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Sample records for cajati area southern

  1. 40Ar/39Ar ages (600-570 Ma of the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone: evidence for syncontractional extension in the Cajati area, southern Ribeira belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar ages of the rocks from the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone in the southern part of the Ribeira belt, between the States of São Paulo and Paraná, and also discusses the regional correlations and the tectonic implications for other parts of the belt. The geochronological data suggest that transtensional deformation was active between 600 and 580 Ma (hornblende and muscovite apparent ages, respectively. This time span is considerably older than previous proposals for the period of activity of these structures (520-480 Ma in the northern segment of this belt and in the Araçuaí belt. Kinematic analysis of the dated mylonites shows extensional structures with top-down movement to ESE compatible with structures found in other tectonic segments in the eastern portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and in the Rio Doce Valley region. Our ages are situated in the same time interval defined for the alkaline magmatism of the Serra do Mar suite. We suggest that the regional tectonic framework was developed during continental-scale extension. This process has been coeval with convergent strain in the adjacent Neoproterozoic shear zones of the Apiaí/Ribeira and Araçuaí belts, which make up significant segments of these belts. The available data show that these structures may not be simply related to post-orogenic gravitational collapse, but must involve a more complex process probably related to dynamic balance between crustal thickening and thinning during tectonic convergence, basin formation and exhumation processes.Este trabalho apresenta idades 40Ar/39Ar de rochas da Zona de Cisalhamento Transtrativa Sinistral da Serra do Azeite, situada na parte sul do cinturão Ribeira, entre os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, bem como discute a correlação regional e as implicações tectônicas com outras partes do cinturão. Os dados geocronológicos sugerem que a deformação extensional foi ativa entre 600 e 580 Ma

  2. Directory of southern African conservation areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greyling, T

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available and Swaziland. The data sheets for each of the 155 areas described include details on date of proclamation, geographical features, vegetation, flora and fauna, infrastructure and principal reference material. A synthesis of the data examines the historical...

  3. Asbestos in seashore Southern area of Bari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giua, R.; Bonanno, V.; Gagliardi, N.

    2006-01-01

    Bari seashore was place, in the past, of uncontrolled waste disposal. The importance of such situation became evident when Bari Municipal Administration attempted the recovery of Torre Quetta beach. Sampling and analysis in the area showed the presence of quantities of asbestos residues probably coming from Fibronit, an asbestos-cement industry in Bari closed since 1985 and, at present, polluted site of national relevance [it

  4. An investigation of the structure beneath Magadi area in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Local seismic activity monitored previously around Lake Magadi revealed an earthquake cluster caused by swarm activity in the rift centre at shallow depths, which was probably triggered by ...

  5. Conservation of biodiversity in the Sango Bay area, southern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of biodiversity and socio-economic surveys carried out in the Sango Bay area of southern Uganda revealed high biodiversity values for some taxa in some sites. Use of this biodiversity and reliance on it by local communities was widespread. Biodiversity scores were given to all species and these were coupled with ...

  6. Radon in active volcanic areas of Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avino, R.; Capaldi, G.; Pece, R.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary data dealing with the variations in time of the radiogenic gas radon in soils and waters of many active volcanic areas of Southern Italy. The greatest differences in Rn content of the investigated volcanic areas are: Ischia and Campi Flegrei, which have more Rn than Vesuvio and Volcano, both in soils and in waters. The thermalized waters of Ischia are enriched in Rn 15 times with respect to soils, while in the other areas soils and underground waters have comparable Rn contents

  7. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  9. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  10. Holocene aeolian activity in the Dinggye area (Southern Tibet, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Meihui; Wu, Yongqiu; Zheng, Yinghua; Tan, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    The Dinggye area (Southern Tibet) contains numerous aeolian sediments, including modern and ancient aeolian sand deposition. In this study, we determined the chronological sequences of several profiles of Holocene paleo-aeolian deposits using Optically Stimulate Luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C and conventional 14C) dating. Using the grain size, magnetic susceptibility, organic content and chrome characteristics of the deposits, we reconstructed the Holocene aeolian processes in the Dinggye area. The results from the paleo-aeolian depositional record indicate multiple changes in the intensity of aeolian activity and soil fixing with alternations between cool-dry and warm-humid climate conditions in the Dinggye area during the Holocene. From 12.8 ka B.P. to the present, the climate has fluctuated frequently. From 12.8 to 11.6 ka B.P. and from 9.3 to 4.9 ka B.P., the climate was warm and humid with weak aeolian activity, and a sandy paleosol developed. The peak Holocene megathermal period and the main period of pedogenesis in the study area was from 6.6 to 4.9 ka B.P. Between 11.6 and 9.3 ka B.P. and since 2.0 ka B.P., the sandlot expanded due to a cool, dry and windy climate; aeolian activity was strong and caused the development of moving dunes. The period between 4.9 and 2.0 ka B.P. was relatively cool and dry with slightly strengthened aeolian activity that developed stationary and semi-stationary dunes. In general, the Holocene events recorded by the paleo-aeolian deposits correspond well with those interpreted by other methods, such as records from ice-cores, lacustrine deposits and tree rings, but there are minor discrepancies between the methods.

  11. Isoprene emission inventory for the BOREAS southern study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Kempf, K.; Allwine, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was designed to measure trace gas fluxes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic budgets and other ecosystem features in order to establish relationships between ecosystem processes and various global climate change scenarios. During the 1994 BOREAS field study isoprene and terpene emissions have been measured at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA). Ambient measurements were also made to help establish the chemical importance of these biogenic species in boreal atmosphere. The data was used to test and improve algorithms for predicting emission rates as a function of species, environmental conditions and biomass dynamics and to provide an expanded database describing the relationship of volatile organic compounds emissions to ecosystem dynamics. The study also sought to provide the foundation for improved understanding of physical exchange processes, and define hydrocarbon reactivity in the boundary layer at high latitudes. Details of the biogenic emission rate measurements made in the SSA are also discussed, including the creation of an isoprene emission inventory for the area. The study has been helpful in eliminating major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of carbon loss due to isoprene emission on the BOREAS SSA. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  13. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  14. Climate projections in the Hornsund area, Southern Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuch Marzena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide an estimation of climate variability in the Hornsund area in Southern Spitsbergen in the period 1976-2100. The climatic variables were obtained from the Polar-CORDEX initiative in the form of time series of daily air temperature and precipitation derived from four global circulation models (GCMs following representative concentration pathways (RCP RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. In the first stage of the analysis, simulations for the reference period from 1979 to 2005 were compared with observations at the Polish Polar Station Hornsund from the same period of time. In the second step, climatic projections were derived and monthly and annual means/sums were analysed as climatic indices. Following the standard methods of trend analysis, the changes of these indices over three time periods - the reference period 1976-2005, the near-future period 2021-2050, and far-future period 2071-2100 - were examined. The projections of air temperature were consistent. All analysed climate models simulated an increase of air temperature with time. Analyses of changes at a monthly scale indicated that the largest increases were estimated for winter months (more than 11°C for the far future using the RCP 8.5 scenario. The analyses of monthly and annual sums of precipitation also indicated increasing tendencies for changes with time, with the differences between mean monthly sums of precipitation for the near future and the reference period similar for each months. In the case of changes between far future and reference periods, the highest increases were projected for the winter months.

  15. Anelastic attenuation structure of the southern Aegean subduction area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventouzi, Chrisanthi; Papazachos, Constantinos; Papaioannou, Christos; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    The study of the anelastic attenuation structure plays a very important role for seismic wave propagation and provides not only valuable constraints for the Earth's interior (temperature, relative viscosity, slab dehydration and melt transport) but also significant information for the simulation of strong ground motions. In order to investigate the attenuation structure of the broader Southern Aegean subduction area, acceleration spectra of intermediate depth earthquakes produced from data provided by two local networks which operated in the area were used. More specifically, we employed data from approximately 400 intermediate-depth earthquakes, as these were recorded from the EGELADOS seismic monitoring project which consisted of 65 land stations and 24 OBS recorders and operated during 2005-2007, as well as data from the earlier installed CYCNET local network, which operated during 2002-2005. A frequency-independent path attenuation operator t* was computed for both P and S arrivals for each waveform, using amplitude spectra generated by the recorded data of the aforementioned networks. Initially, estimated P and S traveltimes were examined and modeled as a function of epicentral distance for different groups of focal depths, using data from the CYCNET network in order to obtain the expected arrival information when original arrival times were not available. Two approaches to assess the spectral-decay were adopted for t* determination. Initially, an automated approach was used, where t* was automatically calculated from the slope of the acceleration spectrum, assuming an ω2 source model for frequencies above the corner frequency, fc. Estimation of t* was performed in the frequency band of 0.2 to 25 Hz, using only spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 3 for a frequency range of at least 4Hz for P-waves and 1Hz for S-waves, respectively. In the second approach, the selection of the linearly-decaying part of the spectra where t* was calculated, was

  16. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  17. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  18. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  19. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  20. Predictive equations for dimensions and leaf area of coastal Southern California street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Tree height, crown height, crown width, diameter at breast height (dbh), and leaf area were measured for 16 species of commonly planted street trees in the coastal southern California city of Santa Monica, USA. The randomly sampled trees were planted from 1 to 44 years ago. Using number of years after planting or dbh as explanatory variables, mean values of dbh, tree...

  1. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  2. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  4. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  5. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Rion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.

  6. Features of geology in Anyuan hot spot area of southern Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinrong; Li Ziying; Pang Yaqing; Hu Zhihua; Gao Fei; Wang Yongjian; Zhong Qilong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the synthetical research on the characteristics of regional geology and structure, magmatic activity and metamorphism, it is considered that Anyuan area in southern Jiangxi Province has features of continent hot spot, and Anyuan hot spot area is an integrated geology body effected by the metamorphism. magmatism, tectonism and hydrothermal metallogenesis originated by the mantle upheaving. Anyuan hot spot area is a mineralization cluster area of uranium and poly-metal, which has the feature of ring structure, negative abnormity of gravity and high field of radioactivity. It is considered that metallogenesis of uranium and poly-metal is close to crust-mantle mixing and fluid of deep source. (authors)

  7. A survey of sandflies in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukra, Kotchapan; Kanjanopas, Kobkarn; Amsakul, Sakultip; Rittaton, Virot; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania siamensis was firstly described as a causative agent of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in southern provinces of Thailand since 2008. The spread of leishmaniasis depends on the distribution of the vectors and reservoir hosts. Unfortunately, little is known about these vital factors. The objective of this study was to identify the distribution of sandfly species, their density, and their habitats in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey of sandflies was conducted in three provinces of southern Thailand where leishmaniasis cases were previously reported. The collection of sandflies was performed using CDC light traps for four consecutive months, from March to June 2009. A total of 2,698 sandflies were collected in the affected areas. Among 1,451 female sandflies, six species of genus Sergentomyia were identified, i.e., Sergentomyia gemmea, Sergentomyia iyengari, Sergentomyia barraudi, Sergentomyia indica, Sergentomyia silvatica, and Sergentomyia perturbans. S. gemmea (81.4 %) was the most predominant species in all areas. In addition, one species of the genus Phlebotomus, Phlebotomus argentipes, a known vector of leishmaniasis was also detected. The distribution of sandfly species in these leishmaniasis-affected areas was different from the previous studies in other areas of Thailand. Further studies are needed to proof whether these sandflies can be the natural vectors of leishmaniasis.

  8. Atlas of ecologically and commercially important areas in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This atlas provides useful baseline information for the environmental assessment of petroleum project proposals relative to sensitive areas and critical periods of fisheries resources in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The southern boundary of the Gulf of St. Lawrence is bounded by the shores of western Cape Breton, southeastern New Brunswick and northern Nova Scotia. It is characterized as a coastal marine ecosystem because of the predominating effects of the rivers, but deeper areas have more in common with the Scotian Shelf and Slope and many common species move seasonally between the Gulf and the open Atlantic Ocean. This report is intended mostly for use by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NSOPB), and to a lesser degree the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. The maps illustrate the known distribution of certain ecosystem components and known harvesting areas. The first part of the report describes the environmental setting of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. The report describes commercially important resources such as benthic, pelagic and shellfish species and other minor species, as well as aquaculture leases. It also discuses seals, whales, raptors, shorebirds and coastal waterfowl. The report identifies tourist areas, recreational parks and protected areas. Seasonality and sensitive timing of the resources are also summarized. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Self-potential time series analysis in a seismic area of the Southern Apennines: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bello, G.; Lapenna, V.; Satriano, C.; Tramutoli, V.

    1994-01-01

    The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external...

  10. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  11. Burned area detection based on Landsat time series in savannas of southern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2018-02-01

    West African savannas are subject to regular fires, which have impacts on vegetation structure, biodiversity and carbon balance. An efficient and accurate mapping of burned area associated with seasonal fires can greatly benefit decision making in land management. Since coarse resolution burned area products cannot meet the accuracy needed for fire management and climate modelling at local scales, the medium resolution Landsat data is a promising alternative for local scale studies. In this study, we developed an algorithm for continuous monitoring of annual burned areas using Landsat time series. The algorithm is based on burned pixel detection using harmonic model fitting with Landsat time series and breakpoint identification in the time series data. This approach was tested in a savanna area in southern Burkina Faso using 281 images acquired between October 2000 and April 2016. An overall accuracy of 79.2% was obtained with balanced omission and commission errors. This represents a significant improvement in comparison with MODIS burned area product (67.6%), which had more omission errors than commission errors, indicating underestimation of the total burned area. By observing the spatial distribution of burned areas, we found that the Landsat based method misclassified cropland and cloud shadows as burned areas due to the similar spectral response, and MODIS burned area product omitted small and fragmented burned areas. The proposed algorithm is flexible and robust against decreased data availability caused by clouds and Landsat 7 missing lines, therefore having a high potential for being applied in other landscapes in future studies.

  12. A revised Lithostratigraphic Framework for the Southern Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson

    2006-01-01

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain

  13. Geophysical features of uranium mineralization in Wadi Bahiya area, southern Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; Liang Shanming; Deng Xiaowei; Li Shengxiang; Wang Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Based on comprehensive study of geologic survey, sample analysis and ground gamma spectral survey, it is concluded that the uranium mineralization in Wadi Bahiya area, southern Jordan occurs near surface and is mostly hosted in weathered gray-brown chalk marl of Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene, and belongs to surficial calcrete-type which is related to modern oxidation. The ground gamma spectral survey shows that surface anomaly area is small and big gradient change of the anomalies. The trenches reveal that uranium content of the anomalies falls down from near-surface to the deep. The analytical results of the samples from the area correspond with the gamma spectral measurements, demonstrating that uranium mineralization is mainly located within the depth between 0.5 and 1.5 m. (authors)

  14. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Phifer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs

  15. Nucleation procedures in the restoration of riverine areas of the Mixed Rain Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its significant importance in the history of the occupation of Southern Brazil, the mixed rain forest, particularly in the Planalto Norte Catarinense, was subjected to intense exploitation as well as the replacement of its original vegetation cover by pasture and agricultural areas. Nowadays, it suffers another great impact which is the homogeneous reforestation with species of Pinus. The present situation is characterized by the need for restoration of the local landscape’s connectivity, which means restoring degraded riverine areas by repairing the connectivity between original fragments and areas to be restored. This study investigated the role of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved adjacent riverine fragments and the efficiency of nucleation procedures in the restoration of degraded riverine areas in Pinus taeda L. producing farms. Samples of the seed bank and seed rain of preserved fragments were collected and techniques of soil transposition and artificial perches were applied in the open degraded areas. The riverine areas demonstrated the potential to initiate the secondary succession process, allowing the formation of initial succession stages. The use of nucleation procedures showed the possibility of accelerating the succession process and indicated the importance of establishing linkage points between open areas and conserved remnants.

