. Let them eat cake!

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -

    2017-01-01

    Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...

  12. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  13. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  14. Interface tracking simulations of bubbly flows in PWR relevant geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun, E-mail: jfang3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Rasquin, Michel, E-mail: michel.rasquin@colorado.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bolotnov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_bolotnov@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulations were performed for turbulent bubbly flows in PWR subchannel geometry. • Liquid turbulence is fully resolved by direct numerical simulation approach. • Bubble behavior is captured using level-set interface tracking method. • Time-averaged single- and two-phase turbulent flow statistical quantities are obtained. - Abstract: The advances in high performance computing (HPC) have allowed direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach coupled with interface tracking methods (ITM) to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent bubbly flows in various complex geometries. In this work, we have chosen the geometry of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core subchannel to perform a set of interface tracking simulations (ITS) with fully resolved liquid turbulence. The presented research utilizes a massively parallel finite-element based code, PHASTA, for the subchannel geometry simulations of bubbly flow turbulence. The main objective for this research is to demonstrate the ITS capabilities in gaining new insight into bubble/turbulence interactions and assisting the development of improved closure laws for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD). Both single- and two-phase turbulent flows were studied within a single PWR subchannel. The analysis of numerical results includes the mean gas and liquid velocity profiles, void fraction distribution and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. Two sets of flow rates and bubble sizes were used in the simulations. The chosen flow rates corresponded to the Reynolds numbers of 29,079 and 80,775 based on channel hydraulic diameter (D{sub h}) and mean velocity. The finite element unstructured grids utilized for these simulations include 53.8 million and 1.11 billion elements, respectively. This has allowed to fully resolve all the turbulence scales and the deformable interfaces of individual bubbles. For the two-phase flow simulations, a 1% bubble volume fraction was used which resulted in 17 bubbles in

  15. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gulshan B.; Robertson, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula’s material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element’s remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than

  16. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  17. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  18. Simulations relevant to the beam instability in the foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, I.H.; Nishikawa, K.I.

    1989-01-01

    Electrons backstreaming into Earth's foreshock generate waves near the plasma frequency f p by the beam instability. Tow versions of the beam instability exist: the reactive version, in which narrow-band waves grow by bunching the electrons in space, and the kinetic version, in which broadband growth occurs by a maser mechanism. Recently, it has been suggested that (1) the backstreaming electrons have steep-sided cutoff distributions which are initially unstable to the reactive instability, (2) the back reaction to the wave growth causes the instability to pass into its kinetic phase, and (3) the kinetic instability saturates by quasi-linear relaxation. In this paper the authors present two-dimensional simulations of the reactive instability for Maxwellian beams and cutoff distributions. They demonstrate that the reactive instability is a bunching instability and that the reactive instability saturates and passes over into the kinetic phase by particle trapping.A reactive/kinetic transition is shown to most likely occur within 1 km and 50 km of the bow shock. They suggest that the frequency of the intense narrow-band waves decrease from above f p to perhaps 0.9f p (dependent on the beam density) with increasing penetration into the high beam speed region of the foreshock, before the wave frequency rises again as the waves become broadband deeper in the foreshock. Both the simulation results and numerical solutions of the dispersion equation indicate that for the observed beam parameters the center frequency of the waves near the foreshock boundary should be between 0.9f p and 0.98f p , rather than above f p as previously believed. The simulation results indicate that the effects of spatial inhomogeneity are vital for a quantitative understanding of the foreshock waves

  19. Simulations relevant to the beam instability in the foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, I. H.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    1989-01-01

    The results presently obtained from two-dimensional simulations of the reactive instability for Maxwellian beams and cutoff distributions are noted to be consistent with recent suggestions that electrons backstreaming into earth's foreshock have steep-sided cutoff distributions, which are initially unstable to the reactive instability, and that the back-reaction to the wave growth causes the instability to pass into its kinetic phase. It is demonstrated that the reactive instability is a bunching instability, and that the reactive instability saturates and passes over into the kinetic phase by particle trapping.

  20. Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs

  1. Measurements relevant to simulating subcriticality in ADS facilities with blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Borovlev, S.P.; Gladkikh, N.G.; Igumnov, M.M.; Legostaev, V.O.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Konev, V.N.; Kushnerev, Yu.T.; Popkov, V.N.; Ryazhsky, V.I.; Spiridonov, V.G.; Chernyavsky, E.V.; Shvedov, O.V.

    2009-10-01

    The work presents the results of determining the blanket subcriticality for a zero-power heavy water reactor MAKET at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. The blanket is hexagonal lattice made of 36 90%-enriched 235U fuel rods spaced 173mm apart. The subcriticality was varied from ∼0.3% to 5% by adjusting the heavy water level. The subcriticality values were calibrated using the dependence of reactivity on heavy water level. The pulsed neutron source technique was used to measure the temporal dependence of neutron field at different blanket points for the calibrated subcriticality values. The subciticality values obtained in terms of the 'inverse clock' formulae using the decay constants of the measured dependences proved to differ from the calibrated subcriticalities by not more than 7% at the average. The MCNP code-aided simulations of the experiment made has given the calibrated keff values at prescribed heavy water levels and led to the neutron field decay constants at given points, which differ on the average from their experimental values by not more than 7% too. (author)

  2. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    , it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...

  3. Control-relevant modeling and simulation of a SOFC-GT hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu Kandepu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, control-relevant models of the most important components in a SOFC-GT hybrid system are described. Dynamic simulations are performed on the overall hybrid system. The model is used to develop a simple control structure, but the simulations show that more elaborate control is needed.

  4. Control-relevant modeling and simulation of a SOFC-GT hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Rambabu Kandepu; Lars Imsland; Christoph Stiller; Bjarne A. Foss; Vinay Kariwala

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, control-relevant models of the most important components in a SOFC-GT hybrid system are described. Dynamic simulations are performed on the overall hybrid system. The model is used to develop a simple control structure, but the simulations show that more elaborate control is needed.

  5. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessasma, Mohamed; Silva Tavares, Homayra; Afrassiabian, Zahra; Saleh, Khashayar

    2017-06-01

    This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM). In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV), the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation) in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength).

  6. Numerical modelling of powder caking at REV scale by using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guessasma Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical simulation of powder caking process caused by capillary condensation phenomenon. Caking consists in unwanted agglomeration of powder particles. This process is often irreversible and not easy to predict. To reproduce mechanism involved by caking phenomenon we have used the Discrete Elements Method (DEM. In the present work, we mainly focus on the role of capillary condensation and subsequent liquid bridge formation within a granular medium exposed to fluctuations of ambient relative humidity. Such bridges cause an attractive force between particles, leading to the formation of a cake with intrinsic physicochemical and mechanical properties. By considering a Representative Elementary Volume (REV, the DEM is then performed by means of a MULTICOR-3D software tacking into account the properties of the cake (degree of saturation in order to establish relationships between the microscopic parameters and the macroscopic behaviour (tensile strength.

  7. Tea and cake [second edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Tea & Cake is an edited version of the original book produced by Philippa Wood in 2007. The book takes a nostalgic look at childhood memories of ‘baking with mother’ or special tea-time treats. The book combines ink-jet printing with typewritten text and rubber stamps; doilly end-papers and embroidered traycloth covers.

  8. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  9. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  10. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  11. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky's question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  12. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  13. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  14. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Molecular simulation of the thermophysical properties and phase behaviour of impure CO2 relevant to CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Alexander J; Wheatley, Richard J; Wilkinson, Richard D; Graham, Richard S

    2016-10-20

    Impurities from the CCS chain can greatly influence the physical properties of CO 2 . This has important design, safety and cost implications for the compression, transport and storage of CO 2 . There is an urgent need to understand and predict the properties of impure CO 2 to assist with CCS implementation. However, CCS presents demanding modelling requirements. A suitable model must both accurately and robustly predict CO 2 phase behaviour over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, and maintain that predictive power for CO 2 mixtures with numerous, mutually interacting chemical species. A promising technique to address this task is molecular simulation. It offers a molecular approach, with foundations in firmly established physical principles, along with the potential to predict the wide range of physical properties required for CCS. The quality of predictions from molecular simulation depends on accurate force-fields to describe the interactions between CO 2 and other molecules. Unfortunately, there is currently no universally applicable method to obtain force-fields suitable for molecular simulation. In this paper we present two methods of obtaining force-fields: the first being semi-empirical and the second using ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. In the first approach we optimise the impurity force-field against measurements of the phase and pressure-volume behaviour of CO 2 binary mixtures with N 2 , O 2 , Ar and H 2 . A gradient-free optimiser allows us to use the simulation itself as the underlying model. This leads to accurate and robust predictions under conditions relevant to CCS. In the second approach we use quantum-chemical calculations to produce ab initio evaluations of the interactions between CO 2 and relevant impurities, taking N 2 as an exemplar. We use a modest number of these calculations to train a machine-learning algorithm, known as a Gaussian process, to describe these data. The resulting model is then able to accurately

  16. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  18. The relevance of thermal hydraulics pipeline simulation as a regulatory support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Santos, Almir Beserra dos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The capacity definition of a pipeline, along with its allocation, is very relevant to assure market transparency, nondiscriminatory access, security of supply, and also to give consistent signs for expansion needs. Nevertheless, the capacity definition is a controversial issue, and may widely vary depending on the technical and commercial assumptions made. To calculate a pipeline's nominal capacity, there are a variety of simulation tools, which include steady state, transient and on-line computer programs. It is desirable that the simulation tool is robust enough to predict the pipeline's capacity under different conditions. There are many variables that impact the flow through a pipeline, like gas characteristics, pipe and environmental variables. Designing a thermal model is a time-consuming task that requests understanding the level of detail need, in order to achieve success in its application. This article discusses the capacity definition, its role and calculation guidelines, describes ANP's experience with capacity calculation and further challenges according to the new regulation, and debates the role of thermal hydraulic simulation as a regulatory tool. (author)

  19. Wafer Cakes of Improved Amino Acid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Boidunyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the amino acid composition of newly developed wafer cakes with adipose fillings combined with natural additives. The appropriateness of the using non-traditional raw materials (powder of willow herb, poppy oilcake, carob, as well as skimmed milk powder in order to increase the biological value of wafer cakes and improve their amino acid composition is proven.

  20. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake) dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen). Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder ...

  1. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  2. From Baking a Cake to Solving the Schrodinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary emphasis of this study has been to explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. Restricting our consideration to the genoise, one of the basic cakes of classic French cuisine, we have obtained a semi-empirical formula for its baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The formula, which is based on the Diffusion e...

  3. Corrosion on Mars: An Investigation of Corrosion Mechanisms Under Relevant Simulated Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Johansen, Michael R.; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year project was selected by NASA's Science Innovation Fund in FY17 to address Corrosion on Mars which is a problem that has not been addressed before. Corrosion resistance is one of the most important properties in selecting materials for landed spacecraft and structures that will support surface operations for the human exploration of Mars. Currently, the selection of materials is done by assuming that the corrosion behavior of a material on Mars will be the same as that on Earth. This is understandable given that there is no data regarding the corrosion resistance of materials in the Mars environment. However, given that corrosion is defined as the degradation of a metal that results from its chemical interaction with the environment, it cannot be assumed that corrosion is going to be the same in both environments since they are significantly different. The goal of this research is to develop a systematic approach to understand corrosion of spacecraft materials on Mars by conducting a literature search of available data, relevant to corrosion in the Mars environment, and by performing preliminary laboratory experiments under relevant simulated Martian conditions. This project was motivated by the newly found evidence for the presence of transient liquid brines on Mars that coincided with the suggestion, by a team of researchers, that some of the structural degradation observed on Curiosity's wheels may be caused by corrosive interactions with the brines, while the most significant damage was attributed to rock scratching. An extensive literature search on data relevant to Mars corrosion confirmed the need for further investigation of the interaction between materials used for spacecraft and structures designed to support long-term surface operations on Mars. Simple preliminary experiments, designed to look at the interaction between an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA7075-T73) and the gases present in the Mars atmosphere, at 20degC and a pressure of 700 Pa

  4. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  5. An observational study of the effect of vibration on the caking of suspensions in oily vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Bork, Olaf; Alawi, Fadil; Nanjan, Karthigeyan; Tucker, Ian G

    2016-11-30

    An oily suspension of penethamate (PNT) that was physically stable on storage, caked solidly during road/air transport. This paper reports on the caking behaviour of PNT oily suspension formulations exposed to vibrations in a lab-based test designed to simulate road/air transport. The lab-test was used to study the effects of container type (glass v PET) and formulation (oil, surfactant type and concentration) on the physical stability of suspension under vibration. Redispersibility of the sediment was lower at longer vibrations times and at higher intensity of vibration. Caking on vibration was strongly influenced by the type of container (caking in glass but not in PET) possibly due to tribo-charging of particles. Caking on vibration was dependent on the formulation: type and concentration of surfactant; type of oil. The physical stability of oily suspensions, and the effect of vibration are two areas which have been largely neglected in the pharmaceutical literature. This paper discusses some potential mechanisms for the observations but studies using fully characterised materials are required. Finally we conclude that static testing of physical stability of oily suspensions is not sufficient and that a vibrational stress test is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  7. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-03-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs+ ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion-ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (nH- =ne =1017 m-3) , representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ˜32 mA cm-2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ˜19 mA cm-2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN.

  8. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs + ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion–ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (n H − =n e =10 17 m −3 ), representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ∼32 mA cm −2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ∼19 mA cm −2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN. (paper)

  9. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  10. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast extracts enhanced growth. Pseudomanas strain G9 degraded 71.25% shea nut cake, while Pseudomonas strain G38 degraded 50.35% shea nut cake within 48 h. Pseudomonas G9 can be used to degrade shea nut cake. G9 and G38 are different species of Pseudomonas and molecular typing such as PCR can be ...

  11. Investigation of the structure of filter cakes from bore flushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Poege, S; Young, F

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the tasks and functions of the filter cake in bores, the requirements for filter cakes are explained. The aim of the investigation is finding a correlation between the filter cake structures and the prehistory of flushing. The technique of preparing the samples and previous results from investigations with electron microscopes are introduced and discussed.

  12. First results of the CAKE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarusi, T.; Bottazzi, E.; Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Giacomelli, G.; Kumar, A.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.; Valieri, C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic-ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39[reg] and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A GeV Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown

  13. First results of the CAKE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chiarusi, T; Cecchini, S; Di Ferdinando, D; Giacomelli, G; Kumar, A; Patrizii, L; Togo, V; Valieri, C

    2003-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of the cosmic abundances below the knee energies (CAKE) experiment for the study of the primary cosmic- ray composition and for the search of exotic particles in the primary cosmic radiation. CAKE uses CR39** registered trademark and Lexan nuclear track detectors, which were calibrated with beams of 158 A Ge V Pb ions and 1 A GeV Fe ions at the CERN and BNL accelerators, respectively. Results based on the analysis of a first data sample are shown.

  14. The development of functional cake technology based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Posnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical researches on the development of technologies of functional pastries with quality indicators satisfying customer and market demands of small enterprises are highly relevant. The purpose of studies was to develop a technology of functional cake based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products - cellulose and syrup.The recipe of the cake “Stolichnyi” was taken as a control sample.Test cake samples were prepared with partial or full replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup (0–100% and raisins by Jerusalem artichoke fiber (0, 50, 100%. It was found that organoleptic quality indicators of products improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke syrup instead of sugar, their specific volume decreased slightly compared to the control – by 1.9–3.0%.Specific volume of cakes increased compared to the control by 5.4–11%improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichokefiber instead of raisins, but its surface became bumpier, there were deep cracks. Specific volume of products increased by 7.8–8.8%, the surface was convex, slightly bumpy with little nicked when Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiberwere introduced together.The humidity and the alkalinity of samples practically unchanged. The sample prepared with full replacement of sugar by syrup and raisins by fiber of Jerusalem artichoke had the best quality indicators.During storage for 5 days the smallest changes in the crumb condition and flavor were observed in cake samples with complete replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup, the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke fiber resulted in a slight elasticity decrease and friability crumbimprovement. The use of Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiber in the cakes manufacture allowsto receivegoods with high nutritional value, enriched with prebiotic inulin, to expand the range of functional pastry products.

  15. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  16. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  17. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  18. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  19. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  20. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates the e...

  1. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  2. Using different fibers to replace fat in sponge cakes: In vitro starch digestion and physico-structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Sánchez, Elena; Llorca, Empar; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of substituting 30% of fat by soluble, insoluble fiber, or a mix of both fibers in sponge cake quality, structure, acceptability, and starch digestibility. The apparent viscosity of the different formulations was measured and micro-baking was simulated. Texture profile tests were carried out and the crumb structure was examined. In vitro digestion was performed to study the digestibility of starch and a sensory test was carried out to know consumer acceptance. The soluble fiber (maltodextrin) affected the structure and quality of the cakes less than the insoluble fiber (potato fiber) and the use of soluble fiber in the formulation resulted in lower glucose release under in vitro conditions. Moreover, the consumer did not find differences among the control cake and the cakes prepared with soluble fiber. Considering the results as a whole, soluble fiber may be used for partial replacement of fat in sponge cake formulations and may constitute an appropriate strategy for obtaining healthy sponge cakes.

  3. Radiolytic gas generation in salt cake technical task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.; Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored in large, steel tanks in the Savannah River Site Tank Farms. The liquid levels in these tanks are monitored to detect leakage of waste out of tanks or leakage of liquids into the tanks. Recent unexplained level fluctuations in high-level waste (HLW) tanks have caused High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to develop a program to better understand tank level behavior. Interim Waste Technology (IWT) has been requested by HLWE to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the radiolytic generations of gases in salt cake. The task described below will provide data from laboratory experiments with simulated wastes which can be used in tank level fluctuation modeling. The following experimental programs have been formulated to meet the task requirements of the customer: (A) determine whether radiolytically generated gas bubbles can be trapped in salt cake; (B) determine the composition of gases produced by radiolysis; (C) determine the yield of radiolysis gases as a function of radiation dose; (D) determine bubble distribution

  4. Application of all relevant feature selection for failure analysis of parameter-induced simulation crashes in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paja, W.; Wrzesień, M.; Niemiec, R.; Rudnicki, W. R.

    2015-07-01

    The climate models are extremely complex pieces of software. They reflect best knowledge on physical components of the climate, nevertheless, they contain several parameters, which are too weakly constrained by observations, and can potentially lead to a crash of simulation. Recently a study by Lucas et al. (2013) has shown that machine learning methods can be used for predicting which combinations of parameters can lead to crash of simulation, and hence which processes described by these parameters need refined analyses. In the current study we reanalyse the dataset used in this research using different methodology. We confirm the main conclusion of the original study concerning suitability of machine learning for prediction of crashes. We show, that only three of the eight parameters indicated in the original study as relevant for prediction of the crash are indeed strongly relevant, three other are relevant but redundant, and two are not relevant at all. We also show that the variance due to split of data between training and validation sets has large influence both on accuracy of predictions and relative importance of variables, hence only cross-validated approach can deliver robust prediction of performance and relevance of variables.

  5. Application of all-relevant feature selection for the failure analysis of parameter-induced simulation crashes in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paja, Wiesław; Wrzesien, Mariusz; Niemiec, Rafał; Rudnicki, Witold R.

    2016-03-01

    Climate models are extremely complex pieces of software. They reflect the best knowledge on the physical components of the climate; nevertheless, they contain several parameters, which are too weakly constrained by observations, and can potentially lead to a simulation crashing. Recently a study by Lucas et al. (2013) has shown that machine learning methods can be used for predicting which combinations of parameters can lead to the simulation crashing and hence which processes described by these parameters need refined analyses. In the current study we reanalyse the data set used in this research using different methodology. We confirm the main conclusion of the original study concerning the suitability of machine learning for the prediction of crashes. We show that only three of the eight parameters indicated in the original study as relevant for prediction of the crash are indeed strongly relevant, three others are relevant but redundant and two are not relevant at all. We also show that the variance due to the split of data between training and validation sets has a large influence both on the accuracy of predictions and on the relative importance of variables; hence only a cross-validated approach can deliver a robust prediction of performance and relevance of variables.

  6. Realism, Authenticity, and Learning in Healthcare Simulations: Rules of Relevance and Irrelevance as Interactive Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rystedt, Hans; Sjoblom, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Because simulators offer the possibility of functioning as authentic representations of real-world tasks, these tools are regarded as efficient for developing expertise. The users' experience of realism is recognised as crucial, and is often regarded as an effect of the similarity between reality and the simulator itself. In this study, it is…

  7. Capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies: extended gas target experiments and GEANT simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kölle, V; Braitmayer, S E; Mohr, P J; Wilmes, S; Staudt, G; Hammer, J W; Jäger, M; Knee, H; Kunz, R; Mayer, A

    1999-01-01

    Several resonances of the capture reaction sup 2 sup 0 Ne(alpha, gamma) sup 2 sup 4 Mg were measured using an extended windowless gas target system. Detailed GEANT simulations were performed to derive the strength and the total width of the resonances from the measured yield curve. The crucial experimental parameters, which are mainly the density profile in the gas target and the efficiency of the gamma-ray detector, were analyzed by a comparison between the measured data and the corresponding simulation calculations. The excellent agreement between the experimental data and the simulations gives detailed insight into these parameters. (author)

  8. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  9. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  10. A Tissue Relevance and Meshing Method for Computing Patient-Specific Anatomical Models in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, M. A.; Hertel, I.; Burgert, O.; Strauss, G.

    This paper presents on-going work on a method for determining which subvolumes of a patient-specific tissue map, extracted from CT data of the head, are relevant to simulating endoscopic sinus surgery of that individual, and for decomposing these relevant tissues into triangles and tetrahedra whose mesh size is well controlled. The overall goal is to limit the complexity of the real-time biomechanical interaction while ensuring the clinical relevance of the simulation. Relevant tissues are determined as the union of the pathology present in the patient, of critical tissues deemed to be near the intended surgical path or pathology, and of bone and soft tissue near the intended path, pathology or critical tissues. The processing of tissues, prior to meshing, is based on the Fast Marching method applied under various guises, in a conditional manner that is related to tissue classes. The meshing is based on an adaptation of a meshing method of ours, which combines the Marching Tetrahedra method and the discrete Simplex mesh surface model to produce a topologically faithful surface mesh with well controlled edge and face size as a first stage, and Almost-regular Tetrahedralization of the same prescribed mesh size as a last stage.

  11. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  12. Time-Domain Simulations of Transient Species in Experimentally Relevant Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueltschi, Tyler W.; Fischer, Sean A.; Apra, Edoardo; Tarnovsky, Alexander N.; Govind, Niranjan; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-02-04

    Simulating the spectroscopic properties of short-lived thermal and photochemical reaction intermediates and products is a challenging task, as these species often feature atypical molecular and electronic structures. The complex environments in which such species typically reside in practice add further complexity to the problem. Herein, we tackle this problem in silico using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, employing iso-CHBr3, namely H(Br)C-Br-Br, as a prototypical system. This species was chosen because it features both a non-conventional C-Br-Br bonding pattern, as well as a strong dependence of its spectral features on the local environment in which it resides, as illustrated in recent experimental reports. The spectroscopic properties of iso-CHBr3 were measured by several groups that captured this transient intermediate in the photochemistry of CHBr3 in the gas phase, in rare gas matrices at 5K, and in solution under ambient laboratory conditions. We simulate the UV-Vis and IR spectra of iso-CHBr3 in all three media, including a Ne cluster (64 atoms) and a methylcyclohexane cage (14 solvent molecules) representative of the matrix isolated and solvated species. We exclusively perform fully quantum mechanical static and dynamic simulations. By comparing our condensed phase simulations to their experimental analogues, we stress the importance of (i) conformational sampling, even at cryogenic temperatures, and (ii) using a fully quantum mechanical description of both solute and bath to properly account for the experimental observables.

  13. DPPH radical scavenging activity of a mixture of fatty acids and peptide-containing compounds in a protein hydrolysate of Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phengnuam, Thanyarat; Goroncy, Alexander K; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2013-12-04

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant, has great potential commercial relevance as its seeds have high oil content. The seeds can be processed into high-quality biofuel producing seed cake as a byproduct. The seed cake, however, has not gotten much attention toward its potential usefulness. This work was aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of different fractions of a protein hydrolysate from J. curcas seed cake and to elucidate the molecular structures of the antioxidants. Seed cake was first processed into crude protein isolate and the protein was hydrolyzed by Neutrase. The hydrolysate obtained from 1 h of Neutrase hydrolysis showed the strongest antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). After a purification series of protein hydrolysate by liquid chromatography, chemicals acting as DPPH radical inhibitors were found to be a mixture of fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, and a small amount of peptides characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  14. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Planned upgrade to the coaxial plasma source facility for high heat flux plasma flows relevant to tokamak disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Mayo, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions in tokamaks remain serious obstacles to the demonstration of economical fusion power. In disruption simulation experiments, some important effects have not been taken into account. Present disruption simulation experimental data do not include effects of the high magnetic fields expected near the PFCs in a tokamak major disruption. In addition, temporal and spatial scales are much too short in present simulation devices to be of direct relevance to tokamak disruptions. To address some of these inadequacies, an experimental program is planned at North Carolina State University employing an upgrade to the Coaxial Plasma Source (CPS-1) magnetized coaxial plasma gun facility. The advantages of the CPS-1 plasma source over present disruption simulation devices include the ability to irradiate large material samples at extremely high areal energy densities, and the ability to perform these material studies in the presence of a high magnetic field. Other tokamak disruption relevant features of CPS-1U include a high ion temperature, high electron temperature, and long pulse length

  16. Creation of an active learning healthcare communications course using simulations relevant to pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Izabela A; Baker, David M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and develop a health care communications course built around practice-like simulations and active learning in the first year of a professional pharmacy program. A three-credit health care communications course was divided into one didactic (two hours per week) and three simulation components (one hour per week). The simulation components consisted of one written patient education pamphlet, three group presentations, and three one-on-one patient counseling sessions. This was accomplished by breaking the class of approximately 75 students into eight separate sections, each consisting of 8-10 students and one instructor. Each week four sections were devoted to counseling role-plays: half in the role of pharmacists and half as patients. The other four sections were devoted to hour-long professional group presentations-half in the presenting group and half as audience. The students' performance in the simulated counseling sessions and group presentations has been tracked and analyzed to determine if the simulated exercises had a positive impact on the students' active communications skills. Consistently, over the first four years of the implementation of the course, students' communications skills, as measured by faculty assessments, in both professional group presentations and one-on-one counseling sessions significantly improved. Incorporation of active-learning simulation exercises into a healthcare communications course has a positive impact on the development of students' communications skills. This creates a foundation upon which students can build over the remainder of the professional program and into their future careers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Relevance of a driving simulator in the assessment of handicapped individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroz, A; Comte, P-A; Nicolo, D; Dériaz, O; Vuadens, P

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the value of our driving simulator in deciding whether or not to allow patients with physical and/or cognitive deficits to resuming driving and to analyze whether or not the medical expert's final decision is based more on the results of the driving simulator than those of the neuropsychological examination. One hundred and twenty-three patients were evaluated with the driving simulator. Thirty-five of those with cognitive deficits also underwent a neuropsychological examination prior to the medical expert's decision on driving aptitude. In cases of uncertainty or disagreement, a driving assessment in real conditions was performed by a driving instructor. In cases of physical handicap, the medical expert's decision concurred with that of the occupational therapist. For brain-injured patients, there was a significant correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the occupational therapist (kappa=0.33; P=0.01). However, the sensibility and specificity were only 55 and 80%, respectively. The correlation between an occupational therapy decision based on the driving simulator and that of the medical expert was very significant (kappa=0.81; Psensibility and specificity were 84 and 100%, respectively. In contrast, these values were lower (63 and 71%, respectively) for the correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the medical expert. Our driving simulator enables the danger-free evaluation of driving aptitude. The results mirror an in situ assessment and are more sensitive than neuropsychological examination. In fact, the neuropsychologist's opinion often is more negative or uncertain with respect to the patient's real driving aptitude. When taking a decision on a patient's driving aptitude, the medical expert is more inclined to trust the results of the driving simulator.