  16. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen

    2017-04-01

    About three-quarters of Taiwan are covered by hillside areas. Most of the hillside regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. In recent years, human development coupled with the global impact of extreme weather, typhoons and heavy rains have caused the landslide disasters and leaded to human causalities and properties loss. The landslides also endanger the major public works and almost make the overall industrial economic development and transport path overshadowed by disasters. Therefore, this research assesses the exploration of landslide potential analysis and zonation of high disaster potential communities for remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan. In this study, the time series of disaster records and land change of remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan are collected using techniques of interpretation from satellite images corresponding to multi-year and multi-rainfall events. To quantify the slope hazards, we adopt statistical analysis model to analyze massive data of slope disasters and explore the variance, difference and trend of influence factors of hillside disaster; establish the disaster potential analysis model under the climate change and construct the threshold of disaster. Through analysis results of disaster potential assessment, the settlement distribution with high-risk hazard potential of study area is drawn with geographic information system. Results of image classification show that the values of coefficient of agreement for different time periods are at high level. Compared with the historical disaster records of research areas, the accuracy of predicted landslide potential is in reasonable confidence level. The spatial distribution of landslide depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, slope and elevation of the research area. The results also show that the number and scale of secondary landslide sites are much larger than those of new landslide sites after rainfall

  17. 2005-2014 trends of PM10 source contributions in an industrialized area of southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Chen, Bing; de la Campa, Ana M Sánchez; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; de la Rosa, Jesus D

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) using receptor modelling was determined at an urban (La Linea, LL) and an industrial area (Puente Mayorga, PMY) in Southern Spain with samples collected during 2005-2014. The concentrations of PM10 had been decreasing at both sites in three distinctive periods: 1) the initial PM10 levels approached or exceeded the Spain and EU PM10 annual guidelines of 40 μg/m 3 during 2005-2007 at LL and 2005-2009 at PMY; 2) then PM10 dropped by 25%-∼30 μg/m 3 during 2008-2011 at LL and during 2010-2011 at PMY; 3) since 2012, the PM10 concentrations gradually decreased to major elements. These PM components generally showed a decrease trend, in accord with the trend of PM10 reduction. A PMF model identified seven sources to PM10 contributions. Secondary sulfate, soil/urban/construction dust, and secondary nitrate showed significantly decreasing trends with reduction of 40-60% comparing to the initial levels. The road traffic contribution decreased by 14% from the first to third period. However, sea salt, oil combustion, and industrial metallurgical process had relative stable contributions. These source contribution changes are reasonably governed by the PM emission abatement actions implemented during the past decade, as well as the financial crisis, that accounted for a significant decrease of PM pollution in Southern Spain. We identified that the mitigation efforts on industry, fossil fuel combustion, and urban transportation during the past decade were successful for air quality improvement in a highly industrialized area in Southern Spain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda L Douglass

    Full Text Available An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided.

  19. Reproductive outcomes in an area adjacent to a petrochemical plant in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Lenice Minussi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible adverse reproductive outcomes in an area adjacent to a petrochemical plant in southern Brazil. METHODS: A review of 17,113 birth records of the main hospital of the municipality of Montenegro, southern Brazil, from 1983 to 1998 was carried out. Three groups of cases were selected: (1 newborns with major congenital malformations; (2 newborns with low birth weight (500 g. A control was assigned to each case. Controls were the first newborns weighing > or = 2,500 g without malformations and of case-matching sex. Mother's residence during pregnancy was used as an exposure parameter. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test or Fisher test, odds ratio, 0.05 significance level, and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: For unadjusted analysis, it was found a correlation between low birth weight and geographical proximity of mother's residence to the petrochemical plant (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.01--2.72 or residence on the way of preferential wind direction (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.03--2.56. When other covariates were added in the conditional logistic regression (maternal smoking habits, chronic disease and age, there was no association. CONCLUSIONS: Despite final results were negative, low birth weight could be a good parameter of environmental contamination and should be closely monitored in the studied area.

  20. Spatial occupancy models applied to atlas data show Southern Ground Hornbills strongly depend on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M; Johnson, Devin S; Altwegg, Res; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-03-01

    Determining the range of a species and exploring species--habitat associations are central questions in ecology and can be answered by analyzing presence--absence data. Often, both the sampling of sites and the desired area of inference involve neighboring sites; thus, positive spatial autocorrelation between these sites is expected. Using survey data for the Southern Ground Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) from the Southern African Bird Atlas Project, we compared advantages and disadvantages of three increasingly complex models for species occupancy: an occupancy model that accounted for nondetection but assumed all sites were independent, and two spatial occupancy models that accounted for both nondetection and spatial autocorrelation. We modeled the spatial autocorrelation with an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model and with a restricted spatial regression (RSR) model. Both spatial models can readily be applied to any other gridded, presence--absence data set using a newly introduced R package. The RSR model provided the best inference and was able to capture small-scale variation that the other models did not. It showed that ground hornbills are strongly dependent on protected areas in the north of their South African range, but less so further south. The ICAR models did not capture any spatial autocorrelation in the data, and they took an order, of magnitude longer than the RSR models to run. Thus, the RSR occupancy model appears to be an attractive choice for modeling occurrences at large spatial domains, while accounting for imperfect detection and spatial autocorrelation.

  1. Self-potential time series analysis in a seismic area of the Southern Apennines: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external noise, related to anthropic activities and meteoclimatic parameters, and pick out the anomalies from the residual series. Finally we show the preliminary results of the correlation between the anomalies in the time patterns of self-potential data and the earthquakes which occurred in the area.

  2. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  3. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  4. An Isotopic View of Water and Nitrate Transport Through the Vadose Zone in Oregon’s Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area (S-GWMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon’s southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceedi...

  5. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  7. The geological heritage of the Kurkur-Dungul area in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Emad S.; Ponedelnik, Alena A.; Tiess, Günter; Yashalova, Natalia N.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2018-01-01

    The inventory of the geological heritage of Egypt is important for its efficient conservation and usage for the purposes of science, education, and tourism. The field investigations in the Kurkur-Dungul area in southern Egypt have permitted to identify several unique geological features. Their type, rank, relative abundance, and intrinsic diversity, as well as importance of the entire geological heritage of the study area are investigated. Seven geological heritage types are distinguished, namely stratigraphical, sedimentary, palaeogeographical, mineralogical, structural, geomorphological, and economical types. The rank of the features belonging to the listed types ranges from local to global, and the relative abundance and the intrinsic diversity range from low to high. The global rank is established for the sedimentary type, which is determined by the wide distribution of palaeospring tufa deposits. The high relative abundance and intrinsic diversity are established for the geomorphological type. The entire geological heritage of the Kurkur-Dungul area can be employed for diversification of the existing tourism programs offered at the tourist destination of Aswan, as well as for geotourism development. A geopark can be created in the Kurkur-Dungul area for the better exploitation of its geological heritage. The combined development of geological and industrial tourism seems to be possible.

  8. Chromosome translocation in residents of the high background radiation areas in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Minamihisamatsu, Masako; Wang Chunyan; Wei Zhang; Chen Deqing; Morishima, Hiroshige; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    We performed a cytogenetical study using chromosome painting analysis on 9 residents of the naturally high background radiation areas (HBRA) and 8 residents of the control areas in southern China. The estimated dose (air kerma) of each resident measured by an electric pocket dosimeter showed 2.20-4.23 mGy/year in HBRA and 0.56-0.70 mGy/year in the control areas. A total of 14,096 cells (1,566 cells/case) in the former and 17,522 cells (2,190 cells/case) in the latter were analyzed. Children, both in HBRA and in the control areas, had translocations at low frequencies. The frequency of translocations among elder individuals varied widely and it was not possible to detect dose effect although it was detected in dicentrics. The effect of radiation on the induction of chromosome aberrations, which have a statistically potential risk of causing malignant or congenital diseases, seems to be less significant than those of metabolic factors and/or mutagenic agents (excluding radiation) even in HBRA in China. (author)

  9. Regression Techniques for Determining the Effective Impervious Area in Southern California Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R.; Mroczek, M.; Dallman, S.; Sengupta, A.; Stein, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    The portion of the Total Impervious Area (TIA) that is hydraulically connected to the storm drainage network is called the Effective Impervious Area (EIA). The remaining fraction of impervious area, called the non-effective impervious area, drains onto pervious surfaces which do not contribute to runoff for smaller events. Using the TIA instead of EIA in models and calculations can lead to overestimates of runoff volumes peak discharges and oversizing of drainage system since it is assumed all impervious areas produce urban runoff that is directly connected to storm drains. This makes EIA a better predictor of actual runoff from urban catchments for hydraulic design of storm drain systems and modeling non-point source pollution. Compared to TIA, determining the EIA is considerably more difficult to calculate since it cannot be found by using remote sensing techniques, readily available EIA datasets, or aerial imagery interpretation alone. For this study, EIA percentages were calculated by two successive regression methods for five watersheds (with areas of 8.38 - 158mi2) located in Southern California using rainfall-runoff event data for the years 2004 - 2007. Runoff generated from the smaller storm events are considered to be emanating only from the effective impervious areas. Therefore, larger events that were considered to have runoff from both impervious and pervious surfaces were successively removed in the regression methods using a criterion of (1) 1mm and (2) a max (2 , 1mm) above the regression line. MSE is calculated from actual runoff and runoff predicted by the regression. Analysis of standard deviations showed that criterion of max (2 , 1mm) better fit the regression line and is the preferred method in predicting the EIA percentage. The estimated EIAs have shown to be approximately 78% to 43% of the TIA which shows use of EIA instead of TIA can have significant impact on the cost building urban hydraulic systems and stormwater capture devices.

  10. Computer analysis to the geochemical interpretation of soil and stream sediment data in an area of Southern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In southern Uruguay there are several known occurrences of base metal sulphide mineralization within an area of Precambrian volcanic sedimentary rocks. Regional geochemical stream sediment reconnaissance surveys revealed new polymetallic anomalies in the same stratigraphic zone. Geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in one of these anomalous areas is presented.

  11. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  12. Transpressional regime in southern Arabian Shield: Insights from Wadi Yiba Area, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Kattu, Ghazi; Matsah, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Detailed field-structural mapping of Neoproterozoic basement rocks exposed in the Wadi Yiba area, southern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia illustrates an important episode of late Neoproterozoic transpression in the southern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). This area is dominated by five main basement lithologies: gneisses, metavolcanics, Ablah Group (meta-clastic and marble units) and syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. These rocks were affected by three phases of deformation (D1-D3). D1 formed tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), penetrative foliation (S1), and mineral lineation (L1), which resulted from early E-W (to ENE-WSW) shortening. D2 deformation overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by transpression and top-to-the-W (-WSW) thrusting as shortening progressed. Stretching lineation trajectories, S-C foliations, asymmetric shear fabrics and related mylonitic foliation, and flat-ramp and duplex geometries further indicate the inferred transport direction. The N- to NNW-orientation of both “in-sequence piggy-back thrusts” and axial planes of minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds also indicates the same D2 compressional stress trajectories. The Wadi Yiba Shear Zone (WYSZ) formed during D2 deformation. It is one of several N-S trending brittle-ductile Late Neoproterozoic shear zones in the southern part of the ANS. Shear sense indicators reveal that shearing during D2 regional-scale transpression was dextral and is consistent with the mega-scale sigmoidal patterns recognized on Landsat images. The shearing led to the formation of the WYSZ and consequent F2 shear zone-related folds, as well as other unmappable shear zones in the deformed rocks. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during D2 transpression and occupied space created during thrust propagation. D1 and D2 structures are locally overprinted by mesoscopic- to macroscopic-scale D3 structures (F3 folds, and L3 crenulation lineations and

  13. Using the ERT method in tectonically active areas: hints from Southern Apennine (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giocoli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT method has been used to study two tectonically active areas of southern Apennine (Caggiano Faults and Ufita Basin. The main aim of this job was to study the structural setting of the investigated areas, i.e. the geometry of the basins at depth, the location of active faults at surface, and their geometrical characterization. The comparison between ERT and trench/drilling data allowed us to evaluate the efficacy of the ERT method in studying active faults and the structural setting of seismogenic areas.

    In the Timpa del Vento intermontane basin, high resolution ERT across the Caggiano Fault scarps, with different arrays, electrode spacing (from 1 to 10 m and penetration depth (from about 5 to 40 m was carried out. The obtained resistivity models allowed us to locate the fault planes along the hillslope and to gather information at depth, as later confirmed by paleoseismological trenches excavated across the fault trace.

    In the Ufita River Valley a 3560-m-long ERT was carried out across the basin, joining 11 roll-along multi-channel acquisition system with an electrode spacing of 20 m and reaching an investigation depth of about 170 m. The ERT allowed us to reconstruct the geometry and thickness of the Quaternary deposits filling the Ufita Valley. Our reconstruction of the depositional setting is in agreement with an interpretative geological section based on borehole data.

  14. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  15. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  16. Mineralogical study of uraniferous graphitic ore from Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D J; Nam, S K [Korean Inst. of Energy and Resources, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1981-11-01

    Uranium minerals of torbernite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite and autunite have been identified from the uraniferous ores in graphitic beds of Ogcheon Group in Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area. Polarizing and ore microscopic studies, and chemical and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out on the uraniferous graphite and associated materials. Main component minerals of uraniferous samples are graphite and quartz. Minor minerals are calcite, muscovite, sericite, andalusite, barite, kaolinite, hyaline opal, uranium minerals, sulfides such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, zincblende, and pyrrhotite, limonite, zeolite minerals such as laumontite and heulandite. Metatyuyamunite, torbernite, metatorbernite and autunite generally occur together with secondary minerals such as kaolinite, hyaline opal, calcite and limonite. They were found along the minor fissures or on the surface. Secondary uranium minerals described above were formed by supergenetic origin from primary uranium mineral. Uraniferous phosphatic nodule from Deogpyeong area are mainly composed of graphite and fluorapatite. And minor minerals are barite, quartz, muscovite and pyrite. Autoradiograph from uraniferous nodule shows that uranium enrichment in outer part of nodules is much higher than in inner part. This feature coincides with chemical analyses data of this uraniferous nodule.

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  18. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  19. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenna, V; Piscitelli, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito, PZ (Italy). Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale; Patella, D [Naples Univ. Federico II, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

    2000-04-01

    The time and space anomalous behaviour of the self-potential (SP) field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines (Italy) in the period June 1992-November 1994 are discussed. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  20. Tomographic analysis of self-potential data in a seismic area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The time and space anomalous behaviour of the Self-Potential (SP field recorded in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, Italy, is discussed. The SP data were collected in the period June 1992-November 1994 along a profile located north of the town of Potenza in the Basilicata region, Italy. The profile is perpendicular to an active fault system, where a W-E directed strike-slip structure has been identified from recent earthquakes. The SP data are modelled using a new tomographic method based on the search for similarities between the observed SP sequence and the surface signature of the electric field due to a scanning point source with unitary positive charge. The point scanner is ideally moved in a vertical cross-section through the profile and a regular 2D matrix of charge occurrence probability values is thus obtained. These values are used to image the state of electric polarization in the subsoil, compatible with the observed SP surface pattern. A selection of 2D tomographies across the profile is then discussed in order to outline the SP source geometry and dynamics within the faulted structure. Finally, the time pattern of the SP polarization state is compared with the local seismicity in the frame of the rock dilatancy-fluid diffusion theory. This comparison allows us to exclude a direct relationship of the SP time behaviour with the seismic sequences which occurred in the area during the SP monitoring period.

  1. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  2. Capture Zone Analyses of Two Airlift Recirculation Wells in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a series of capture zone analyses performed to access the expected overall performance of two (of the twelve) vertical airlift recirculation wells (ARWs) (specifically, SSR-011 and SRR-012) located in the Southern Sector of A/M Area

  3. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, L.I.; van der Meulen, M.D.; Maes, T.; Bekaert, K.; Paul-Pont, I.; Frère, L.; Robbens, J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North

  4. Chaparral in southern and central coastal California in the mid-1990s: area, ownership, condition, and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Charles L. Bolsinger; Debby Beardsley

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of chaparral-dominated lands in southern California conducted during the mid-1990s and provides a review of contemporary literature on the ecological dynamics of chaparral vegetation with emphases on stand development, species composition, and the role of fire. Detailed tables provide estimates of chaparral area by owner, type, size...