  18. Radiological consequences of zinc-rich filter cake at Hoogovens Steel industry in IJmuiden, Netherlands (a modelled study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Eggink, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In accordance with the revised Euratom 'basic safety standards', the Member States have to fill in the details of their own radiation protection policy on radionuclides from natural sources. In this framework the radiological consequences of zinc-rich filter cake at a storage facility of the steelplant Hoogovens Staal, in IJmuiden, Netherlands, were investigated in a model study. Also investigated were the consequences of possible transport of the filter cake to a storage facility in the country. The radiation dose was calculated for Hoogovens workers and for members of the population. For workers, the relevant exposure pathways are inhalation of resuspended filter cake, direct ingestion of filter cake and external radiation. Relevant exposure pathways for members of the population are inhalation of resuspended filter cake, ingestion of green vegetables on which resuspended filter cake is deposited and external radiation, which for workers at the storage facility the radiation dose is 7 mSv/a. The radiation dose for drivers during transport and for workers at a C3-storage facility depends strongly on whether the material is immobilized or not. The maximum radiation dose for both the transport and storage is expected to be almost equal to the radiation dose for workers at the storage facility at Hoogovens. For members of the population living around the storage facility at Hoogovens, the radiation dose is 3.6 mSv/a. Here too, the radiation dose at the storage facility depends strongly on whether the material is immobilized or not. During transport no radiation dose above the secondary level of 0.4 mSv/a is expected due to the short exposure times. 23 refs

  19. Advantages of simulated microgravity in the production of compounds of industrial relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, Silvia; Villa, Alessandro; Barenghi, Livia; Bradamante, Silvia

    2005-08-01

    Glutathione (α-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol compound and it is widely distributed in living organisms, mainly, in eukaryotic cells. Inside the cells, GSH assumes pivotal roles in bioreduction processes and protection against oxidative stress. Due to its antioxidant properties, GSH is widely used not only in food and cosmetic area but also as a pharmaceutical compound.The best total GSH production obtained culturing yeast cells in standard conditions is about 3.5% DCW, as the sum of intracellular (mainly) and extracellular GSH. Its production is limited by a feedback inhibition process. Using our patented microgravity (μg) simulator, the NRG bioreactor, we obtained a three-fold increase in total GSH production. In particular we observed an increased GSH extracellular excretion (9%), thus avoiding the feedback inhibition and easing the downstream processing.To confirm the role of μg, we extended our findings on GSH extracellular production using another μg simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV).

  20. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  1. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  2. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancing the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' is the scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA Technical Unit Environment and Sustainable Development Innovation the Agro-Industrial System, developed a promising experiment to promote the use of 'neem cake' as an insecticide, and fertilizer of low cost in sustainable agriculture. [it

  3. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  4. Numerical simulations of counterstreaming plasmas and their relevance to interhemispheric flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The collisionless expansion of ccounterstreaming plasmas has been studied by solving the self-consistent set of Vlasov and Poisson equations in one dimension. The motivation for the study is to elucidate some of the basic physical processes which may occur during the initial refilling of depleted flux tubes after a magnetic storm. The simulation geometry consisted of two high-density H + -O + -electron plasmas (conjugate ionospheres) separated by a low density H + -electron plasma (equatorial plasmasphere). The temporal evolution of the expandinng plasmas and the electrostatic potential in the region between the two sources hass the following characteristics. The initially minor H + ions rapidly flow out of the source regions, creating counterstreaming density shock fronts which propagate at the Sagdeev Mach number for ion acoustic shocks (Mapprox.1.6). However, the shocks are preceded by suprathermal forerunner ions, which are the first to fill the ''equatorial'' region. When the counterstreaming ion acoustic shocks collide, the density in the equatorial region becomes nearly a constant, twice the value of the density in the individual shocks. The electrostatic potential distribution from the source plasmas to the midpoint of the expansion region displays an interesting feature. A potential hill forms near the midpoint after the arrival of the main density shock fronts. This localized potential hill plays an important role in the thermalization of the ion streams and may occur in the equatorial plasmasphere after magnetic storms. The numerical simulations indicate that the ion beams in the counterstreaming plasmas are remarkably stable with respect to the ion acoustic instability, which is in agreement with the linear instability theory

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Multi-Stage Autoignition Relevant to Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline

    2017-11-01

    Due to the unrivaled energy density of liquid hydrocarbon fuels combustion will continue to provide over 80% of the world's energy for at least the next fifty years. Hence, combustion needs to be understood and controlled to optimize combustion systems for efficiency to prevent further climate change, to reduce emissions and to ensure U.S. energy security. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion focused on providing fundamental insights into key `turbulence-chemistry' interactions that underpin the development of next generation fuel efficient, fuel flexible engines for transportation and power generation. Petascale direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multi-stage mixed-mode turbulent combustion in canonical configurations have elucidated key physics that govern autoignition and flame stabilization in engines and provide benchmark data for combustion model development under the conditions of advanced engines which operate near combustion limits to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions. Mixed-mode combustion refers to premixed or partially-premixed flames propagating into stratified autoignitive mixtures. Multi-stage ignition refers to hydrocarbon fuels with negative temperature coefficient behavior that undergo sequential low- and high-temperature autoignition. Key issues that will be discussed include: 1) the role of mixing in shear driven turbulence on the dynamics of multi-stage autoignition and cool flame propagation in diesel environments, 2) the role of thermal and composition stratification on the evolution of the balance of mixed combustion modes - flame propagation versus spontaneous ignition - which determines the overall combustion rate in autoignition processes, and 3) the role of cool flames on lifted flame stabilization. Finally prospects for DNS of turbulent combustion at the exascale will be discussed in the context of anticipated heterogeneous machine architectures. sponsored by DOE

  6. Comprehensive ab initio simulations of turbulence in ITER-relevant fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenko, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The astonishing improvements achieved in supercomputing capabilities over the past two decades have allowed groundbreaking new insights into the physics of plasma turbulence. Even though much has been learned already, fundamental challenges related to predicting the performance of future fusion reactors still remain. In particular, today's fusion experiments routinely achieve a transition to a high-confinement mode (H-mode) with a strong transport barrier at the plasma boundary. Understanding the formation conditions of this barrier and its characteristic size and height are crucial to predicting the efficiency of future fusion reactors, but a fully consistent numerical treatment has still been lacking up to now. A main challenge in the treatment of such barriers is their extreme profile variation, implying their susceptibility to finite-size effects. Global simulation capabilities such as demonstrated within the framework of the present project are thus essential in order to understand the dynamics of the edge transport barrier. Both present and future projects employing the GENE code will build on the experience established within this SuperMUC project and tackle this challenging issue. Another increasingly important field relates to turbulence studies in stellarators, which represent an alternative machine design for future fusion applications. With its newly developed capability of studying turbulence in stellarator geometry (i.e. retaining magnetic geometry variations within a magnetic surface), the GENE code is uniquely suited for this problem. With the new German stellarator experiment Wendelstein 7-X nearing completion, existing predictions already made with GENE for stellarator turbulence will be put to the test, and possibilities for validation will emerge. Due to the complex magnetic geometry, stellarator turbulence simulations have extreme computational requirements and will thus continue to challenge the available supercomputing capabilities also in

  7. Effects of irradiation on hygiene quality of moon cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengjiao; Chen Bin; Guo Yaping; Gao Meixu; Li Haipeng; Sun Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    To explore the influence of controllable conditions with different doses of irradiation and store time on the safe and the quality of Moon Cake, the indexes including peroxide value, acid value, mould, coli group coliform group, total numbers of colony and taste of Moon Cake were concerned about. The results show that the peroxide value were increased and acid value were decreased gradually with the increased value of 60 Co γ-irradiation. Meanwhile, the microorganism growth in the moon cake were controlled. It is concluded that the taste of Moon Cake was not changed and the shelf life of ones were prolonged by 3 months when doses of irradiation was 8 kGy, in addition, Tea-polyphenols could prevent the lipid in Moon Cake from lipid oxidation effectively. (authors)

  8. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    of the samples. The results obtained show that superior LDPE flexural properties may be obtained by the addition of PHB or castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This result suggests that the castor oil cake accelerates the degradation of the LDPE/PHB blends.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between hydrogen and fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, Dagmar de

    2010-01-01

    In a thermonuclear reactor fusion between hydrogen isotopes takes place, producing helium and energy. The so-called divertor is the part of the fusion reactor vessel where the plasma is neutralized in order to exhaust the helium. The surface plates of the divertor are subjected to high heat loads and high fluxes of energetic hydrogen and helium. In the next generation fusion device - the tokamak ITER - the expected conditions at the plates are particle fluxes exceeding 10 24 per second and square metre, particle energies ranging from 1 to 100 eV and an average heat load of 10 MW per square metre. Two materials have been identified as candidates for the ITER divertor plates: carbon and tungsten. Since there are currently no fusion devices that can create these harsh conditions, it is unknown how the materials will behave in terms of erosion and hydrogen retention. To gain more insight in the physical processes under these conditions molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted. Since diamond has been proposed as possible plasma facing material, we have studied erosion and hydrogen retention in diamond and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H). As in experiments, diamond shows a lower erosion yield than a-C:H, however the hydrogen retention in diamond is much larger than in a-C:H and also hardly depending on the substrate temperature. This implies that simple heating of the surface is not sufficient to retrieve the hydrogen from diamond material, whereas a-C:H readily releases the retained hydrogen. So, in spite of the higher erosion yield carbon material other than diamond seems more suitable. Experiments suggest that the erosion yield of carbon material decreases with increasing flux. This was studied in our simulations. The results show no flux dependency, suggesting that the observed reduction is not a material property but is caused by external factors as, for example, redeposition of the erosion products. Our study of the redeposition showed that the

  10. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  11. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ferber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-effect (CE models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed.

  12. Properties of aqueous systems relevant to the SCWR via molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallikragas, D. [Trent Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Guzonas, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Svishchev, I., E-mail: isvishchev@trentu.ca [Trent Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Supercritical water (SCW) is the intended heat transfer fluid in the proposed GEN-IV supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR). The oxidative environment poses challenges in choosing appropriate design materials and understanding the behaviour of SCW at the nanoscale within crevices of the passivation layer is needed for developing a control strategy to minimize corrosion. Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to investigate molecular structure and diffusion of water and chloride in nanometer-spaced iron hydroxide surfaces. Results demonstrate that water is more likely to accumulate on the surface at low-density conditions. The effect of confinement on the water structure diminishes with as little as 20 Å of surface separation. Clustering and the accumulation of water at the surface imply that the SCWR will be most susceptible to pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. A parameterized equation is provided that gives the diffusion coefficients of {sub O2}, H{sub 2}, and OH radical in high temperature and SCW. (author)

  13. Residues in cottonseed oil and cake resulting from the combined application of DDT and dimethoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zorgani, G.A.; Ahmed, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cotton plants were treated with a combination of DDT and dimethoate under conditions of local agricultural practice to study the fate and magnitude of both chemicals in the cottonseed and related products. GLC and nuclear (using 14 C-DDT) techniques were used. DDT residues in the crude oil averaged 0.115 mg/kg; mainly as p,p'-DDT while residues in the cake were not detected. Dimethoate and dimethoxon in the crude oil were 0.13 and 0.01 mg/kg respectively. The cake contained 0.14 mg/kg dimethoate and 0.01 mg/kg dimethoxon. By simulating commercial oil processing in the laboratory using 14 C-DDT fortified oil samples it was found that alkali treatment and bleaching removed only 7% of the total residue, while deodorization effected removal of 40-50% of the residue. (author)

  14. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-06-01

    mainly between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge. On the other hand, they were formed just prior to the flame edge for the non-autoignited lifted flames. The effect of fuel pyrolysis and partial oxidation were found to be important in explaining autoignited liftoff heights, especially in the Mild combustion regime. Flame structures of autoignited flames were investigated numerically for syngas (CO/H2) and methane fuels. The simulations of syngas fuel accounting for the differential diffusion have been performed by adopting several kinetic mechanisms to test the models ability in predicting the flame behaviors observed previously. The results agreed well with the observed nozzle-attached flame characteristics in case of non-autoignited flames. For autoignited lifted flames in high temperature regime, a unique autoignition behavior can be predicted having HO2 and H2O2 radicals in a broad region between the nozzle and stabilized lifted flame edge. Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high- temperature coflow air were studied numerically. Several flame configurations were investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. Characteristics of chemical kinetics structures for autoignited lifted flames were discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of premixed mixtures. Results showed that for autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial structure, a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. Characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to a nozzle-attached flame was also investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction.

  15. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C., E-mail: wdechang@163.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. {yields} Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. {yields} HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. {yields} Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  16. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. → Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. → HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. → Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  17. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  18. Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Phanu Somkliang; Taweesiri Malapant

    2009-01-01

    This was the first document revealing the investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J. curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98% protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J. curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reactio...

  19. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  20. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  1. Final report on investigation of stability of organic materials in salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    On the basis of this work the following conclusions, which all contribute to confidence that salt cake is stable against exothermic reactions, were reached. Organics added to the waste tanks were not nitrated at the time of addition and cannot have been subsequently transformed to detonatable nitrated organics. Whatever organic has found its way into the tanks has been and will be essentially unaffected by radiation. Mixtures of the types of organics which could have been added to the waste tanks with either simulated salt cake or pure sodium nitrate are not detonatable. The maximum amount of organic which could have been added to the waste tanks is less than 0.9 weight percent of the salt cake, a concentration far below the concentration required to support combustion. The many years during which the liquid high-level waste was boiling, and the subsequent evaporation-crystallization processing, have allowed many of the more volatile organics to be distilled off, further reducing the maximum expected concentration of organics. The occurrence of an explosive exothermic reaction of an organic in the waste tanks would require concentration and mixing by an unknown and uncontrolled means. The mixture would then have to remain in its concentrated state long enough to be triggered by an explosion, a totally unreasonable hypothesis

  2. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. ... The ingredients shown in Table 1 except the fish were mixed with ... products which can satisfy consumers sensationally and.

  3. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  4. 2.4.2. Water processing of cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, Sh.B.; Safiev, Kh.S.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2008-01-01

    The cake water processing carried out with the purpose of extraction ofalkali components, in particular calcium chlorides and sodium, formed atbaking of raw materials with calcium chloride and by acid processingextracted the aluminium and iron compounds

  5. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  6. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  7. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Anti-Caking Surfactants Found to be Cause of Apparent Effect of High Nitrite Concentration on Cesium Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    Experiments conducted in FY01 previously indicated a potential cesium stripping problem in the CSSX process due to the presence of nitrite in the waste simulant. The stripping issue seemed all the more important as the nitrite concentration increased. Experiments presented in this work have demonstrated that the true reason for the cesium stripping problem was in fact the presence of an anti-caking agent in the,sodium nitrite. used for the preparation of the simulants. The anti-caking agent is actually a mixture of well-known surfactants, sodium mono- and di-methyl naphthalene sulfonate that can partition into the organic-phase on extraction, then retain cesium upon stripping. The effect was demonstrated by adding known amounts of the anti-caking agent to clean systems. Data suggest that rejuvenation of the solvent can be obtained by a caustic wash following the stripping stage.

  8. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  9. Fungi in cake production chain: Occurrence and evaluation of growth potential in different cake formulations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Letícia L P; Bernardi, Angélica O; Amaral, Alexandra L P M; Chaves, Rafael D; Santos, Juliana L P; Copetti, Marina V; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and populations of fungi in cake production chain. Besides, the growth potential of twelve fungal strains in different cake formulations was evaluated. Raw materials from two different batches (n=143), chocolate cakes (n=30), orange cakes (n=20), and processing environment air samples (n=147) were analyzed. Among the raw materials, wheat flour (3.2±0.3 log CFU per g) and corn meal (3.8±0.8 log CFU per g) belonging to batch #1 showed significant higher fungal counts (pcakes were Aspergillus flavus (28.15%), Penicillium citrinum (18.45%), Penicillium paxilli (14.56%), and Aspergillus niger (6.8%), which were also detected in the raw materials and processing environment air. Only Penicillium glabrum and Penicillium citrinum showed visible mycelium (>3mm) in the free of preservative cake formulation at 19th and 44th days of storage at 25°C, respectively. Revealing the biodiversity of fungi in ingredients, air and final products, as well as challenging final products with representative fungal strains may assist to implement effective controlling measures as well as to gather data for the development of more robust cake formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Design and application of a cake-shaping apparatus for drug-separated moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ai-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Acupuncturist makes herbal cakes with traditional manual way, with such disadvantages as slow in making, varying in thickness and size of the cake. When the patients are treated with medical cake-separated moxibustion, they will be unevenly affected by the heat and the patient easily suffers from burning. These hinder clinically wide application of cake-separated moxibustion. With practice of many years, the authors design and make a kind of manual cake-shaping apparatus which can rapidly and conveniently make uniform medical cake, with simple technique, ingenious structure and normal material.

  11. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran,Sumitra; Patel,Anil K.; Nampoothiri,Kesavan Madhavan; Chandran,Sandhya; Szakacs,George; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo; Pandey,Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC) sesame oil cake (SOC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), palm kernel cake (PKC) and olive oil cake (OOC) were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB). GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1) resulted higher enzyme titres than the indivi...

  12. Effect of coal soluble constituents on caking property of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Mingdong Zheng; Zhicai Wang; Xunming Li [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Anhui Educational Department

    2007-07-15

    Three cokemaking bituminous coals were extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents with different content of NMP, and the effect of the amount and the component of coal soluble constituents on the caking property of the extracted residues of coals were investigated in this study. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was found to give the maximal extraction yields for the three coals, and the fat coal gave the highest extraction yield of 78.6% (daf) corresponding to its highest caking index of 101. It was found that for coking coal, when the extraction yield got to the maximum of 25.3% in the 1:1 by volume of CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent, the residue extracted still had caking property with the caking index of 19. This means parts of the caking constituents of coal are un-extractible because of covalent bonding or strong associative cross-links. The soluble components extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and their effects on the caking indexes of the residues at a similar extraction yield quite differed depending on the NMP content in the mixed solvent. The coal solubles extracted by the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP less than 50% contained less light constituents with less of oxygen groups. This may lead to the decrease in the caking indexes for the residues obtained at the similar extraction yields compared to those of the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent with NMP more than 50%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A new insight into membrane fouling mechanism in submerged membrane bioreactor: osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meijia; Peng, Wei; Chen, Jianrong; He, Yiming; Ding, Linxian; Wang, Aijun; Lin, Hongjun; Hong, Huachang; Zhang, Ye; Yu, Haiying

    2013-05-15

    Big gap between experimental filtration resistance of cake layer formed on membrane surface and the hydraulic resistance calculated through the Carman-Kozeny equation, suggested the existence of a new membrane fouling mechanism: osmotic pressure during cake layer filtration in SMBR system. An osmotic pressure model based on chemical potential difference was then proposed. Simulation of the model showed that osmotic pressure accounted for the major fraction of total operation pressure, and pH, applied pressure and ionic strength were the key determining factors for osmosis effect. It was found that, variations of osmotic pressure with pH, applied pressure and added ionic strength were well coincident with perditions of model's simulation, providing the first direct evidences of the real occurrence of osmosis mechanism and the feasibility of the proposed model. These findings illustrate the essential role of osmotic pressure in filtration resistance, and improve fundamental understanding on membrane fouling in SMBR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  15. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Preparation Of Pure Vanadium Pentoxide From Red Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAREH, M.M.; EL-HAZEK, M.N; BU ZAID, A.H.M; MOHAMED, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    The red cake, extracted from petroleum ash by acid leaching, contains some impurities such as iron, nickel, zinc, Cr and Cu. For purification the red cake, vanadium in the red cake was taken into solution by treating the red cake with soda ash solution at 90 o C, S /L 1/10 and leaching time of 6 h. The obtained leaching efficiency of vanadium reached 99 %. The solution was clarified by filtration and slurred with solid ammonium sulphate (50g/l) and ammonium chloride (50 g/l). The pH of the slurry was kept at 8-9 by adding ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium metavanadate was crystallized from the slurry at room temperature and during the crystallization step, the slurry was kept under mild agitation. The reaction between the sodium vanadate and ammonium sulphate led to the formation of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) 98.35 % (atomic adsorption techniques). The AMV crystals were separated from the residual liquor by filtration, washed with 5% ammonium chloride solution then dried at 100 o C. Over 98.35 % of the vanadium contained in the red cake was recovered by this way as AMV. Thermal decomposition of AMV at 350 o C 1 h yielded 99.32 % pure vanadium pentoxide.

  17. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  18. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  19. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  1. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  3. Leaching of sodium carbonate cakes by nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanker, L.S.; Nikonov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction has been studied of soda cakes of fluorite-rare-earth concentrate with nitric acid. The effect of a number of factors on extraction of REE into a nitric solution has been considered: the final acidity of the pulp, the duration of leaching, and the ratio between solid and liquid phases. The effect of adding aluminium nitrate into the pulp has also been studied. It has been shown that three-stage counterflow leaching of soda cakes with nitric acid increases REE extraction approximately by 10%

  4. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculated to Cake and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Dadalı

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated to the cake dough and a whole raw chicken was investigated. The cake dough was inoculated with 6.15 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis then, thermal treatment was applied at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The initial count of S. Enteritidis showed reductions 1.49 log-cfu/g, 2.06 log-cfu/g and 4.29 log-cfu/g in the samples from the cold point location from the geometric center of the cake at 5, 7 and 10 minutes of thermal treatment, respectively. Although S. Enteritidis is not detected at the end of 15 minutes of heat treatment, the center of the cake temperature has reached 85.69°C and the cake sample is uncooked and its sensory properties are not acceptable. The cake that is safe and favorable with the sensory properties to the consumers was obtained by heat treatment for 30 minutes. After the cold point of a whole raw chicken was inoculated with 7.29 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis, thermal treatment was applied at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The temperature at the cold point of 35 and 45 minutes heat-treated chickens reached 59.33 and 74.08°C, respectively, and 1.93 log-cfu/g and 5.33 log-cfu /g S. Enteritidis reduction caused in the samples respectively. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the whole chicken heat treated at 220°C for 60 minutes. The cakes, heat treated at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 30 minutes, were stored at two different storage temperatures as 4°C and 25°C for 72 hours. The whole chicken, heat treated at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 60 minutes, was stored at 4°C for 72 hours. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the cake and the whole chicken samples after the storage period.

  5. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  6. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  7. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  8. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  9. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  10. The replacement value of groundnut cake with cooked Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in which groundnut cake (GNC) was replaced by cooked bambara groundnut meal (CBGM) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels of inclusion for both starter and finisher phases. Replacement levels of cooked bambara ...

  11. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  12. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  13. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  14. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  15. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  16. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein ... Salt. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. 0.50. -. 0.50. Vitamin Premix2. 0.20. 0.20. 0.20 ... WNSC = Water processed neem seed cake, MNSC = Methanol processed neem seed ... were given ad libitum and pre-measured quantity of food calculated.

  17. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  18. Cake kidney: a rare anomaly of renal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urinogenital tract that can be diagnosed at any age. Few more than 20 cases have been described in the literature. The authors describe in this article another case of this rare malformation. Key-words: kidney, congenital abnormalities, rare diseases.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of fermented palm kernel cake using red tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and other plant residues in fish feeding especially under extensive aquaculture have been in practice for a long time. On the other hand, the use of microbial-based feedstuff is increasing. In this study, the performance of red tilapia raised on Trichoderma longibrachiatum fermented PKC ...

  20. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  1. Evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) cake as an unconventional protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabczak, J; Py, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient procedure of a protein isolate production from the evening primrose cake was developed. The cake is a by-product of oil extraction from seeds by using the cold pressing method. The evening primrose cake contains 22.7% of protein. Its content in the protein isolate derived from the cake is 74%. Proteins present in evening primrose seeds are rich in Trp (7%) and Met (3%), but Lys-deficient (1.3%) as compared to the FAO protein standard. Apart from the proteins, the protein isolate contains 8.5% (w/w per s.s.) dietary fiber, that negatively affects its digestibility. To enhance the bio-availability of the protein isolate, it was partially hydrolyzed with commercial preparations of trypsin and other proteases (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, Novozymes. Denmark). The most advanced proteolysis (52%) was achieved by 6 h digestion of 2% protein suspension with a mixture of Flavourzyme and Alcalase (350 and 600 U per g of protein, respectively) at 50 degrees C and pH 9.0.

  2. How does particle size influence caking in lactose powder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, Melanie Anne; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is known to influence product properties such as flowability and compressibility. When producing crystalline lactose, different steps can affect the PSD of the final powder. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of PSD on caking and the mechanisms...

  3. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. 175 Years of Linear Programming - Minimax and Cake Topography. Vijay Chandru M R Rao. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 4-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  5. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  6. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  7. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  9. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI; FARAH SALEENA TAIP; SITI MAZLINA MUSTAPA KAMAL; NORASHIKIN AB. AZIZ

    2014-01-01

    Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firm...

  11. Simulation of reaction diffusion processes over biologically relevant size and time scales using multi-GPU workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Michael J; Stone, John E; Roberts, Elijah; Fry, Corey; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2014-05-01

    Simulation of in vivo cellular processes with the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a computationally expensive task. Our previous software enabled simulation of inhomogeneous biochemical systems for small bacteria over long time scales using the MPD-RDME method on a single GPU. Simulations of larger eukaryotic systems exceed the on-board memory capacity of individual GPUs, and long time simulations of modest-sized cells such as yeast are impractical on a single GPU. We present a new multi-GPU parallel implementation of the MPD-RDME method based on a spatial decomposition approach that supports dynamic load balancing for workstations containing GPUs of varying performance and memory capacity. We take advantage of high-performance features of CUDA for peer-to-peer GPU memory transfers and evaluate the performance of our algorithms on state-of-the-art GPU devices. We present parallel e ciency and performance results for simulations using multiple GPUs as system size, particle counts, and number of reactions grow. We also demonstrate multi-GPU performance in simulations of the Min protein system in E. coli . Moreover, our multi-GPU decomposition and load balancing approach can be generalized to other lattice-based problems.

  12. Towards the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cake samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirven, J.B.; Pailloux, A.; M'Baye, Y.; Coulon, N.; Alpettaz, Th.; Gosse, St.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow cake is a commonly used name for powdered uranium concentrate, produced with the uranium ore. It is the first step in the fabrication of nuclear fuel. As it contains fissile material its circulation needs to be controlled in order to avoid proliferation. In particular there is an interest in onsite determination of the geographical origin of a sample. The yellow cake elemental composition depends on its production site and can therefore be used to identify its origin. In this work laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) associated with chemometrics techniques is used to discriminate yellow cake samples of different geographical origin. 11 samples, one per origin, are analyzed by a commercial equipment in laboratory experimental conditions. Spectra are then processed by multivariate techniques like Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Successive global PCAs are first performed on the whole spectra and enable one to discriminate all samples. The method is then refined by selecting several emission lines in the spectra and by using them as input data of the chemometric treatments. With a SIMCA model applied to these data a rate of correct identification of 100% is obtained for all classes. Then to define the specifications of a future onsite LIBS system, the use of a more compact spectrometer is simulated by a numerical treatment of experimental spectra. Simultaneously the reduction of spectral data used by the model is also investigated to decrease the spectral bandwidth of the measurement. The rate of correct identification remains very high. This work shows the very good ability of SIMCA associated with LIBS to discriminate yellow cake samples with a very high rate of success, in controlled laboratory conditions. (authors)

  13. Review of the fundamental theories behind small angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulations, and relevant integrated application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Boldon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fundamental concepts and equations necessary for performing small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS experiments, molecular dynamics (MD simulations, and MD-SAXS analyses were reviewed. Furthermore, several key biological and non-biological applications for SAXS, MD, and MD-SAXS are presented in this review; however, this article does not cover all possible applications. SAXS is an experimental technique used for the analysis of a wide variety of biological and non-biological structures. SAXS utilizes spherical averaging to produce one- or two-dimensional intensity profiles, from which structural data may be extracted. MD simulation is a computer simulation technique that is used to model complex biological and non-biological systems at the atomic level. MD simulations apply classical Newtonian mechanics’ equations of motion to perform force calculations and to predict the theoretical physical properties of the system. This review presents several applications that highlight the ability of both SAXS and MD to study protein folding and function in addition to non-biological applications, such as the study of mechanical, electrical, and structural properties of non-biological nanoparticles. Lastly, the potential benefits of combining SAXS and MD simulations for the study of both biological and non-biological systems are demonstrated through the presentation of several examples that combine the two techniques.

  14. Review of the fundamental theories behind small angle X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulations, and relevant integrated application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren; Laliberte, Fallon; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the fundamental concepts and equations necessary for performing small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and MD-SAXS analyses were reviewed. Furthermore, several key biological and non-biological applications for SAXS, MD, and MD-SAXS are presented in this review; however, this article does not cover all possible applications. SAXS is an experimental technique used for the analysis of a wide variety of biological and non-biological structures. SAXS utilizes spherical averaging to produce one- or two-dimensional intensity profiles, from which structural data may be extracted. MD simulation is a computer simulation technique that is used to model complex biological and non-biological systems at the atomic level. MD simulations apply classical Newtonian mechanics' equations of motion to perform force calculations and to predict the theoretical physical properties of the system. This review presents several applications that highlight the ability of both SAXS and MD to study protein folding and function in addition to non-biological applications, such as the study of mechanical, electrical, and structural properties of non-biological nanoparticles. Lastly, the potential benefits of combining SAXS and MD simulations for the study of both biological and non-biological systems are demonstrated through the presentation of several examples that combine the two techniques.