  5. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  6. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical Resistivity Models in Geological Formations in the Southern Area of the East of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop electrical resistivity models in geological formations of greater interest for geological engineering in the southern area of the East of Cuba. A procedure for the generalization of the geo-electrical database was prepared to generate the referred geo-electrical models. A total of 38 works with 895 vertical electrical surveys, of which 317 (35.4% located near (parametrical drills. Three models for the Paso Real formation and one for the Capdevila, the most distributed in the region under investigation were defined. The surface quartz sands from the municipality of Sandino were identified to have higher electrical resistivity averages (1241 Ω•m, while they do not exceed 86 Ω•m in the lower horizons to resolve basic tasks of the geological engineering investigations. The assessment of the cover clayey sandy soils was satisfactory in both geological formations while the determination of the water table depth was unfavorable. The remaining tasks varied between relatively favorable to unfavorable according to the geological formations.

  8. Isotope studies of a thick unsaturated zone in a semi-arid area of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, M.J.; Verhagen, B.Th.

    2001-01-01

    Unsaturated zone profiles ranging in depth from 8 m to 22 m were obtained by hand augering an aeolian sand cover in the southern reaches of the semi-arid Kalahari thirstland. Moisture contents were rather low (<3 wt.%); in situ moisture chloride concentrations, measured by selective ion electrode following elutriation, are generally <500 ppm. Deuterium in the moisture was measured mass spectrometrically by direct quantitative conversion to hydrogen on zinc metal of moist soil samples. A novel technique of direct equilibration was developed for oxygen-18 analysis. Neither a thermonuclear tritium peak nor a stable isotope evaporation inversion near the surface could be observed in any of the profiles. Remarkable differences both laterally and vertically are observed in most parameters measured between profiles taken a few tens of metres apart. At greater depths, these differences become less pronounced. Recharge estimates based on chloride differ markedly from those obtained from tritium. Although the stable isotope values of the underlying saturated zone are similar to moisture in the deeper sections of the unsaturated zone profiles, the markedly lower chloride concentrations point towards preferential or bypass flow as an important mechanism of ground water recharge in the area. This can be regarded as a benchmark site on account of the wealth of unsaturated zone data as well as the detailed and ongoing rainfall record. (author)

  9. Characterization on mosaic glass found at Phu Khao Thong, southern area of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Dhanmanonda, W; Tancharakorn, S; Tanthanuch, W; Kamwanna, T; Thongleurm, C; Dararutana, P

    2013-01-01

    Glasses in forms of ornament and decorative objects have been found in Thailand for several hundred years. The mosaic glass used in this work was only one piece that excavated at Phu Khao thong archaeological site in Ranong Province, southern area of Thailand. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF) based on synchrotron radiation was firstly carried out to analyze its elemental composition and distribution. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and (PIXE) were also used to characterize the composition. The main composition of this mosaic glass sample found in Thailand was a lead-based silicate glass. The colorations were affected from transition metals, especially iron, copper and manganese. It was shown that although it look-liked the same, but the main composition was differ to that of Persia and South Asia, especially the lead content. However, it demonstrated the long distance trade or exchange network of the ancient time.

  10. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  11. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  12. Environmental reconstructions of Eemian Stage interglacial marine records in the Lower Vistula area, southern Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karen Luise; Jiang, Hui; Gibbard, Philip L

    2012-01-01

    is established on the basis of correlation with the annually laminated Bispingen sequence. Diatoms, foraminifera and ostracods are used as marine environmental proxies at both sites. An indication of marine conditions as early as pollen zone E1 or E2 at Licze and close to the E2–E3 boundary at Obrzynowo reflects......A multiproxy study of Eemian Stage sediments in two core records, Licze and Obrzynowo, in the Gulf of Gdańsk area of northern Poland, shows that the brackish-marine interglacial conditions were determined partly by regional environmental changes and partly by local changes of the river outflow from...... the Vistula into the southern Baltic Sea. Correlation of the sediments with the Eemian is based on pollen analysis of the Obrzynowo record, showing the presence of regional pollen zones (RPAZ) E2–E6, combined with previously published pollen analyses from Licze (RPAZ E1–E7). A floating chronology...

  13. Southern Adriatic sea as a potential area for CO2 geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpi, V.; Forlin, F.; Donda, F.; Civile, D.; Facchin, L.; Sauli, L.; Merson, B.; Sinza-Mendieta, K.; Shams, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO 2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7) European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO 2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO 2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene). In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick cap-rock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO 2 emitter) where a pilot plant for CO 2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  14. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  15. Norfolk and southern eastville 10 x 20 NTMS areas Virginia and North Carolina. Data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Norfolk 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle and the southern one-half of the Eastville 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 840 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1008 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Uranium concentrations in the sediments that were above detection limits ranged from 0.60 to 40.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.61. A large area of high uranium concentrations occurs in the southwestern part of the Norfolk quadrangle. High concentrations of thorium and hafnium in the same area indicate that the uranium is associated with the resistate minerals monazite and zircon

  16. Mental health problems among adults in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Frits; Chakkraband, M L Somchai; Thienkrua, Warunee; Pengjuntr, Wachira; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Tantipiwatanaskul, Prawate; Mock, Philip A; Ekassawin, Suparat; Varangrat, Anchalee; Gotway, Carol; Sabin, Miriam; Tappero, Jordan W

    2006-08-02

    On December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake occurred off the northwestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The tsunami that followed severely affected all 6 southwestern provinces of Thailand, where 5395 individuals died, 2991 were unaccounted for, and 8457 were injured. To assess the prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression among individuals residing in areas affected by the tsunami in southern Thailand as part of a public health emergency response and rapid assessment. A multistage, cluster, population-based mental health survey was conducted from February 15 to 22, 2005, of random samples of displaced (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga province (n = 322) and nondisplaced persons in the provinces of Krabi and Phuket (n = 368). Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire on handheld computers. A surveillance follow-up survey of the displaced persons (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons (n = 322) in Phang Na was conducted in September 2005. Medical Outcomes Study-36 Short-Form Health Survey SF-36 to assess self-perceived general health, bodily pain, and social and emotional functioning; the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire to assess tsunami-specific traumatic events; and the Hopkins Checklist-25 to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participation rates for displaced and nondisplaced persons in the rapid assessment survey were 69% and 58%, respectively. Symptoms of PTSD were reported by 12% of displaced and 7% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 3% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 37% of displaced and 30% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 22% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Symptoms of depression were reported by 30% of displaced and 21% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 10% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. In multivariate analysis, loss of livelihood was independently and significantly

  17. Organic matter in constructed soils from a coal mining area in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Deborah P.; Avila, Leticia G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Inst. de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Knicker, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Inda, Alberto V. Jr.; Giasson, Elvio; Bissani, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Dept. de Ciencia do Solo, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    In southern Brazil, the landscape restoration after the exhaustion of open cast coal mines involves the filling of mine cavities with both pedogenic and geological material. The objective of this work was to determine the content and chemical composition of the organic matter of two constructed soils (24 years and 2 years) in a coal mining area in southern Brazil. An undisturbed Acrisol and geological material from three sites were also sampled. Samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen contents by dry combustion and for chemical composition of the organic matter by {sup 13} C NMR CPMAS and FTIR spectroscopies. Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, the samples were treated with 10% (m/m) hydrofluoric acid solution, which lead to a carbon enrichment in the sample of 2-46 times. The three coal samples were mainly composed of aromatic C (46-63%) and alkyl C (10-28%), and differed largely in the carbon content (18-312 g kg{sup -1}). The C/N ratio of 27 and the proportions of O-alkyl C (26%) and aromatic C (29%) found in the native soil (18 g C kg{sup -1} soil) suggest a coal contamination of the native site. The proportions of O/N-alkyl C (15-17%), alkyl C (22-23%) and aromatic C (39-41%) observed in the organic matter of the A1 horizon of the two constructed soils were intermediate to those of the coal samples and the native soil. In the younger constructed soil the proportion of O/N-alkyl diminished and that of aromatic C increased with depth, whereas in the older constructed soil this trend was less evident. Our results show that, during the 24 years after site reconstruction, the input of vegetation residues diluted the proportion of recalcitrant organic matter. The aromaticity index calculated from the FTIR data (I{sub 1620} /I{sub 2920}) correlated positively with the aryl C/alkyl C ratio, obtained from the NMR data, evidencing the applicability of the FTIR index for geological and coal contaminated samples. (Author)

  18. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices on Yellow fever in South Omo area, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Legesse

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (Yf outbreak was recently reported in South Omo of Southern Ethiopia. This area was also highly affected by Yf outbreak in the 1960s. However, there is no reliable information on the level of community knowledge attitudes and practices about the disease in the area. The objective of the current study was to assess level of community knowledge, attitudes and practices about Yf.Between March and May 2017, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in two districts of the South Omo area. During the survey, 612 randomly selected adults were interviewed about Yf using structured questionnaire.Out of the 612 study participants, 508 (83.0% reported that they heard about Yf which is locally known as "a disease that causes vomiting blood". Most (90.4% of the study participants also said that Yf is different from malaria. Two hundred thirteen (41.9% participants said that Yf can be transmitted from a patient to another person, while only 80 (37.6% mentioned that the disease is transmitted through mosquitoes bite. Out of 333 (65.7% study participants who believed that Yf is a preventable disease, 280 (84.1% mentioned vaccine as a preventive method. The majority believed that the disease is a killer (97.2% and a newly emerging (69.4%. Among the total of 612 study participants, 221(36.1% were considered as having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Having educational level above 7th grade (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.39, 7.57, p = 0.006 and being resident of Bena-Tsemay district (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.78, P = 0.014 were significantly associated with having a high level of overall knowledge of Yf. Agro-pastoralism as an occupation compared to farming was associated with having a low level of overall knowledge of Yf (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.33, 0.79, P = 0.003.The findings indicate that most of the study community members had a low level of overall knowledge of Yf, especially about its cause, mode of transmission and preventive

  19. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological biogeography of southern ocean islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chown, S.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Gaston, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that southern ocean islands are anomalous because past glacial extent and current temperature apparently explain most variance in their species richness. Here, the relationships between physical variables and species richness of vascular plants, insects, land and

  1. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

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    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  2. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

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    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  3. Geology of the Nevada Test Site and nearby areas, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) lies in the southern part of the Great Basin Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. This report addresses the geological setting of the NTS in the context of the current waste isolation policy. The intent is to provide a synthesis of geological conditions at the NTS and nearby areas so that a general background of information is available for assessing the possible role of geology in providing protections for humans from buried radioactive wastes. The NTS is characterized by alluvium-filled, topgraphically closed valleys surrounded by ranges composed of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Tertiary volcanic tuffs and lavas. The Paleozoic rocks are a miogeosynclinal sequence of about 13,000 ft of pre-Cambrian to Cambrian clastic deposits (predominantly quartzites) overlain by about 14,000 ft of Cambrian through Devonian carbonates, 8000 ft of Mississippian argillites and quartzites, and 3000 ft of Pennsylvanian to Permian limestones. Tertiary volcanic rocks are predominatly silicic composition and were extruded from numerous eruptive centers during Miocene and Pliocene epochs. Within eruptive caldera depressions, volcanic deposits accumulated to perhaps 10,000 ft in total thickness, thinning to extinction outward from the calderas. Extrusion of minor amounts of basalts accompanied Pliocene and Pleistocene filling of structural basins with detritus from the ranges. Regional compressional and extensional structures as well as local volcanic structures occur in the NTS region. Normal extensional faulting coincided with the outbreak of volcanism during the Miocene and was superimposed on existing Mesozoic structures. Continued extensional deformation may be occurring at the present time

  4. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  5. A stratigraphic model to support remediation of groundwater contamination in the southern San Francisco Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinpress, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Some early regional studies in the southern San Francisco Bay Area applied the term 'older bay mud' to Wisconsin and older deposits thought to be estuarine in origin. This outdated interpretation has apparently contributed to an expectation of laterally-continuous aquifers and aquitards. In fact, heterogeneous alluvial deposits often create complex hydrogeologic settings that defy simple remedial approaches. A more useful stratigraphic model provides a foundation for conducting site investigations and assessing the feasibility of remediation. A synthesis of recent regional studies and drilling results at one site on the southwest margin of the Bay indicate that the upper quaternary stratigraphy consists of four primary units in the upper 200 feet of sediments (oldest to youngest): (1) Illinoian glacial-age alluvium (an important groundwater source); (2) Sangamon interglacial-age deposits, which include fine-grained alluvial deposits and estuarine deposits equivalent to the Yerba Buena Mud (a regional confining layer); (3) Wisconsin glacial-age alluvial fan and floodplain deposits; and (4) Holocene interglacial-age sediments, which include fine-grained alluvial and estuarine deposits equivalent to the 'younger bay mud'. Remedial investigations generally focus on groundwater contamination in the Wisconsin and Holocene alluvial deposits. Detailed drilling results indicate that narrow sand and gravel channels occur in anastomosing patterns within a Wisconsin to Holocene floodplain sequence dominated by interchannel silts and clays. The identification of these small-scale high-permeability conduits is critical to understanding and predicting contaminant transport on a local scale. Discontinuous site-specific aquitards do not provide competent separation where stacked channels occur and the correlation of aquitards over even small distance is often tenuous at best

  6. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  7. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  8. Onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil Point area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Stanley, Richard G.; Guy R. Cochrane, Guy R.

    2011-01-01

    Geologic maps that span the shoreline and include both onshore and offshore areas are potentially valuable tools that can lead to a more in depth understanding of coastal environments. Such maps can contribute to the understanding of shoreline change, geologic hazards, both offshore and along-shore sediment and pollutant transport. They are also useful in assessing geologic and biologic resources. Several intermediate-scale (1:100,000) geologic maps that include both onshore and offshore areas (herein called onshore-offshore geologic maps) have been produced of areas along the California coast (see Saucedo and others, 2003; Kennedy and others, 2007; Kennedy and Tan, 2008), but few large-scale (1:24,000) maps have been produced that can address local coastal issues. A cooperative project between Federal and State agencies and universities has produced an onshore-offshore geologic map at 1:24,000 scale of the Coal Oil Point area and part of the Santa Barbara Channel, southern California (fig. 1). As part of the project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey (CGS) hosted a workshop (May 2nd and 3rd, 2007) for producers and users of coastal map products (see list of participants) to develop a consensus on the content and format of onshore-offshore geologic maps (and accompanying GIS files) so that they have relevance for coastal-zone management. The USGS and CGS are working to develop coastal maps that combine geospatial information from offshore and onshore and serve as an important tool for addressing a broad range of coastal-zone management issues. The workshop was divided into sessions for presentations and discussion of bathymetry and topography, geology, and habitat products and needs of end users. During the workshop, participants reviewed existing maps and discussed their merits and shortcomings. This report addresses a number of items discussed in the workshop and details the onshore and offshore geologic map of the Coal Oil

  9. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin

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    Akogbéto Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin, a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood (95%CI 504-680. Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per μL. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9. Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9 infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4 and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63% conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR

  10. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  11. Neotectonic movement and its relation to uranium metallogenesis in central-southern Songliao basin and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Jisheng; Zhang Yongbao; Chen Weiyi

    2004-01-01

    The central-southern Songliao basin and its adjacent area ar located in the south of Inner Mongolian-Northeastern China neotectonic region of the circum-pacific neotectonic domain. Since Late Tertiary the neotectonic movement in the region has been being more intense, and the most obvious feature of the neotectonic movement was characterized by large-amplitude block-faulting and strong volcanic activity. The mega-scale basin-and-range tectonics and other micro-geomorphology created favourable tectonic and geomorphologic conditions for the ore-formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Neotectonic movement played both positive and negative roles in uranium ore-formation. Neotectonics are well developed at the eastern and the southern margins of the Songliao basin, and these areas are favourable for locating in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits

  12. Lithofacies characterization related to the Raigon Formation located in the southern area of the San Jose Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Morales, E.; Cazaux, S.; Aubet, N.; Loureiro, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the different lithofacies characterization related to the Raigon Formation, located in the southern area of the San Jose Department, is exposed supported by surface and subsurface data. Six stratigraphical sections were constructed considering lithological borehole descriptions to the aim of making a contribution on the spatial distribution, thickness, disposition, lithofaciological variations of this Formation and its stratigraphical relationships with other units [es

  13. Pan-African deformations in the basement of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihunie, Tadesse

    2002-03-01

    Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt affinity along N-S-trending sheared thrust contacts. Structural data suggest that the Negele basement had evolved through three phases of deformation. During D1 (folding) deformation, north-south upright and inclined folds with north-trending axes were developed. East and west-verging thrusts, right-lateral shearing along the north-oriented Kenticha and Bulbul thrust contacts and related structural elements were developed during D2 (thrusting) deformation. The pervasive D1 event is interpreted to have occurred at 620-610 Ma and the D2 event ended prior to 554 Ma. Right-lateral strike-slips along thrust contacts are interpreted to have been initiated during late D2. During D3, left-lateral strike-slip along the Wadera Shear Zone and respective strike-slip movements along conjugate set of shear zones were developed in the Alghe terrane, and are interpreted to have occurred later than 557 Ma. The structural data suggest that eastward thrusting of the Kenticha and westward tectonic transport of the Bulbul sequences over the Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt, during D2, were accompanied by right-lateral strike-slip displacements along thrust contacts. Right-lateral strike-slip movements along the Kenticha thrust contact, further suggest northward movement of the Kenticha sequence during the Pan-African orogeny in the Neoproterozoic. Left-lateral strike-slip along the orogen-parallel NNE-SSW Wadera Shear Zone and strike-slip movements along a conjugate set of shear zones completed final terrane

  14. Movements and foraging areas of naove, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B.; Fedak, M.; Burton, H.R.; Engelhard, G.H.; Reijnders, P.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L. ) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of survivingtheir first year. But in order to understand what

  15. Movements and foraging areas of naive, recently weaned southern elephant seal pups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McConnell, B; Fedak, M; Burton, HR; Engelhard, GH; Reijnders, PJH

    1. Female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) expend variable, often large, amounts of their stored body resources on their pups during lactation. There is some evidence that pups with higher weaning masses have a better chance of surviving their first year. But in order to understand what

  16. Resistivity Study of Shallow Aquifers in theParts of Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistivity study by vertical electrical sounding (VES employing the Schlumberger electrode configuration has been used to delineate shallow aquifers in some villages in Southern Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. The information realized from the resistivity data and nearby logged boreholes show that the depths penetrated by currents were all sandy formations with various thicknesses. However, the main aquifers comprise within the maximum current penetration, very coarse – grained (gravelly sand and fine sand with resistivity in the ranges of 4680-30700 Ωm and 207-2530 Ωm and thickness in the ranges of 43-63 m and 18-40 m respectively. The aquifers with minor hydraulic gradient are separated by thin beds of clay according to lithology logs and these beds were masked in the sounding data due to the principle of suppression.

  17. Agricultural aspects of the radiation situation in the areas contaminated by the southern Urals and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Being different in nature, the accidents in the Southern Urals and at Chernobyl gave rise to radiation situations with own specific features, affecting, in particular, agricultural activities in the contaminated area. The main specific features of the Chernobyl accident were the vast scale of contamination, the large contamination gradients even at considerable distances from the accident site, the heterogeneity of radioactive fallout distribution at micro-level, the inconsistent nature of changes in soil contamination levels, and separation of the radionuclides from the fallout. In spite of the fundamental differences in the chemical character of the types of radioactive fallout, the radionuclides of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were in both cases readily available for assimilation by plant root systems. In both the Southern Urals and the Ukraine the coefficients of radionuclide build-up in soils with identical agrochemical properties fall within the observation accuracy limits. As a result of the Chernobyl accident, light soils of soddy-podzolic composition were subjected to the greatest contamination, their radionuclide build-up coefficients being 8-15 times higher than those of the chernozem soils in the Southern Urals. An abnormally high level of radiocaesium accumulation was observed in meadow grasses, which explains the leading role of milk contamination in the radiation situation on private holdings. (author)

  18. Management of agricultural area in preindustrial economies. The case of olive orchards in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Infante Amate

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades it has been developed a specialized literature on the study of particular features of preindustrial agricultures. This paper, in base to such research line, analyzes the case of olive orchards in southern Spain, which today represent the largest tree concentration in Europe, right in the previous moment to its great expansion (mid 18th Century. We seek to understand the geography of its spreading, its low expansion before industrialization and the why only few territories on Andalusia appeared like premature focus of specialization.

  19. Mercury in Some Lakes of Gold Mining Area of the Southern Ural

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    Tatsy Y. G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mercury content in bottom sediments of Kalkan Lake, of the Uchala district, the Southern Ural. It was assumed that high concentrations of mercury in fish due to pollution of bottom sediments as a result of amalgamation at developing of gold placers. Detailed study of distribution of different elements in sediments show close association Hg with the chalcophylic elements, whose anomalies do not have technogenic nature. Association of mercury with the elements-companions of gold placers is evidence of basic contribution of natural mercury to its anomalous accumulation in sediments and fish. This is result of steady long-term natural mercury pollution.

  20. Methods to determine the impact of rainfall on fuels and burned area in southern African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available /Aux fins d'examen seulement Southern African re regimes as revealed by remote sensing S. Archibald1;2;6, R.J. Scholes1;2, D.P. Roy3, G.Roberts4, L. Boschetti5 April 9, 2010 1CSIR, Ecosystems Processes and Dynamics, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South... densities have di erent e ects on the number of res per km2 and360 14 For Review Purposes Only/Aux fins d'examen seulement on the size of individual res. The number of ignitions increases with human population361 density, (Figure 7A) but there is a...

  1. Radiological Conditions in Selected Areas of Southern Iraq with Residues of Depleted Uranium. Report by an International Group of Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.

  2. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  3. Floristic-functional variation of tree component along an altitudinal gradient in araucaria forest areas, in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Vanessa F; Higuchi, Pedro; Silva, Ana Carolina DA; Silva, Mariele A F DA; Nunes, Amanda S; Loebens, Rodineli; Souza, Karine DE; Ferrari, Jheniffer; Lima, Carla L; Kilca, Ricardo V

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional variations of tree component of Araucaria Forest (AF) areas located along an altitudinal gradient (700, 900 and 1,600 m asl), in the southern region of Brazil. The functional traits determined were leaf area, specific leaf area, wood density, maximum potential height and dispersal syndromes and deciduousness. The data were analyzed through a functional and taxonomic dissimilarity dendrograms, community-weighted mean trait values, parametric and nonparametric tests, and Principal Component Analysis. The largest floristic-structural similarity was observed between the lower altitude areas (700 and 900 m asl), whose Bray-Curtis distance was 0.63. The area at 700 m asl was characterized by a predominance of deciduous and semi-deciduous species, with a high number of self- and wind-dispersed species, whereas the area at 1,600 m asl exhibited a predominance of animal-dispersed and evergreen species. It was also observed that there were significant variations for leaf traits, basic wood density and maximum potential height. Over all altitudinal gradient, the ordinations indicated that there was no evidence of functional differentiation among dispersal and deciduousness groups. In conclusion, the evaluated Araucaria Forest areas presented high floristic-functional variation of the tree component along the altitudinal gradient.

  4. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  5. Priority areas for the formation of innovation infrastructure of the Southern Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main trends and particular conditions existing innovation infrastructure in the regions of the Southern Federal District, promotes the commercialization of scientific and educational activities of the sector. It was found that the formation of an effective innovation infrastructure of the region depends on its specificity. In this regard, for the formulation of effective formulas for the construction of the innovation sector of regional economies need to analyze the existing institutions and identify the main points of growth of individual regions. However, in regions concentrated in one federal district it is possible to identify common trends. So the author of the study based on the analysis of these trends come to the conclusion that for all regions is the general low level of development of financial institutions that promote innovation, as well as the weak link between the scientific and educational sphere and the real economy. Summing up the results of the analysis of formation of regional infrastructure, we can conclude that it is currently in the Southern Federal District, Volgograd Region in particular observed the completion of the institutional and infrastructural conditions for the development of innovation. Meanwhile, the existing elements of the innovation infrastructure in the regions characterized by fragmentation and a lack of integration ties, ensuring the implementation of the life cycle of innovation. Particularly acute is the problem of the development of infrastructure of venture financing in science and technology, providing an effective mechanism for technology transfer. To the list of priorities should include the creation of a system of information support of innovation. In order to develop recommendations to strengthen the orientation of research capacity to the needs of the regional economy is necessary to analyze the efficiency of the sector generating knowledge in terms of the

  6. Investigating the time-correlation properties in self-potential signals recorded in a seismic area of Irpinia, southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that many natural phenomena are characterized by temporal fluctuations with long-range power-law correlations, suggesting a fractal geometry of the underlying dynamical system. The presence of power-law correlations are detected in four time series of self-potential signals, measured in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), a method that permits the detection of long-range correlations in nonstationary time series. Results show scaling behaviour for all the signals recorded, indicating the presence of fractal features expressing a long-term correlation quantified by the numerical value of the scaling exponents. Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the earthquakes occurred in the area investigated and the relative maxima/minima of the mean and the standard deviation of the scaling exponents. Furthermore, the normalized average and standard deviation curves for all the signals tend to converge in correspondence with an earthquake

  7. Seasonal variability of soil CO2 flux and its carbon isotope composition in Krakow urban area, Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasek, Alina; Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Smula, Ewa; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2014-06-01

    As urban atmosphere is depleted of (13)CO2, its imprint should be detectable in the local vegetation and therefore in its CO2 respiratory emissions. This work was aimed at characterising strength and isotope signature of CO2 fluxes from soil in urban areas with varying distances from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The soil CO2 flux and its δ(13)C isotope signature were measured using a chamber method on a monthly basis from July 2009 to May 2012 within the metropolitan area of Krakow, Southern Poland, at two locations representing different levels of anthropogenic influence: a lawn adjacent to a busy street (A) and an urban meadow (B). The small-scale spatial variability of the soil CO2 flux was also investigated at site B. Site B revealed significantly higher summer CO2 fluxes (by approximately 46 %) than site A, but no significant differences were found between their δ(13)CO2 signatures.

  8. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of

  9. Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Kihl, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Dust samples collected annually for 5 years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide the first regional source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition relative to climate and to type and lithology of dust source. The average silt and clay flux (rate of deposition) in southern Nevada and southeastern California ranges from 4.3 to 15.7 g/m2/yr, but in southwestern California the average silt and clay flux is as high as 30 g/m2/yr. The climatic factors that affect dust flux interact with each other and with the factors of source type (playas versus alluvium), source lithology, geographic area, and human disturbance. Average dust flux increases with mean annual temperature but is not correlated to decreases in mean annual precipitation because the regional winds bring dust to relatively wet areas. In contrast, annual dust flux mostly reflects changes in annual precipitation (relative drought) rather than temperature. Although playa and alluvial sources produce about the same amount of dust per unit area, the total volume of dust from the more extensive alluvial sources is much larger. In addition, playa and alluvial sources respond differently to annual changes in precipitation. Most playas produce dust that is richer in soluble salts and carbonate than that from alluvial sources (except carbonate-rich alluvium). Gypsum dust may be produced by the interaction of carbonate dust and anthropogenic or marine sulfates. The dust flux in an arid urbanizing area may be as much as twice that before disturbance but decreases when construction stops. The mineralogic and major-oxide composition of the dust samples indicates that sand and some silt is locally derived and deposited, whereas clay and some silt from different sources can be far-traveled. Dust deposited in the Transverse Ranges of California by the Santa Ana winds appears to be mainly derived from sources to the north and east.

  10. Regional hydrology of the Blanding-Durango area, southern Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Thordarson, W.; Oatfield, W.J.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Rueger, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    Principal findings of this study that are pertinent to an assessment of suitability of the hydrogeologic systems to store and contain radioactive waste in salt anticlines of adjacent areas are: water in the upper ground-water flow system discharges to the San Juan River - a major tributary of the Colorado River. Discharge of water from the upper aquifer system to streambed channels of the San Juan River and its tributaries during low-flow periods primarily is through evapotranspiration from areas on flood plains and maintenance of streamflow; the lower ground-water system does not have known recharge or discharge areas within the study area; subsurface inflow to this system comes from recharge areas located north and northeast of the study area; the upper and lower ground-water systems are separated regionally by thick salt deposits in the Blanding-Durango study area of the Paradox basin; potential exists in mountainous areas for downward leakage between the upper and lower ground-water systems, where salt deposits are thin, absent, or faulted; no brines were found in this study area with outflow to the biosphere; water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh. Water in the lower ground-water system generally is brackish or saline; and ground-water flow disruptions by contiguous faults probably are common in the upper ground-water system. These disruptions of flow are not apparent in the lower ground-water system, perhaps because available hydrologic data for the lower ground-water system are scarce. The above major findings do not preclude the potential for waste storage in salt; however, they do not allow the prediction of detailed ground-water flow rates and directions through this area. 55 references, 13 figures, 15 tables

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  12. Evolution and hydrocarbon potential of offshore Pinar Del Rio area, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Fernandez-Carmona, J.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.

    1996-09-01

    The evolution of Southeast Gulf of Mexico comprises three main periods: pre-orogenic, syn-orogenic and post-orogenic. During pre-orogenic time, from Lower Jurassic to Campanian, the stages are the rift of Pangaea and the thermal subsidence (or drift). In drift stage two domains interacted in the space; the carbonate platforms (Bahamas, Yucatan, Organos and others), and the deepwater basins. These fluctuations were dictated by the differential subsidence and horizontal displacements of basement blocks as well as by the eustatic movements of the ocean. The Organos platform, for example, was entirely drowned since Upper Jurassic and the sedimentation continued in deepwater environment. The collision between Great Antilles Volcanic Arc and the continental margins since Upper Cretaceous modeled the Cuban orogen. Here, the southern facies thrusted over the northern section with simultaneous strike-slip movements. The interaction suddenly ceased in Eocene. The source rock levels are considerably more frequent in the deepwater domain than in the platforms. The Lower and Upper Jurassic as well as Lower and Middle Cretaceous horizons contain very high levels of organic matter. The offshore seismic shows the transition from the thrusted belt to the foreland basin with a typical triangle zone configuration. Reservoirs are expected in the Cretaceous section covered by seals conformed by early foreland basin sediments of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene age. Foothill structures has a great potential for hydrocarbon exploration.

  13. Geophysical methods for identification of active faults between the Sannio-Matese and Irpinia areas of the Southern Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Apennines is one of the Italian most active areas from a geodynamic point of view since it is characterized by occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. Most seismicity of the area is concentrated along the chain, affecting mainly the Irpinia and Sannio-Matese areas. The seismogenetic sources responsible for the destructive events of 1456, 1688, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1930, 1962 and 1980 (Io = X-XI MCS) occurred mostly on NW-SE faults, and the relative hypocenters are concentrated within the upper 20 km of the crust. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW-SE trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW trending structures. The available focal mechanisms of the largest events show normal solutions consistent with NE-SW extension of the chain. After the 1980 Irpinia large earthquake, the release of seismic energy in the Southern Apennines has been characterized by occurrence of moderate energy sequences of main shock-aftershocks type and swarm-type activity with low magnitude sequences. Low-magnitude (Md<5) historical and recent earthquakes, generally clustered in swarms, have commonly occurred along the NE-SW faults. This paper deals with integrated analysis of geological and geophysical data in GIS environment to identify surface, buried and hidden active faults and to characterize their geometry. In particular we have analyzed structural data, earthquake space distribution and gravimetric data. The main results of the combined analysis indicate good correlation between seismicity and Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) lineaments from gravity data. Furthermore 2D seismic hypocentral locations together with high-resolution analysis of gravity anomalies have been correlated to estimate the fault systems parameters (strike, dip direction and dip angle) through the application of the DEXP method (Depth from Extreme Points).

  14. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  15. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed.

  17. Economic Risk Evaluation in Urban Flooding and Instability-Prone Areas: The Case Study of San Giovanni Rotondo (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pellicani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating economic losses caused on buildings and other civil engineering works due to flooding events is often a difficult task. The accuracy of the estimate is affected by the availability of detailed data regarding the return period of the flooding event, vulnerability of exposed assets, and type of economy run in the affected area. This paper aims to provide a quantitative methodology for the assessment of economic losses associated with flood scenarios. The proposed methodology was performed for an urban area in Southern Italy prone to hydrogeological instabilities. At first, the main physical characteristics of the area such as rainfall, land use, permeability, roughness, and slopes of the area under investigation were estimated in order to obtain input for flooding simulations. Afterwards, the analysis focused on the spatial variability incidence of the rainfall parameters in flood events. The hydraulic modeling provided different flood hazard scenarios. The risk curve obtained by plotting economic consequences vs. the return period for each hazard scenario can be a useful tool for local authorities to identify adequate risk mitigation measures and therefore prioritize the economic resources necessary for the implementation of such mitigation measures.

  18. Decreased DOC concentrations in soil water in forested areas in southern Sweden during 1987-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Zetterberg, Therese

    2011-04-15

    During the last two decades, there is a common trend of increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and lakes in Europe, Canada and the US. Different processes have been proposed to explain this trend and recently a unifying hypothesis was presented, concluding that declining sulphur deposition and recovery from acidification, is the single most important factor for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters. If this recovery hypothesis is correct, the soil water DOC concentrations should increase as well. However, long-term soil water data from Sweden and Norway indicate that there are either decreasing or indifferent DOC concentrations, while positive DOC trends have been found in the Czech Republic. Based on the soil water data from two Swedish integrated monitoring sites and geochemical modelling, it has been shown that depending on changes in pH, ionic strength and soil Al pools, the DOC solubility might be positive, negative or indifferent. In this study, we test the acidification recovery hypothesis on long-term soil water data (25 and 50cm soil depth) from 68 forest covered sites in southern Sweden, showing clear signs of recovery from acidification. The main aim was to identify potential drivers for the DOC solubility in soil solution by comparing trends in DOC concentrations with observed changes in pH, ionic strength and concentrations of Al(n+). As in earlier Swedish and Norwegian studies, the DOC concentrations in soil water decreased or showed no trend. The generally small increases in pH (median <0.3 pH units) during the investigation period seem to be counterbalanced by the reduced ionic strength and diminished Al concentrations, increasing the organic matter coagulation. Hence, opposite to the conclusion for surface waters, the solubility of organic matter seems to decrease in uphill soils, as a result of the acidification recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges to social capacity building in flood-affected areas of southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Działek, J.; Biernacki, W.; Bokwa, A.

    2013-10-01

    Various aspects of beliefs, behaviour and expectations of at-risk populations were analysed in four case study localities in southern Poland that were affected by flooding in 1997 and 2001. They represent localities of different sizes and are characterised by different paths of historical development. Two of them are deep-rooted communities with dense, strong family and neighbourhood ties, while the other two experienced an almost total replacement of their population due to decisions taken after World War II and still suffer from less developed social networks. Historical events also resulted in the disruption of local memories of flooding and transmission of knowledge about natural hazards. A questionnaire survey was conducted in late autumn 2006, followed by structured telephone interviews and focus group interviews in spring 2008. The results of the survey and interviews were analysed with reference to the social capacity framework and its five dimensions: knowledge, motivational, network, economic and governance capacities. Network capacities, that is resources of bonding and bridging social capital, were considered a key notion when analysing and interpreting the results. The differences in the local resources and abilities available in each of the localities to prepare a response to natural hazards were revealed. Consequently, challenges faced in the process of building and strengthening social capacity were identified as well as ways to address these challenges. It was concluded that there are general trends and tendencies that need to be considered in risk management strategies, however the different starting points of each case study community calls for different means and approaches, as well as producing somewhat different expected outcomes.

  20. Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1971-01-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass ground-water basin is divided into the Beaumont, Banning, Cabazon, San Timoteo, South Beaumont, Banning Bench, and Singleton storage units. The Beaumont storage unit, centrally located in the agency area, is the largest in volume of the storage units. Estimated long-term average annual precipitation in the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency drainage area is 332,000 acre-feet, and estimated average annual recoverable water is 24,000 acre-feet, less than 10 percent of the total precipitation. Estimated average annual surface outflow is 1,700 acre-feet, and estimated average annual ground-water recharge is 22,000 acre-feet. Projecting tack to probable steady-state conditions, of the 22.000 acre-feet of recharge, 16,003 acre-feet per year became subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley, 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, and 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon. After extensive development, estimated subsurface outflow from the area in 1967 was 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon, and 800 acre-feet into the fault systems south of the Banning storage unit, unwatered during construction of a tunnel. Subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley in 1967 is probably less than 50 percent of the steady-state flow. An anticipated 17,000 .acre-feet of water per year will be imported by 1980. Information developed in this study indicates it is technically feasible to store imported water in the eastern part of the Beaumont storage unit without causing waterlogging in the storage area and without losing any significant quantity of stored water.

  1. Lineament analysis of South Jenein Area (Southern Tunisia using remote sensing data and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochdi Chaabouni

    2012-12-01

    The results will be compared with the surface data in the Mesozoic series of the Tataouine basin and the subsurface data of the northern border of the Palaeozoic Ghadames basin. The fracture measurements and their distribution provided a good opportunity to characterize the petroleum reservoir in this area.

  2. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  3. Quaternary tectonic activity of the Murge area (Apulian foreland -Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tropeano

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of structural, stratigraphical, and sedimentological data and instrumental records of some recent low-energy seismic events in the Murge area allow us to suggest a new seismotectonic picture of this region, generally considered an aseismic and stable sector of the Apulian foreland.

  4. Structure and composition of woody vegetation in two important bird areas in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, P.; Chinoitezvi, E.; Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the status of woody vegetation structure and composition in two Important Bird Areas (IBA) i.e. Manjinji Pan and Save-Runde Junction located in southeastern Zimbabwe. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the woody vegetation structure and composition of the study

  5. Asymptomatic Leishmania Infected Children: A Seroprevalence and Molecular Survey in a Rural Area of Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Layegh Gigloo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic healthy children in a rural area of Fars province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 617 asymptomatic healthy children and serum samples along with buffy coat were separated from the blood. The serum samples were assessed for antibodies against Leishmania infantum by an indirect ELISA and the buffy coats were tested for the presence of L. infantum DNA by molecular method. Of the 617 recruited children, 297 (48.1% were female and 317 (51.4% were male. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 17 (2.8% of the children. From those 17 seropositive cases, 5 (29.4% were male and 12 (70.6% cases were female. Children aged 5–8 years had the highest seroprevalence rate; however, no associations were found between seropositivity to Leishmania and gender or age of the children. Moreover, L. infantum DNA was detected in buffy coat of 8 (1.3% of 617 children. Three of the PCR-positive cases were seropositive whereas 14 of seropositive subjects (82.3% were PCR-negative. Findings of the current study revealed a considerable subclinical leishmanial infection in children in the studied rural area in the south of Iran. Results of the current study could be used for surveillance, prevention, and control of VL in the area.

  6. Changes in the flora of the eastern and southern shore area of lake Piaseczno in the years 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Serafin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the flora composition of the eastern and southern shore area of Lake Piaseczno, with predominantly agricultural and recreational land use in the lake catchment, were examined in the years 2003 and 2010. Multifaceted analysis of the flora was made with regard to its botanical, syntaxonomical, and ecological aspects, the identified species were assigned to different historical-geographical groups and range groups, as well as the flora synanthropisation, anthropophytisation and apophytisation indices were calculated and compared. Both the species number and the species floristic composition of the Lake Piaseczno shore zone changed in seven years. The fact that the value of the synanthropisation index remained at a similar level and a slight increase in the anthropophytisation index values are probably related to the decrease in tourist traffic in this area and the diminishing pressure from extensive agriculture. The results of the flora analysis, in terms of the assignment of species to characteristic ecological groups, confirm the specific habitat conditions in the study area and, above all, significant permeability of the substrate and high soil nutrient availability.

  7. Cancer mortality rates and spillover effects among different areas: A case study in Campania (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Aprile, Maria Carmela; Garofalo, Antonio; Mariani, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed. By using a Spatial Durbin model we verify that cancer mortality rates are related to the environmental characteristics of specific areas with spatial spillover effects. Our results validate the hypothesis that living along the coast by Mt Vesuvius and, to a lesser extent, along the Domitio-Flegreo coast NW of Naples and in more urbanised municipalities, increases the risk of dying of cancer. By contrast, living in less urbanised municipalities, with the presence of natural and historical attractions, has a positive effect on the residents' health, reducing their risk of disease. In both cases significant spillover effects (negative and positive) are found in municipalities close to the areas in question. Despite a number of reasonable limitations, our findings may provide useful information support for policy makers to foster knowledge, awareness and informed participation of citizens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  9. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available on the spatial extent and timing of burning, as clouds may preclude hotspot detection and because the satellite may not overpass when burning occurs (Justice et al. 2002). Algorithms that use multi-temporal satellite data to map the areas affected by the passage... independent reference data from aircraft observations of prescribed fires and wildfires (Kaufman et al. 1998). However, aircraft campaigns are expensive to undertake in a regionally representative manner and are difficult to coordinate with cloud...

  10. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  12. Seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosols in an urban background area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Merico, E.; Dinoi, A.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Contini, D.

    2018-02-01

    Organic (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) are important components of atmospheric aerosol particles, playing a key role in climate system and potentially affecting human health. There is a lack of data reported for Southern Italy and this work aims to fill this gap, focusing the attention on the long-term trends of OC and EC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10, and on atmospheric processes and sources influencing seasonal variability. Measurements were taken at the Environmental-Climate Observatory of Lecce (SE Italy, 40°20‧8″N-18°07‧28″E, 37 m a.s.l.), regional station of the Global Atmosphere Watch program (GAW-WMO). Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between July 2013 and July 2016. In addition, starting in December 2014, simultaneous equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations in PM10 were measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer. A subset of 722 PM samples (361 for each size fraction) was analysed by using a thermo-optical method with a Sunset Laboratory OC/EC analyser, to determine elemental and organic carbon concentrations. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 μg/m3 and 17.5 μg/m3. The average OC and EC concentrations in PM10 were 5.4 μg/m3 and 0.8 μg/m3, in PM2.5 these were 4.7 μg/m3 and 0.6 μg/m3. Carbonaceous content was larger during cold season with respect to warm season as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC) that was evaluated using the OC/EC minimum ratio method. SOC was mainly segregated in PM2.5 and represented 53% - 75% of the total OC. A subset of EC data was compared with eBC measurements, showing a good correlation (R2 = 0.80), however, eBC concentrations were higher than EC concentrations of an average factor of 1.95 (+/- 0.55 standard deviation). This could be explained by the presence of a contribution of Brown Carbon (BrC), for example from biomass burning, in eBC measurements. Weekly patterns showed a slight decrease of carbon content during weekends with respect to weekdays especially

  13. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  14. [Spatial and temporal changes of the ecological vulnerability in a serious soil erosion area, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiong; Yu, Kun Yong; Liu, Jian; Yang, Su Ping; He, Ping; Deng, Yang Bo; Yu, Xin Yan; Chen, Zhang Hao

    2016-03-01

    Research on eco-environment vulnerability assessment contributes to the ecological environmental conservation and restoration. With Changting County as the study area, this paper selec-ted 7 indicators including slope, soil type, multi-year average precipitation, elevation deviate degree, normalized difference vegetation index, population density and land use type to build ecological vulnerability assessment system by using multicollinearity diagnostics analysis approach. The quantitative assessment of ecological vulnerability in 1999, 2006 and 2014 was calculated by using entropy weight method and comprehensive index method. The changes of the temporal-spatial distribution of ecological vulnerability were also analyzed. The results showed that the ecological vulnerability level index (EVLI) decreased overall but increased locally from 1999 to 2014. The average EVLI values in 1999, 2006 and 2014 were 0.4533±0.1216, 0.4160±0.1111 and 0.3916±0.1139, respectively, indicating that the ecological vulnerability in Changting County was at the moderate grade. The EVLI decreased from 2.92 in 1999 to 2.38 in 2006 and 2.13 in 2014. The spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability was high inside but low outside. The high vulnerability areas were distributed mainly in Hetian Town and Tingzhou Town, where the slope was less than 15° and the altitude was lower than 500 m. During the study period, Sanzhou Town had the largest decreasing range of EVLI while Tingzhou Town had the lowest.

  15. Dispersal and memory of sand flies in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; De Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Massafera, Rubens; Rossi, Robson Marcelo; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-09-01

    The dispersal of and the existence of memory in sand flies were measured in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil. Sand flies were caught in a rural area, with Shannon trap installed in the forest and three Falcão traps installed in a human-inhabited environment (HIE) and three others in an impacted environment presently uninhabited by humans (EUH), from 1800 to 0600 hours. The captured sand flies were marked with yellow, blue, or red fluorescent powder, according to the environments where they were captured. All marked sand flies were released at 0700 hours at a point between the three environments. The recaptures were made with 28 Falcão traps, distributed in the environments from for 10 consecutive days. The sand flies recaptured were examined under a stereomicroscope and later identified. It was concluded that sand flies are able to disperse over an average distance of 73 m, reaching 130 m in 24 h, showing that: 1) the sand flies were attracted with different intensities to each environment, and the ability to move among different environments allows the existence of enzootic cycle of Leishmania; 2) the sand flies possess a spatial memory, olfactory memory, or both, that enable them to return to the environment where they were captured initially, although the distances were different.

  16. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  17. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  18. Is it working? A look at the changing nutrient practices in Oregon's Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Compton, J.; Eldridge, A.; Henning, A.; Selker, J. S.; Brooks, J. R.; Schmitz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural nitrogen use, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. Previous work in the 1990s in the Willamette Valley by researchers at Oregon State University determined the importance of cover crops and irrigation practices and made recommendations to the local farm community for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching. We are currently re-sampling many of the same fields studied by OSU to examine the influence of current crops and nutrient management practices on nitrate leaching below the rooting zone. This study represents important crops currently grown in the GWMA and includes four grass fields, three vegetable row-crop fields, two peppermint and wheat fields, and one each of hazelnuts and blueberries. New nutrient management practices include slow release fertilizers and precision agriculture approaches in some of the fields. Results from the first two years of sampling show nitrate leaching is lower in some crops like row crops grown for seed and higher in others like perennial rye grass seed when compared to the 1990s data. We will use field-level N input-output balances in order to determine the N use efficiency and compare this across crops and over time. The goal of this project is to provide information and tools that will help farmers, managers and conservation groups quantify the water quality benefits of management practices they are conducting or funding.

  19. Religious chants and sermons in rural and urban areas: a glance from the Southern Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eichmann Oehrli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The religious poetry of the Golden Age destined to sing is not usually understood from its own specificity. In the following pages my purpose is first, to show which is the peculiarity of the poetry of circumstances. When considering the complementary role of poetry with the sermon (both forming part of a broader framework intermedia it may cover all religious poetry in vernacular languages, and cluster the pieces of this universe by the three rhetorical genres. And second, to observe the difference in density of production genres in urban areas relative to rural, allowing us to venture some hypotheses about the interaction of those who have been involved in the communication process. All this primarily in Charcas, but also in other territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

  20. Land Use Induced Hydroclimatic Variability Over Large Deforested Areas in Southern Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, J.; Medvigy, D.