  15. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  16. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of nuclear pure uranium trioxide from El Atshan crude yellow cake using Tri-octyl-phosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.K.; Serag, H.M.; Abdallah, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tri n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) has been investigated as a refinery extractant for crude yellow cake prepared from El Atshan ore, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Relevant factors namely: type and concentration of acid, TOPO concentration, effect of temperature, residence time and organic/ aqueous ratio have been studied and optimized. The required number of extraction and stages was determined. Further purification could be achieved for the final product by selective precipitation of uranium peroxide from the stripped solution using hydrogen peroxide followed by its calcination. Complete chemical analysis of the final product has proved its nuclear purity. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Preparation of nuclear pure uranium trioxide from El Atshan crude yellow cake using Tri-octyl-phosphine oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammad, A K; Serag, H M [Nuclear materials authority, (Egypt); Abdallah, A M [Faculty of science, university of mansoura, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Tri n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) has been investigated as a refinery extractant for crude yellow cake prepared from El Atshan ore, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Relevant factors namely: type and concentration of acid, TOPO concentration, effect of temperature, residence time and organic/ aqueous ratio have been studied and optimized. The required number of extraction and stages was determined. Further purification could be achieved for the final product by selective precipitation of uranium peroxide from the stripped solution using hydrogen peroxide followed by its calcination. Complete chemical analysis of the final product has proved its nuclear purity. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  20. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for centrifuge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce and adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. Three possible types of encapsulants for Centrifuge Cake;- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers, are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie. Storage Transport, handling and emplacement Disposal, and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on Centrifuge Cake. (author)

  1. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  2. Nuclear data relevant to single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics and their application to SEU simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Kodama, Akihiro; Nakashima, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    A cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28 Si was developed in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model was proposed for simulation of the initial process of SEUs. The model was applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results were compared with measured SEU cross-sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross-sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed. (author)

  3. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  4. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  5. Feeding behavior in lambs fed diets containing crambe cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Adriane Syperreck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing 30% sorghum silage and 70% crambe cake (30:70 diet, and 70% sorghum silage and 30% crambe cake (70:30 diet under voluntary and controlled consumption. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four animals, four periods, and four treatments; feeding behavior was determined by observation. The results indicated that animals fed the 30:70 diet showed higher DM and NDF (g day-1 than those fed the 70:30 diet. Animals fed the 70:30 diet showed longer feeding times (h kg-1 DM, mastication (min kg-1 DM and min kg-1 NDF, rumination (min day-1 and min kg-1 DM, and the largest number of mericics chewing per bolus; however, a higher feed efficiency (g DM h-1 was observed in the 30:70 diet group. Furthermore, animals feeding voluntarily had higher DM intake and chewed for longer. Therefore, the combined results indicated that crambe cake could be used in the diet of sheep without affecting feeding behavior.

  6. Conversion of Hanford salt cake to glass: laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Dressen, A.L.; Hobbick, C.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    Approximately 140 million liters of solid salt cake (mainly NaNO 3 ), produced by evaporation of aged, alkaline high-level wastes, will be stored in underground tanks when the present Hanford Waste Management Program is completed in the early 1980's. These solid wastes can be converted to silicate-based glasses by melting them either at 1200 to 1300 0 C with appropriate amounts of sand and lime (soda-lime formulation) or at 1000 to 1100 0 C with appropriate amounts of Columbia River basalt and B 2 O 3 (basalt formulation). Both formulations yield dense, immobile glasses of low water leachability (10 -7 to 10 -6 g cm -2 day -1 ) suitable for terminal storage. The soda-lime formulation is presently preferred over the basalt formulation because it can accommodate more salt cake (50 wt percent versus 30 to 40 wt percent) while yielding a glass whose volume is 10 to 20 percent less than the volume of the salt cake in the melt charge

  7. CRAMBE CAKE (Crambe abyssinica hochst ON LAMB DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Breda Canova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative feedstuffs in animal diet, such as residues derived from the biodiesel production aims to increase productivity and reduce costs in animal production. Them aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution effect of 0, 22, 44 and 64% of soybean meal protein by Crambe cake (Crambe abyssinica Hochst protein in lamb diet. In the in vivo experiment, 20 lambs were used and evaluated the apparent digestibility, nitrogen balance and voluntary DM intake. The replacement of the protein resulted in a linear decrease in apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, cellulose (CEL and the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN, which resulted in decreased daily DM intake. The blood level of urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were not affected. In vitro gas production technique (GP evaluation of diets showed a significantly decrease (P<0.05 of the total gas and methane production without altering the true degradability of DM and OM and the partition factor (PF. Replacement of soybean meal protein by the Crambe cake protein decreased digestibility of the fiber fraction of the diet, the voluntary intake of DM and methane, without altering rumen fermentation. Crambe cake can be utilized as lamb's food, because, despite reduced intake, assure a large energy intake and similarity to soybean meal protein.

  8. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  9. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK SUBTITUSI TEPUNG KIMPUL DALAM PEMBUATAN CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Rafika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic properties of kimpul flour substitution in the cake making. Kimpul is a one of tuber food source, which contains carbohidrate, protein, fat, some mineral and vitamins. The aims of this research is to find out the sensory properties (hedonic quality and hedonic of the kimpul cake flour substitution. This experimental research uses a completely-randomized design using an analysis of variance. The results analysis of the hedonic quality of color, texture and flavor obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 40% substitution of kimpul flour, and the results  were not significantly different between treatments. The hedonic test of color, flavor, and texture obtain the highest mean rates at the amount of 80% substitution of kimpul flour.   Kimpul merupakan sumber pangan umbi-umbian yang mengandung karbo­hidrat, protein, lemak, beberapa mineral dan vitamin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah  mengetahui sifat sensori (mutu hedonik dan hedonik cake subtitusi tepung kimpul. Penelitian eksperimen ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap  mengguna­kan analisis sidik ragam (Analysis of Variance. Hasil analisis uji mutu hedonik warna, tekstur dan rasa memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah substitusi tepung kimpul 40% yang tidak berbeda antar perlakuan. Uji hedonik (uji tingkat kesukaan warna, rasa, dan tekstur  memperoleh rerata tertinggi pada jumlah subtitusi tepung kimpul 80%.

  10. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (PBaking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  11. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  12. Application of acid dissolution and natural evaporation to wet cake containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil J.; Kang, Il Sik; Shon, Jong S.; Hong, Kwon P.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical wastes containing small amounts of uranium cause environmental problems, if those wastes exceed the concentration of the EPA standard, 20 μg.. /L, and the concentrated sludge should be additionally dried and packaged into a drum, and categorized as a radioactive waste. Diphosil resin is developed to specifically remove actinides or multivalent metals. The immobilization technique is adopted to make a bead form of Diphosil by embedding into sodium alginate, and adsorption characteristics for uranium are reported for a simulated waste solution. In this study, acid dissolution is applied to dissolve uranium from the precipitates of sludge or the dewatered cake in the reduced volume of wastes solution, and removal characteristics of uranium is experimented. From the results, the most effective treatment method for the dissolved solution is suggested

  13. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  14. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  15. Simulation to aid in interpreting biological relevance and setting of population-level protection goals for risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Luttik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Specific protection goals (SPGs) comprise an explicit expression of the environmental components that need protection and the maximum impacts that can be tolerated. SPGs are set by risk managers and are typically based on protecting populations or functions. However, the measurable endpoints available to risk managers, at least for vertebrates, are typically laboratory tests. We demonstrate, using the example of eggshell thinning in skylarks, how simulation can be used to place laboratory endpoints in context of population-level effects as an aid to setting the SPGs. We develop explanatory scenarios investigating the impact of different assumptions of eggshell thinning on skylark population size, density and distribution in 10 Danish landscapes, chosen to represent the range of typical Danish agricultural conditions. Landscape and timing of application of the pesticide were found to be the most critical factors to consider in the impact assessment. Consequently, a regulatory scenario of monoculture spring barley with an early spray treatment eliciting the eggshell thinning effect was applied using concentrations eliciting effects of zero to 100% in steps of 5%. Setting the SPGs requires balancing scientific, social and political realities. However, the provision of clear and detailed options such as those from comprehensive simulation results can inform the decision process by improving transparency and by putting the more abstract testing data into the context of real-world impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring agreement between rating interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation study of methods for quantifying the clinical relevance of an observer performance paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dev P

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve (AUC) was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures of merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures of merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance-ROC curve. The area under this curve (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit-based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect versus correct clinical interpretations. Therefore, rAUC is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can lead to serious underestimation of the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such

  17. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  18. Experimental assessment of toxic phytochemicals in Jatropha curcas: oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Naik, S N; Khan, M Ashhar I; Sahoo, P K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed is a rich source of oil; however, it can not be utilised for nutritional purposes due to presence of toxic and anti-nutritive compounds. The main objective of the present study was to quantify the toxic phytochemicals present in Indian J. curcas (oil, cake, bio-diesel and glycerol). The amount of phorbol esters is greater in solvent extracted oil (2.8 g kg⁻¹) than in expeller oil (2.1 g kg⁻¹). Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the purified compound from an active extract of oil confirmed the presence of phorbol esters. Similarly, the phorbol esters content is greater in solvent extracted cake (1.1 g kg⁻¹) than in cake after being expelled (0.8 g kg⁻¹). The phytate and trypsin inhibitory activity of the cake was found to be 98 g kg⁻¹ and 8347 TIU g⁻¹ of cake, respectively. Identification of curcin was achieved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the concentration of curcin was 0.95 g L⁻¹ of crude concentrate obtained from cake. Higher amounts of phorbol esters are present in oil than cake but bio-diesel and glycerol are free of phorbol esters. The other anti-nutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, phytates and curcin are present in cake, so the cake should be detoxified before being used for animal feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Do residents and nurses communicate safety relevant concerns? : simulation study on the influence of the authority gradient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Scholler, A; Strembski, D; Breuer, G

    2012-10-01

    Due to the negative impact on decision-making too steep authority gradients in teams represent a risk factor for patient safety. As residents and nursing staff may fear sanctions they may be reluctant to forward critical information to or challenge planned actions of attending physicians. In the setting of a simulation course it was investigated whether and to what extent team members would challenge decisions of familiar attending physicians. In each case where participants did not voice an opinion the underlying motives for the behavior were investigated. A total of 59 physicians and 18 nursing staff participated in the scenario. During a rapid sequence induction they were confronted with 7 critical situations created by the attending physician who had been instructed by the simulation team. Recommendations of the German Society of Anaesthesiology were ignored as well as clinical standard operating procedures (SOPs) and two potentially fatal drug administrations were ordered. An attempt was made to determine whether team members were aware of the safety threat at all and if so how they would solve the resulting conflicts. The level of verbal challenge was scored. During debriefing participants were asked to verbalize the motives which they thought might account for their silence or level of challenge. In situations where non-verbal conflict resolution was possible 65% of the participants pursued that strategy whereas 35% voiced an opinion. Situations necessitating verbal intervention were identified in 66% but 72% of the participants chose to remain silent. Team members decided to challenge the attending physician in only 28% of the situations. In 35% their statement was oblique, in 25% the problem was addressed but not further pursued and only in 40% did participants show crisp advocacy and assertiveness and initiated discussion. Asked why they had refrained from challenging the attending physician 37% had no answer, in 35% of situations participants observed a

  1. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  2. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  3. Multivariate optimization of headspace trap for furan and furfural simultaneous determination in sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Blumenthal, David; Camel, Valérie; Rega, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Furan, a possibly carcinogenic compound to humans, and furfural, a naturally occurring volatile contributing to aroma, can be both found in thermally treated foods. These process-induced compounds, formed by close reaction pathways, play an important role as markers of food safety and quality. A method capable of simultaneously quantifying both molecules is thus highly relevant for developing mitigation strategies and preserving the sensory properties of food at the same time. We have developed a unique reliable and sensitive headspace trap (HS trap) extraction method coupled to GC-MS for the simultaneous quantification of furan and furfural in a solid processed food (sponge cake). HS Trap extraction has been optimized using an optimal design of experiments (O-DOE) approach, considering four instrumental and two sample preparation variables, as well as a blocking factor identified during preliminary assays. Multicriteria and multiple response optimization was performed based on a desirability function, yielding the following conditions: thermostatting temperature, 65°C; thermostatting time, 15min; number of pressurization cycles, 4; dry purge time, 0.9min; water / sample amount ratio (dry basis), 16; and total amount (water + sample amount, dry basis), 10g. The performances of the optimized method were also assessed: repeatability (RSD: ≤3.3% for furan and ≤2.6% for furfural), intermediate precision (RSD: 4.0% for furan and 4.3% for furfural), linearity (R 2 : 0.9957 for furan and 0.9996 for furfural), LOD (0.50ng furan g sample dry basis -1 and 10.2ng furfural g sample dry basis -1 ), LOQ (0.99ng furan g sample dry basis -1 and 41.1ng furfural g sample dry basis -1 ). Matrix effect was observed mainly for furan. Finally, the optimized method was applied to other sponge cakes with different matrix characteristics and levels of analytes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Effects of herb cake-separated moxibustion on spleen in immunosuppressive rabbits:a morphology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuefeng; Wu, Aihua; Wang, Jun; Shan, Zengtian

    2016-10-12

    To observe the influence of different methods of moxibustion on spleen morphology in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive rabbits. A total of 50 rabbits were randomly assigned into a blank group, a model group, a herbal cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a sham cake-separated moxibustion group, 10 rabbits in each group. Except the blank group, the rabbits in each group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg), once a day, for 7 consecutive days to establish immunosuppressive model. After the model establishment, the rabbits in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with herbal cake-separated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8), "Guanyuan" (CV 4), "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Pishu" (BL 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23); the moxa cone was placed on the herbal cake which was made of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, three cones for each acupoint. The rabbits in the moxibustion group were treated with moxa stick moxibustion which contained equal moxa of three moxa cones. The rabbits in the sham cake-separated moxibustion group were treated with cake which was made of flour. The acupoint selection in the above three groups was identical, and the intervention was given once every other day for totally 10 times. The rabbits in the blank group and model group were immobilized for identical time without any intervention. After treatment, the rabbits were sacrificed to collect the spleen. With routine HE staining, the morphology changes of spleen were observed under microscope. In addition, the white pulp, splenic corpuscle and the counts of lymphatic cells of lymphatic sheath around the arteries were observed. Compared with the blank group, the average size of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were reduced (both P 0.05). Compared with the model group, the averagesize of white pulp and the radius of splenic corpuscle were significantly increased in the herbal cake-separated moxibustion group and moxibustion

  5. Microbial protein and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal Souza Borja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ideal level of licury cake in the diet of Boer goats through microbial synthesis estimated based on the presence of purine derivatives in the urine and on blood urea and glucose parameters. Twenty uncastrated one-year-old ¾ Boer goats with an average body weight of 18 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Each animal was confined to a one m2 suspended stall with access to water ad libitum. The diets were formulated in accordance with the NRC (2007, and the ingredients were: 50% Tifton-85 (Cynodon sp hay, corn meal, soybean meal, premixed vitamin and mineral supplement, and licury cake. The treatments were: 1 0% of the goat’s total diet composed of licury cake (DM basis, 2 15% of the total diet composed of licury cake, 3 30% of the diet composed of licury cake, and 4 45% of the diet composed of licury cake. The experiment lasted for 17 days. The first 10 days were used to adapt the animals to the diets and facilities. The inclusion of the licury cake in the goat’s diets reduced the levels of blood nitrogen and glucose. Urinary excretion decreased linearly with the inclusion of licury cake in the diet. The inclusion of licury cake in the goat’s diets also caused a linear reduction in the excretion of allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine and total purine derivative (PD in urine samples. Based on the microbial protein production and blood parameters of goats fed with licury cake, up to 15% of the goat diet may be composed of licury cake.

  6. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  7. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  8. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  9. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  10. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  12. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  13. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancement of the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA laboratories have developed a promising trial to promote the use of neem cake as a low-cost insecticide and fertilizer in sustainable agriculture. [it

  14. Effect of transglutaminase on some properties of cake enriched with various protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, H; Bilgiçli, N

    2008-06-01

    The effect of transglutaminase (TG) enzyme addition (0% and 0.09%) on batter and cake properties, prepared with different protein sources (nonfat dry milk [NFDM], soy flour, and soymilk) and flour types (type A with 11.4% protein and type B with 8.6% protein), was investigated. Specific gravity and pH of cake batters were determined, and physical and chemical analysis of the cake samples was performed. Soy products improved cake weight, volume, softness, protein, and fat contents. NFDM increased the crust redness and crumb lightness more than the other protein sources. TG enzyme addition affected the volume, softness, crust, and crumb color of the cake samples significantly (P flour B with lower protein gave more puffed, symmetrical, and softer cake samples. TG had a potential application with different protein sources in cake production. Especially interactions between TG with soy flour and TG and wheat flour with high protein content were important in cake formulations due to the softening effect on crumb.

  15. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  16. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  18. Simulation for evaluation of the multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory of TechnoFusion facility and its relevance for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rey, D.; Mota, F.; Vila, R.; Ibarra, A.; Ortiz, Christophe J.; Martinez-Albertos, J.L.; Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Perlado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion requires the development of several research facilities, in addition to ITER, needed to advance the technologies for future fusion reactors. TechnoFusion will focus in some of the priority areas identified by international fusion programmes. Specifically, the TechnoFusion Area of Irradiation of Materials aims at surrogating experimentally the effects of neutron irradiation on materials using a combination of ion beams. This paper justifies this approach using computer simulations to validate the multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory. The planned irradiation facility will investigate the effects of high energetic radiations on reactor-relevant materials. In a second stage, it will also be used to analyze the performance of such materials and evaluate newly designed materials. The multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory, both triple irradiation and high-energy proton irradiation, can provide valid experimental techniques to reproduce the effect of neutron damage in fusion environment.

  19. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubmann, R; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G M; Lafferty, R M; Arbizu, V M; Steiner, W

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m3 m"3 d"1 was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m~3 d"1. However, the UASB reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane.

  20. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staubmann, R.; Guebitz, G.M.; Lafferty, R.M. [Graz Technical Univ. (Austria)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. However, the UAS reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  2. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  3. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  4. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  5. Utilization of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake for production of xylanase from thermophilic Scytalidium thermophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chetna; Khare, S K

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a major biodiesel crop. Large amount of deoiled cake is generated as by-product during biodiesel production from its seeds. Deoiled J. curcas seed cake was assessed as substrate for the production of xylanase from thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum by solid-state fermentation. The seed cake was efficiently utilized by S. thermophilum for its growth during which it produced good amount of heat stable extracellular xylanase. The solid-state fermentation conditions were optimized for maximum xylanase production. Under the optimized conditions viz. deoiled seed cake supplemented with 1% oat-spelt xylan, adjusted to pH 9.0, moisture content 1:3 w/v, inoculated with 1×10(6) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 45 °C, 1455 U xylanase/g deoiled seed cake was obtained. The xylanase was useful in biobleaching of paper pulp. Solid-state fermentation of deoiled cake appears a potentially viable approach for its effective utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Effects of sucrose reduction on the structural characteristics of sponge cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Souza Cavalcante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe consumption of reduced-calorie cakes has been increasing, however this has presented challenges to be overcome concerning the formation of their structure when the sucrose is substituted by alternative sweeteners, gums or thickening agents. The present study evaluated the internal characteristics of cakes with a reduction in sucrose, and the effects of its substitution on starch gelatinisation. Starting with a pre-established formulation, the sucrose was gradually substituted by a 1.0% mixture of sucralose in a 1.5% xanthan gum solution. In the substituted cake mix, the apparent viscosity and its thermal properties were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Specific volume (SV and cell count (CC were evaluated in the cakes. As the sucrose content decreased (52.17 to 10.00%, the specific volume (1.94 to 0.7 mL/g, cell count (36.2 to 4.0 cell/cm2 and the apparent viscosity of the batter (337.56 to 631.40 cP were also reduced. The results showed that substituting the sucrose contributed greatly to the formation of defects in the cake structure (holes. From the data obtained, and thermograms of standard cake batters and those with a reduction in sucrose, it can be concluded that sucralose reduced the temperature of starch gelatinisation, speeding the process and causing compaction of the cake structure during baking, favouring the formation of bubbles throughout the batter.

  8. Application of Combined Cake Filtration-Complete Blocking Model to Ultrafiltration of Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Kazemimoghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane ultrafiltration (UF is widely used in dairy industries like milk concentration and dehydration processes. The limiting factor of UF systems is fouling which is defined as the precipitation of solutes in the form of a cake layer on the surface of the membrane. In this study, the combined cake filtration-complete blocking model was compared to cake filtration mechanism for flux data through ultrafiltration of skim milk at constant flow rate. The resistance data also was modeled using cake filtration model and standard blocking model. The effect of different trans-membrane pressures and temperatures on flux decline was then investigated. Based on the results obtained here, the combined complete blocking-cake formation model was in excellent agreement with experimental data. The cake filtration model also provided good data fits and can be applied to solutions whose solutes tend to accumulate on the surface of the membrane in the form of a cake layer. With increasing pressure, the differences between the model and experimental data increased.

  9. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  10. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  11. Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3 g and 6 g of dietary fibre per serving (100 g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3 g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index.

  12. Improvements on heap leaching process for a refractory uranium ore and yellow cake precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianke

    2013-01-01

    Some problems such as formed harden matrix, ore heap compaction, poor permeability, and agglomeration of absorption resin occur during extracting uranium from a refractory uranium ore by heap leaching process. After some measures were taken, i.e. spraying a new ore heap by low concentration acid, two or more ore heaps in series leaching, turning ores in ore heap, the permeability was improved, acid consumption was reduced. Through precipitate circulation and aging, the yellow cake slurry in amorphous or microlite form was transformed to crystal precipitate, thus uranium content in yellow cake was improved, and water content in yellow cake was lowered with good economic benefits. (author)

  13. A new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Zeng Yijun; Li Shangyuan; Kong Guiying

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new technique for production of yellow cake with double precipitation, thus solving a series of problems for precipitating uranium with traditional double precipitation. The new technique can not only remove ferric ions and sulfate radicals but also make solid-liquid separation easy, utilize effectively the sulfuric acid produced in ferric ions precipitation process, and increase uranium concentration of leaching liquor. To take it as producing yellow cake will save investment, simplify operation, and cut down the consumption of raw materials and energies. It is more competitive than ion-exchange or solvent extraction in the process of extracting-purifying and preparing yellow cake

  14. Effect of neem cake/fertilizers on symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Solangi, A.H.; Gilani, G.; Pirzada, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Neem cake amendment in soil at 1.3% no adverse effect on the population of four symbiotic Rhizobium species viz., japonicum, R. leguminosarum, R. Phaseoli and R. Fredii and three non-symbiotic free living nitrogen fixers bacteria viz., Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Klebsiella planticola and Enterobacter cloacae. Neem cake extracted with n-hexane stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species in vitro, whereas Neem cake expeller extracted neither inhibited nor stimulated the growth of Rhizobium species except for R. Fredii, whose was slightly retarded. The fertilizers (urea, NPK and DAP) had no adverse effect on these bacteria even at the dosage ten times higher the recommended dose. (author)

  15. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  16. Radiolytic gas generation in Salt Cake Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored in large, steel tanks in the Savannah River Site's Tank Farms. The liquid levels in these tanks are monitored to detect leakage of waste out of tanks or leakage of liquids into the tanks. Recent unexplained level fluctuations in high-level waste (HLW) tanks have caused High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to develop a program to better understand tank level behavioral Interim Waste Technology (IWT) has been requested by HLWE to obtain data which will lead to a better understanding of the radiolytic generation of gases in salt cake. A task plan has been written in response to this request. This document details the controls necessary to ensure the quality of the results of the activities described in the task plan

  17. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  18. The relevance of MRI for patient modeling in head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: A comparison of CT and CT-MRI based tissue segmentation on simulated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, René F.; Paulides, Margarethus M.; Fortunati, Valerio; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F.; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Lugt, Aad van der

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In current clinical practice, head and neck (H and N) hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is solely based on computed tomography (CT) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior soft-tissue contrast over CT. The purpose of the authors’ study is to investigate the relevance of using MRI in addition to CT for patient modeling in H and N HTP. Methods: CT and MRI scans were acquired for 11 patients in an immobilization mask. Three observers manually segmented on CT, MRI T1 weighted (MRI-T1w), and MRI T2 weighted (MRI-T2w) images the following thermo-sensitive tissues: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, myelum, sclera, lens, vitreous humor, and the optical nerve. For these tissues that are used for patient modeling in H and N HTP, the interobserver variation of manual tissue segmentation in CT and MRI was quantified with the mean surface distance (MSD). Next, the authors compared the impact of CT and CT and MRI based patient models on the predicted temperatures. For each tissue, the modality was selected that led to the lowest observer variation and inserted this in the combined CT and MRI based patient model (CT and MRI), after a deformable image registration. In addition, a patient model with a detailed segmentation of brain tissues (including white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) was created (CT and MRI db ). To quantify the relevance of MRI based segmentation for H and N HTP, the authors compared the predicted maximum temperatures in the segmented tissues (T max ) and the corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) of the patient models based on (1) CT, (2) CT and MRI, and (3) CT and MRI db . Results: In MRI, a similar or reduced interobserver variation was found compared to CT (maximum of median MSD in CT: 0.93 mm, MRI-T1w: 0.72 mm, MRI-T2w: 0.66 mm). Only for the optical nerve the interobserver variation is significantly lower in CT compared to MRI (median MSD in CT: 0.58 mm, MRI-T1w: 1.27 mm, MRI-T2w: 1.40 mm). Patient

  19. The relevance of MRI for patient modeling in head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: A comparison of CT and CT-MRI based tissue segmentation on simulated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaart, René F., E-mail: r.f.verhaart@erasmusmc.nl; Paulides, Margarethus M. [Hyperthermia Unit, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Cancer Institute, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3008 AE (Netherlands); Fortunati, Valerio; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F. [Biomedical Imaging Group of Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50/60, Rotterdam 3015 GE (Netherlands); Verduijn, Gerda M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC - Cancer Institute, Groene Hilledijk 301, Rotterdam 3008 AE (Netherlands); Lugt, Aad van der [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50/60, Rotterdam 3015 GE (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: In current clinical practice, head and neck (H and N) hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is solely based on computed tomography (CT) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior soft-tissue contrast over CT. The purpose of the authors’ study is to investigate the relevance of using MRI in addition to CT for patient modeling in H and N HTP. Methods: CT and MRI scans were acquired for 11 patients in an immobilization mask. Three observers manually segmented on CT, MRI T1 weighted (MRI-T1w), and MRI T2 weighted (MRI-T2w) images the following thermo-sensitive tissues: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, myelum, sclera, lens, vitreous humor, and the optical nerve. For these tissues that are used for patient modeling in H and N HTP, the interobserver variation of manual tissue segmentation in CT and MRI was quantified with the mean surface distance (MSD). Next, the authors compared the impact of CT and CT and MRI based patient models on the predicted temperatures. For each tissue, the modality was selected that led to the lowest observer variation and inserted this in the combined CT and MRI based patient model (CT and MRI), after a deformable image registration. In addition, a patient model with a detailed segmentation of brain tissues (including white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) was created (CT and MRI{sub db}). To quantify the relevance of MRI based segmentation for H and N HTP, the authors compared the predicted maximum temperatures in the segmented tissues (T{sub max}) and the corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) of the patient models based on (1) CT, (2) CT and MRI, and (3) CT and MRI{sub db}. Results: In MRI, a similar or reduced interobserver variation was found compared to CT (maximum of median MSD in CT: 0.93 mm, MRI-T1w: 0.72 mm, MRI-T2w: 0.66 mm). Only for the optical nerve the interobserver variation is significantly lower in CT compared to MRI (median MSD in CT: 0.58 mm, MRI-T1w: 1.27 mm, MRI-T2w: 1.40 mm

  20. The relevance of MRI for patient modeling in head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: a comparison of CT and CT-MRI based tissue segmentation on simulated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, René F; Fortunati, Valerio; Verduijn, Gerda M; van der Lugt, Aad; van Walsum, Theo; Veenland, Jifke F; Paulides, Margarethus M

    2014-12-01

    In current clinical practice, head and neck (H&N) hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is solely based on computed tomography (CT) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior soft-tissue contrast over CT. The purpose of the authors' study is to investigate the relevance of using MRI in addition to CT for patient modeling in H&N HTP. CT and MRI scans were acquired for 11 patients in an immobilization mask. Three observers manually segmented on CT, MRI T1 weighted (MRI-T1w), and MRI T2 weighted (MRI-T2w) images the following thermo-sensitive tissues: cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, myelum, sclera, lens, vitreous humor, and the optical nerve. For these tissues that are used for patient modeling in H&N HTP, the interobserver variation of manual tissue segmentation in CT and MRI was quantified with the mean surface distance (MSD). Next, the authors compared the impact of CT and CT and MRI based patient models on the predicted temperatures. For each tissue, the modality was selected that led to the lowest observer variation and inserted this in the combined CT and MRI based patient model (CT and MRI), after a deformable image registration. In addition, a patient model with a detailed segmentation of brain tissues (including white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid) was created (CT and MRIdb). To quantify the relevance of MRI based segmentation for H&N HTP, the authors compared the predicted maximum temperatures in the segmented tissues (Tmax) and the corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) of the patient models based on (1) CT, (2) CT and MRI, and (3) CT and MRIdb. In MRI, a similar or reduced interobserver variation was found compared to CT (maximum of median MSD in CT: 0.93 mm, MRI-T1w: 0.72 mm, MRI-T2w: 0.66 mm). Only for the optical nerve the interobserver variation is significantly lower in CT compared to MRI (median MSD in CT: 0.58 mm, MRI-T1w: 1.27 mm, MRI-T2w: 1.40 mm). Patient models based on CT (Tmax: 38.0 °C) and CT and MRI

  1. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...... not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic acid, n-6/. n-3 ratio and monounsaturated FA gradually increased (P. olive cake was increased in dietary treatments. Overall, FA profile of milk and cheese...

  2. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes.

  3. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  4. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  5. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  6. Filtration of Nanoparticles: Evolution of Cake Structure and Pressure-Drop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    The detailed three-dimensional accumulation of deposits and the build-up of pressuredrop during filtration of compressible gases laden with nanoparticles (diameter dp=50 nm) through capillaries (1–4 micron radius) was investigated by Langevin dynamics (LD) at Peclet number, Pe, 0.01–10. At low Pe...... with constant solid volume fraction began to form, accompanied with build-up of pressuredrop which was in excellent agreement with classic cake filtration theory. An expression for the solid volume fraction of the cake (fsd,c) was obtained as a sole function of Pe. In addition, the filtration efficiency became...... 1 after clogging, since the cake acts as a perfectly efficient filter. Penetration of nanoparticles takes place until the onset of cake filtration at high Pe (1–10) while for smaller ones (0.01–0.1) it is negligible at the employed capillary radii and length (10 micron). Analytical expressions...

  7. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a

  8. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Macauba palm coconuts are rich in essential nutrients for animal feed formulation and after oil extraction, a large amount of residual biomass is produced, which must be used rationally to environmental preservation. This study aimed to determine the nutritional value of macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata, cake and leaves, for its physical and chemical composition, dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility (IVD and in situ degradability. The test of in situ degradability was done using three rumen fistulated cattle. Analytical determinations were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition of Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP, Brazil. Six replicates were used for each analytical determination and were calculated the standard error. Macauba cake chemically assessed showed a low protein content (CP 4.5% and high content of acid detergent fibre (ADF 39.7% and average levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF 52.5%. ADF and NDF were the macauba palm cake majority fractions compared NDF and ADF (respectively of cocoa cake (37.6 and 45.5%, sunflower cake (28.2 and 38.4%, corn meal (11.3 and 20.2% and peanut cake (15.4 and 21.0. Macauba palm leaves had a good protein content (12.0% and fiber content comparable to tropical grass of good nutritional value. They can be used with no restriction on ruminants’ diets. The macauba palm cake high levels of lignin (16.5% justify the low dry matter IVD percentage (48%, while the leaves had 58%.of IVD. Macauba leaves total digestible nutrients (TDN 59.0% is similar to TDN usually observed for forages. Macauba cake can be considered (TDN = 64.0% similar to energetic food, due to the fat content (6.4%, however the high content of lignin (16.5% can limit its consumption. Macauba palm cake showed high ruminal degradability of DM and CP (fraction a = 51.3 and 59.9, respectively, while macauba palm leaves hah low solubility of DM and CP (fraction a = 3.18 and 5.28, respectively. Thus, the higher CP macauba leaves

  9. Pengembangan Produksi Biogas Dari Limbah Pembuatan Biodiesel Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas Seed Cake)

    OpenAIRE

    Yufidani, Y; Jos, Bakti; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a fermentation process using anaerobic bacteria to convert organic compounds into gas with high composition of methane. Use of jatropha curcas as a biodiesel's resources remains a problems, seed cake of jatropha curcas contains phorbol esters that is toxic. This research focused on getting an optimum yield of biogas production from jatropha curcas seed cake using additive material to reach optimum C/N ratio. Optimum C/N ratio on biogas production was range 20-30, but jatropha curcas...

  10. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuti, Hiroko; Ikawa, Yoshiko

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  11. Studi Pembuatan Rainbow Cake Menggunakan Pati Sagu (Metroxylon SP.) Lokal Riau

    OpenAIRE

    ', Arnizam; Pato, Usman; Johan, Vonny Setiaries

    2015-01-01

    This study aim was to analyze the differences in the sensory assessment of the rainbow cake with the addition of 30% sago starch and 100% rainbow cake using wheat flour. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two treatments and eight replication thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat flour, 0% sago starch) and TS2 (70% wheat flour, 30% sago starch). The parameters observed were descriptive test which includes assessing the attributes of ten...

  12. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  13. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas kernel cake by a novel Streptomyces fimicarius strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Ou, Lingcheng; Fu, Liang-Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-09-15

    A huge amount of kernel cake, which contains a variety of toxins including phorbol esters (tumor promoters), is projected to be generated yearly in the near future by the Jatropha biodiesel industry. We showed that the kernel cake strongly inhibited plant seed germination and root growth and was highly toxic to carp fingerlings, even though phorbol esters were undetectable by HPLC. Therefore it must be detoxified before disposal to the environment. A mathematic model was established to estimate the general toxicity of the kernel cake by determining the survival time of carp fingerling. A new strain (Streptomyces fimicarius YUCM 310038) capable of degrading the total toxicity by more than 97% in a 9-day solid state fermentation was screened out from 578 strains including 198 known strains and 380 strains isolated from air and soil. The kernel cake fermented by YUCM 310038 was nontoxic to plants and carp fingerlings and significantly promoted tobacco plant growth, indicating its potential to transform the toxic kernel cake to bio-safe animal feed or organic fertilizer to remove the environmental concern and to reduce the cost of the Jatropha biodiesel industry. Microbial strain profile essential for the kernel cake detoxification was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of gluten-free cakes with the addition of methylcellulose and xanthan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Borges Vallejos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of gluten results in many baking problems and many gluten-free products currently available in the market are of low quality. The addition of hydrocolloids, however, is an option to improve technological characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the addition of methylcellulose and xanthan gum on the technological characteristics of gluten-free cakes made with 100% rice flour. Cakes using hydrocolloids at different concentrations were developed through an experimental design that evaluated technological features such as specific volume, crumb hardness and overall quality score. Mathematical models were obtained to describe the hardness and the score of cakes as a function of the addition of xanthan and methylcellulose. The smallest value of crumb hardness of the cakes was obtained when concentrations of 0.4% xanthan and 2% methylcellulose were added. With regards to the score, the highest value was obtained with the lowest levels of hydrocolloids, whose formulation contained 0.2% xanthan gum and 1% methylcellulose. It can be concluded that the addition of xanthan gum and methylcellulose enabled the development of a gluten-free cake with a softer crumb that presents technological quality attributes similar to that of a wheat cake.

  15. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of cakes prepared with whole flaxseed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Aguiar Moraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value, the oxidative stabilitiy, and consumer acceptance of cakes containing four different concentrations of flaxseed flour (5, 15, 30 and 45% as partial replacement for wheat flour. The oxidative stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids was evaluated through the lipid peroxidation test (TBARS in the flour and cakes. Linolenic acid was determined by gas chromatography as well as contents of protein, lipid, ash, and dietary fiber. Consumer acceptance was assessed using a structured hedonic scale of nine points. The oxidative stability of lipid flaxseeds was not affected by the heat treatment during flour processing and cake baking. Cakes made with 5, 15, and 30% of flaxseed flour, the most accepted by consumers, had dietary fiber levels ranging from 3.5 to 6.2 g and linolenic acid ranging from 445 to 2,500 mg.100 g-1 of the product. The cakes received claims of good and excellent source of dietary fiber and linolenic acid, respectively, both are bioactive compounds. The use of up to 30% of flaxseed flour in the preparation of cakes is a useful strategy to optimize the consumption of food rich in functional ingredients.

  16. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as a Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use of the Dragon fruit that is considered to be food wastes. This research aims to provide a new alternative natural food coloring in the Red Velvet Cake. Experimental research is used by doing experiments and planned and systematic testing to Red Velvet Cake, and by collecting primary data and secondary data as well. All data is presented in a descriptive with SPSS. From the results of mean average can be inferred that the Red Velvet Cake using natural food coloring from Red Dragon fruit is acceptable to the community.

  17. Ripe Banana Flour as a Source of Antioxidants in Layer and Sponge Cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Lobo, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    About one-fifth of all bananas harvested become culls that are normally disposed of improperly. However, ripe banana pulp contains significant amounts of fibre and polyphenol compounds as well as a high content of simple sugars (61.06 g/100 g), making it suitable for sucrose replacement in bakery products. This work studied the feasibility of incorporating ripe banana flour (20 and 40% of replacement) in cake formulation. Physical, nutritional and sensory attributes of sponge and layer cakes were evaluated. The inclusion of ripe banana flour generally led to an increased batter consistency that hindered cake expansion, resulting in a slightly lower specific volume and higher hardness. This effect was minimised in layer cakes where differences in volume were only evident with the higher level of replacement. The lower volume and higher hardness contributed to the decline of the acceptability observed in the sensory test. Unlike physical attributes, the banana flour inclusion significantly improved the nutritional properties of the cakes, bringing about an enhancement in dietary fibre, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (up to a three-fold improvement in antioxidant capacity performance). Therefore, results showed that sugar replacement by ripe banana flour enhanced the nutritional properties of cakes, but attention should be paid to its inclusion level.

  18. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  19. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Eaw, A; Chompreeda, P; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Haruthaithanasan, V; Suwonsichon, T; Saidu, J E; Xu, Z

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour. Three nonwheat rice butter cakes were prepared with varying amounts of powdered emulsifier (propylene glycol ester:diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride, 8:2) at 0% (product A), 7.5% (product B), and 15% (product C) of the margarine content (15%) in the cake formulation. A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Consumers (n= 400) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a binomial (yes/no) scale. At least 81% of consumers accepted products B and C, of which 42.1% and 47%, respectively, would purchase the products if commercially available. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5.39. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability (overall texture, softness, and moistness) with a canonical correlation of 0.71 to 0.79. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent. Odor influenced purchase intent (P= 0.0014), but not overall acceptance. The odds ratio of overall liking was 3.462 for purchase intent, indicating the probability of the product being purchased is 3.462 times higher (than not being purchased, P flour with Thai jasmine rice flour for production of butter cake products acceptable to American consumers.

  20. The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, B M; Whitehouse, M E; Greenwood, C T

    1978-01-01

    The literature on the role of chlorine treatment of flour for use in high-ratio cake production is discussed in relation to current knowledge of cereal chemistry and cake technology. A brief perspective of the present use of chlorine in high-ratio cake flours is included. Investigations of the uptake of gaseous chlorine by flour and its distribution among and chemical action upon the major flour components (water, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate) are assessed. The physical effects of chlorination as demonstrated by experiments with batters and cakes and by physicochemical observations of flour and its fractions are also considered. The characteristics of the starch in flour appear to be critical in high-ratio cakes. Chlorine treatment modifies the gelatinization behavior of the starch granules yet does not change their gelatinization temperature not is there evidence of chemical attack upon the starch molecules. Therefore, it is suggested that chlorine effects the necessary changes in starch behavior by reacting with the noncarbohydrate surface contaminants on the granules. Alternative methods of improving high-ratio cake flours are mentioned, particularly heat-treatment processes.

  1. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  3. The effect of different emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties containing WPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian Movahhed, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of complete replacement of egg proteins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and improvement in quality by different emulsifiers was evaluated. Three emulsifiers, including polyglycerol ester (PGE), distilled mono glyceride (DMG) and lecithin were used to bake eggless cakes, containing 8% (w/w) WPC. The response surface analysis was applied to study the effect of emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties. The emulsifiers, individually and interactively, improved the properties of the eggless cakes significantly. The PGE and DMG decreased the batter density, however lecithin increased it. All emulsifiers increased the porosity and volume of the eggless cakes, but decreased the hardness and gumminess of crumb and improved the sensory acceptance. The indices used for optimization of formulation were water activity, moisture content, hardness, gumminess, volume, porosity and total acceptance. The optimum quality of the eggless cake can be achieved from a combination of 0.5 PGE, 0.25 DMG and 0.5% lecithin. The experimental and predicted responses of the optimized eggless cake had a good resemblance.

  4. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  5. Marketing in Germany: A market research for a start-up business of cake making/decorating business in Frankfurt

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The research problem was to make a market analysis of cake making/decorating business in Frankfurt, Germany. Based on the research process, customers’ attitudes towards cake making/decorating companies were found out. The main objective of the thesis was to know targeted customer behavior and opinions towards a business idea of initiating business in cake making/decorating, in order to find out if it will be profitable or not. This thesis consists of four sections: Introduction, Market ...

  6. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  7. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  8. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  9. Can acceptable quality angel food cakes be made using pasteurized shell eggs? The effects of processing factors on functional properties of angel food cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recent incidences of Salmonella contamination, the market for pasteurized shell eggs is rapidly growing. One objection to using pasteurized shell eggs is the belief that they will produce unacceptable baked product (e.g., angel food cakes). In the present study, shell eggs were pasteurized us...

  10. Detoxification and anti-nutrients reduction of Jatropha curcas seed cake by Bacillus fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phengnuam, Thanyarat; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2013-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from oil extraction of J. curcas seed. Although it contains a high amount of protein, it has phorbol esters and anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and saponin. It cannot be applied directly in the food or animal feed industries. This investigation was aimed at detoxifying the toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation with Bacillus spp. Two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Bacillus strains used in the study were Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with solid-state and submerged fermentations. Solid-state fermentation was done on 10 g of seed cake with a moisture content of 70% for 7 days, while submerged fermentation was carried out on 10 g of seed cake in 100 ml distilled water for 5 days. The fermentations were incubated at the optimum condition of each strain. After fermentation, bacterial growth, pH, toxic and anti-nutritional compounds were determined. Results showed that B. licheniformis with submerged fermentation were the most effective method to degrade toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the seed cake. After fermentation, phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 62%, 42% and 75%, respectively, while lectin could not be eliminated. The reduction of phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor was related to esterase, phytase and protease activities, respectively. J. curcas seed cake could be mainly detoxified by bacterial fermentation and the high-protein fermented seed cake could be potentially applied to animal feed. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of yellow cake from rock phosphate deposits and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumrawi, N. S.

    2002-05-01

    This study was carried out mainly to produce uranium trioxide (UO 3 ), with the standard of commercial specifications from rock phosphate deposits in eastern part of Nuba mountains, south Kurdufan state. A simplified hydrometallurgical procedure has been adopted for production of yellow cake from the ore. Elemental analysis has shown that the ore is rich in Ca and deficient in elements of potential interest such as Fe, Cu and Zn. Uranium content in ore, phosphoric acid and purified yellow cake (UO 3 ) obtained with different precipitants was analyzed using alpha-spectrometry. On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in ore corresponds to 82 ± 24 ppm (0.10%). From the data of pregnant liquor, it was observed that the addition of KCIO 3 as an oxidant improves the dissolution of uranium from the ore by almost 20%. Data has also indicated that the yellow cake purified by hydrogen peroxide has higher concentration of uranium by 44.5% over the one purified by TBP extraction. Undesirable impurities in yellow cake as dictated by the function to which it is intended for were analyzed and compared with international standard specifications set for commercial products. Uranium as U 3 O 8 was found to be 53% in yellow cake initially obtained as ammonium diuranate and purified by hydrogen peroxide and 38% in one, which is purified by TBP extraction. With the exception of Cr concentration, the values of the other critical impurities ( V, Mn, Co, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb, Fe, Cl, Br, I) in UO 3 precipitated by hydrogen peroxide are either typical or lower than those internationally specified as standards for commercial products. Among the impurities considered Cd, Th and Mo were undetectable. The most salient point to be mentioned here regarding impurities is that Cd, which is most undesirable in yellow cake because of its high neutron absorption cross section, was undetectable in both types of yellow cakes ( i.e. purified by TBP extraction and by hydrogen peroxide). (Author)

  12. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  13. EXPERIMENTS ON CAKE DEVELOPMENT IN CROSSFLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2011-04-14

    Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self cleaning through the action of wall shear stress, which is created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduces permeability. Low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Salt Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site and the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford Site. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date, increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter axial flowrate, which is limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, which is limited by space and increases the required pump load. In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on startup techniques and filter cake development. This paper discusses those filter studies. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, and filter cleaning. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, which were both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions filter flow rates can be increased

  14. Feasibility study of sucrose and fat replacement using inulin and rebaudioside A in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Mahshid; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2018-02-20

    Cake is a popular food around the world, however, it is considered as unhealthy due to its high fat and sucrose content. To satisfy customers' demand for a low fat and sucrose cake, in this research both sucrose and fat content of the cake were reduced by using rebaudioside A (Reb A; as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The water content of different formulation was adjusted to obtain a constant batter viscosity similar to the control (3,757 cP). By reducing sucrose and fat content up to 50%, water activity increased and the cakes became more asymmetrical. However, other physical properties including baking weight loss, height, volume, crust color, and texture were similar to those of the control. Higher levels of replacement (75% and 100%) resulted in remarkable loss of different quality attributes. These samples showed higher water activity and baking loss, lower volume, harder texture, darker color, and highly asymmetrical shape. Thus, successful reduction of both fat and sucrose in cakes is possible by using inulin and Reb A at replacement levels no more than 50%. Customers' demand for healthy and yet tasty and high-quality foods is increasing around the world. Therefore, finding applicable and safe methods to produce such products is of great interest in the food manufacturing to satisfy customers. Health conscious customers avoid consumption of cakes because it contains high sucrose and fat content. Many studies have been performed to reduce either fat or sucrose content, while a few studies are available to show the reduction of both fat and sucrose in the same product. This study indicates the results of an applicable method to reduce fat and sucrose content of cakes simultaneously. Using rebaudioside A (as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) up to 50% of sucrose and fat content of cakes were reduced and the resulting cake had very similar physical properties to

  15. Effect of ingredients on rheological, physico-sensory, and nutritional characteristics of omega-3-fatty acid enriched eggless cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhay Kumar, N; Prasada Rao, U J S; Jeyarani, T; Indrani, D

    2017-10-01

    The effect of defatted soya flour (DS), flax seed powder (FS) in combination (DSFS) with emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate, GMS (DSFSG) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, SSL (DSFSS) on the rheological, physico-sensory, protein subunit composition by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), fatty acid profile, and nutritional characteristics of eggless cake was studied. Use of DSFS, DSFSG, and DSFSS increased the amylograph peak viscosity, hot and cold paste viscosities similar to the egg. Addition of DSFS, DSFSG, and DSFSS increased viscosity of eggless cake batter; cake volume and the overall quality score (OQS) of eggless cake. Among these, highest improvement in OQS was brought about by DSFSG. According to SDS-PAGE results, the improvement by DSFSG is due to crosslinking of wheat-soya-flax proteins similar to wheat-egg proteins crosslinking. The eggless cake with DSFSG was found to be rich in omega-3-fatty acid as it contained 0.6% of linolenic acid compared to 0.1% each of cake with egg and eggless cake. As eggs are significant source of cholesterol, there has been an increased interest in search of ingredients that can replace egg in cakes. Hence, recent trend in the baking industry is to produce eggless cake using a combination of different ingredients and additives. However, there is no scientific information on the interaction of non-egg protein with wheat protein in building up the structure and also to improve the nutritional quality with respect to protein and fatty acids profiles of eggless cake. The information generated on the use of combination of defatted soya flour and flax seed along with emulsifiers will be helpful for the commercial manufacture of omega-3-fatty acid rich eggless cake with desired quality attributes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  17. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process.

  18. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.

  19. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian X; Van De Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilarity concept complicate the development phase of safe and cost-effective drug products. To streamline the development phase and to make high-throughput formulation screening possible, efficient solutions for analyzing critical quality attributes such as cake quality with minimal material consumption are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Bubble structure evaluation method of sponge cake by using image morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Masahiko; Katsuta, Yukiyo; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, many evaluation methods for food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that have been used for the quality evaluation recently. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using the image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner, because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow. Therefore the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale value, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. The input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  2. Quantitative evaluation method of the bubble structure of sponge cake by using morphology image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Hironobu; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Katsuta, Yukio; Nonaka, Masahiko

    2005-12-01

    Now a day, many evaluation methods for the food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that are using for the quality evaluation. An advantage of the image processing is to be able to evaluate objectively. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner. Because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow, the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale values, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. First, input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  3. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  4. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  5. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  6. Effect of pretreatment on purple-fleshed sweet potato flour for cake making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutasoit, M. S.; Julianti, E.; Lubis, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The purple-fleshed sweet-potato (PFSP) flour was produced by varying pretreatment of washed chips: dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min, dipping in 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) citric acid solution for 30 min and followed by steam blanching for 5 min. The pretreatment effect on cake quality was investigated. The results showed that PFSP flour produced from pretreatment with dipping in 0.5% citric acid for 30 min followed by steam blanching for 5 min had higher lightness (L*) value and lower browning index, higher hedonic value of color and aroma and baking expansion. The specific volume of cake from pretreated flour, untreated flour and wheat flour were 44.87, 43.83, and 50.43cm3/g, respectively. The sensory evaluation of cake indicated that cake from pretreated PFSP flour was acceptable compare to those of cake from wheat flour.

  7. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R L; de Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Tosto, M S L; Santos, E M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, T M; Correia, B R; de Rufino, L M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis) cake in diets for goats on feeding behaviors, rectal temperature, and cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Forty crossbred Boer male, non-castrated goats (ten animals per treatment), with an average age of 90 days and an initial body weight of 15.01 ± 1.76 kg, were used. The goats were fed Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay and palm kernel supplemented at the rates of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of dry matter (DM). The feeding behaviors (rumination, feeding, and idling times) were observed for three 24-h periods. DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake values were estimated as the difference between the total DM and NDF contents of the feed offered and the total DM and NDF contents of the orts. There was no effect of palm kernel cake inclusion in goat diets on DM intake (P > 0.05). However, palm kernel cake promoted a linear increase (P kernel cakes had no effects (P > 0.05) on the chewing, feeding, and rumination efficiency (DM and NDF) or on physiological variables. The use up to 21% palm kernel cake in the diet of crossbred Boer goats maintained the feeding behaviors and did not change the physiological parameters of goats; therefore, its use is recommended in the diet of these animals.

  8. Criticality considerations for salt-cake disolution in DOE waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, E.F.; Niemer, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some of the waste that was transferred to the tanks contained enriched uranium and plutonium from chemical reprocessing streams. As water is added to these tanks to dissolve the salt cake, the insoluble portion of this fissile material will be left behind in the tank as the salt solution is pumped out. Because the salt acts as a diluent to the fissile material, the process of repeated water addition, salt dissolution, and salt solution removal will act as a concentrating mechanism for the undissolved fissile material that will remain in the tank. It is estimated that tank 41 H at SRS contains 20 to 120 kg of enriched uranium, varying from 10 to 70% 235 U, distributed nonuniformly throughout the tank. This paper discusses the criticality concerns associated with the dissolution of salt cake in this tank. These concerns are also applicable to other salt cake waste tanks that contain significant quantities of enriched uranium and/or plutonium

  9. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  10. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Hindryawati, Noor; Nurfitri, Irma; Jose, Rajan; Ab. Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Yusoff, Mashitah M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanter cake as a potential waste feedstock for biodiesel production. • Ultrasound-aided transesterification achieving nearly 86% conversion in 1 h. • Boiler ash, a waste product, was successfully used as a catalyst. - Abstract: Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 ± 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 °C

  11. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Pcooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (Plamb meat.

  12. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  13. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction and scrub DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. Strip DCs values for the Tank 46F sample also met process requirements. However, strip DCs values could not be calculated for the Tank 38H sample due to the poor material balance for Cs-137. Potential explanations for the poor material balance are discussed and additional work to determine the cause is described

  14. Antifungal activity of Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa in rice cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eunjong; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hyejung; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Jeongho

    2012-10-01

    The antifungal activity of organic acids greatly improves the shelf life of bread and bakery products. However, little is known about the effect of lactic acid fermentation on fungal contamination in rice cakes. Here, we show that lactic acid fermentation in rice dough can greatly retard the growth of three fungal species when present in rice cakes, namely Cladosporium sp. YS1, Neurospora sp. YS3, and Penicillium crustosum YS2. The antifungal activity of the lactic acid bacteria against these fungi was much better than that of 0.3% calcium propionate. We found that organic acids including lactic and acetic acid, which are byproducts of lactic fermentation or can be artificially added, were the main antifungal substances. We also found that some Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa strains could be good starter species for rice dough fermentation. These results imply that these lactic acid bacteria can be applicable to improve the preservation of rice cakes.

  15. Pengaruh Pengurangan Kadar Air dan Penggunaan Bahan Pengikat Kadar Air dalam Pembuatan Cake Bengkuang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsa Hermianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yam contains a high water content ranging from 86-90% therefore when be processed to be a product such as cake will also result a high water content and cause the product is not durable. By the nature characteristics of the yam was then made utilization efforts became yam cake in order to develop yam processing, increase value added, and diversify food processing based on raw materials of local potential in Padang City. Yam can be used by processing them into a semi wet food such as cake with a dominant amount of yam up to 50% of the cake batter, but only had a shelf life for 3 days. To increase the shelf-life study was carried out water content reduction of raw materials and using of a binder in the making of yam cake. The treatment of water content reduction of yam was done using juicer and pressing. A comparison as a control was performed without reduction of water content. The use of water content binder was conducted with the addition of coconut, cornstarch, and rice flour. Yam cake formulas using binder of water content  with cornstarch and reduction the water content of raw material by pressing showed optimal results with a preferred value of organoleptic panelist, the water content 28.50%, carbohydrate 56.31%, protein 6.13%, fat 10.23%, energy 341.86 kcal/100g, dietary fiber 5.98%, calcium 27.77 mg/100g, and 5.92% inulin, storability for 5 days at room temperature and 4 weeks at refrigerator temperature.ABSTRAKBengkuang mengandung kadar air yang tinggi berkisar 86-90% sehingga jika diolah untuk menjadi produk berupa cake akan memberikan kadar air yang juga tinggi dan menyebabkan produk menjadi tidak tahan lama. Dengan sifat alami bengkuang tersebut maka dilakukan upaya pemanfaatannya menjadi cake bengkuang dalam rangka pengembangan olahan dari bengkuang, peningkatan nilai tambah, dan diversifikasi olahan pangan berbasis bahan baku lokal yang cukup potensi di kota Padang. Bengkuang dapat dimanfaatkan dengan mengolahnya menjadi pangan

  16. Addition of chia seed mucilage for reduction of fat content in bread and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sibele Santos; Salas-Mellado, Myriam de Las Mercedes

    2017-07-15

    In this study, breads and chocolate cakes were prepared with different levels of chia mucilage dried at 50°C or lyophilized as fat, resulting in healthier products. Results indicated that breads and chocolate cakes made with chia mucilage can replace up to 50% of fat without affecting the technological and physical characteristics. The replacement of 75% of fat, for both types of mucilage, had a significant reduction in fat content of 56.6% in breads and 51.6% in cakes, producing a slight decrease in the technological characteristics of the products. Sensorial parameters showed good acceptability, with greater purchase intent for both products when added with chia mucilage dried at 50°C. Therefore, chia mucilage proved to be a new alternative for replacing fat in food products, preserving the quality attributes and making them healthier foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Experiences with the enzymatic determination of sugar and sugar substitutes in dietetic cake for diabetics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, L; Grossklaus, R; Pahlke, G

    1979-11-01

    Sorbitol and fructose were determined enzymatically in home-made and commercially produced cake for diabetics. In some commercial products, a loss of fructose depending upon the baking period was found. This loss of fructose is to be attributed to the Maillard reaction. The findings were confirmed by comparative studies will a reference cake.

  18. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND AIRFLOW ON VOLUME DEVELOPMENT DURING BAKING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL ATIQAH SANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume and texture of cake are among the important parameters in measuring the quality of cake. The processing conditions play important roles in producing cakes of good quality. Recent studies focused more on the formulation and the manipulation of baking temperature, humidity and time instead of airflow condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of baking temperature and airflow on the volume development of cake and final cake quality such as volume development, firmness, springiness and moisture content. The cake was baked at three different temperatures (160oC, 170oC, and 180oC, and two different airflow conditions. Baking time, height changes of batter, texture and moisture content of cake were compared to identify the differences or similarities on the final product as the process conditions varied. Results showed that, airflow has more significant effects towards the product quality compared to baking temperature especially on baking time which was 25.58 - 45.16%, and the rate of height changes which was 0.7 mm/min. However, different baking temperatures had more significant effects towards volume expansion which was 2.86 – 8.37% and the springiness of cake which was 3.44% compared to airflow conditions.