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary Amazonian deforestation, which occurs at scales of a few hundreds of kilometers, has been found to induce systematic changes in the regional dry season precipitation. The replacement of rough forest with smooth pasture induces a low level atmospheric convergence and uplift in the downwind and divergence and subsidence in the upwind deforested areas. The resulting precipitation change is about ±30% of the deforested area mean in the two regions respectively. Compared with the increase in non-precipitating cloudiness triggered by small scale clearings prevalent in the early phases of deforestation, this `dynamical mesoscale circulation' can have regional ecological impacts by altering precipitation seasonality and in turn ecosystem dynamics. However, the seasonality and variability of this phenomenon hasn't been studied. Using observations and numerical simulations this study investigates the relationships between the dynamical mechanism and the local- and continental-scale atmospheric conditions to understand the physical controls on this phenomenon on the inter-annual, inter-seasonal and daily time scales. We find that the strength of the dynamical mechanism is controlled mostly by regional scale thermal and dynamical conditions of the boundary layer and not the continental and global scale atmospheric state. The lifting condensation level (thermodynamic control) and wind speed (dynamic control) within the boundary layer have the largest and positive correlations with the dipole strength, which is true although not always significant across time scales. Due to this dependence it is found to be strongest during parts of the year when the atmosphere is relatively stable. Hence, overall this phenomenon is found to be the prevalent convective triggering mechanism during the dry and parts of transition seasons (especially spring), significantly affecting the hydroclimate during this period.

  1. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C; Robin, E; Rocchia, R; Froget, L; Feist, R

    1997-08-01

    In order to detect whether the end-Frasnian worldwide biotic crisis is related to an extraterrestrial impact, the global stratotype section of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary and auxiliary sections within the stratotype area have been examined for impact indicators: iridium. Ni-rich spinel bearing spherules and glassy microtektites. This area is particularly well suited to the search for discrete events because it exhibits biostratigraphically continuous sections of sedimentologically homogenous off-shore deposits. Different environmental settings on oxygenated deep-water seamounts, such as the stratotype section at Coumiac, and in oxygen-depleted depressions (La Serre section) are available. The latter is investigated in more detail because it is the least condensed across the boundary, which is determined by the first occurrence of the typical morphotype of Palmatolepis triangularis, the indicator of the first Famennian conodont biozone. Samples from the biostratigraphically defined boundary and adjacent levels failed to provide significantly high Ir values and no Ni-rich spinel or microtektite has been recovered. This is in contradiction with the results of earlier investigations carried out by H. Geldsetzer on the same section. In contrast, the values of Ir concentrations that we measured are always very low or not detectable. The small overabundances observed in some samples, which are about two orders of magnitude lower than what is currently observed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, are probably due to the accumulation of the normal flux of cosmic dust during periods of relatively low depositional rates or to a terrestrial origin. At present, we have no evidence that an extraterrestrial impact occurred at the F-F transition.

  2. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica : plutons, field relationships, and isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Johnstone, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs

  3. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E Harada

    Full Text Available In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  4. Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern California Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the diverse ecosystems of coastal California, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of California fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by current maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that currents usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal California species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment.

  5. Influence of the Palaeo-Landslides on the Project of Rehabilitation of a National Road in the Southern Carpathian Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Daniel; Milutinovici, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    The mountain Paduchiosu is a part of the Southern Carpathians, in the South-Eastern Bucegi National Park. Significant palaeo-landslides occur on the Eastern slope of the mountain Paduchiosu, affecting the DN 71 alignment, between Valea Dorului and Valea Carpinis, on a length of approx. 10 km [1]. The palaeo-landslides occur along the tectonic contacts of various cretaceous formations. The landslides occur both at the level of Quaternary deposits, forming the alteration layer of the old geological formations (alluvial, deluvial and colluvial soil deposits), and at the level of Pre-Quaternary geological formations, whose structure is clayey-marl, or within the harder rocky formations, with seams of clayey - marl nature also. Two large palaeo-landslides can be distinguished: landslide I, affecting the national road alignment between pk 96 and 101+500, with sliding orientation towards South and South-West and landslide II, affecting the analysed alignment between pk 102+500 and 106 (with sliding orientation towards East and North-East). The landslides are significant and very old. The main cause of occurrence of these landslides is the tectonic nature of the area. The two main landslides occur on large surfaces. Generally, the sliding plan is under the „fissure clay” level, so it tends to be 12 to15 m deep. Numerous reactivations occur within their congestion, on narrow or large surfaces. Many of the reactivations occur due to the malfunctions of the systems of rainfall draining and taking over from the national road that runs South to North on the Southern slope of the mountain Paduchiosu. There are no underground waters, but considering the change of the natural water drainage due to the existing road works, there are areas where the drainage is impeded or slowed, leading to the water infiltration and rocks moistening under the deluvial formation. The local reactivations may also be influenced by the unarranged torrential valleys. The project of rehabilitation of

  6. Plio-Quaternary Sandy Deposits and Microbial Buildups at the Southern Marmara Shelf Near Shoreface Area, Turkey

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    Denizhan Vardar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the formation and evolution mechanism of the sandy deposits plays key role to define the hydrodynamics of the shelves and coasts. The barrier islands determined from high resolution chirp seismic reflection profiles, were started to deposit on the boundary (SB that characterized by the lowstand stages of global sea level in the southern Marmara shelf near shoreface area. The unit haslost its activity at 55 ms, 60 ms depth in Erdek Bay, at 55 ms in Bandırma Bay, at 61 ms front of the Kocasu River. According to global sea level curves, this unit was evolved between 11000-11500 BP and10450-10150 BP. The geometrical situation and internal reflection character of these units indicate the balance between fluvial sediment transportation, marine intrusion and current systems in the study area. Belkis Isthmus that connects the Kapıdağ Peninsula to the mainland occurred synchronously with same process that formed the barrier islands. Bioherm structures were formed on the barrier islands and some of the bioherm’s uppermost surface is reached to 1 m below the sea floor. Bioherm structures are composing from organisms; formation and evolution depend on various stress factors. Barrier islands provide nutritional source to bioherms. Since these structures occur in a limited area, the development should be controlled by secondary factors. Biogenic gas determined from seismic sections closed to bioherm structures, probably plays the secondary role. Addition to this, during the forming and the growing of bioherms, Marmara Islands (Pasalimanı, Avşa, Marmara Islands and Imralı Island were possibly control the currents and the flooding in the study area and provided convenient environment to these structures evolution.

  7. LEAF AREA DYNAMICS AND ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SPECIFIC VEGETATION TYPES OF A SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Bosco Kidake Kisambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI dynamics and aboveground biomass of a semi-arid grassland region in Southern Ethiopia were determined over a long rain season. The vegetation was categorized into four distinct vegetation types namely Grassland (G, Tree-Grassland (TG, Bushed-Grassland (BG and Bush-Tree grassland (BT. LAI was measured using a Plant Canopy Analyzer (LAI2000. Biomass dynamics of litter and herbaceous components were determined through clipping while the above ground biomass of trees and shrubs were estimated using species-specific allometric equations from literature. LAI showed a seasonal increase over the season with the maximum recorded in the BG vegetation (2.52. Total aboveground biomass for the different vegetation types ranged from 0.61 ton C/ha in areas where trees were non-existent to 8.80 ± 3.81ton C/ha in the Tree-Grassland vegetation in the study site. A correlation of LAI and AGB yielded a positive relationship with an R2 value of 0.55. The results demonstrate the importance of tropical semi-arid grasslands as carbon sinks hence their potential in mitigation of climate change.

  8. Preliminary survey of ants at a reserve area of Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

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    Niranee Binnima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince of Songkla University is the first university established in the southern part of Thailand. A reserve area is planned at Ko Hong Hill near the university. The flora of this area has been previously explored but a few fauna species have been studied. Although ants are one of dominant groups in this forest, there is no record of their diversity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the ant diversity in terms of species composition. Three sampling methods, pitfall trap (PF, hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sifting (LL were applied to collection of ants along 3 line transects each of 90 meter in length and 500 meter apart during April 2001. Six subfamilies (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Dorylinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmecinae of ants, comprising 44 species, were found. The results also showed that HC was the most sufficient method resulting in the highest number of ant species, while the combination of two methods (HC and LL yielded the highest number of ant species.

  9. Stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates from the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy, over the past 18 kyr: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, G.; di Vito, M.; Fallick, A. E.; Sulpizio, R.

    2000-12-01

    Stable isotopes were measured in the carbonate and organic matter of palaeosols in the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy in order to test whether they are suitable proxy records for climatic and ecological changes in this area during the past 18000 yr. The ages of the soils span from ca. 18 to ca. 3 kyr BP. Surprisingly, the Last Glacial to Holocene climate transition was not accompanied by significant change in 18O of pedogenic carbonate. This could be explained by changes in evaporation rate and in isotope fractionation between water and precipitated carbonate with temperature, which counterbalanced the expected change in isotope composition of meteoric water. Because of the rise in temperature and humidity and the progressive increase in tree cover during the Holocene, the Holocene soil carbonates closely reflect the isotopic composition of meteoric water. A cooling of about 2°C after the Avellino eruption (3.8 ka) accounts for a sudden decrease of about 1 in 18O of pedogenic carbonate recorded after this eruption. The 13C values of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate covary, indicating an effective isotope equilibrium between the organic matter, as the source of CO2, and the pedogenic carbonate. Carbon isotopes suggest prevailing C3 vegetation and negligible mixing with volcanogenic or atmospheric CO2.

  10. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Zooplankton diversity of a protected and vulnerable wetland system in southern South America (Llancanelo area, Argentina

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    D. Sabina D’Ambrosio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In arid regions, climatic conditions exert a great control on the aquatic systems present, but recent changes in climate have produced an enhanced salinization of the aquatic environments located there. Consequently, a major reduction in biodiversity would be expected in those wetlands that were originally fresh water. Salinity is a principal cause of reduced biodiversity particularly in zooplankton because few of those species can adapt to the salt pressure of saline environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain essential information on the diversity of aquatic invertebrates in Llancanelo basin by focussing the analysis on the zooplankton community and exploring seasonal and spatial differences in the zooplankton assemblages of this vulnerable wetland system within an arid region of Argentina. Seasonal samples were taken at nine sites in the basin (a shallow lake, 4 springs, streams, and the Malargüe River. A total of 45 species were identified. The zooplankton abundance in the lake displayed a clear seasonal contrast and was higher than that recorded in the springs and lotic environments. Boeckella poopoensis, Fabrea salina, and Brachionus plicatilis predominated in the lake, indicating their halophilia. The presence of the crustaceans Alona sp., Macrocyclops albidus, and Paracyclops fimbriatus was restricted to the springs; whereas Notholca labis and Notholca squamula were found only in running water. The zooplankton species richness in the Llancanelo area is low because of both the salt content in the lake and the irregularity of freshwater entry in all locations during the annual cycle.

  12. [Tick-borne relapsing fever in a rural area of southern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croche Santander, B; Sánchez Carrión, A; Campos, E; Toro, C; Marcos, L; Vargas, J C; Tort, T

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. This disease is underdiagnosed in our area due to a low index of suspicion among clinicians, as well as its difficult diagnosis. This study aims to present our experience in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of TBRF and a literature review. A retrospective medical chart review was carried out on children diagnosed of TBRF from 2002 to 2012 in our hospital, and included clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, treatment, and outcome data. Nine children with TBRF were identified. Median age was 11 years. All cases occurred during warm months. The most frequent presenting clinical findings were fever, chills, headache, vomiting, myalgia and abdominal pain. Meningeal involvement was identified in 2 cases. In the case of 2 patients, Borrelia infection was identified in several relatives at the time of diagnosis. Mean C-protein reactive was 187 mg/L, and low platelet counts were observed in 56% of the cases. Borreliaspp. was visualized in peripheral blood smears in 67% of cases. All of the patients received antibiotic treatment. Doxycycline was used in children older than 8 years and erythromycin and penicillin in the younger ones. Jarisch-Herxheiner reaction occurred in one patient. All cases resolved without sequelae. We emphasize the importance of maintaining a high level of suspicion in endemic regions of TBRF. Early diagnosis and a correct therapy can prevent the appearance of subsequent fever recurrences and potential complications. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Raptor mortality in wind farms of southern Spain: mitigation measures on a major migration bottleneck area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio-Roman Munoz; Lucas, Manuela De; Casado, Eva; Ferrer, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    Full text: To assess and monitor the impact of wind farms on fauna is crucial if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Today there are clear evidences that the probability of raptor collision depends critically on species behaviour and weather conditions, and the topographic factors related to each windmill. In our study area EIA were not able to predict this differential risk and in these circumstances mitigating the causes of bird mortality becomes a task of major importance, especially to those wind farms located in the Strait of Gibraltar, a water crossing of 14 km at its shortest distance acting as a major migration bottleneck for Paleo-African soaring migrants. We collected all available information on raptor collision from 1992, when the first wind farm was installed, and from 2005 until present a total of 262 turbines, grouped into 20 wind farms, were surveyed in a daily basis through a surveillance program with the main goal of register the actual mortality of birds. A total of 1291 raptors of 19 species were found of which 78.5% correspond to two species, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In order to mitigate the impact on raptors, and particularly on the griffon vulture, in 2007 a program based on selective stopping of turbines was imposed, in collaboration with the environmental competent authority, on new approved projects. During 2008 there was a reduction in mortality by 48%, which remained in 2009 with a remarkably lower economic cost. An analysis of the temporal collision patterns will be presented and discussed, with special attention to those species suffering higher mortality rate, and to those who have some degree of threat. (Author)

  14. Adaptive response among residents of the Techa River area and other localities in the Southern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudyakoval, O. I.; Akleyevl, V.; Alenschenki, A. V.; Gotib, V. J.; Kudriashova, O. V.; Semenova, I. P.; Serebryanyi, A. M.; Pelevina, I. I.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive response was investigated in a population of adult residents of contaminated and uncontaminated villages on the Techa River. Blood lymphocytes were cultivated after addition of PHA and the cytokinetic block with cytochalasin B. the frequency of cells with imcronuclei (MN) was scored in (1000-2000) bi-nucleated cells. The adaptive response (AR) was determined for each individual as a ratio of cells with MN after irradiation at an adaptive dose (of 0.05 Gy) and at a challenge dose (of 1.0 Gy) 5 h later, to cells with MN after a single irradiation at the dose of 1.0 Gy. The criterion of 2 for the calculation of statistical significance was used p<0.05. The analysis of all data obtained shows that the spontaneous level of cells with MN is, on the average, the same in chronically exposed people and people living in uncontaminated area in the same socio-economic and climatic conditions (control group), but the individual variability was found to be increased in the exposed group. It is important to note that there is a correlation between the frequency of cells with MN and the internal exposure dose (to the red bone marrow). The level of cells with MN after irradiation in the dose of 1.0 Gy is characterised by high individual variability in irradiated population; and there is a correlation between the spontaneous frequency of cells with; MN and the radiosensitivity observed. The main difference between the exposed and control population is manifested by different numbers of peoples with significant AR. In the exposed group a lower number of individuals have a significant AR; on the other hand, a higher number of exposed residents have shown an increased radiosensitivity after adaptive irradiation at the dose of 0.05 Gy. In chronically exposed population a high degree of individual variability is observed, especially after acute irradiation in the dose of 1.0 gy. It was noted that after irradiation in the dose of 0.05 Gy the number of people with significant AR

  15. Radioactivity, radiological risk and metal pollution assessment in marine sediments from Calabrian selected areas, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Messina, M.; Faggio, G.; Santangelo, S.; Messina, G.; Belmusto, G.