  19. Evaluasi Mutu dan Penerimaan Panelis terhadap Rainbow Cake yang Dibuat dari Tepung Terigu dan Pati Sagu Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Riau is one of the sago starch-producing province in Indonesia. Nowadays, sago starch has been utilized to produce various types of tradisional foods. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of rainbow cake produced by the addition of 30% sago starch and rainbow cake using 100% wheat flour and to evaluate panelist acceptance of these rainbow cakes. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two treatments and eight replications thus obtained 16 experimental units. The treatments were TS1 (100% wheat and 0%sago starch and TS2 (70% wheat flour and 30%sago starch. The parameters observed were moisture, ash, sucrose and fat contents as well as panelist acceptance test. The results of this study indicated that rainbow cake of TS1 treatment (100% wheat flour and 0%sago starch had no significant difference with rainbow cake of TS2 treatment (70% wheat flour and 30% sago starch in case of ash and sucrose contents, but had significant effect on moisture and fat contents of rainbow cake. Based on the panelist acceptance test, the rainbow cake made from 70% wheat flour and sago starch 30% could be accepted by panelists similar to commercial rainbow cake.

  20. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  1. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  2. Antifungal properties of fermentates and their potential to replace sorbate and propionate in pound cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; Vroman, A; Eeckhout, M

    2016-11-21

    The major objective of this study was to assess the antifungal activities of commercially available 'clean label' fermentates and their potential to replace the preservative function of sorbate and propionate in cake. This study was performed in two parts. In the first part of the study the inhibitory activities of selected fermentates - FA, FB, FC and FD - towards Aspergillus tritici and Aspergillus amstelodami were assessed as a function of pH (5.0-6.5) on malt extract agar (MEA). In the second part of the study, challenge, shelf-life and sensorial tests were used to determine the suitability of these fermentates to replace potassium sorbate and calcium propionate in quarter pound cake. All the fermentates evaluated in this study all had significant (prange for application in bakery products. In all cases, the inhibitory activity of the fermentates increased with a decrease in the pH and an increase in concentration. FC was generally the most inhibitory whilst FD was the least inhibitory. Significant (p0.05) in flavour from the reference cake (0.5% calcium propionate and 0.54% potassium sorbate). However, the challenge and shelf-life tests showed that cakes produced with ≤1% FC were not as microbiologically shelf-stable as the reference cake, especially when sliced. Therefore, it can be concluded that whilst fermentates have appreciable antifungal effects, their use could potentially result in reduced shelf-stabilities. Robust challenge and shelf-life tests would be recommended before the marketing of cakes were propionate and/or sorbate has been replaced to ensure accurate shelf-lives are stated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifakı, Yaşar Özlem; Şakıyan, Özge

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate dielectric properties with quality parameters, and to optimize cake formulation and baking conditions by response surface methodology. Weight loss, color, specific volume, hardness and porosity were evaluated. The samples with different DATEM (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) and chickpea flour concentrations (30, 40 and 50%) were baked in microwave oven at different power (300, 350, 400 W) and baking times (2.50, 3.0, 3.50 min). It was found that microwave power showed significant effect on color, while baking time showed effect on weight loss, porosity, hardness, specific volume and dielectric properties. Emulsifier level affected porosity, specific volume and dielectric constant. Chickpea flour level affected porosity, color, hardness and dielectric properties of cakes. The optimum microwave power, baking time, DATEM level and chickpea flour level were found as 400 W, 2.84 min, 1.2% and 30%, respectively. The comparison between conventionally baked and the microwave baked cakes at optimum points showed that color difference, weight loss, specific volume and porosity values of microwave baked cakes were less than those of conventionally baked cakes, on the other hand, hardness values were higher. Moreover, a negative correlation between dielectric constant and porosity, and weight loss values were detected for microwave baked samples. A negative correlation between dielectric loss factor and porosity was observed. These correlations indicated that quality characteristics of a microwave baked cake sample can be assessed from dielectric properties. These correlations provides understanding on the behavior of food material during microwave processing.

  4. [Clinical study of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion for senile osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuqing; Bi, Dingyan; Yi, Zhan; Lu, Jianwei; Zhong, Fuhua; Jiang, Binfeng

    2017-05-12

    To explore the clinical efficacy and partial mechanism of medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion for senile osteoporosis. Sixty cases of senile osteoporosis were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group according to the random digits table, 30 cases in each one. The two groups were both treated with basic treatment of western medicine. The acupoints included four groups:① Dazhui (GV 14), Dazhu (BL 11) and Ganshu (BL 18); ② Zhongwan (CV 12), Danzhong (CV 17) and Zusanli (ST 36); ③ Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Mingmen (GV 4); ④ Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4). Each group of acupoints was selected for one treatment. The observation group was treated with medicinal-cake-separated moxibustion, and the medicinal cake was consisted of fructus psoraleae (30 g), prepared rehmannia root (30 g), atractylodes (30 g), codonopsis pilosula (30 g), epimedium herb (20 g), rhizoma curculiginis (20 g), syzygium aromaticum (5 g) and cinnamon (5 g). The control group was treated with wheat-flour-cake moxibustion. Each acupoint was treated with 5 moxa cones in the two groups. The treatment was given once every other day for six months. The symptom score, lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD), serum type Ⅰ procollagen amino-terminal propeptide (PINP) and serum β-type Ⅰ collagen carboxy-terminal peptide (β-CTX) were observed before and after treatment. After treatment, the symptom score and serum β-CTX were significantly lowered (all P cake-separated moxibustion has significant efficacy for senile osteoporosis, which is superior to wheat-cake-se-parated moxibustion.

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  6. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  7. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  8. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B N; Adam, Jamila K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components ( p edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii .

  9. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  10. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  11. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Sukaryana; Umi Atmomarsono; Vitus D. Yunianto; Ejeng Supriyatna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conduc...

  12. Determination of Juice Removal Difficulty from Mash Cake in Cassava Mash Dewatering Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Peter KOLAWOLE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava processing equipment operators have limited knowledge; this militates against the success recorded in the research so far in cassava mash dewatering. New dewatering schemes to make food processing economical to handle are in progress. Common dewatering processes use a variety of mechanical means such as screw presses and belt presses. Experiments were conducted using three samples of TMS 4(2 1425 variety while evaluating the difficulty of separating juice from mash cake. Average specific cake resistance (a of 5×1011 m/kg was obtained confirming that it is moderately easy to dewatering.

  13. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  14. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau; Yu, Gwang Hyeon; Lu, Tianfeng; Chung, Suk-Ho; Yoo, Chun Sang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species

  15. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  16. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  17. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  18. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  19. The situation and future deployment of the simulation technology relevant to dry type re-processing methods, to an argument sake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2004-01-01

    Arithmetic calculation ability of computers has recently made remarkable progress, especially the power will be accelerated by using distributed computing methods. Based on this situation, application of simulation technology to dry type re-processing is firstly presented, the main purpose of which is reduction of experimental cost. Then, what the simulation technologies should be in future age when powerful computer can be used easily is discussed. The discussion is also done for now and for transition period when such a powerful computer age has not come yet. The concept of future computer simulation is argued from points of its purpose, advantage, methods, and applicable technical fields. The arithmetic calculation ability of supercomputer expected in future and distributed computing methods recently getting footlights are viewed showing concrete examples. (A. Hishinuma)

  20. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  1. The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake on the utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A juidicious use of the protein concentrate for optimum feed intake and feed utilization makes the 50% CSC supplementation more desireable. A 50% cotton seed cake supplementation of the sorghum glume is recommended as suitable in the dry season feeding of the goat. Key words: Goat, sorghum glume, crop residue, ...

  2. Lead and silver extraction from waste cake from hydrometallurgical zinc production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN D. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of the extraction of lead and silver from a lead–silver waste cake obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical zinc production. While controlling the pH value, the lead–silver cake was leached at a temperature close to boiling point in different concentrations of aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The experiments were performed applying different ratios between the mass of cake and the volume of the leaching agent under different durations of the process. It was concluded that at the optimal process parameters (pH 2.0–2.5; CaCl2 concentration, 3.6 mol dm-3; temperature, 95 °C; solid/liquid ratio, 1:5, the leaching efficiency of lead and silver could reach the approximate value of 94 %. Applying the same optimal process parameters, the method was applied to the leaching of a lead–silver cake in a magnesium chloride solution, but with significantly lower efficiencies. The results show that leaching of lead and silver in a calcium chloride solution could be a prospective method for increasing the recovery of lead and silver during hydrometallurgical zinc production.

  3. Effects of diets containing hemp seeds or hemp cake on fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... (seeds or cake) on milk production, fatty acid (FA) profile, and .... PUFAs, which are rich in two essential FAs, namely LA (18:2 n-6) and ALA. ...... Study on safety assessment and antioxidant function in serum of ... Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on milk fatty acid profile.

  4. Effect of vegetable de-oiled cake-diesel blends on diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C.S. [Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arivalagar, A.; Sendilvelan, S. [MGR Univ., Chennai (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arul, S. [Panimalar College of Engineering, Channai (India)

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the use of coconut oil methyl ester (COME) as a blending agent with the vegetable de-oiled cakes used in biodiesel production. Different proportions of the de-oiled cake were combined with diesel in order to investigate performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics. The experiments were conducted on a 4-stroke single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine. Fuel flow rates were measured and a thermocouple was used to measure exhaust gas temperatures. A combustion analyzer was used to measure cylinder pressure and heat release rates. Brake thermal efficiency, brake power, and specific fuel consumption performance was monitored. Results of the study showed that rates of heat release were reduced for the de-oiled cake blended fuels as a result of the change in fuel molecular weight. The variation of NOx with load for neat diesel blends was examined. There was no variation of NOx emission up to 50 per cent of load for all blended oils, and it increased with load. Smoke density was reduced for all blends. Soot production was decreased by the oxygen present in the de-oiled cake. The study showed that fossil fuel oil consumption decreased by 14 to 15 per cent when the de-oiled biodiesel was used at low loads, and 4 to 5 per cent at peak loads. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  6. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Sukaryana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conducted at temperature 28 oC as long as 9 days. Determining the best of the mixtures be based on the crude protein increased and the crude fibre decreased. The results showed that the combination of product mix is the best fermentation inoculums doses 0.3% in mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran ; 80%: 20%, which produces dry matter of 88,12%, crude protein 17.34%, ether extract 5,35%, crude fibre 23.67%, and ash 6.43%. When compared with a mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran; 80%: 20% without of fermentation is crude protein increase 29.58% and crude fibre decreased 22.53%.

  7. Chemical, physical and sensory properties of orange cakes and breads with addition of inulin and oligofructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kelli Souza-Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inulin and oligofructose are fructans that can change important characteristics in original products when added in food. Two formulations of orange cakes (one containing 77.7g of inulin and another one 77.7g of oligofructose/inulin and two formulations of breads (one containing 130g of inulin and another one 175g of oligofructose/inulin were compared to the respective standard formulations (with no fructans in relation to chemical composition, texture, volume, color and sensory acceptability with a nine-point hedonic scale. The cakes and breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin showed greater amount of total dietary fiber in relation to standard products. The orange cake with inulin had lower cohesiveness and yellower dough when compared to the standard cake, but the addition of inulin and oligofructose/inulin reduced the acceptability for appearance, texture and flavor and the overall acceptability, although the acceptability for aroma was the same for the three products. The breads with inulin and oligofructose/inulin were harder and less cohesive than the standard bread, and bread with inulin showed minor volume in relation to the standard. The bread with inulin also presented crust with lower luminosity, dough with higher intensity of redness and yellowness and higher intensity of color in relation to standard, besides different hue. In relation to sensory acceptability, the bread with oligofructose/inulin had higher overall acceptability and flavor when compared to standard bread.

  8. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  9. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety six unsexed day old Marshall broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups of 3 replicates each on weight equalization basis (42.87 – 43.24g). The chicks were used to determine the effect of partial replacement of maize with combinations of palm kernel cake (PKC), yam peel meal (YPM) and plantain peel meal (PPM) ...

  10. Direct estimate of cocoa powder content in cakes by colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kulcsar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was

  11. Effect of isocaloric substitution of chocolate cake for potato in type I diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A L; Davidson, M B; Eisenberg, K

    1990-08-01

    Traditional dietary advice given to people with diabetes includes eliminating simple sugars (primarily sucrose) from the diet. Many people have difficulty following this recommendation. Because patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes do not need overall calorie restriction, there is no caloric reason to restrict sucrose. In this study, we looked at the effect of the isocaloric substitution of a piece of chocolate cake for a baked potato in a mixed meal to determine whether this would increase the blood glucose in patients with type I diabetes. The glucose response to a cake-added meal was significantly greater than to a standard meal. The glucose response was no different between a cake-substitution meal and a standard meal. The reproducibility studies showed no difference between repeated standard meals. The urinary glucose excretion was significantly greater after a cake-added meal but was no different with the other pairs. There were no significant differences in the counterregulatory hormone responses at baseline between any of the paired studies. In conclusion, patients with type I diabetes may substitute a sucrose-containing dessert for another carbohydrate in their diet without compromising their postprandial glucose response. These data suggest that a dessert exchange may be helpful and not harmful in the management of diabetic patients. There is an inherent variability (at least 16%) in an insulin-requiring patient's response to a meal, making self-monitoring of blood glucose and adjustment of insulin doses necessary to achieve near euglycemia.

  12. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  13. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  14. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  15. Puffing of okara/rice blends using a rice cake machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Huff, H; Hsieh, F; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Okara is the insoluble byproduct of soymilk and tofu manufactures. It is cheap, high in nutrients, and possesses great potential to be applied to functional human foods. In this study, a puffed okara/rice cake product was developed with blends of okara pellets and parboiled rice. Consumer preference and acceptance tests were conducted for the product. Okara pellets were prepared by grinding the strands obtained from extruding a mixture of dried okara and rice flour (3:2, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Okara pellets and parboiled rice were blended in 4 ratios, 90:10, 70:30, 40:60, and 0:100 (w/w), and tempered to 14% and 17% moisture. The blends were puffed at 221, 232, and 243 degrees C for 4, 5, or 6 s. The okara/rice cakes were evaluated for specific volume (SPV), texture, color, and percent weight loss after tumbling. Overall, the decrease in okara content and increase in moisture, heating temperature and time led to greater specific volume (SPV) and hardness, lighter color, and lower percent weight loss after tumbling. The consumer tests indicated that the okara/rice cake containing 70% okara pellets was preferred and the 90% one was liked the least. The possible drivers of liking for the puffed okara/rice cakes could be the okara content, hardness, SPV, bright color, and percent weight loss after tumbling.

  16. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  17. Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Properties of Alcoholic Extracts of Oilseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Arct

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare changes in the total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cakes before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Extraction with ethanol and hydrolysis with different commercially available glycosidases: α-amylase, β-glucosidase, β-glucanase and their combinations in a ratio of 1:1:1 were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content, iron-chelating activity and antioxidant activity according to DPPH and ABTS tests were measured in non-hydrolysed extracts and compared with the results obtained for the extracts after the application of immobilised enzymes. As a result, the hydrolysed extracts had a higher phenolic and reducing sugar content as well as higher iron-chelating and antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cake extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis was higher in comparison with non-hydrolysed extracts, i.e. 2 times (for the enzyme combination, and 1.5 and 2 times (for β-glucanase (p<0.05, respectively. The best results in increasing the flavonoid and sugar content as well as in iron-chelating activity were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseed cake extracts by β-glucanase. Oilseed cake extracts after hydrolysis with an enzyme combination in a ratio of 1:1:1 had the highest increase in antioxidant activity.

  18. Color, sensory and physicochemical attributes of beef burger made using meat from young bulls fed levels of licuri cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvêa, Ana Al; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Leão, André G; Assis, Dallyson Yc; Bezerra, Leilson R; Nascimento Júnior, Nilton G; Trajano, Jaqueline S; Pereira, Elzania S

    2016-08-01

    Licuri cake is a biodiesel byproduct and has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study analyzed the color, sensory and chemical attributes of burger meat from bovines. Thirty-two young Nellore bulls were used, housed in individual pens and distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: no addition or the addition of 7, 14 or 21% (w/w) licuri cake in the dry matter of the diet. Interactions between the licuri cake level and the physicochemical variables (P > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, an interaction was observed between the licuri cake level and the burger beef color parameter lightness index (L*) (P = 0.0305). The L* value was positively and linearly correlated with the proportion of licuri cake in the diet of young bulls. The level of inclusion of licuri cake did not affect (P > 0.05) the sensory characteristics; the variables were graded between 6 and 7, indicating good overall acceptance. Up to 21% (w/w) licuri cake can be included in the diet of young bulls without negatively impacting on beef burger quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lee, Seung Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Inglett, George E; Lee, Suyong

    2010-10-01

    With rising consumer awareness of obesity, the food industry has a market-driven impetus to develop low-fat or fat-free foods with acceptable taste and texture. Fancy buckwheat flour was thus subjected to steam jet-cooking and the performance of the resulting product in cake-baking was evaluated as a fat replacer. Steam jet-cooking caused structural breakdown and starch gelatinization of buckwheat flour, thus increasing its water hydration properties. In the pasting measurements, steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited high initial viscosity, while no peak viscosity was observed. Also, the suspensions of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, which were well characterized by the power law model. When shortening in cakes was replaced with steam jet-cooked buckwheat gels, the specific gravity of cake batters significantly increased, consequently affecting cake volume after baking. However, shortening replacement with steam jet-cooked buckwheat up to 20% by weight appeared to be effective in producing cakes as soft as the control without volume loss. When buckwheat flour was thermomechanically modified by steam jet-cooking, it was successfully incorporated into cake formulations for shortening up to 20% by weight, producing low-fat cakes with comparable volume and textural properties to the control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Factors causing PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF (powdered activated carbon-microfiltration) water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Takizawa, S; Katayama, H; Ohgaki, S

    2005-01-01

    Two pilot-scale powdered activated carbon-microfiltration (PAC-MF) reactors were operated using river water pretreated by a biofilter. A high permeate flux (4 m/d) was maintained in two reactors with different particle sizes of PAC. High concentration (20 g/L) in the PAC adsorption zone demonstrated 60-80% of organic removal rates. Analysis on the PAC cake fouling demonstrated that attached metal ions play more important role than organic matter attached on PAC to the increase of PAC cake resistance. Effects of factors which may cause PAC cake fouling in PAC-MF process were investigated and evaluated by batch experiments, further revealing that small particulates and metal ions in raw water impose prominent influence on the PAC cake layer formation. Fe (II) precipitates after being oxidized to Fe (III) during PAC adsorption and thus Fe(ll) colloids display more significant effect than other metal ions. At a high flux, PAC cake layer demonstrated a higher resistance with larger PAC due to association among colloids, metals and PAC particles, and easy migration of small particles in raw water into the void space in the PAC cake layer. Larger PAC possesses much more non-uniform particle size distribution and larger void space, making it easier for small colloids to migrate into the voids and for metal ions to associate with PAC particles by bridge effect, hence speeding up and intensifying the of PAC cake fouling on membrane surface.

  1. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  2. The influence of carbohydrate-based fat replacers with and without emulsifiers on the quality characteristics of lowfat cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A H

    1998-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristics of cakes prepared with either the carbohydrate-based fat replacers N-Flate, Paselli MD 10 and Litesse (0, 25, 50 and 75% of fat weight) or fat replacers plus emulsifier (mono- and diglycerides; 0 and 3% of flour weight) were studied. Specific gravity of the batter was significantly (p Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25 and 50% levels had higher volumes, specific volume and standing heights than those of the control. Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25, 50 and 75% levels were more compressible than the control. Cakes prepared with Paselli MD 10 had the highest volumes, specific volume, standing heights and compressibilities. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers improved cake volumes, standing heights and compressibilities. Cakes prepared with fat replacers exhibited higher crust and crumb color values compared to the control. Cakes prepared with 25 or 50% fat replacers had higher mean scores for flavor, softness and eating quality than the control. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers did not affect the crust color, crumb color and flavor, but significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved softness and eating quality.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  4. Influence of waxy rice flour substitution for wheat flour on characteristics of batter and freeze-thawed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2013-09-12

    This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A constitutive model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of fusion-relevant pebble beds and its application to the simulation of HELICA mock-up experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, G.; Maio, P.A. Di; Giammusso, R.; Tincani, A.; Orco, G. Dell

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the activities promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement on the technology of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module to be irradiated in one of the ITER equatorial ports, attention has been focused on the theoretical modelling of the thermo-mechanical constitutive behaviour of both beryllium and lithiated ceramics pebble beds, that are envisaged to act respectively as neutron multiplier and tritium breeder. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of the pebble beds and their nuclear performances in terms of tritium production depend on the reactor relevant conditions (heat flux and neutron wall load), the pebble sizes and the breeder cell geometries (bed thickness, pebble packing factor, bed overall thermal conductivity). ENEA-Brasimone and the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Palermo University have performed intense research activities intended to investigate fusion-relevant pebble bed thermo-mechanical behaviour by adopting both experimental and theoretical approaches. In particular, ENEA has carried out several experimental campaigns on small scale mock-ups tested in out-of-pile conditions, while DIN has developed a proper constitutive model that has been implemented on commercial FEM code, for the prediction of the thermal and mechanical performances of fusion-relevant pebble beds and for the comparison with the experimental results of the ENEA tests. In that framework, HELICA mock-up has been set-up and tested to investigate the behaviour of pebble bed in reactor-relevant geometries, providing useful data sets to be numerically reproduced by means of the DIN constitutive model, contributing to its assessment. The paper presents the constitutive model developed and the main experimental results of two test campaigns on HELICA mock-up carried out at HE-FUS 3 facility of ENEA Brasimone, the geometry of the mock-up, the adopted thermal and mechanical boundary conditions and the test operating conditions. The most

  6. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of polymeric filter cake in petroleum wells. A study of commercial amylase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, Lab. 113, Cidade Universitaria, 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); De Queiroz Neto, Joao C. [Cenpes/Petrobras, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Langone, Marta A.P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, PHLC/IQ sala 310, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The drilling fluid contact with the productive zone of drilling wells, with horizontal or complex configurations, can reduce its productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as a filter cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species and a possible alternative lies in enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze specific substrates, are environmentally friendly and the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, permitting to produce uniform degradation of the filter cake. Openhole operations require thermo and pressure stability of these enzymatic products. The results herein reported deals with the technical viability analysis of a commercial {alpha}-amylase as a new catalyst for filter cake removal. The effects of process parameters, like temperature (65, 80 and 95 C), enzyme concentration (1, 5.5 and 10% v/v), calcium concentration (5, 70 and 135 ppm), and pressure (100, 500, 100 and 6000 psi), on amylase stability under openhole operations were investigated. Temperature demonstrated to be the most important parameter for the enzyme stability. The enzyme thermostability behavior in high salt (NaCl) concentration (completion fluid) was not significantly different from the control solution in distillated water. The pressure effect on enzyme stability did not affect the enzyme stability as temperature. Hydrostatic pressure (6000 psi) did not impact the amylolytic activity in brine solution. Combined pressure-temperature assays showed that temperature is the key factor in enzyme stability for application in polymeric filter cake removal in petroleum wells. (author)

  8. Pyrolysis of Waste Castor Seed Cake: A Thermo-Kinetics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Muhammad Sokoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. The efficient chemical transformation of waste biomass to numerous products via pyrolysis reactions depends on process kinetic rates; hence the need for kinetic models to best design and operate the pyrolysis. Also, for an efficient design of an environmentally sustainable pyrolysis process of a specific lignocellulosic waste, a proper understanding of its thermo-kinetic behavior is imperative. Thus, pyrolysis kinetics of castor seed de-oiled cake (Ricinus communis using thermogravimetric technique was studied. The decomposition of the cake was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 100mL min-1 from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The results of the thermal profile showed moisture removal and devolatilization stages, and maximum decomposition of the cake occurred at a temperature of 200-400 °C. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction were determined using Friedman (FD, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS, and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO kinetic models. The average apparent activation energy values of 124.61, 126.95 and 129.80 kJmol-1 were calculated from the slopes of the respective models. The apparent activation energy values obtained depends on conversion, which is an evidence of multi-step kinetic process during the pyrolytic decomposition of the cake. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop a suitable thermo-chemical system for the conversion of waste de-oil cake to energy carrier.

  9. Effect of crumb cellular structure characterized by image analysis on cake softness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaest, Marine; Villemejane, Cindy; Berland, Sophie; Neron, Stéphane; Clement, Jérôme; Verel, Aliette; Michon, Camille

    2017-10-04

    Sponge cake is a cereal product characterized by an aerated crumb and appreciated for its softness. When formulating such product, it is interesting to be able to characterize the crumb structure using image analysis and to bring knowledge about the effects of the crumb cellular structure on its mechanical properties which contribute to softness. An image analysis method based on mathematical morphology was adapted from the one developed for bread crumb. In order to evaluate its ability to discriminate cellular structures, series of cakes were prepared using two rather similar emulsifiers but also using flours with different aging times before use. The mechanical properties of the crumbs of these different cakes were also characterized. It allowed a cell structure classification taking into account cell size and homogeneity, but also cell wall thickness and the number of holes in the walls. Interestingly, the cellular structure differences had a larger impact on the aerated crumb Young modulus than the wall firmness. Increasing the aging time of flour before use leads to the production of firmer crumbs due to coarser and inhomogeneous cellular structures. Changing the composition of the emulsifier may change the cellular structure and, depending on the type of the structural changes, have an impact on the firmness of the crumb. Cellular structure rather than cell wall firmness was found to impact cake crumb firmness. The new fast and automated tool for cake crumb structure analysis allows detecting quickly any change in cell size or homogeneity but also cell wall thickness and number of holes in the walls (openness degree). To obtain a softer crumb, it seems that options are to decrease the cell size and the cell wall thickness and/or to increase the openness degree. It is then possible to easily evaluate the effects of ingredients (flour composition, emulsifier …) or change in the process on the crumb structure and thus its softness. Moreover, this image

  10. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO 3 . Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450 0 C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175 0 C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig

  11. Nitrogen dynamics model for a pilot field-scale novel dewatered alum sludge cake-based constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q; Hu, Y S; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A model simulating the effluent nitrogen (N) concentration of treated animal farm wastewater in a pilot on-site constructed wetland (CW) system, using dewatered alum sludge cake (DASC) as wetland substrate, is presented. The N-model was developed based on the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation software and is considering organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) as the major forms of nitrogen involved in the transformation chains. Ammonification (AMM), ammonia volatilization, nitrification (NIT), denitrification, plant uptake, plant decaying and uptake of inorganic nitrogen by algae and bacteria were considered in this model. pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and nitrogen concentrations were considered as forcing functions in the model. The model was calibrated by observed data with a reasonable agreement prior to its applications. The simulated effluent detritus nitrogen, NH4-N, NO3-N and TN had a considerably good agreement with the observed results. The mass balance analysis shows that NIT accounts for 65.60%, adsorption (ad) (11.90%), AMM (8.90%) followed by NH4-N (Plants) (5.90%) and NO3-N (Plants) (4.40%). The TN removal was found 52% of the total influent TN in the CW. This study suggested an improved overall performance of a DASC-based CW and efficient N removal from wastewater.

  12. A survey of elementary plasma instabilities and ECH wave noise properties relevant to plasma sounding by means of particle in cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the emission of high amplitude wave packets into a plasma is examined. The plasma is modelled by an 1 1/2D electromagnetic and relativistic particle in cell code. The antenna is modelled by applying forced electrostatic field oscillations to a subset of the simulation grid cells. The emitted wave packets are followed in space and time. It is investigated how the wave packets are affected by instabilities. The detected instabilities affecting ECH waves have been identified as wave decay, nonlinear damping due to trapping and modulational instabilities. These instabilities have been discussed with hindsight to the plasma sounding experiment. A plasma sounder is an experiment emitting short wave packets into the ambient plasma and then it listens to the response. The assumption that the emitted waves are linear waves then allows to determine the plasma magnetic field strength, the electron density and possibly the electron thermal velocity from the response spectrum. The impact of the non-linear instabilities on the plasma wave response spectrum provided by a sounder have been predicted in this work and the predictions have been shown to match a wide range of experimental observations. A dependence of the instabilities on the simulation noise levels, for example the dependence of the wave interaction time in a wave decay on the noise electric field amplitudes, required it to investigate the simulation noise properties (spectral distribution) and to compare it to real plasma thermal noise. It has also been examined how a finite length antenna would filter the simulation noise. (author)

  13. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishfaq, A; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, A; Malla, B A; Farooq, J

    2015-01-01

    The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF) replacement basis in adult male goats. Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters. Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM), microbial biomass production (MBP), efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF). In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most important finding was that about 78% of nitrogen present in Indian

  14. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ishfaq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF replacement basis in adult male goats. Materials and Methods: Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters. Results: Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, microbial biomass production (MBP, efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF. Conclusion: In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most

  15. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  16. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine D.; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a particular interest in bioadhesive formulations for oromucosal drug delivery as this may promote prolonged local therapy and enhanced systemic effect. Saliva plays a vital role in oromucosal drug absorption by dissolving the drug and presenting it to the mucosal...... in the oral cavity. Thus we aimed at developing an advanced ex vivo buccal retention model, with focus on choosing a physiologically relevant irrigation media closely resembling human saliva. Spray dried chitosan microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride as an example of a small hydrophilic drug, were...... employed as bioadhesive formulations. Chewing-stimulated human whole saliva was collected and characterized for use in retention studies in comparison with four artificial irrigation media; phosphate buffer, Saliva Orthana(®), porcine gastric mucin base media (PGM3), and xanthan gum based media (XG2...

  17. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  18. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN ISOLAT PROTEIN KORO PEDANG (Canavalia ensiformis L. TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK CAKE [Effects of Addition of Protein Isolates from Jack Bean Seed (Canavalia ensiformis L. on the Characteristics of Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Witono

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Addition of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L. protein isolate in cake making was studied. The isolate was prepared from the beans by the method of isoelectrical point at pH 4. At low concentrations (less than 1% of the wheat flour, the addition of the protein isolate could improve the characteristics of the cake by increasing the loaf volume, decreasing the density, and softening the texture. In contrast, the addition of 1.5% tended to decrease the quality of the cake as compared to that added with 1% by decreasing the loaf volume, increasing the density, and hardening the texture. However, the more protein isolate added, the more slowly the rate of the cake staling.

  19. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paste pumping and deposition field trials and concepts on Syncrude's dewatered mature fine tailings MFT centrifuge cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ahmed, I.; Labelle, M.; Brown, R. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a paste pumping and deposition field study conducted on dewatered mature fine tailings (MFT) located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operation. Bench scale rheological examinations of centrifuge cakes and design field testing are used to determine the pumpability of MFT centrifuge cakes. The study included a transportation assessment for the conveyor and positive displacement pumps and pipelines, as well as geotechnical and environmental analyses of bulk materials. Flocculant optimization and centrifuge operational parameter assessments were conducted. Pressure differential and flow rate data were captured in the field studies in order to determine pipeline friction loss. The study showed that pipe friction factors can be obtained using the Bingham plastic model. A natural deposition angle was determined for the MFT centrifuged cake. The study showed that the cake must be sheared in order to reduce yield stress before pumping. It was concluded that displacement pumps can be used to reduced pipeline friction factors. tabs., figs.

  1. Estimation of shelf life of wikau maombo brownies cake using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) method with Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, S.; Holilah; Asranudin; Noviyanti

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour was predicted by ASLT method through the Arrhenius model. The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour. The storage temperature of brownies cake was carried out at 20°C, 30°C and 45°C. The results showed that TBA (Thio Barbaturic Acid) number of brownies cake decreased as the storage temperature increase. Brownies stored at 20°C and 30°C were overgrown with mold on the storage time of six days. Brownies product (WT0 and WT1) had shelf life at 40°C approximately six and fourteen days, respectively. Brownies made from wikau maombo and wheat flour (WT1) was the best product with had the longest of shelf life about fourteen days.

  2. The Impact of Biofilms upon Surfaces Relevant to an Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal Facility under Simulated Near-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Charles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofilms to form on a range of materials (cementious backfill (Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB, graphite, and stainless steel relevant to potential UK intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW disposal concepts was investigated by exposing these surfaces to alkaliphilic flocs generated by mature biofilm communities. Flocs are aggregates of biofilm material that are able to act as a transport vector for the propagation of biofilms. In systems where biofilm formation was observed there was also a decrease in the sorption of isosaccharinic acids to the NRVB. The biofilms were composed of cells, extracellular DNA (eDNA, proteins, and lipids with a smaller polysaccharide fraction, which was biased towards mannopyranosyl linked carbohydrates. The same trend was seen with the graphite and stainless steel surfaces at these pH values, but in this case the biofilms associated with the stainless steel surfaces had a distinct eDNA basal layer that anchored the biofilm to the surface. At pH 13, no structured biofilm was observed, rather all the surfaces accumulated an indistinct organic layer composed of biofilm materials. This was particularly the case for the stainless steel coupons which accumulated relatively large quantities of eDNA. The results demonstrate that there is the potential for biofilm formation in an ILW-GDF provided an initiation source for the microbial biofilm is present. They also suggest that even when conditions are too harsh for biofilm formation, exposed surfaces may accumulate organic material such as eDNA.

  3. Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cake made from chlorinated flour. 1. Studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, N; Hutchinson, J B; Berry, R; Hardy, J; Ginocchio, A V

    1983-08-01

    Wistar rats were fed for 104 wk on cake-based diets in which the cake, prepared from unchlorinated flour, or flour treated with 1250 or 2500 ppm chlorine, formed 79% of the diet on a 12.6% moisture basis. A fourth group was fed stock diet 41B. No differences in appearance, health, behaviour or mortalities attributable to the flour treatment were observed. Female but not male mortalities were significantly higher for cake-fed rats than for those fed diet 41B. Dose-related haematological effects were seen at various stages in cake-fed rats. Dose-related increases in plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were noted at 12 months in males but not in females, for whom all the values were elevated. A dose-related diminution in blood sugar at 12 months was seen only in females. A dose-related increase in urinary aspartate aminotransferase was seen only in males. Urinary N-acetylglucosaminidase activity per mg creatinine did not differ significantly between groups. At post mortem a dose-related reduction in spleen weight was found in the females only. The lesions found were those expected in ageing rats, but were observed earlier in rats fed cake. Glomerulonephrosis affected rats fed cake more than those fed diet 41B. Cake diets promoted nephrocalcinosis, unrelated to flour treatment. Increased splenic haematopoiesis occurred in about half of the females in the cake diet groups but less frequently in males or in rats fed diet 41B. Tumours were mainly chromophobe adenomas of the pituitary, common in rats. Insulomas were seen in two males in each of the groups fed on cake made from chlorinated flour, but an earlier form of this tumour was found in all cake groups and its incidence is thus regarded as unrelated to the flour treatment. The incidence of tumours of the reticuloendothelial system was not related to flour treatment. Covalent chlorine concentrations in the perirenal fat of the cake-fed rats were correlated with treatment levels, with values of 50-912 ppm in

  4. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Katrine D; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-05-20

    In recent years, there has been a particular interest in bioadhesive formulations for oromucosal drug delivery as this may promote prolonged local therapy and enhanced systemic effect. Saliva plays a vital role in oromucosal drug absorption by dissolving the drug and presenting it to the mucosal surface. However, the rheological, chemical, and interfacial properties of this complex biological fluid may strongly affect the adhesion of bioadhesive formulations. There is a need for well characterized in vitro models to assess the bioadhesive properties of oral dosage forms for administration in the oral cavity. Thus we aimed at developing an advanced ex vivo buccal retention model, with focus on choosing a physiologically relevant irrigation media closely resembling human saliva. Spray dried chitosan microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride as an example of a small hydrophilic drug, were employed as bioadhesive formulations. Chewing-stimulated human whole saliva was collected and characterized for use in retention studies in comparison with four artificial irrigation media; phosphate buffer, Saliva Orthana(®), porcine gastric mucin base media (PGM3), and xanthan gum based media (XG2). Retention of metformin, applied as spray dried microparticles on porcine buccal mucosa, greatly depended on the characteristics of the irrigation media. When rheology of the irrigation media was examined, changes in retention profiles could be interpreted, as irrigation media containing mucin and xanthan gum possessed a higher viscosity than phosphate buffer, which led to longer retention of the drug due to better hydration of the mucosa and the spray dried microparticles. Metformin retention profiles were comparable when human saliva, Saliva Orthana(®), or PGM3 were used as irrigation media. Moreover, PGM3 displayed physico-chemical properties closest to those of human saliva with regard to pH, protein content and surface tension. Saliva Orthana(®) and PGM3 are therefore

  5. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  6. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses are one of the main causes of severe yield reductions. Drought is still a serious agronomic problem and also one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss in arid and semi-arid areas in the world. Filter Cake is a byproduct of sugarcane industry and experiments on corn showed that the use of 20 tons per hectare Filter Cake increases crop productivity, total amount of dry matter, protein and forage yield compared with the control. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the Ramin Agricultural University of Khuzestan in 2012. The experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress at the end of the growth period in three levels, non-stress, mild and severe drought stress, respectively irrigated after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water, and was considered as the main factor. Drought stress was applied in early stage of the male inflorescence of plants to maturity for 35 days, due to the critical stage of the plant in late spring. Soil moisture was determined by gravimetric method. Different doses of Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare were considered as subplot factor and was added to the soil two days before the seeding. The final harvest as green corn was performed in the first phase of dough by hand in three times and two midfields of each subplot was considered as the margin of half a meter for each side. Finally, the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at probability level of 5%. Results and discussion In non-stress conditions, Filter Cake is significantly increased plant height, So the amounts of 20 and 30 tons per hectare increased by 11.7% and 10.1% of the plant’s height, respectively, but the use of 10 tons of Filter Cake did not have a significant effect on it. In severe stress conditions, the use of

  7. Effect of Filter Cake on Morphophysiological and Yield of Sweet Corn Under Late Season Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Siadat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plot design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications. Treatments were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tonha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that drought stress increased electrolyte leakage (EL and proline content (PC while height of plant, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll stability index and ear and grain yield were decreased. The intensive drought stress had the greatest effect on EL and PC (54% increase, and decreased ear and grain yield by21 and 37% compared to control, respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress condition increased height of plant and economic yield. But Filter Cake in intensive stress reduced RWC and yield and increased EL compared to control. Also, the application of 30 tonha-1 of Filter Cake in intensive stress condition decreased ear and grain yield by 14.5 and 10.7% respectively. Thus, positive effect of Filter Cake application was clear on non-stress condition, but on drought stress condition it decreased the economic yield.

  8. Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre G

    2016-06-01

    The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by-product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol-water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)-catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg(-1) . Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The role of gluten in a pound cake system: A model approach based on gluten-starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Edith; Pareyt, Bram; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-15

    In order to evaluate the role of gluten in cake-making, gluten-starch (GS) blends with different ratios of gluten to starch were tested in a research pound cake formula. The viscosities of batters made from commercial GS blends in the otherwise standardised formula increased with their gluten content. High viscosities during heating provide the batters with the capacity to retain expanding air nuclei, and thereby led to desired product volumes. In line with the above, increasing gluten levels in the cake recipes led to a more extended oven spring period. Cakes with a starch content exceeding 92.5% in the GS blend suffered from substantial collapse during cooling. They had a coarse crumb with a solid gummy layer at the bottom. Image analysis showed statistical differences in numbers of cells per cm(2), cell to total area ratio and mean cell area (pcakes with the lowest density and highest gluten levels. Relative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 2.0%) buffer (pH 6.8) extractabilities of protein from cakes baked with the different GS blends decreased with gluten content and were strongly correlated with the intensity of collapse. Taken together, the results teach that protein gives the cakes resistance to collapse, resulting in desirable volumes and an optimal grain structure with uniform cell distribution. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Persian Gums and Tragacanth on Texture and Sensory Characteristics of Non-Gluten ‎Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Ghasemi

    2017-08-01

    Methods: The effect of addition of Persian gums, Tragacanth, and a combination of both of these compounds at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% on texture, color, and sensory characteristics of these cakes was evaluated in this study. Results: The results showed that solidity and viscosity factors were elevated by addition of gum to cake. Using of gums in cakes leads to moisture maintenance inside the cake texture and thus improves mastication property. Furthermore, the results of porosity evaluation showed that addition of Persian gums and Tragacanth decreases the size and increases the number of gas cells inside the cake texture and improves porosity. The best porosity was related to the sample containing 1.5% Persian gum and Tragacanth. The treatment that contained 0.75% Persian gum and 0.75% Tragacanth had the highest acceptability among consumers. Conclusions: Results showed that Persian and Tragacanth gums, whether used independently or in combination, can improve the quality and organoleptic characteristics of gluten-free cakes.

  11. Optimization of palm oil extraction from Decanter cake of small crude palm oil mill by aqueous surfactant solution using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Pirshahid, Shewa; Arirob, Wallop; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2018-04-01

    The use of hexane to extract vegetable oil from oilseeds or seed cake is of growing concern due to its environmental impact such as its smelling and toxicity. In our method, used Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to study the optimum condition of decanter cake obtained from small crude palm oil with aqueous surfactant solution. For the first time, we provide an optimum condition of preliminary study with decanter cake extraction to obtain the maximum of oil yield. The result from preliminary was further used in RSM study by using Central Composite Design (CCD) that consisted of thirty experiments. The effect of four independent variables: the concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, temperature, the ratio by weight to volume of cake to surfactant solution and the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) on dependent variables are studied. Data were analyzed using Design-Expert 8 software. The results showed that the optimum condition of decanter cake extraction were 0.016M of SDS solution concentration, 73°C of extraction temperature, 1:10 (g:ml) of the ratio of decanter cake to SDS solution and 2% (w/w) of NaCl amount. This condition gave 77.05% (w/w) oil yield. The chemical properties of the extracted palm oil from this aqueous surfactant extraction are further investigated compared with the hexane extraction. The obtained result showed that all properties of both extractions were nearly the same.

  12. Nitrogen balance and ruminal assessment in male and female sheeps fed rations containing castor cake under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was evaluated the influence of alternative methods of detoxification of castor cake on nitrogen balance and ruminal evaluation in sheep fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Twenty sheep (ten males and ten females were used in five treatments (castor cake untreated, treated with limestone, treated with urea, treated with phosphate monodicalcium and autoclaved and four repetitions. For nitrogen balance we used a randomized block design, with the blocks according to the sex and the variables pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N in the experimental design was split plot, with plots in the diets subplots and the collection times (0, 2, 5 and 8 hours postprandial.The treatments did not influence N intake, N urinary, urea and N-urea concentration in plasma. The Urinary N was higher in diet containing castor cake treated with phosphate monodicalcium (FOS when compared with those containing castor cake treated by autoclave (ACL. Already the nitrogen balance (BN was higher in diet ACL when compared to FOS diet. The pH and N-NH3 were within the normal range of sheep, being little affected by diet. Diets with methods of detoxification of castor cake promoted moderate changes in nitrogen balance with emphasis on the castor cake autoclaved and treated with limestone. The males sheep showed higher nitrogen balance than females.

  13. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian-Xiong; van de Weert, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilar......Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance...... critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed...

  14. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  15. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  16. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O

    2017-03-01

    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  17. Research on Improving Low Rank Coal Caking Ability by Moderate Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogenation test of low metamorphic coal was carried out by using a continuous hydrogen reactor at the temperature of (350-400)°C and the initial hydrogen pressure of 3 ~ 6Mpa. The purpose of the experiment was to increase the caking property, and the heating time was controlled from 30 to 50min. The test results show that the mild hydrogenation test, no adhesion of low metamorphic coal can be transformed into a product having adhesion, oxygen elements in coal have good removal, the calorific value of the product has been improved significantly and coal particles during pyrolysis, swelling, catalyst, hydrogenation, structural changes and the combined effects of particles a new component formed between financial and is a major cause of coal caking enhancement and lithofacies change, coal blending test showed that the product can be used effectively in the coking industry.

  18. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) / poli (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.C.G.; Oliveira, C.I.R. de; Sanches, M.C.; Coelho, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Blends of PHB and LDPE were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake internal mixer. Castor oil pressed cake was used as filler for the blends. In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between the filler and the polymers, a mercerization process with 5% NaOH solution was employed. This process was evaluated by several techniques such as: X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by traditional tensile stress-strain tests (ASTM D- 638). The obtained results showed that the mercerization process leads to better adhesion properties. The Young Modulus of the blends presented a tendency to increase with the addition of the castor oil cake.(author)

  19. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  20. Pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas pressed cake for bio-oil production in a fixed-bed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourabchi, Seyed Amirmostafa; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas waste in a fixed-bed rig was studied. • Yield, calorific value, water content and acidity of bio-oil were compared. • Empirical correlations for bio-oil yield and specifications were developed. • Optimisation of bio-oil production based on combined specifications was achieved. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of pyrolysis parameters on the yield and quality of bio-oil from Jatropha curcas pressed cake. This biomass was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor over a temperature range of 573.15 K to 1073.15 K and a nitrogen linear speed range of 7.8 × 10 −5 m/s to 6.7 × 10 −2 m/s. The heating rate and biomass grain size were 50 K/min and <2 mm, respectively. The bio-oils were tested for the gross calorific value, water content and acidity. The pyrolysis process was simulated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) for mass and energy balances analyses. Empirical correlations between the bio-oil specifications and pyrolysis parameters were developed using linear and nonlinear multiple regression methods for process optimisation. At optimum pyrolysis conditions, above 50% of the waste is converted to bio-oil with less than 30% water content, a gross calorific value of 15.12 MJ/kg and a pH of 6.77

  1. Preliminary study on filamentous particle distribution in septic tank effluent and their impact on filter cake development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Nieć, Jakub; Pawlak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the preliminary study on the impact of filamentous particles (FP) in the septic tank effluent (STE) on filter cake (FC) development was presented. The number, length and diameter (30 p./cm3, 451 and 121 microm, respectively, on average) of FPs were measured using microscope image analysis of STE samples condensed using a vacuum evaporation set. Results of this study showed, that 0.73% of volatile suspended solids (VSSs) mass from the STE occurs in the form of FPs. No correlation between FP total mass and VSS was found. An experiment with a layer of FPs simulated by ground toilet paper was conducted and showed the impact of this layer (4.89 mg/cm2) on wastewater hydraulic conductivity--for an FC with FPs (FC-FP), hydraulic conductivity was seven times lower than for the FC without the FP layer, and on outflow quality (lower concentration of organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD) in effluent from the FC-FP filter than in the effluent from the FC filter: 618 and 732 gO2/m3, respectively). Despite a relatively small amount of FPs in STE solids (as volume fraction), they play an important role in FC development due to their relatively high length and low degradability. Probably relatively small pores of the FC containing FPs (FC-FP) caused a small particle blocking and a decrease in permeability.

  2. Method of phorbol ester degradation in Jatropha curcas L. seed cake using rice bran lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji; Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Nadia, Lana Santika

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzymatic degradation of phorbol esters (PE) in the jatropha seed cake was developed using lipase. Cihera rice bran lipase had the highest ability to hydrolyze PE, and reduced PE to a safe level after 8 h of incubation. Enzymatic degradation may be a promising method for PE degradation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new asymmetric diamide from the seed cake of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Licheng; Han, Changri; Chen, Guangying; Song, Xiaoping; Chang, Yonghui; Zang, Wenxia

    2012-12-01

    A new asymmetric diamide (E)-N-(3-acetamidopropyl)-cinnamamide named curcamide (1) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the seed cake of Jatropha curcas L. along with 7 known compounds identified as isoamericanin (2), isoprincepin (3), caffeoylaldehyde (4), isoferulaldehyde (5), glycerol monooleate (6), syringaldehyde (7), and β-ethyl-d-glucopyranoside (8). The synthesis and antibacterial activity of the new compound have been also studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, C; Siegert, W; Kluth, H; Bennewitz, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in prececal amino acid digestibility between commonly used slow- and fast-growing broiler strains when the regression approach is applied. ISA J-275 and Ross 308 were selected as common representatives of slow- and fast-growing broiler strains, respectively. The experimental diets with soybean cake at levels of 0, 100, and 200 g/kg were offered for ad libitum consumption between 22 and 29 d post-hatch. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Each treatment was tested with six pens comprising 10 birds each. Digesta samples were collected on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileocecal-colonic junction. The prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake was calculated by linear regression simultaneously for both strains. There was no significant interaction between broiler strain and inclusion level of soybean cake with respect to the prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of complete diets; there was a significant strain effect for 5 out of the 16 measured amino acids. The prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of soybean cake did not differ significantly between strains and was numerically almost identical. The results of the present study provide evidence of the transferability between broiler strains of prececal amino acid digestibility data, determined using the regression approach, thus improving the accuracy of diet formulation without drawbacks. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Karakteristik Amilografi Tepung Sorgum Fermentasi Dan Aplikasinya Pada Produk Cake Dan Cookies Sorgum

    OpenAIRE

    Setiarto, Raden Haryo Bimo; Widhyastuti, Nunuk; Saskiawan, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characteristics of fermented sorghum flour amylograph and organoleptic test of the product cake and cookies from fermented sorghum flour. Production of sorghum flour was made with four variations of treatments, ie: control (without fermentation), solid fermentation, liquid fermentation, mixture fermentation (solid and liquid). Amylograph profile analyzes the four samples of sorghum flour was conducted with Viscograph Brabender. In the manufacture of cookies ...

  6. Evaluasi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Pengganti Telur (Egg Replacer) Pada Pembuatan Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Nova Sarifah

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays many people are allergic to egg either the white or the egg yolk, that is why the research way conducted. The research was aimed to evaluate the functional characteristics and sensory quality of cakes made of soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate, corn starch, guar gum, xanthan gum and whole egg powder. The research had been performed using a non factorial completely randomized design with 7 levels and 3 repetition. The egg replacer composition were E1 = whey protein isolate (18,...

  7. Plugging wellbore fractures : limit equilibrium of a Bingham drilling mud cake in a tensile crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagash, D.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The proper selection of drilling muds is important in order to successfully drill hydrocarbon wells in which wellbore mud pressure remains low enough to prevent circulation loss and high enough to support the uncased wellbore against the shear failure. This paper presented a mathematical model to study invasion of mud cake into a drilling-induced planar fracture at the edge of a wellbore perpendicular to the minimum in situ principal stress. The model assumed a planar edge-crack geometry loaded by the wellbore hoop stress, variable mud pressure along the invaded region adjacent to the wellbore, and uniform pore-fluid pressure along the rest of the crack. The invading mud was assumed to freely displaces the pore-fluid in the crack without mixing with it. The case corresponding to a sufficiently permeable formation was considered. This solution provides a means to evaluate whether or not the mud cake could effectively plug the fracture, thereby prevent fracture propagation and associated uncontrollable loss of wellbore drilling mud. The toughness or tensile strength is evaluated based on criterion for initiation of crack propagation, which may lead to uncontrollable loss of mud circulation in a well. The study provided information on the breakdown pressure as a function of the rock ambient stress, ambient pore pressure, pre-existing crack length, and mud cake properties. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  9. Toxic metals biosorption by Jatropha curcas deoiled cake: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Anand P; Rawat, Monica; Rai, J P N

    2013-08-01

    The equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution using Jatropha curcas deoiled cake, has been studied with respect to adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, and initial metal concentration in batch mode experiments. Removal of Cu(II) by deoiled cake was greater than that of Cr(VI). The adsorbent chemical characteristics, studied by Fourier transform-infrared analysis, suggested that the presence of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in the biomass influenced the bands corresponding to hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Desorption studies revealed that maximum metals recovery was achieved by HNO3 followed by CH3COOH and HCl. The Freundlich isotherm model showed good fit to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model, which provided the best correlation for the biosorption process, and suggested that J. curcas deoiled cake can be used as an efficient biosorbent over other commonly used sorbents for decontamination of Cr(VI)- and Cu(II)-containing wastewater.

  10. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  11. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  12. The Enigmatic Mushtikas and the Associated Triangular Terracotta Cakes: Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For over four decades, now, mushtikas and its common associate, the triangular terracotta cakes have been believed to be part of ‘fire altars’. This is, in spite of the fact that, either or both of these have been found from hearths, ovens, kilns, as flooring material, on walls, in passages, streets, bathrooms and therefore obviously near commodes. Further, the great variety of central stele and construction material, size and shape, materials found within ‘fire altars’ suggest that, all the above were devoid of religious symbolism and used to achieve domestic or industrial objectives. The cakes being primarily associated with run of the mill economic activities ended up in diverse and defiling contexts. However, like many cultures across time and space Harappans may also have used the medium of fire for offering sacrifices. Therefore the existence of ‘fire altars’ is not denied as such, but these then should not have the ubiquitous cakes, at the least.

  13. Anti-Photoaging Effects of Soy Isoflavone Extract (Aglycone and Acetylglucoside Form from Soybean Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones, found in soybean and soybean products, have been reported to possess many physiological activities such as antioxidant activity, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, reduction of cardiovascular risk, prevention of osteoporosis and alleviation of postmenopausal syndrome. In our previous study, soy isoflavone extract ISO-1 (containing 12 soy isoflavones from soybean cake was demonstrated to prevent skin damage caused by UVB exposure. In this study, soy isoflavone extract from soybean cake was further purified and evaluated for the protective effects on UVB-induced damage. The results revealed that Fraction 3, which contains the aglycone group (daidzein, genistein and glycitein and acetylglucoside group (acetyldaidzin, acetylgenistin and acetylglycitin of soy isoflavones, could inhibit UVB-induced death of human keratinocytes and reduce the level of desquamation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema and epidermal thickness in mouse skin. Furthermore, topical application of Fraction 3 increased the activity of catalase and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression in mice exposed to UVB. In addition, in comparison with ISO-1 and genistein, the Fraction 3 possessed much greater protective effects on both UVB-induced oxidative stress and keratinocyte death than other fractions. Therefore, the soy isoflavone extract Fraction 3 from soybean cake is a desirable anti-photoaging agent for skin care.

  14. The influence of different pretreatment methods on biogas production from Jatropha curcas oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir Jan; Kułażyński, Marek; Sikora, Ilona; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Drought and pest resistance, together with high oil content in its seeds, make Jatropha curcas a good oil source for biodiesel. Oil cake from J. curcas is not suitable for animal feeding and thus may be profitably used for additional energy production by conversion into biogas; however, the anaerobic digestion process must be optimized to obtain good efficiency. We subjected oil cake to thermal and acidic pretreatment to deactivate protease inhibitors and partially hydrolyze phytate. We then digested the samples in batch conditions to determine the effects of pretreatment on biogas production. Thermal pretreatment changed the kinetics of anaerobic digestion and reduced protease inhibitor activity and the concentration of phytate; however, biogas production efficiency was not affected (0.281 m 3  kg -1 ). To evaluate the possibility of recirculating water for SSF hydrolysis, ammonium nitrogen recovery from effluent was evaluated by its precipitation in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate).Concentration of ammonium ions was reduced by 53% (to 980 mg L -1 ). We propose a water-saving concept based on percolation of J. curcas cake using anaerobic digestion effluent and feeding that percolate into a methanogenic bioreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of parameters dissolution of yellow-cake. Production of uranyl nitrate - Gas precipitation of AUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellah, A.

    1987-07-01

    The different stages of the purification cycle of yellow-cakes have been studied thoroughly in order to obtain an ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) as an intermediate product of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). The optimal parameters of yellow-cake dissolution, filtration, extraction by solvent, scrubbing and stripping were determined. An original program of thermodynamic calculation was developed for the determination of the free energies of yellow-cake dissolution reactions. Different numerical methods were used to determine the kinetic constant, the reaction order and correlation equations of uranyl nitrate density as a function of U and H + concentrations, before and after the extraction cycle. For the first time, Algerian filteraids were used for the filtration of uranyl nitrate solutions with satisfactory results. A laboratory designed installation enabled the precipitation of AUC by injection of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases. Interesting results have been obtained and further investigations should be carried out in order to optimize all the paremeters of the gas precipitation of AUC

  16. The nematicidal effect of camellia seed cake on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of banana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Yang

    Full Text Available Suppression of root-knot nematodes is crucially important for maintaining the worldwide development of the banana industry. Growing concerns about human and environmental safety have led to the withdrawal of commonly used nematicides and soil fumigants, thus motivating the development of alternative nematode management strategies. In this study, Meloidogyne javanica was isolated, and the nematicidal effect of Camellia seed cake on this pest was investigated. The results showed that in dish experiments, Camellia seed cake extracts under low concentration (2 g/L showed a strong nematicidal effect. After treatment for 72 h, the eggs of M. javanica were gradually dissolved, and the intestine of the juveniles gradually became indistinct. Nematicidal compounds, including saponins identified by HPLC-ESI-MS and 8 types of volatile compounds identified by GC-MS, exhibited effective nematicidal activities, especially 4-methylphenol. The pot experiments demonstrated that the application of Camellia seed cake suppressed M. javanica, and promoted the banana plant growth. This study explored an effective nematicidal agent for application in soil and revealed its potential mechanism of nematode suppression.

  17. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g -1 from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g -1 for B 2 and B 1 , respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g -1 , while as high as 158 ng g -1 aflatoxin B 1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.

  18. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichestapong, P.; Injarean, U.; Prapakornrattana, P.; Charoen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  19. Ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of goats fed diets containing peanut cake from biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Nascimento Júnior, Nilton Guedes; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Trajano, Jaqueline da Silva; Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Borja, Máikal Souza

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of confined goats fed peanut cake instead of soybean meal in their feed. We used 40 goats that were ¾ Boer, uncastrated, and 5 months of age on average, with an average initial weight of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of peanut cake replacing soybean meal in the concentrate (0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%). The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and ten repetitions. For the evaluation of feeding behavior, single animals were observed every 5 min for 24 h on 3 days. The physiological responses (respiratory rate; heart rate; rectal temperature, obtained with a rectal thermometer; and surface temperature) of the animals were evaluated at 09:00 and 15:00 h. The replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake did not change (P > 0.05) feeding behavior. The physiological parameters of the animals (P behavior or physiological parameters of confined ¾ Boer goats.