    2018-02-01

    The two most significant categories of physical and chemical pollutants in sediments (radionuclides and metals) were investigated in this article, in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine sediments from eight different selected sites of the Calabria region, south of Italy. In particular samples were analyzed to determine natural and anthropic radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the investigated area. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured by High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. The obtained results show that, for radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium), the specific activity ranges from ( 14 ± 1) Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) to ( 54 ± 9) Bq/kg d.w.; for thorium, from ( 12 ± 1) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 83 ± 8) Bq/kg d.w.; for potassium, from ( 470 ± 20) Bq/kg d.w. to ( 1000 ± 70) Bq/kg d.w. and for cesium it is lower than the minimum detectable activity value. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) outdoor and the external hazard index ( H_ex) were calculated to evaluate any possible radiological risk, mainly due to the use of marine sediments for the beach nourishment. The results show low levels of radioactivity, thus discarding any significant radiological risk. Some metals (As, Cd, Cr tot, Hg, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe), that could be released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic sources, were investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements and compared with the limits set by the Italian Legislation, to assess any possible contamination. Experimental results show that they are much lower than the contamination threshold value, thus excluding their presence as pollutants. The degree of sediment contaminations were quantified using enrichment factor ( EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) for

  16. Imported malaria in an area in southern Madrid, 2005-2008

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    Rubio José M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Spain, malaria cases are mostly due to migrants and travellers returning from endemic areas. The objective of this work was to describe the malaria cases diagnosed at the Severo Ochoa University Hospital (HUSO in Leganés in the south of the Madrid Region from 2005 to 2008. Methods Descriptive retrospective study performed at HUSO. Data sources are registries from the Microbiology Department and malaria cases notified to the Preventive Medicine Department. Analysed parameters were: administrative, demographical, related to the stay at the endemic country, clinical, microbiological diagnosis method, pregnancy, treatment and prophylaxis, co-infections, and days of hospital stay. Results Fifty-seven patients diagnosed with malaria were studied. Case distribution per year was 13 in 2005, 15 in 2006, 15 in 2007 and 14 in 2008. Thirty-three patients were female (57.9% and 24 male (42.1%. Mean age was 27.8 years. Most of the malaria cases were acquired in Nigeria (49.1% and Equatorial Guinea (32.7%. 29.1% of the patients were immigrants who had arrived recently, and 61.8% acquired malaria when travelling to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR. Majority of cases were diagnosed between June and September. Microscopy was positive in 39 cases (68.4% immunochromatography in 42 (73.7% and PCR in the 55 cases where performed. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for 94.7% of the cases. The more frequent symptoms were fever (77.2%, followed by headache and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.3%. Nine cases needed hospital admittance, a pregnant woman, three children, four VFR and an African tourist, but all evolved favourably. Chemoprophylaxis data was known from 55 patients. It was taken correctly in one case (1.8%, in five (9.1% the prophylaxis was improper while the others 49 (89.1% cases had not followed any anti-malarial prophylaxis. Conclusions Children, pregnant women and the VFR have the highest risk to

  17. Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Cai, Yongjiu

    2018-09-01

    Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0.34μg/L in dry season), Cr in reservoirs of HuangShi (HS) and ZheLin (ZL) with values of 4.16μg/L and 3.45μg/L in dry season respectively, and Al in reservoirs of JiaoKou (JK), GuTian (GT) and DouShui (DS) with values of 1011μg/L, 1036μg/L and 1001μg/L in wet season, respectively. Furthermore, there was a great difference in the seasonal variation of heavy metals, especially for Al and Pb in wet season characterized with relatively high values of 643μg/L and 0.67μg/L, respectively. Accordingly, Al was identified with a great health risk to living beings in view of its mean value in wet season, which greatly exceeded the criteria for drinking water of China, WHO and US EPA. Furthermore, As might be the greatest concern of health risk in this region considering its high carcinogenic risk to the local residents around the reservoirs of OuYangHai (OYH), DS, ZhiXi (ZX) and HS. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that there was great heterogeneity in the sources of these heavy metals in the hilly area of southern China. Therefore, specific measures, such as controls on point source pollution control and tailings, should be taken for maintaining drinking water safety and aquatic ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-10-17

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  19. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  20. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  1. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  2. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.; Iqbal, M.A.; Farid, A.; Shabih, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio

  3. The structural evolution of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the southern Cape Fold Belt, with implications for the siting of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.J.B.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A structural analysis of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the Southern Cape has been undertaken, using the technique of structural domain analysis coupled with geophysical interpretation and geological mapping. This study forms part of the country-wide geological investigations that are being carried out for the purpose of siting South Africa's future nuclear power stations. 30 refs., 18 figs

  4. The epidiemiologic profile of HCV infected Hispanic patients from the southern area of Puerto Rico since 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ruiz, David; Rosado Carrión, Bárbara; Bredy, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in adults done in San Juan and Puerto Rico have showed 6.3% and 2.2% of the population respectively, are positive for antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV). It is been suggested that Hispanics have a lower sustained virological response to current therapy. The epidemiologic profile, the response to treatment and the risk factors to the poor response to treatment of HCV patients have not been studied in the southern area of Puerto Rico. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 46 medical records from January 2005 to March 2011. We search for sociodemographic variables, comorbidities, the HCV genotype, the human immunodeficiency virus profile, history of alcoholism and the patients who were treated with peginterferon alpha 2b and ribavirin, and their response to treatment. Our HCV infected population is male predominant (63%), and the most common route of transmission were intravenous drug abuse (37%) and blood transfusions (33%). Only 37% reported alcoholism. The most common comorbidities found in our population were hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (20%), hypothyroidism (7%) and dyslipidemia (7%). Most common genotype found in our population was type 1 (61%). From the 46 patients, 10 patients were treated, being genotype 1 the most common. Overall, our population showed an epidemiological profile similar to other Hispanic groups in the literature, which should motivate us to continue exploring these associations, in an effort to improve the management of these patients.

  5. Time dynamics of background noise in geoelectrical and geochemical signals: An application in a seismic area of Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bello, G.; Ragosta, M.; Heinicke, J.

    1998-01-01

    The paper analyses geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multi parametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Italy). The investigated area is located on Southern Apennine chain that in past and recent years was interested by destructive earthquakes. After a complete pre-processing of time series, it analyses the fluctuations triggered by the seasonal cycles and focus the attention on the possible link between geo electrical and geochemical signals. In order to extract quantitative dynamical information from experimental time series, are detected scaling laws in power spectra that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian processes. After this analysis, the problem of the identification of extreme events in the time series has been approached. The paper considers significant anomalous patterns only when more consecutive values are above/below a fixed threshold in almost two of the time series jointly measured. The authors give the first preliminary results about the comparison between anomalous patterns detected in geo electrical and geochemical parameters and the local seismic activity and, finally, analyse the implications with the earthquake prediction problem

  6. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  7. Discovery of uranium mineralizations in the rhyolite-granite complex in the Jabal Eghei area of southern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During investigation of the Jabal Eghei area in southern Libya and the production of geological maps at a scale of 1:250 000 (Tibesti sector, sheet Wadi Eghei NF 34-1 and NF 34-2, regional prospecting for mineral raw materials was performed. Radiometric survey of observed targets at the sites indicated two significant uranium mineralizations in rhyolites, and some smaller ones in granites that are in close contact with rhyolites. Rhyolites are located in the central part of the investigated region. They cut through granite rocks. The first mineralization is in the central part of the rhyolite region, which is mostly composed of silificated rhyolites. The second one was discovered near the granite-rhyolite contact zone, characterized by the presence of silicified breccia rocks. These findings were confirmed by laboratory measurements of more than seventy samples collected in the area, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of uranium in these mineralizations were found to range from approx. 50 mg kg-1 to more than 600 mg kg-1. The latter value is about 240 times above the Earth’s average. Besides uranium, these measurements have also given concentrations of thorium and potassium. Additional geochemical analysis was performed on samples taken from locations where uranium anomalies were discovered using ICP-MS technique, in which concentrations of more than forty elements were determined. Uranium mineralizations are accompained by increased contents of silver (up to 17 times, arsenic (up to 8 times, molybdenum (up to 50 times, mercury (up to 9 times, and lead (up to 14 times, in regard to the Clark’s values. These results warrant a continued investigation of this region because of potential interest in the discovery of nuclear mineral raw materials.

  8. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

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    V. Del Gaudio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  9. Seawater intrusion in karstic, coastal aquifers: Current challenges and future scenarios in the Taranto area (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio Luigi

    2016-12-15

    Mediterranean areas are characterized by complex hydrogeological systems, where management of freshwater resources, mostly stored in karstic, coastal aquifers, is necessary and requires the application of numerical tools to detect and prevent deterioration of groundwater, mostly caused by overexploitation. In the Taranto area (southern Italy), the deep, karstic aquifer is the only source of freshwater and satisfies the main human activities. Preserving quantity and quality of this system through management policies is so necessary and such task can be addressed through modeling tools which take into account human impacts and the effects of climate changes. A variable-density flow model was developed with SEAWAT to depict the "current" status of the saltwater intrusion, namely the status simulated over an average hydrogeological year. Considering the goals of this analysis and the scale at which the model was built, the equivalent porous medium approach was adopted to represent the deep aquifer. The effects that different flow boundary conditions along the coast have on the transport model were assessed. Furthermore, salinity stratification occurs within a strip spreading between 4km and 7km from the coast in the deep aquifer. The model predicts a similar phenomenon for some submarine freshwater springs and modeling outcomes were positively compared with measurements found in the literature. Two scenarios were simulated to assess the effects of decreased rainfall and increased pumping on saline intrusion. Major differences in the concentration field with respect to the "current" status were found where the hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer is higher and such differences are higher when Dirichlet flow boundary conditions are assigned. Furthermore, the Dirichlet boundary condition along the coast for transport modeling influences the concentration field in different scenarios at shallow depths; as such, concentration values simulated under stressed conditions

  10. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  11. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  12. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  13. Computer analysis to the geochemical of soil and stream sediments data in an area of Southern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about geochemical interpretation of multi-element data from a soil and stream sediment survey carried out in Southern of Uruguay .This zone has several occurrences of metal sulphide mineralization

  14. Mobile Phone Usage and its Health Effects Among Adults in a Semi-Urban Area of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, P; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Kanimozhy, K; Prasad, R Vishnu; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through house-to-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chi-square test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. The prevalence of mobile phone usage was high. There was significant association between selected health problems and mobile phone usage. In future, higher studies are required to confirm our

  15. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERIDIANA P. CAMPANER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  16. Stormwater Runoff Plumes in Southern California Detected with Satellite SAR and MODIS Imagery - Areas of Increased Contamination Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal pollution poses both a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beachgoers and coastal communities, but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB). The SCB is the final destination of four major urban watersheds and associated rivers, Ballona Creek, the Los Angeles River, the San Gabriel River, and the Santa Ana River, which act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after episodic rainstorms. Previous studies of SCB water quality have made use of both fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wide-swath medium resolution optical "ocean color" imagery from SeaWiFS and MODIS. In this study, we expand on previous SAR efforts, compiling a more extensive collection of multi-sensor SAR data, spanning from 1992 to 2014, analyzing the surface slick component of stormwater plumes. We demonstrate the use of SAR data in early detection of coastal stormwater plumes, relating plume extent to cumulative river discharge, and shoreline fecal bacteria loads. Intensity maps of the primary extent and direction of plumes were created, identifying coastal areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of environmental contamination. Additionally, we illustrate the differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS ocean color imagery. Finally, we provide a concept for satellite monitoring of stormwater plumes, combining both optical and radar sensors, to be used to guide the collection of in situ water quality data and enhance the assessment of related beach closures.

  17. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  18. Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Duran, Clara; González, Raquel; Quintó, Llorenç; Munguambe, Khatia; Tallada, Joan; Naniche, Denise; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The evolution of the magmatic arc of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), Arequipa area: insight from geochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouy, S.; Benoit, M.; De Saint Blanquat, M.; Brunet, P.

    2012-12-01

    Cordilleran-type batholiths are built by prolonged arc activity along continental margins and may provide detailed magmatic records of the subduction system evolution. The magmas produced in subduction context involve both mantellic and crustal end members and are subject to various petrological processes. The MASH zones (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), at the basis of the continental crust, are the best places for the genesis of such hybrid magmas. The various geochemical signatures observed in the plutonic rocks, may also be attributed to source heterogeneities or generated by subsequent petrological processes. This study has focused in the Arequipa section of the Coastal Batholith of Southern Peru (200-60 Ma), in an area extending over 80x40 km. Major and trace elements as well as Sr and Nd isotopic analyses were performed in a set of 100 samples ranging from gabbro to granite. The obtained data highlight the wide heterogeneity of the geochemical signatures that is not related to the classification of the rocks. In first step, Rb/Sr systematic was used to isolate a set of samples plotting along a Paleocene isochron and defining a cogenetic suite. This suite appears to have evolved by simple fractional crystallization. By using reverse modeling, the parameters controlling the fractional crystallization process were defined, as partition coefficients, initial concentrations and amount of fractional crystallization. The other magmatic suites display a wide range of isotopic and geochemical signatures. To explain this heterogeneity, a model involving competition between fractional crystallization and magma mixing into MASH zones was proposed. A large range of hybrid magma types is potentially generated during the maturation of the system, but this range tends to disappear as fractionation and mixing occurs. Finally the model predicts the genesis of a homogeneous reservoir created at depth, from which magmas may evolve only by fractional crystallization. Therefore

  20. Gold placer and Quaternary stratigraphy of the Jabal Mokhyat area, southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D.L.; Puffett, W.P.; Campbell, W.L.; Al-Koulak, Z. H.

    1981-01-01

    An ancient gold placer at Jabal Mokhyat (lat 20?12.2'N., long 43?28'E.), about 90 km east of Qalat Bishah in the southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was studied in 1973. Seven hundred and twenty-eight samples in 25 measured sections were collected along trenches and pits 2.5 m in depth and 2,600 m in total length. Alluvium was thicker than the excavation depth along about 50 percent of the trench length. The average gold content was 4.4 mg per m3, and the highest grade trench contained 40 mg gold per m 3. Because fine particulate gold is rare in the alluvium, a few large particles, 1 to 5 mm in diameter, greatly affected the sampling results. The ancient placer diggings are in small headwater wadis distributed over a 30-km 2 area, and the total dug area is about 1.2 km2. The placer produced an estimated 50 kg of gold and was worked about 2,600 + 250 years ago. The potential for a present-day placer operation is small. The gold is sparsely distributed in locally derived, flood-deposited, immature gravels throughout a stratigraphic section that consists of 1) calichified, saprolitic bedrock of Precambrian age; 2) basal, intensely calichified, saprolitic gravel (0-3 m thick) of Pleistocene age; 3) disconformable, slightly consolidated gravel and sand (0-1 m thick) of late Pleistocene age containing sparse, disseminated caliche; 4) firm loessic silt (0-1 m thick) of early Holocene age; and 5) loose sand and gravel (0.3-1 m thick) of late Holocene age. The loessic silt accumulated during the Holocene pluvial. The top of the loessic silt unit is dated at about 6,000 years B.P. by using charcoal from hearths of ancient man. Following the Holocene pluvial, the climate became arid, and extreme desiccation resulted in abundant eolian sand that progressively diluted the late Holocene gravels. The remnants of the pre-Holocene stratigraphy suggest similar climatic cycles during the Pleistocene. Abundant, sparsely mineralized, gold-bearing quartz veins (0-1 m wide

  1. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land : geochemistry and evolution along the early Paleozoic Antarctic Craton margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Smillie, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Field relationships and geochemistry indicate granitoid plutons of the Dry Valleys area comprise at least three petrogenetically distinct suites. The older Dry Valleys 1a (DV1a) suite, comprising the Bonney, Catspaw, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons and hornblende-biotite orthogneisses, and Dry Valleys 1b (DV1b) suite, comprising the Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Dun, Calkin, and Suess Plutons, biotite granitoid dikes and biotite orthogneisses, were emplaced before prominent swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic dikes. Both the DV1a and DV1b suites are time transgressive, with older intrusions in each suite being emplaced during the later stages of deformation of the Koettlitz Group. Younger granitoids that postdate the majority of the Vanda dikes include: the Dry Valleys 2 (DV2) suite, comprising the Pearse and Nibelungen Plutons plus several smaller, unnamed plugs; and the Harker, Swinford, Orestes, and Brownworth Plutons with identical field relationships and enclaves but distinct chemistries. Chemical characteristics and limited Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicate plutonism before c. 500 Ma was dominated by the Cordilleran I-type DV1a suite, inferred to have developed during melting above a west-dipping subduction zone along the Antarctic Craton margin. The chemical characteristics of the DV1b suite indicate large-scale melting of a quartzo-feldspathic protolith lacking residual plagioclase, but containing refractory garnet. Potential DV1b suite source rocks include metamorphosed immature sediments, possibly underplated along the subduction zone associated with DV1a magmatism, or older granitoid orthogneisses. Major DV1b plutonism at 490 Ma marks the end of subduction-related plutonism in southern Victoria Land. Younger DV2 alkali-calcic, Caledonian I-type plutonism is inferred to have formed in response to uplift and extension between 480 and 455 Ma. Lack of DV2 suite correlatives and Vanda mafic and felsic dikes in northern Victoria Land suggests significantly

  2. Observations regarding the movement of barchan sand dunes in the Nazca to Tanaca area of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gay, S.