  20. Mechanically fractionated flour isolated from green bananas (M. cavendishii var. nanica) as a tool to increase the dietary fiber and phytochemical bioactivity of layer and sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Martínez, Mario M

    2017-03-15

    This article describes the effect of mechanically fractionated flours from green bananas on the nutritional, physical and sensory attributes of two types of cakes (sponge and layer). A plausible 30% replacement of banana flour in the formulation of layer cakes is demonstrated, finding only a small decline in the sensory perception. On the contrary, sponge cakes were noticeable worsened with the use of banana flours (lower specific volume, worse sensory attributes and higher hardness), which was minimized when using fine flour. Both layer and sponge cakes exhibited an enhancement of the resistant starch and dietary fiber content with the replacement of green banana flour (up to a fivefold improvement in RS performance). Moreover, sponge cakes yielded more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity with banana flours, especially with the coarse fraction. Therefore, results showed that a mechanical fractionation allowed a feasible nutritional enhancement of cakes with the use of banana flours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau

    2015-12-01

    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species reduced mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs are performed by varying several key parameters: initial mean temperature, T0, and the variance of temperature and equivalence ratio (T\\' and φ\\') with different T-φcorrelations. It is found that for cases with φ\\' only, the overall combustion occurs more quickly and the mean heat release rate (HRR) increases more slowly with increasing φ\\' regardless of T0. For cases with T\\' only, however, the overall combustion is retarded/advanced in time with increasing T\\' for low/high T0 relative to the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime resulting from a longer/shorter overall ignition delay of the mixture. For cases with uncorrelated T-φfields, the mean HRR is more distributed over time compared to the corresponding cases with T\\' or φ\\' only. For negatively-correlated cases, however, the temporal evolution of the overall combustion exhibits quite non-monotonic behavior with increasing T\\' and φ\\' depending on T0. All of these characteristics are found to be primarily related to the 0-D ignition delays of initial mixtures, the relative timescales between 0-D ignition delay and turbulence, and the dominance of the deflagration mode during the ignition. These results suggest that an appropriate combination of T\\' and φ\\' together with a well-prepared T-φdistribution can alleviate an excessive pressure-rise rate (PRR) and control ignition-timing in homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion. In addition, critical species and reactions for the ignition of n-heptane/air mixture through the whole ignition process are estimated by comparing the temporal evolution of the mean mass fractions of important species with the overall reaction pathways of n

  2. Optimization of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with filter cake: Effects of macronutrients supplementation on conversion kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F; Schüch, Andrea; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with sugarcane filter cake was investigated with a special focus on macronutrients supplementation for an optimized conversion process. Experimental data from batch tests and a semi-continuous experiment operated in different supplementation phases were used for modeling the conversion kinetics based on continuous stirred-tank reactors. The semi-continuous experiment showed an overall decrease in the performance along the inoculum washout from the reactors. By supplementing nitrogen alone or in combination to phosphorus and sulfur the specific methane production significantly increased (P0.99), the use of the depicted kinetics did not provide a good estimation for process simulation of the semi-continuous process (in any supplementation phase), possibly due to the different feeding modes and inoculum source, activity and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  4. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  5. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  6. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD, indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p < 0.05 of the media and were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10−2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii.

  7. Solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake for optimization of lipase, protease and detoxification of anti-nutrients in Jatropha seed cake using Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Mohankumar Bavimane; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Devappa, Somashekar

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a byproduct generated after biodiesel production. Presence of anti-nutritional compounds and toxins restricts its application in livestock feed. The disposal of the JSC is a major environmental problem in the future, due to the generation of huge quantity of JSC after biodiesel extraction. Hence the JSC was assessed for its suitability as substrate for production and optimization of lipase and protease from Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98 by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The present study was also focused on the biodetoxification of anti-nutrients and toxins in JSC. The SSF parameters were optimized for maximum production of lipase and protease. Under the optimized conditions, the JSC supplemented with maltose and peptone (2%), adjusted to pH 7.0, moisture content 40%, inoculated with 1 × 10(7) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 25°C, produced maximum lipase, 1288 U/g and protease, 3366 U/g at 96 h. The anti-nutrients like phytic acid (6.08%), tannins (0.37%), trypsin inhibitors (697.5 TIU/g), cyanogenic glucosides (692.5 μg/100 g), and lectins (0.309 mg/ml), were reduced to 1.70%, 0.23%, 12.5 TIU/g, 560.6 μg/100 g and 0.034 mg/ml respectively. The main toxic compound phorbol esters content in the JSC was reduced from 0.083% to 0.015% after SSF. Our results indicate that viability of SSF to utilize the huge amount of seed cake generated after extraction of biodiesel, for production of industrial enzymes and biodetoxification of anti-nutrients, toxins. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic compound, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of protein isolated from detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-12-28

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  9. Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şakıyan, Özge

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of a functional cake (soy-cake) to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. For this optimization process response surface methodology was utilized. It was also aimed to optimize the processing conditions of the combination baking. The independent variables were the baking time (8, 9, 10 min), the soy flour concentration (30, 40, 50 %) and the DATEM (diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides) concentration (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 %). The quality parameters that were examined in the study were specific volume, weight loss, total color change and firmness of the cake samples. The results were analyzed by multiple regression; and the significant linear, quadratic, and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The optimum baking time, soy-flour concentration and DATEM concentration were found as 9.5 min, 30 and 0.72 %, respectively. The corresponding responses of the optimum points were almost comparable with those of conventionally baked soy-cakes. So it may be declared that it is possible to produce high quality soy cakes in a very short time by using infrared-microwave combination oven.

  10. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  11. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  12. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC sesame oil cake (SOC, groundnut oil cake (GOC, palm kernel cake (PKC and olive oil cake (OOC were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB. GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1 resulted higher enzyme titres than the individual substrates. Maximum amount of enzyme (9196 U/gds was obtained when SSF was carried out using WB + GOC, having initial moisture of 64% and supplemented with lactose and ammonium nitrate (1% each at 30ºC for 72h using 2 mL spore suspension (6x10(7spores/ml. Partial purification of the enzyme using ammonium sulphate fractionation resulted in 2.4-fold increase in the activity. The enzyme showed molecular weight of 68 KDa by SDS-PAGE. Except Mn, all other metal ions such as Ca, K, Na, Mg were found to be inhibitory for the enzyme activity. The enzyme was optimally active at 50(0C and pH 5.0.Fermentação no Estado Sólido foi empregada na produção de alfa-amilase usando Aspergillus niger. Diferentes tipos de torta foram utilizadas, como torta de óleo de coco (COC, torta de de óleo de amendoim (GOC torta de óleo de sesamo (SOC, torta de palma (PKC e torta de óleo de oliva (OOC foram selecionadas para serem usadas como substratos para produção de enzima e comparadas com o farelo de trigo (WB, GOC foi escolhido por ser o que produziu maiores concentrações de enzima. A combinação WB e GOC (1:1 resultou em maiores títulos da enzima quando em comparação com os substratos individuais. A máxima concentração de enzima (9196 U/ gms foi obtida quando a FES foi conduzida utilizando WB + GOC, com umidade de 64% e suplementada com lactose e nitrato de amônia (1% cada a 300C por 72 horas utilizando 2 mL de uma suspensão de esporo (6x107sporos/ml. A purifica

  14. KAJIAN KADAR SERAT, KALSIUM, PROTEIN, DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK CHIFFON CAKE BERBAHAN MOCAF SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGGANTI TERIGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ayu Damayanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of Fiber, Calcium, and Protein Content and the Organoleptic Cha­rac­teristics of Mocaf Chiffon Cake as an Alternative Substitution of Wheat Flour. This research aims to identify the physical properties, the hedonic quality, the level of preferences, as well as the fiber, calcium, and protein contents of mocaf chiffon cakes. Data is analyzed using t-test. The results show: (1 the physical properties of colors has colors L (brightness, a+ (redness, and b+ (yellowish; (2 the highest value of preference level of color is 4.28; (3 the highest value of the hedonic quality of flavors is 4.60; (4 the highest value of the chemical properties of calcium is 10.53, (5 the lowest value of the protein content is 5.97 g, and (6 the highest value of fiber content is 4.34 g.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisik, mutu hedonik, tingkat kesukaan, kandungan serat, kandungan kalsium, dan kandungan protein chiffon cake berbahan mocaf. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji-t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 sifat fisik warna memiliki kisaran warna L (kecerahan, a+ (kemerahan, dan b+ (kekuningan; (2 tingkat ke­suka­­an warna memiliki nilai tertinggi 4,28; (3 mutu hedonik rasa memiliki nilai tertinggi 4,60; (4 sifat kimia kalsium memiliki nilai tertinggi 10,53; (5 kan­dung­an protein memiliki nilai terendah 5,97g; dan (6 kandungan serat memiliki nilai ter­tinggi  4,34 g.

  15. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Ngomoyogoli, Judith Emery Kanemoto; Woguia, Alice Louise; Yanou, Nicolas Njintang

    2013-12-11

    High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile.

  16. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  17. Hydrophilic olive cake extracts: Characterization by physicochemical properties and Cu(II) complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokassidou, K.; Szymczak, W.; Wolf, M.; Obermeier, C.; Buckau, G.; Pashalidis, I.

    2009-01-01

    Disposed olive cake generates hydrophilic components that can be mobilized in the aquatic environment. This paper deals with the characterization of such components, isolated by alkaline extraction. It is shown that these substances possess properties very much resembling humic acid, including a substantial inventory of proton exchanging groups. Extraction and purification of the hydrophilic components from the disposed olive cake was performed by the standard approach for isolation of humic acids from solid sources, i.e. alternating alkaline dissolution and acid flocculation, leaving the purified extract in the protonated form. The purified sample was characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AFFFF). The complex formation properties were investigated by potentiometry using Cu(II) ion selective electrode under atmospheric conditions at I = 0.1 M NaClO 4 (aqueous solution) and pH 6. The formation constant for the CuHA complex is found to be log β = 5.3 ± 0.4 which is close to the corresponding value (log β = 5.2 ± 0.4) obtained from similar investigations with the commercially available Aldrich humic acid (this study) and corresponding published values for various humic acids. Both, structural properties and complex formation data show that the olive cake extract has considerable similarities with humic acids from different sources, pointing towards potential similarities in environmental behavior and impact.

  18. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemical and seminal parameters of lambs fed palm kernel cake under grazing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes César Mugabe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the effects of palm kernel cake on semen quality and biochemical parameters of Santa Inês lambs. A total of 40 animals with 24.10±2.72 kg body weight and five months old were assigned in a completely randomized design into four groups and 10 replicates. The animals were subjected to four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 15, 30, and 45% based on dry matter. The trial lasted 90 days foregone by 15 days for adaptation. Blood samples were collected every 45 days from jugular vein using vacuum tubes without anticoagulant. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were assessed. Once the animals reached puberty at a mean age of 225 days, the semen samples were collected by electroejaculator once a week for three sequence weeks and assessed for volume, color, aspect, wave motion, motility, sperm concentration, sperm vigor, total of spermatozoa per ejaculate, viable spermatozoa per mL, and sperm morphology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by regression analysis. Non-parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein were linearly increased. There was no difference for low-density lipoprotein. Diets did not affect mass motility, sperm motility, vigor, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, viability sperm per mL, and minor and total sperm defects. Sperm concentration increased linearly. Negative quadratic effects were observed for major sperm defects. Supplementation of diets with palm kernel cake up to 45% on dry matter enhance biochemical parameters and do not impair the qualitative variables of lamb sperm.

  20. Use of a three dimensional network model to predict equilibrium desaturation properties of coal filter cakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, I.; Bayles, G.A.; Tierney, J.W.; Chiang, S.-H.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    A three dimensional bond-flow correlated network model has been successfully used to calculate equilibrium desaturation curves for coal filter cakes. A simple cubic lattice with the pore sizes correlated in the direction of macroscopic flow is used as the network. A new method of pore volume assignment is presented in which the pore volume occupied by the large pores (which give rise to capillary pressures less than a calculated critical value) is assigned to the nodes and the rest is distributed to the bonds according to an experimentally determined micrographic pore size distribution. Equilibrium desaturation curves for -32 mesh, -200 mesh and -100 + 200 mesh coal cakes (Pittsburgh Seam coal), formed with distilled water have been calculated. A bond flow correlation factor, F/sub c/ is introduced to account for channeling of the displacing fluid through high volume, low resistance flow paths - a phenomenon which is displayed by many real systems. It is determined that a single value of 0.6 for F/sub c/ is required for -32 mesh and -200 mesh coals. However, for -100 + 200 mesh coal, where all small as well as large particles have been removed, a value of 1.0 is required. The results of six -32 mesh cakes formed with surfactants show that the effect of surfactants can be accounted for by modifying one of the model parameters, the entry diameter correction. A correlation is presented to estimate the modified correction using experimentally determined surface tension and contact angle values. Further, the predicted final saturations agree with the experimental values within an average absolute error of 5%. 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Energy use in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.; Serrallach, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to determine energy consumption in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industry. Information was obtained from 11 bread bakeries. Energy use in the bread bakeries over the period 1977/78 was found to average 2.45 MJ/kg of which 0.46 MJ/kg was electricity and the rest oven and boiler fuels. Process flow charts are shown. The purposes for which electricity are used are described. An energy consumption analysis is presented and energy conservation measures are described. (MCW)

  2. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, André Soares de; Schwambach, Thiago Ivan; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Alessi, Karine Claudia; Oliveira Filho, Francisco Antônio de; Pina, Douglas dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed) and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5) ufc...

  3. Preparation of a new gamma irradiated PVC-Olive oil cake plastic composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaud, F.A.; Almsmary, Y.A.; Elwerfalli, S.M.; Benayad, S.M.; Haraga, S.O.; Benfaid, N.A.; Kabar, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper dealt with the investigation on preparing new plastic composite material, utilizing polyvinyl chloride polymer (a commercial product in abu-kammash chemical complex) and olive oil cake (a waste of many olive oil production factories), followed by gamma irradiation (26.3 Kg ry) o induce crosslinking of the polymer. The new material possess good, electrical and mechanical properties as compared to plastic products of (PVC plastic pipe factory), and which could be used as new construction anti corrosive material, such as special roofing and partitioning or household goods

  4. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  5. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author)

  6. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  7. A note on envy-free cake cutting with polynomial valuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    2015-01-01

    number of players. The only existing finite envy-free cake cutting protocol for any number of players, designed by Brams and Taylor [4], has the property that its runtime can be made arbitrarily large by setting up the valuation functions of the players appropriately. Moreover, there is no closed formula...... that relates the valuation functions to the number of queries required by the protocol. In this note we show that when the valuations can be represented as polynomial functions, there exists a protocol in the standard query model that is much simpler conceptually and has a runtime bound depending...

  8. Meat quality assessment from young goats fed for long periods with castor de-oiled cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D

    2015-08-01

    Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (pgoats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The utilization of endopower β in commercial feed which contains palm kernel cake on performance of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, S. S. A.; Tafsin, M.; Ginting, S. P.; Khairani, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Palm kernel cake is an agricultural waste that can be used as raw material in the preparation of poultry rations. The design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Level endopower β used 0 % (R0), 0.02% (R1), 0.04% (R2) and 0.06% (R3). The results showed that R0a and R0b were significantly different from R3 in terms of diet consumption, body weight gain and the conversion ratio The utilization of endopower β in commercial diets containing palm kernel cake in broilers can increase body weight gain, feed consumption, improve feed use efficiency and even energy. It is concluded that utilization endpower β improve performances of broiler chicken fed by diet containing palm kernel cake.

  10. Disposition of the iron, influenced by the application of humic acid, extracted of filter cake of sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, Carmen Soledad; Garcia Ocampo, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Two extracting (NaOH and KOH) and several acidifying solutions were used to get humic acids from filter cake of sugar cane, composted coffee beans and hen manure. The humic acids obtained were characterized and applied to evaluate their effect on the iron availability to tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in nutrient solutions. The amount of humic acids extracted from filter cake is between hen manure and composted coffee beans. The nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the different humic materials indicated that the ones extracted from filter cake have a carboxylic chain larger than the other two materials and an aliphatic chain lower than the leonardite humic acids and also are younger. Application of 40 to 80 mg/L of humic acids to nutrient solutions promote physiological responses on tomato plants due to greater assimilation of N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn

  11. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  12. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  13. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs fed with sunflower cake replacing cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernandes Júnior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed sunflower cake to replace the protein of cottonseed meal. The experiment was conducted at the sheep sector at the Farm School, State University of Londrina. Thirty Santa Inês lambs, intact males, with age and weight at the beginning of the experiment of 80 days and 21.45 ± 2.16 kg, respectively, were used. It was used a completely randomized experimental design. The animals were divided into 5 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment, according to the amount of protein of cottonseed meal replaced by protein of the sunflower cake (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of replacement. Carcasses were evaluated and the Longissimus dorsi was removed for analyzes of shear force, color, pH, marbling, water loss by pressure, sensory analysis, chemical analyses and lipid oxidation. Hot and cold carcass yields showed quadratic distributions, where the best values were found for treatments with low inclusion of sunflower cake. Carcass measurements, as well as cut yields were not affected by the content of sunflower cake. Regarding the parameters of lamb meat, only water losses during cooking and shear force were affected, being quadratic and linear, respectively. The meat was more tender in animals fed higher amounts of sunflower cake. The tasters of the sensory panel did not identify differences between treatments, and classified the meat with moderate odor intensity, good tenderness, low to moderate juiciness and medium acceptability. The replacement of cottonseed meal protein by sunflower cake protein in the levels used, did not affect the majority of the carcass characteristics and the meat quality.

  15. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter B. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults soil common to the USA Appalachian Plateau region. Three poultry litter components (broiler cake, total cleanout, and bedding material from a broiler house were evaluated and compared to a soil control. Chemical amendments lime (CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4, aluminum sulfate (AlSO4, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 were added to the poultry litter components to determine their impact on C and N mineralization. Litter component additions increased soil C mineralization in the order of broiler cake > total cleanout > bedding > soil control. Although a greater concentration of organic C was observed in the bedding, broiler cake mineralized the most C, which can be attributed to differences in the C : N ratio between treatments. Chemical amendment in addition to the manured soil also impacted C mineralization, with AlSO4 generally decreasing mineralization. Nitrogen mineralization was also significantly affected by poultry litter component applications. Broiler cake addition increased N availability followed by total cleanout compared to soil control, while the bedding resulted in net N immobilization. Chemical amendments impacted N mineralization primarily in the broiler cake amended soil where all chemical amendments decreased mineralization compared to the no chemical amendment treatment. This short-term study (35-day incubation indicates that N availability to crops may be different depending on the poultry litter component used for fertilization and chemical amendment use which could

  16. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  17. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  18. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  19. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried....... This study determined the nutrient compositions of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of V. paradoxa. Laboratory analyses were undertaken to determine the micro and macro nutrients in the samples on fresh (FM) and dry matter (DM) basis following standard procedures and protocols. The potassium, sodium...

  20. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, C.A.; Fakoya, K.A.; Omamohwo, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  1. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  2. Impact of Tragacanth and Xanthan Gums on the Physical and Textural Characteristics of Gluten-free Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Hojjatoleslami; Mohammad Hossain Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The quality of cakes made of wheat flour depends on the quantity and quality of its gluten proteins; however, these proteins may have side effects for some people, including the patients with celiac, and the only way to cure this disease is to take a lifelong gluten-free diet. Materials and Methods: This research aims to produce gluten- free cake by using rice flour and xanthan and tragacanth gums, including two treatments of xanthan gum (0.5 &1 %), two treatment...

  3. The suitability of teff flour in bread, layer cakes, cookies and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer; Abaye, A O; Barbeau, William; Thomason, Wade

    2013-11-01

    A niche market in alternative foods has emerged in response to interest in a health conscientious diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the baking characteristics of teff to determine whether teff could produce satisfactory baked products. Cakes, cookies, biscuits and bread were made in triplicate from composites of wheat flour with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 100% teff flour. Objective tests on size, shape, color and texture were used to evaluate the quality of the baked products. Increases in percent teff resulted in decreases in bread and cake volume (p > 0.05). The fracture strength of the cookies were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but spread was significantly greater for cookies made with 40% and 100% teff flour (p ≤ 0.05). There was also significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in biscuit height and color among teff treatments. Overall, this study showed that teff flour is best suited for use in cookies and biscuits.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium for its purification from various yellow cake matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhat, Parimal; Rao, Ankita; Tomar, B.S.; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Uranium is produced from different uranium ores as crude yellow cake of different chemical composition such as sodium diuranate (SDU), ammonium diuranate (ADU), magnesium diuranate (MDU), high temperature uranium peroxide (HTUP) etc. This depends on nature of ores and ore processing methods, availability of required facilities at processing site and other economic as well as environmental factors. These yellow cakes are further processed to produce pure uranium suitable for fuel fabrication facility by conventional solvent extraction process. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is being developed as an alternate method for separation in nuclear fields due to its inherent potential to minimize liquid waste generation and process simplification. In present study, SFE of uranium from various yellowcake of different chemical composition has been carried out. Chemical parameter such as effect of TBP amount on SFE of uranium has been carried out and optimized at 2 ml for 200 mg SDU. Instrumental parameter such as temperature and pressure on SFE of uranium has been optimized at 323 K and 15.2 MPa. Extraction efficiency (%) achieved at optimized condition is 91.45 ± 0.2, 97.01 ± 0.75 and 96.72 ± 0.27 for SDU, MDU and HTUP respectively. Purity of uranium before SFE and after has been compared. Further studies is in progress for better understanding of chemical composition of matrix on SFE of uranium and improving purity of uranium separated from this route. (author)

  5. Characterization of virgin walnut oils and their residual cakes produced from different varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Salvador, María Desamparados; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the composition and properties of different walnut varieties (Chandler, Hartley and Lara), in particular their virgin oils and residual cakes obtained by screw pressing employing different cultivars. Among nuts, walnut (Juglans regia L.) exhibits interesting nutritional value, mainly due to their high content in linoleic acid, phenolic and tocopherol compounds, which show antioxidant and other healthy properties. Valuable results related to fatty acid profile and minor components were observed. Virgin walnut oil is a rich source in linoleic acid (60-62%) and γ-tocopherol (517-554 mg/kg). Moreover, walnuts show a very high content in total phenolic compounds (10,045-12,474 mg/kg; as gallic acid), which contribute to a great antioxidant activity (105-170 mmol/kg for DPPH, and 260-393 mmol/kg for ORAC), being the hydrolysable tannins (2132-4204 mg/kg) and flavanols (796-2433 mg/kg) their main phenolic groups. Aldehydes account for the highest contribution to aromatic volatiles in virgin walnut oil (about 35% of total). As expected, polar phenolic compounds concentrate in the residual cake, after the separation of the oily phase, reaching a content of up to 19,869 mg/kg, leading to potential added value and applications as source of bioactive compounds to this by-product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluidized bed treatment of rapeseed meal and cake as possibility for the production of canolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudel Frank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canolol (2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylsyringol, which is formed by thermally initiated CO2splitting off from sinapic acid, possesses a high antioxidant potential. Furthermore different positive physiological properties are described. Due to rapeseed’s high content of phenolic acids, particularly sinapic acid, it is obvious to produce canolol as by-product of rapeseed processing. Roasting of rapeseed meal or cake in a fluidized bed followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide of the formed canolol represents a production procedure which not impairs the commercial oil mill process. This article summarizes results from the roasting process with rapeseed meal and cake in fluidized bed equipments of different design and size showing that it is a suitable technique to transform sinapic acid into canolol. The achieved canolol contents are at 500 mg/kg in minimum, if the material is rapidly cooled-down after reaching the optimal temperature of 165 °C. Further roasting leads to a fast reduction of the canolol content. In addition it could be observed, that the sinapic acid content is not decreasing in the same amount as the canolol content increases. Sinapic acid seems to be “reproduced” during roasting. The reaction mechanisms of the described phenomena are not known.

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojerlou, Zohreh; Elhamirad, Amirhhossein

    2018-03-01

    The use of ultrasound in ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is one of the main applications of this technology in food industry. This study aimed to optimize UAE conditions for olive cake extract (OCE) through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal UAE conditions were obtained with extraction temperature of 56 °C, extraction time of 3 min, duty cycle of 0.6 s, and solid to solvent ratio of 3.6%. At the optimum conditions, the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and antioxidant activity (AA) were measured 4.04 mg/g and 68.9%, respectively. The linear term of temperature had the most effect on TPC content and AA of OCE prepared by UAE. Protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid were characterized as the highest (19.5%) and lowest (1.6%) phenolic compound measured in OCE extracted by UAE. This research revealed that UAE is an effective method to extract phenolic compounds from olive cake. RSM successfully optimized UAE conditions for OCE.

  8. Characterisation of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) seed oil and defatted cake from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenontin, Sebastien Tindo; Wotto, Valentin D; Lozano, Paul; Pioch, Daniel; Sohounhloue, Dominique K C

    2009-01-01

    A sample of Blighia sapida seeds collected in Benin has been analysed and the results are compared to the scarcely available literature data. The chemical analysis of seed oil shows a saponification value of 145 and an iodine value of 66, consistent with the high mono-unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) content (63.8 wt%). The most interesting feature is the prominent concentration of eicosenoic acid (48.4 wt%). Arachidic acid being the main component within the saturated group, the C20 FAs fraction accounts for 68.4 wt%, thus making the peculiar composition of this oil. Among the unsaponifiable fraction (2.4 wt%), the major sterol is stigmasterol (54.6 wt%), surprisingly over passing beta-sitosterol. Tocols (338 ppm) contains mainly alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Regarding the defatted cake, results show the prominent position of starch and a noticeable amount of proteins and fibers (44.2, 22.4, 15.6 wt%, respectively). Seventeen amino acids were identified together with valuable minerals (total ashes 3.5 wt%). Possible uses of oil and defatted cake are discussed.

  9. Organic cultivation of onion under castor cake fertilization and irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alves Botelho de Mello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects that different doses of castor bean (0, 200, and 300 g m-2 and irrigation levels (204, 224, 278, and 321 mm in 2014, and 278, 302, 397, and 444 mm in 2015 have on both the productivity and quality of onion bulbs. In the experiments, the experimental design was randomized blocks (4 x 3 factorial scheme, with five replicates. Irrigation management was performed using a Simplified Irrigation Device (SID in response to soil water tension in the treatment of highest irrigation depth. The following variables were evaluated: plant dry biomass (PDB, bulb dry biomass (BDB, total yield (TY, mean bulb fresh weight (MBFW, mean bulb dry weight (MBDW, mean bulb diameter (MBD and water use efficiency (WUE. The highest irrigation depths positively influenced the mean production of onion bulbs, regardless of the applied dose of castor cake. The doses of castor cake positively influenced the production of onion bulbs when higher irrigation depths were applied.

  10. Elaboração de bolo com farinha de Yacon Cake developed with Yacon flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Severo da Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A batata Yacon apresenta carboidratos na forma de frutooligossacarídeos (FOS. Estudos comprovam que os FOS aumentam a saciedade e reduzem o índice glicêmico. Os produtos da fermentação podem minimizar a resposta glicêmica, além de estimular a glicólise, e ainda resultam em uma porção reduzida de energia. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram elaborar a farinha de Yacon, avaliar a composição química de diferentes concentrações de farinha de Yacon na elaboração de bolos e analisar sensorialmente as preparações elaboradas. A farinha de Yacon apresentou potencial como ingrediente na formulação de bolos, uma vez que teve boa aceitabilidade.The Yacon potatoes present carbohydrates in the form of fructo oligosaccharides (FOS. There are studies proving that the FOS delays the gastric emptying, increase the alimentary fiber,have prebiotic and hypoglycemic effects. They stimulate glycolysis, resulting in a reduced amount of energy. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition of cakes formulated with different concentrations of Yacon flour and to evaluate their sensory characteristics. The Yacon flour presented potential to be a cake ingredient.

  11. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  13. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas: Solubilisation of proteins and sugars from the NaOH extracted de-oiled press cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibilities for increasing the valorisation of de-oiled Jatropha press cake (DO-JPC). The studied raw material is the by-product of the alkaline protein extraction of the DO-JPC: NaOH Extracted DO-JPC (NEDO-JPC). Protein solubilisation of NEDO-JPC was performed

  14. Relationships between falling number, a-Amylase activity, milling, and sponge cake quality of soft white wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falling Number of wheat is an important quality predictor and carries with it significant economic impact. Lower Falling Numbers are associated with higher a-amylase activity and poorer soft wheat end-use quality, especially sponge cake. In the present study two sample sets were examined, the first ...

  15. Commercial cuts and chemical and sensory attributes of meat from crossbred Boer goats fed sunflower cake-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Carvalho, Silvana Teixeira; Leão, André Gustavo; de Abreu, Claudilene Lima; Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro; Pereira, Elzania Sales; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sunflower cake feed in commercial cut yields and chemical and sensory attributes of goat meat. Thirty-two castrated male goats were distributed in four levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) of sunflower cake supplementation. The animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were placed in a cold chamber and sectioned into five anatomical regions corresponding to commercial cuts. Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed for chemical composition and sensory quality. The chemical composition and pH were not affected by the treatments. The smell, taste and 'goatiness' of the aroma and flavor of the meat were also unaffected by the treatments. The appearance, tenderness and juiciness of the meat differed by treatment. The highest level (24%) of sunflower cake increased meat tenderness; however, according to the tasters there was reduced softness, although none of the samples were rejected by the tasters. Sunflower cake can be added to the diet at a level of up to 16% without altering the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the meat. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Total control of chromium in tanneries - thermal decomposition of filtration cake from enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocurek, P; Kolomazník, K; Bařinová, M; Hendrych, J

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the problem of chromium recovery from chrome-tanned waste and thus with reducing the environmental impact of the leather industry. Chrome-tanned waste was transformed by alkaline enzymatic hydrolysis promoted by magnesium oxide into practically chromium-free, commercially applicable collagen hydrolysate and filtration cake containing a high portion of chromium. The crude and magnesium-deprived chromium cakes were subjected to a process of thermal decomposition at 650°C under oxygen-free conditions to reduce the amount of this waste and to study the effect of magnesium removal on the resulting products. Oxygen-free conditions were applied in order to prevent the oxidation of trivalent chromium into the hazardous hexavalent form. Thermal decomposition products from both crude and magnesium-deprived chrome cakes were characterized by high chromium content over 50%, which occurred as eskolaite (Cr 2 O 3 ) and magnesiochromite (MgCr 2 O 4 ) crystal phases, respectively. Thermal decomposition decreased the amount of chrome cake dry feed by 90%. Based on the performed experiments, a scheme for the total control of chromium in the leather industry was designed.

  17. Clinical curative effect of fuzi-cake-separated moxibustion for preventing dysuria after operation for lower limb fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yan; Tao, Lijun; Fang, Jianqiao; Xie, Qi; He, Shaofeng; Huang, Chunxia; Yang, Xueming

    2014-10-01

    To assess the clinical curative effect of fuzi-cake-separated moxibustion at Zhongji (CV 3) and Guanyuan (CV 4) for preventing dysuria after internal fixation of lower limb fractures. Sixty patients conforming to the inclusion standards were randomly divided into a treatment group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). Fuzi-cake-separated moxibustion was performed at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongji (CV 3), 20 min at a time, twice a day, for 3 days before operation in the treatment group. No fuzi-cake-separated moxibustion was performed in the control group. After treatment, the score for symptoms of first urination, urinary time, urinary volume, 24 h remaining urinary volume, incidence of uroschesis, and rate of controlling dysuria were compared to evaluate the curative effect of preventing post-operative dysuria. The score for symptoms of first urination, 24 h remaining urinary volume (maximum 120 mL vs 250 ml, and less than 10 ml in 24 cases vs 15 cases), and the rate of controlling dysuria (83.34% vs 30%) were significantly better (P 0.05) between the two groups in first post-operative urinary time, urinary volume, or incidence of 24 h uroschesis. Fuzi-cake-separated moxibustion at Zhongji (CV 3) and Guanyuan (CV 4) can better prevent post-operative dysuria, effectively promote the functional restoration of the urinary bladder, and control the incidence of post-operative dysuria.

  18. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  19. Effect of the concentrations of maltogenic α-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory quality of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Soledad Bedoya-Perales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics that define cake quality can be improved by the use of adequate ingredients and a correct balance of the formulation. Fat is used for its effect on softness and because it imparts flavor and calories. Enzymes such as maltogenic α-amylase can also have a positive effect on cake texture during storage by decreasing amylopectin re-crystallization and thus delaying starch retrogradation providing longer-lasting crumb softness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of maltogenic α-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory characteristics of cakes. Therefore, balanced formulations with three different fat concentrations (20, 40, and 60 g/100 g, based on the flour content were used to evaluate the addition of maltogenic α-amylase (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Technological quality determinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The best results in terms of cake quality (greater specific volume, higher crumb moisture content, lower crumb firmness, and greater sensory acceptance were obtained with the combination of 20 g/100 g fat and 1000 mg/kg maltogenic α-amylase (based on the flour content, which proved to be an alternative to reduce the fat levels in the elaboration of this type of product.

  20. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  1. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T; Murthy, V S

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  2. Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Li, Weiyi; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Fane, Anthony G

    2017-03-01

    Spacer design plays an important role in improving the performance of membrane processes for water/wastewater treatment. This work focused on a fundamental issue of spacer design, i.e., investigating the effects of spacer orientations on the fouling behavior during a membrane process. A series of fouling experiments with different spacer orientation were carried out to in situ characterize the formation of a cake layer in a spacer unit cell via 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The cake layers formed at different times were digitalized for quantitatively analyzing the variation in the cake morphology as a function of time. In particular, the local deposition rates were evaluated to determine the active regions where the instantaneous changes in deposit thickness were significant. The characterization results indicate that varying the spacer orientation could substantially change the evolution of membrane fouling by particulate foulants and thereby result in a cake layer with various morphologies; the competition between growth and erosion at different locations would instantaneously respond to the micro-hydrodynamic environment that might change with time. This work confirms that the OCT-based characterization method is a powerful tool for exploring novel spacer design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a soft sensor for the fast estimation of dried cake resistance during a freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2013-07-15

    This paper deals with the determination of dried cake resistance in a freeze-drying process using the Smart Soft Sensor, a process analytical technology recently proposed by the authors to monitor the primary drying stage of a freeze-drying process. This sensor uses the measurement of product temperature, a mathematical model of the process, and the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial as a function of time, as well as the coefficient of heat transfer between the shelf and the product and the resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow. It does not require expensive (additional) hardware in a freeze-dryer, provided that thermocouples are available. At first, the effect of the insertion of the thermocouple in a vial on the structure of the product is investigated by means of experimental tests, comparing both sublimation rate and cake structure in vials with and without thermocouple. This is required to assess that the temperature measured by the thermocouple is the same of the product in the non-monitored vials, at least in a non-GMP environment, or when controlled nucleation methods are used. Then, results about cake resistance obtained in an extended experimental campaign with aqueous solutions containing different excipients (sucrose, mannitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), processed in various operating conditions, are presented, with the goal to point out the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity

  5. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  6. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiane Teixeira Sousa Moura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=10 and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J. curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.

  7. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendonça, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, José Antônio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo César; de Araújo, Vera Lúcia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups ( n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed, while experimental groups received a diet containing 5% J . curcas cake nonhydrolyzed or hydrolyzed with 5 M NaOH. The cakes were unwashed or washed with ethanol or water and were autoclaved at 121°C for 30 minutes. Alkaline hydrolysis combined with ethanol washing decreased the phorbol ester concentration in the cake by 98%. Histopathological findings included diffuse degeneration of the liver and edema around the pulmonary vessels in the nonhydrolyzed groups. In addition, nontreated females mated with males of nonhydrolyzed unwashed group showed a decreased number of live fetuses and an increased placental weight. There were no signs of toxicity in rats given hydrolyzed cakes washed and unwashed, indicating that alkaline hydrolysis associated with heat treatment is an efficient method for detoxification of the J. curcas cake.

  8. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (Pcake with RS III replacement had a significantly lower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  10. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  12. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  14. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  15. Thick mash with starch cake for the production of alcohol. I. Laboratory experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinshi, S; Wahachiro, K; Akitoshi, K

    1957-01-01

    Starch cake (I) from sweet potatoes was roasted with acids, hydrolyzed with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and, after neutralization, used for fermentation. Minimum viscosity was observed in mash, when 100 g of I was roasted at 150/sup 0/ for 40 minutes after spraying with 30cc. of 0.6% HCL and hydrolyzing with 500 cc. of 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 3 kg/sq. cm. for 40 minutes. I hydrolyzed directly with 5 times as much 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ did not become fluid nor form mash. Total sugar could be increased to 17% by the acid-roasting; 8.68% of EtOH in culture broth was obtained. Formation of fermentation-inhibiting substances or over-decomposition of starch was not observed by the treatment.

  16. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  17. Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Pakkong, Pannee; Thiengtham, Jamroen; Chandang, Pipatpong

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

  18. Multivariate Study of Inulin Addition on the Quality of Sponge Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbikowska Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of reducing fat content in fatty sponge-cake products by addition of inulin. 200 g/kg, 440 g/kg, 680 g/kg and 100% of fat was substituted with 20 g/kg, 35 g/kg, 50 g/kg, and 62.5 g/kg of inulin, respectively. The authors used two types of fat: with low and high content of trans isomers – containing 2.1 g/kg and 511.2 g/kg of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, respectively. An analysis of crumb quality and the evaluation of sensory discriminants were undertaken.

  19. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  1. Growth behaviors of bacteria in biofouling cake layer in a dead-end microfiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-01-01

    The growth behaviors of three bacterial species, i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Aquabaculum hongkongensis, in biofouling cake layer (attached form) were investigated using an unstirred dead-end continuous microfiltration system, and were compared with those in suspended form. Results showed that all the three bacteria had larger average growth rates in suspended form than in attached form under high substrates levels. Under oligotrophic conditions, the average growth rates in the attached form were faster than those in the suspended form, especially for A. hongkongensis. The growth behaviors analysis presented the same results due to all the tested bacteria had higher maximum growth rate and saturation constant in suspended form than attached form, indicating the dominant growth mode would be shifted from attached form to suspended form with substrate concentration increase. Finally, total filtration resistance determined in the experiments increased significantly with the bacterial growth in filtration system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induced migration of fines during waterflooding in communicating layer-cake reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    to more crossflow between layers and lowers the water sweep efficiency. However, this ratio facilitates the fluid diversion caused by the fines migration, leading to a more efficient enhanced oil recovery. The positive contribution from the mobility ratio to the increased oil recovery due to fines...... give rise to reduction of the permeability in water swept zones, which subsequently leads to the diversion of water flow from the initially more permeable layers to the less permeable ones. As a result, the displacement is more even, the water cut at the producer is decreased, and the oil recovery...... is increased. On the other hand, more energy for the pressure drop is required to maintain a constant flow rate. These effects are studied within a new upscaling model developed previously (Zhang et al., 2011). In a communicating layer cake reservoir, higher end-point mobility ratio (water to oil) leads...

  3. A note on self heating and spontaneous combustion of stored sunflower seed cake and cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nazir, S. M. A.; Babikir, I. H.; Shakak, M. A. S.; Sulieman, I. A.; Medani, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower seed cake and cotton seed warehouses combusted spontaneously and burnt in August and November 2009, respectively, in Khartoum North industrial area. The objective of this study was to determine some of the reasons for self-heating and spontaneous combustion. Representative sample from the two warehouses were collected. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, paecilomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sp. were isolated at 37°C. Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated at 37°C and B. pantothenticus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, B. badius, Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. were isolated at 60°C. A decrease in soil, fiber and phosphorus and increase in free fatty acids and protein contents were detected.(Author)

  4. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside from Flaxseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE technique was applied firstly to extract secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG from flaxseed cakes. The significant extraction parameters were screened by fractional factorial design (FFD. The optimal parameters were determined using the central composite design (CCD with the two variables, NaOH amount and the liquid/solid ratio. The conditions of the extraction were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction yield and the extraction purity of SDG was 16.25 mg/g and 3.86%, respectively. The efficiency of NPCE was compared with that of conventional extraction methods. Our results demonstrated that NPCE was comparable to the well-known ultrasound-assisted extraction in term of extraction yield and purity. This extraction technique has advantages of less time-consuming, low solvent usage and high throughput capability.

  5. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  6. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  8. Nutritional value of yellow-seeded winter rapeseed cakes for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Święch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to compare the composition and nutritional value of a winter brown- (BRC and three yellow-seeded (YRC cold-pressed rapeseed cakes as the components of pigs’ diets, and to assess their effects on colonic bacterial fermentation and the relative weight of organs. In experiment 1, the standardised ileal digestibility (SID of protein and amino acids (AA of cakes was determined in 12 male cannulated pigs. Each diet was fed to six pigs during three seven-day periods. Ileal digesta was collected during the last three days of the period. In experiment 2, five groups each containing six female pigs with initial body weights (BW of 20 kg were fed on diets containing BRC, YRC, or soyabean oil meal (SBM as the main protein source. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and growth performance were measured untill 60 kg BW was reached, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA concentrations in the colon, as well as the weight of the liver, kidney, heart, and thyroid, were recorded. The main differences between BRC and YRC were found in higher content of fat and protein, lower amounts of fibre and glucosinolates (Gls, and higher ATTD of fibre in YRC. Protein and AA SID, ATTD of nutrients, total SCFA colonic concentration, and growth performance did not significantly differ. The chemical composition of the three YRC was not uniform, the greatest differences were found among the amounts of Gls. The relative weights of the thyroid and heart were greater in pigs fed BRC than in YRC and SBM diets. Thyroid weight was positively correlated with dietary progoitrin, alkenyl Gls, and total Gls, whereas heart weight was positively correlated with progoitrin and alkenyl Gls. It was concluded that winter yellow-seeded rapeseed is a better raw material for cold-pressing than brown-seeded due to having lower Gls and fibre content. 

  9. Batch adsorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solution by means of olive cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Anber, Zaid Ahmed; Matouq, Mohammed Abu Dayeh

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural adsorbent such as olive cake to replace expensive imported synthetic adsorbent is particularly appropriate for developing countries such as Jordan. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of cadmium ions from its aqueous solution using olive cake as adsorbent. Parameters effects such as temperature, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorbent used in this study exhibited as good sorption at approximately pH 6 at temperatures 28, 35 and 45 deg. C. The removal efficiency was found to be 66% at pH 6 and temperature 28 deg. C. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to calculate isotherm constants. The experimental results were in a good agreement with these models. Results show that when an increasing in temperature from 28 to 45 deg. C, the maximum adsorption capacity (q max ) is decreased from 65.4 to 44.4 mg/g and Freundlich constant (K f ) decreased from 19.9 to 15.7. The thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process data were evaluated using Langmuir isotherm. The free energy change (ΔG o ) and the enthalpy change (ΔH o ) showed that the process was feasible and exothermic, respectively. The dynamic data fitted to the first order, Lagergren-first order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. The experimental results indicated that the pseudo second-order reaction model provided the best description for these data with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The adsorption rate constant was calculated as 8.4 x 10 -3 g mg -1 min -1 at 28 deg. C

  10. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  11. Degradation of phorbol esters by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA during solid-state fermentation of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chetna; Mathur, Priyanka; Khare, S K

    2011-04-01

    Large amount of seed cake is generated as by-product during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts its utilization as livestock feed. Safe disposal or meaningful utilization of this major by-product necessitates the degradation of these phorbol esters. The present study describes the complete degradation of phorbol esters by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA strain during solid state fermentation (SSF) of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake. Phorbol esters were completely degraded in nine days under the optimized SSF conditions viz. deoiled cake 5.0 g; moistened with 5.0 ml distilled water; inoculum 1.5 ml of overnight grown P. aeruginosa; incubation at temperature 30 °C, pH 7.0 and RH 65%. SSF of deoiled cake seems a potentially viable approach towards the complete degradation of the toxic phorbol esters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  13. Pea and Broad Bean Pods as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber: The Impact on Texture and Sensory Properties of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith-Fendri, Lilia; Chaari, Fatma; Kallel, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Attention has focused on bakery products such as cake which is one of the most common bakery products consumed by people in the world. Legume by-products, pea pods (PPs) (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean pods (BBPs) (Vicia faba L.) mediterranean (Tunisian), has been studied for its high dietary fiber content (PP: 43.87 g/100 g; BBP: 53.01 g/100 g). Protein content was also a considerable component for both by-products. We investigated the effect of substituted of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of PP and BBP flours on the sensory and technological properties in cake. Cakes hardness increased whereas L * and a * color values decreased. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 15% of PP and BBP flours can be added to prepare acceptable quality cakes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Histopathological and Reproductive Evaluation in Male Rats Fed Jatropha curcas Seed Cake with or without Alkaline Hydrolysis and Subjected to Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Sousa Moura, Laiane; Palomaris Mariano Souza, Domenica; Mendon?a, Simone; de Aquino Ribeiro, Jos? Ant?nio; Fernandes Sousa, Luciano; Tony Ramos, Adriano; Maiorka, Paulo C?sar; de Ara?jo, Vera L?cia; Mayumi Maruo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas cake, a by-product of biodiesel production, is rich in protein and has potential to be used in livestock feed; however, the presence of antinutritional factors and phorbol esters limits its use. Thus, this study investigated toxicological and reproductive effects in male Wistar rats after subchronic exposure to J. curcas cake subjected to detoxification procedures. Rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10) and treated for 60 days. The control group received commercial feed,...

  15. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  16. Rapid establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia driven by the scoured cake layer in an anaerobic baffled ceramic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shun; Ren, Xuesong; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2017-11-01

    Although toxic and refractory organics, such as phenol and quinoline, are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria, the establishment of specific degrading consortia is a relatively slow process. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor allows for complete biomass retention that can aid the establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of phenol (500 mg L -1 ) and quinoline (50 mg L -1 ) was investigated using an anaerobic baffled ceramic membrane bioreactor (ABCMBR). The results showed that, within 30 days, 99% of phenol, 98% of quinoline and 88% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed. The substrate utilisation rates of the cake layer for phenol and quinoline, and specific methanogenic activity of the cake layer, were 7.58 mg phenol g -1  mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) day -1 , 8.23 mg quinoline g -1  MLVSS day -1 and 0.55 g COD CH4  g -1  MLVSS day -1 , respectively. The contribution of the cake layer to the removals of phenol and quinoline was extremely underestimated because the uncounted scoured cake layer was disregarded. Syntrophus was the key population for phenol and quinoline degradation, and it was more abundant in the cake layer than in the bulk sludge. The highly active scattered cake layer sped up the establishment of phenol- and quinoline-degrading consortia in the ABCMBR.

  17. Presence of Fe-Al binary oxide adsorbent cake layer in ceramic membrane filtration and their impact for removal of HA and BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Jang, Am

    2018-04-01

    To enhance the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in ceramic (Ce) membrane filtration, an iron-aluminum binary oxide (FAO) was applied to the ceramic membrane surface as the adsorbent cake layer, and it was compared with heated aluminum oxide (HAO) for the evaluation of the control of NOM. Both the HAO and FAO adsorbent cake layers efficiently removed the NOM regardless of NOM's hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in NOM for FAO was 1-1.12 times greater than that for HAO, which means FAO was more efficient in the removal of DOC in NOM. FAO (0.03 μm), which is smaller in size than HAO (0.4 μm), had greater flux reduction than HAO. The flux reduction increased as the filtration proceeded because most of the organic foulants (colloid/particles and soluble NOM) were captured by the adsorbent cake layer, which caused fouling between the membrane surface and the adsorbent cake layer. However, no chemically irreversible fouling was observed on the Ce membrane at the end of the FAO adsorbent cake layer filtration. This means that a stable adsorbent cake layer by FAO formed on the Ce membrane, and that the reduced pure water flux of the Ce membrane, resulting from the NOM fouling, can easily be recovered through physicochemical cleaning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Smets

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  19. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L.

  20. Comparative study on precipitation methods of yellow-cake from acid leachate of rock phosphate and Its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abow Slama, E. H. Y.

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried-out to leach uranium from rock phosphate using sulphuric acid in presences of potassium chlorate as an oxidant and to investigate the relative purity of different forms of yellow cakes produced with ammonia ((NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 ), magnesia (UO 3 .xH 2 O) and sodium hydroxide (Na 2 U 2 O 7 ) as precipitants, as well as purification of the products with TBP extraction and matching its impurity levels with specification of the commercial products. Alpha-particle spectrometry was for used for determination of activity concentration of uranium isotopes (''2''3''4U and ''2''3''8U) in rock phosphate, resulting green phosphoric acid solution, and in different forms of the yellow cake from which the equivalent mass concentration of uranium was deduced. Likewise, AAS was used for determination of impurities (Pb, Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu). On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in the rock phosphate was 1468±979 Bq/Kg (119.38±79.66 ppm), and 711±252 Bq/L (57.85±20.46 ppm) in the resulting green solution with corresponding percent of dissolution amounting to 48% which is considered low indicating that the experimental conditions (i.e. dissolution container, temperature, PH, retention time) were not optimal. However, the isotopic ratio (''2''3''4U, ''2''3''8U) in all stages of hydrometallurgical process was not much different from unity indicating lack of fractionation. Crude yellow cakes (hydrate uranium trioxide, ammonium diuranate and sodium diuranate) were precipitated from the green solutions prior to separation of iron and once after iron separation. Although, iron was tested using bipyridine and SCN, it was found in all types of crude samples analyzed this might be attributed to either the quality of the reagent used or inhibition of Fe present in the solution by stronger complexing agent. Uranium mass concentration in crude yellow cakes precipitated before iron separation was found following the order: UO 3 .xH 2 O

  1. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  2. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  3. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  4. Onward treatment of irradiated liquid egg: Detection in sponge cake mixture after baking by means of LC-GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, H.U. von; Schulzki, G.; Pfordt, J.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated whole liquid egg used for preparation of sponge cake could be identified using gaschromatographic/mass spectrometric detection of the radiation induced hydrocarbons for doses from 1 kGy. Separation of the hydrocarbons out of the fat was carried out by HPLC coupled on-line to the GC. That means, for the first time an irradiated component of a heat treated food could be detected. (orig.) [de

  5. The Effect of Persian Gums and Tragacanth on Texture and Sensory Characteristics of Non-Gluten ‎Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Afrooz Ghasemi; Mohammad Shahedi Baghe Khandan; Seyed Ali Yasini Ardakani

    2017-01-01

    Background: The presence of gluten proteins in rice flour leads to some problems for patients of celiac; a digestive autoimmune disease. Consumption of a non-gluten regime can decrease the effects of this disease. The aim of this study was to produce a non-gluten cake with an appropriate quality and high nutritional value by using rice flour, quinoa flour, Persian gums, and Tragacanth. Methods: The effect of addition of Persian gums, Tragacanth, and a combination of both of these compounds...

  6. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Dexter B.; Smith, Katy E.; Torbert, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults) soil common to t...

  7. Application of Fourier-transform mid infrared spectroscopy for the monitoring of pound cakes quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhouchi, Zeineb; Karoui, Romdhane

    2018-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of MIR and texture analyzer to evaluate the quality of pound cake samples produced with palm oil and rapeseed oil throughout storage. The MIR spectra analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation of pound cakes as a function of the storage time and the nature of the used oil in the recipe. By applying partial least square regression (PLSR), excellent prediction was obtained for hardness (R 2  = 0.91; RPD = 2.26), while an approximate qualitative prediction was found for springiness (R 2  = 0.73; RPD = 2.07), cohesiveness (R 2  = 0.67; RPD = 1.31) and resilience (R 2  = 0.65; RPD = 1.24). It could be concluded that the MIR spectroscopy could be used as a rapid and non-destructive technique for monitoring texture of pound cakes throughout storage as well as for the prediction of their hardness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic study for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using olive cake based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rawash, E. S. A.; El-Chaghaby, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the removal of p-nitrophenol by adsorption onto olive cake based activated carbon having a BET surface area of 672 m²/g. The batch adsorption experimental results indicated that the equilibrium time for nitrophenol adsorption by olive cake-based activated carbon was 120 minutes. The adsorption data was modeled by equilibrium and kinetic models. The pseudo- first and second order as well as the Elovichkinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data and the intra particle diffusion model was assessed for describing the mechanism of adsorption. The data were found to be best fitted to the pseudo-second order model with a correlation coefficient (R2=0.986). The intra particle diffusion mechanism also showed a good fit to the experimental data, showing two distinct linear parts assuming that more than one step could be involved in the adsorption of nitrophenol by the activated carbon. The equilibrium study was performed using three models including Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The results revealed that the Temkin equilibrium model is the best model fitting the experimental data (R2=0.944). The results of the present study proved the efficiency of using olive cake based activated carbon as a novel adsorbent for the removal of nitrophenol from aqueous solution.

  10. Laboratory studies on the dissolution and solvent extraction of yellow cake to produce nuclear grade ammonium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, C.C.; Pabelonia, C.A.; Balagtas, G.C.; Ubanan, E.

    1984-10-01

    Yellow cake or uranium concentrate, the semi-refined product from the processing of uranium-bearing ores in uranium mills has to undergo further processing and purification to nuclear grade specifications prior to conversion to uranium dioxide, the chemical form in which uranium is found in the fuel elements of many nuclear power reactor types, including the Philippines' PNPP-1. This paper presents the results of the studies conducted to obtain the optimum operating conditions for the first two steps in the processing of yellow cake to achieve nuclear grade purity, namely, (a) the dissolution of yellow cake in nitric acid, and (b) the separation of uranium from other impurities by solvent extraction using 20% Tri-butyl-Phosphate (TBP) in kerosene as the organic phase. The parameters studied for the dissolution step are acid molarity, temperature, and time; the optimum conditions obtained were: 4M HNO 3 , 100degC, and one hour, respectively. For the solvent extraction step, the following parameters were studied: aqueous to organic ratio, mixing time, and number of extraction stages; the optimum results obtained were O:A=4:1, three minutes mixing time, and three extraction stages, respectively. (author)

  11. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  12. Bacteriological And Nutritional Analysis Of Groundnut Cake Sold In An Open Market In Samaru Zaria-Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfug and 1.94 x 105 cfug for zones A and B respectively 1.01 x 105 cfug for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfug for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus E. coli P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15 moisture 12.65 lipid 15.40 protein 12.60 ash 3.95 and crude fibre 0.25. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency FDA recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfuml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However the product is highly nutritious.

  13. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cake made from chlorinated flour. 2. Studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, A V; Fisher, N; Hutchinson, J B; Berry, R; Hardy, J

    1983-08-01

    Male and female Theiller's Original strain mice were fed for 16 and 17 months respectively on diets in which cake, prepared from flours treated with 0, 1250 or 2500 ppm chlorine, formed 79% by weight on a 12.6% moisture basis. Body weights and food intakes were unaffected by flour treatment but all of the animals on cake diets showed significant increases in body weight compared with controls on a standard diet and became obese. Mortalities in the males were not related to treatment, but in the females there was excess mortality in the treated groups compared with the cake control group, after 13 months in the 1250 group and after 15 months in the 2500 group. No consistent treatment-related effects were observed in the haematological, biochemical and renal-function studies. Dose-related increases in heart and kidney weights and a dose-related decrease in ovary weight were seen in females. No evidence of carcinogenicity resulting from flour treatment was obtained but the early ending of the study, necessitated by high mortalities, greatly diminished the value of this finding. Concentrations of covalently bound chlorine in the perirenal fat were positively correlated with treatment level, but were considerably below those present in the lipid content of the diets on which the mice were fed.

  15. Evaluation of sorghum flour functionality and quality characteristics of gluten-free bread and cake as influenced by ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Kathryn; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-12-01

    Commercially milled food-grade sorghum flour was subjected to ozone at the rate of 0.06 L/min for 15, 30, and 45 min. The pH of ozone-treated flour decreased as exposure time increased. The L* (lightness) values of sorghum flour significantly increased (p cake volume significantly increased as ozonation time increased. Additionally, longer ozonation exposure times increased cells per slice area, lightness, and slice brightness values in gluten-free cakes while reducing crumb firmness. Despite improving lightness and slice brightness values, ozonation did not significantly increase the specific volume of gluten-free batter-based bread. While ozonation improved the volume and texture in cakes, it did not have the same positive effects on gluten-free bread. Bread made from ozonated sorghum flour had an open ragged structure with equivalent volume to the control flour. In both applications, the increased brightness and lightness values due to ozone exposure is recommended to increase the acceptability of sorghum products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Evaluation of quality measurement of Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Strnadová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olomouc cake of cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky is smear-ripened cheese, which is produced from sour industrial curd. Brevibacterium linens, which are added during the production process, are reproducing and make gold-yellow smear cover. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical analysis of the quality of Olomouc cake of cheese. Changes in chemical composition were evaluated during different stages of production and at the same time it was detected whether changes in chemical composition during the manufacturing process are same in spring as well as in summer, without statistically significant differences. Dry matter of Olomouc cake of cheese was ranged from 35 % to 39 %. The increase of dry matter during production is evident, but these changes were in the most cases not statistically signifiant (P > 0.05. The value of titratable acidity of the cheese considerably changes during the manufacturing process, it has a decreasing tendency. Titratable acidity of cheese after shaping was 106.64 (136.12 SH and at the end of life it was 49.91 (65.06 SH. These changes were very highly statistically significant (P 0.05 in cheese from summer period. Content of salt is increased from 5.30 % to 5.98 %, respectively 6.10 %. In spring period the oposite changes in most cases occured (P 0.05.

  17. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  19. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira

    2016-10-01

    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extraction is needed for REMs recovery from the solutions after nitric acid leaching of phosphorus production slag. The process of the three-steps counter current extraction of rare earth

  20. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.