    1999-03-01

    Significant studies of sand dunes and sand movement made in coastal southern Peru in 1959-1961 [Gay, S.P., 1962. Origen, distribución y movimiento de las arenas eólicas en el área de Yauca a Palpa. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica del Perú 37, 37-58] have never been published in the English language and consequently have never been referred to in the standard literature. These studies contain valuable information, not developed by later workers in this field, that may be of broad general interest. For example, using airphotos of barchan dunes and plotting the rates of movement vs. dune widths, the author quantified the deduction of Bagnold [Bagnold, R.A., 1941. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London.] that the speed of barchan movement is inversely proportional to barchan size (as characterized by height or width). This led to the conclusion that all barchans in a given dune field, regardless of size, sweep out approximately equal areas in equal times. Another conclusion was that collisions between smaller, overtaking dunes and larger dunes in front of them do not result in destruction or absorption of the smaller dunes if the collision is a `sideswipe'. The dunes simply merge into a compound dune for a time, and the smaller dune then moves on intact, i.e., passes, the larger dune, whilst retaining its approximate original size and shape. Another result of the 1959-1961 studies was a map that documents the Pacific coast beaches as the source of the sand ( Fig. 1), which is then blown inland through extensive dune fields of barchans and other dune forms in great clockwise-sweeping paths, to its final resting place in huge sand masses, sometimes called `sand seas' [Lancaster, N., 1995. Geomorphology of Desert Dunes. Routledge, London], at higher elevations 20 to 60 km from the coast. A minor, but nevertheless interesting, discovery was a small heavy mineral dune located directly in the lee of a large barchan, evidently formed by the winnowing

  3. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of 1100 AREA, Southern Rail Connection and Rolling Stock, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally

  5. Petroleum geological atlas of the southern permian basin area -Overview SPB-atlas project-organisation and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornenbal, J.C.; Abbink, O.A.; Pagnier, H.J.M.; Wees, J.D. van

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Permian Basin (also referred to as Central European Basin) is Europe s largest sedimentary basin. It is a typical intracontinental basin that evolved from latest Carboniferous to recent times and extends from eastern England to the Belarussian-Polish border and from Denmark to South

  6. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Anderson-Darling test at each horizon or a combination of horizons for each soil type. RESULTS The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, reducing the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). The reduction of SOC by LUC, can be explained by a degraded process (due to vegetation losses and unsustainable soil management, which result in progressive impoverishment in the soil organic matter (OM) content, causing low productivity, which derived in unsuitable chemical properties) and by the reduced input of OM in cultivated soils, which reduced physical protection of soil and increased water erosion. However, 46 years of LUC had a positive effect in the soil, increasing the SR (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). REFERENCES Parras-Alcántara, L., Martín-Carrillo, M., Lozano-García, B. 2013. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain). Solid Earth, 4: 167-177.

  7. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  8. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  9. Whole genome sequencing analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples collected from the Southern coastal area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Yang, Xingfen; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Qiuxia; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui

    2018-02-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden is the most common non-typhoid Salmonella found in South and Southeast Asia. It causes zoonoses worldwide through the consumption of contaminated foods and seafood, and is considered as an important food-borne pathogen in China, especially in the Southern coastal area. We compared the whole genomes of 44 S. Weltevreden strains isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples from Southern Coastal China, in order to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and establish their genetic relatedness to known international strains. ResFinder analysis of the draft genomes of isolated strains detected antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in only eight isolates, equivalent to minimum inhibitory concentration assay, and only a few isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin or ampicillin. In silico MLST analysis revealed that 43 out of 44 S. Weltevreden strains belonged to sequence type 365 (CC205), the most common sequence type of the serovars. Phylogenetic analysis of the 44 domestic and 26 international isolates suggested that the population of S. Weltevreden could be segregated into six phylogenetic clusters. Cluster I included two strains from food and strains of the "Island Cluster", indicating potential inter-transmission between different countries and regions through foods. The predominant S. Weltevreden isolates obtained from the samples from Southern coastal China were found to be phylogenetically related to strains from Southern East Asia, and formed clusters II-VI. The study has demonstrated that WGS-based analysis may be used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of this bacterium as part of a food-borne disease surveillance program. The methods used are also more widely applicable to other geographical regions and areas and could therefore be useful for improving our understanding of the international spread of S. Weltevreden on a global scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  10. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.

    2011-02-24

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.

  11. Principal facts for gravity data collected in the southern Albuquerque Basin area and a regional compilation, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Cindy L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Oshetski, Kim; Keller, Gordon R.

    2000-01-01

    Principal facts for 156 new gravity stations in the southern Albuquerque basin are presented. These data fill a gap in existing data coverage. The compilation of the new data and two existing data sets into a regional data set of 5562 stations that cover the Albuquerque basin and vicinity is also described. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual gravity data for this regional compilation are available in digital form from ftp://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/openfile- reports/ofr-00-490.

  12. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the timing and history of amphibolite facies gold mineralisation in the Southern Cross area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, R.W.; Guise, P.G.; Rex, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Cross Greenstone Belt in Western Australia contains structurally controlled, hydrothermal gold deposits which are thought to have formed at or near the peak of amphibolite facies regional metamorphism during the Late Archaean. Although the geological features of deposits in the area are well documented. conflicting genetic models and ore-fluid sources have been used to explain the observed geological data. This paper presents new 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data which suggest that the thermal history of the Southern Cross area after the peak of regional metamorphism was more complex than has previously been suggested. After the main gold mineralisation event prior to ca 2620 Ma, the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages from amphiboles and biotites sampled from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing veins indicate that temperatures remained elevated in the region of 500 deg C for between 20 and 70 million years. These amphiboles and biotites from individual deposits yield ages that are in good agreement with one another to a high precision. implying increased cooling rates after the long period of elevated temperatures. Along the Southern Cross Greenstone Belt. however. amphibole-biotite pairs from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing quartz veins. while remaining in good agreement with one another, vary between deposits from ca 2560 Ma to ca 2440 Ma. Amphiboles from metabasalts that are associated with regional metamorphism and not hydrothermal alteration contain numerous exsolution lamellae that reduce the effective closure temperature of the amphiboles and yield geologically meaningless ages. These age relationships show that the thermal history of the area did not follow a simple cooling path and the area may have been tectonically active for a long period after the main gold mineralisation event before ca 2620 Ma. Such data may provide important constraints on subsequent genetic modelling of gold mineralisation and metamorphism. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  13. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Omoto, Jason; Ong, Seow Ling; Omoto, Harmeena Sahota; Dhaliwal, Narinder

    2012-09-22

    Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM(2.5) levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM(2.5) concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don't substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas or in a separate, but

  14. Chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron ages of zircon and monazite from granitic rocks of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yihunie, Tadesse

    2003-01-01

    CHIME (Chemical Th-U-total Pb Isochron Method) age determinations were made on zircon and monazite grains from granitoid samples in the Negele area of southern Ethiopia. A 611±32 Ma zircon age was obtained from a syn-tectonic hornblende-biotite granite of the Alghe domain. A 453±29 Ma zircon age and a 459±16 Ma monazite age were also obtained from post-tectonic two-mica granites of the Alghe domain and the Kenticha domain, respectively. Since these ca. 450 Ma zircon and monazite ages coincide well, as significant post-tectonic granitic magmatism appears to have occurred in southern Ethiopia in early Paleozoid time. The new CHIME age results indicate at least two episodes of granitic magmatism in southern Ethiopia in the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic, with a ca. 150 Ma interval between syn- and post-tectonic granitic emplacements, and have a important geochronological constraint on the evolution of the East African Orogen. (author)

  15. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  16. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  17. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  18. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Nyamushamba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  19. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  20. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  1. Determinants of Food Security Status of Maize-Based Farming Households in Southern Guinea Savannah Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayemisi Abidemi Onasanya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food and high food import bill, which have debilitating effects on the productive capacity of the citizens. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. This study examined the contribution of maize production to household food security status of rural maize-farming households in the southern guinea savannah of Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 200 farm households and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, recommended daily calorie requirement (RDCR approach, Logit model. Results showed that about three-quarters of the households were food secure and were able to meet the recommended calorie intake of 2260Kcal per capita per day. The shortfall index (P which measures the extent of deviation from the food security line, indicated that the food secure households exceeded the RDCR by 65%, while the food insecure households fell short of the RDCR by 31%. The logit model showed that maize output, gender, primary occupation of the farmer, farm size and farming experience had a positive influence on food security status while age had a negative influence on the food security status of maize-based farming households in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Oyo State, Nigeria. This suggests need for specific support to improve maize production

  2. The use of nuclear prospecting measurements for characterizing the radioactive status of Al-Bayyarat and Sabkhet Mouh areas, southern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Al-Bayyarat and Sabkhet Mouh areas in southern Palmyride have been radioactively characterized by using different nuclear prospecting measurements. Those measurements include the application of airborne, carborne spectrometric gamma, radon emanation and borehole techniques. The merging of airborne, carborne spectrometric gamma data enables to establish the normalized eU, eTh, and K% maps in the study area. Radon emanation and spectrometric gamma measurements have been applied only in Al- Bayyarat area, where radioactive anomalous zone has been observed. The radioactive characteristics of the study area has been explained through studying and analyzing a profile of 30 Km long, where a plausible geo-radioactive model has been proposed for the uranium leaching and its transport. - Highlights: • Determine the radioactive characteristics of the study area. • Explain the radioactive anomaly observed in Al-Bayarat area. • Analysis of a profile of 30 Km and propose a plausible geo-radioactive model. • Discus the radioactive disequilibrium occurred in the study area

  3. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  4. Controlling factors of harmful microalgae distribution in water column, biofilm and sediment in shellfish production area (South of Sfax, Gulf of Gabes) from southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukil-Baklouti, Amira; Feki-Sahnoun, Wafa; Hamza, Asma; Abdennadher, Moufida; Mahfoudhi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmen; Jarboui, Othman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of harmful microalgae coupled with environmental factors in the most important area for natural stocks of the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus in southern Tunisia. Sampling was performed monthly from May 2010 to April 2011 in five stations through the Tunisian National Monitoring Stations Network of Phytoplankton and Phycotoxins along the southern coasts of Sfax (Gulf of Gabes). The presence of harmful microalgae species was explored in three compartments: water column, biofilm and sediment. Our results revealed fourteen species were identified belonging to dinoflagellates and diatoms with higher densities during the summer period. The co-inertia plot analysis exhibited that the seasonal fluctuations of these species were controlled by the temperature as well as the nutrients (particularly nitrogenous). Ternary diagrams showed that biofilm was the most colonized compartment by toxic benthic dinoflagellates species, namely Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum rathymum, Prorocentrum concavum, Prorocentrum lima, Ostreopsis cf. ovata and Coolia monotis. In addition, these species were recorded simultaneously in the water column and the sediment, a fact that could be explained by the resuspension of these benthic dinoflagellates from the biofilm by hydrodynamics. The data suggest that harmful microalgae could be the source of toxins in the studied stations, which provide support to the implication of these results on the future sampling strategy of harmful microalgae in shellfish collecting areas in Tunisia.

  5. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  6. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals Jointly measured in a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Piscitelli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous fluid emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy. In the investigated are some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. We analysed the temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools. We detected scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded, that are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve our knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  7. Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 Ma) magnesian andesites in the Biluoco area, southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyang; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Zhou, Aorigele; Qian, Xinyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Du, Lintao; Bi, Wenjun

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolutionary history of the Lhasa and Qiangtang collision zones remains hotly debated because of the lack of pivotal magmatic records in the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. We present zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace-element geochemical analyses, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the newly discovered Biluoco volcanic rocks from the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were crystallized at ca. 95 Ma. The samples are characterized by low SiO2 (50.26-54.53 wt%), high Cr (109.7-125.92 ppm) and Ni (57.4-71.58 ppm), and a high Mg# value (39-56), which plot in the magnesian andesites field on the rock classification diagram. They display highly fractionated rare earth element patterns with light rare earth element enrichment ([La/Yb]N = 21.04-25.24), high Sr/Y (63.97-78.79) and no negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.98-1.04). The Biluoco volcanic rocks are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, Th, U and Pb. Moreover, the eight samples of Biluoco volcanic rocks display constant (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.70514-0.70527), a positive εNd(t) value (2.16-2.68) and younger Nd model ages (0.56-0.62 Ga). These geochemical signatures indicate that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of the mantle wedge peridotite metasomatized by melts of subducted slab and sediment in the subducted slab, invoked by asthenospheric upwelling resulting from the slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere. Identification of ca. 95 Ma Biluoco magnesian andesites suggests they were a delayed response of slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere at ca. 100 Ma.

  8. Concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi and their model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengyi; Li Yongli; Chen Jinrong; Shen Chaiqing; Li Jun; Guo Xiuying

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of studying the concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of Northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi in combination with the model experiments of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, the spatial distribution of U, Au and Si, the environment of the formation for U-productive and auriferous granitic bodies and migration characteristics of U, Au and Si during magmatic and hydrothermal stages, the relationship between uranium, gold and pyrite, are briefly described. The metallogenic prediction is also given. The research achievements provided important reference for the second-round U-prospecting in the South China and Au-prospecting in the U-productive areas. This approach of research method of self-proposing hypotheses combined with model experiments is first used in the research domain of uranium geology. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  9. Production of Landsat ETM+ reference imagery of burned areas within Southern African savannahs: comparison of methods and application to MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. S. Smith; N. A. Drake; M. J. Wooster; A. T. Hudak; Z. A. Holden; C. J. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Accurate production of regional burned area maps are necessary to reduce uncertainty in emission estimates from African savannah fires. Numerous methods have been developed that map burned and unburned surfaces. These methods are typically applied to coarse spatial resolution (1 km) data to produce regional estimates of the area burned, while higher spatial resolution...

  10. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  11. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  12. Preliminary results on biological aspects of the grass snake, Natrix natrix in the southern coastal area of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraham Ahmadzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natrix natrix is, together with N. tessellata, the only representative of water snakes found in Iran. The lack of ecological studies on this species in Iran stimulated the current preliminary research on some basic biological traits. From April to July 2008, a total of fifty five snakes were collected from two stations in the southern part of the Caspian Sea coast, Iran: Gomishan Wetland and Sari. Basic morphometrics were compared between sexes and stations and gonadal development was compared between stations and seasons. At the two stations, adult sex ratio was not different from 1:1 and juveniles composed a predominant portion of the sample. Both sexes had unimodal length class size with a peak at 40-45 cm snout-vent length (SVL. Body sizes were unusually small for the species and no SVL sexual dimorphism was detected although males were relatively heavier than females for the same SVL. Snakes of both sexes attained larger size with better body condition at Sari than in Gomishan. Males and females carried more mature gonads in summer. However, in Sari males developed relatively larger testes earlier in the season and both sexes displayed less synchronic reproduction at this station. These results are best explained by local variations in habitat, trophic availability and degree of environmental disturbance.

  13. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  14. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas

  15. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas

  16. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  17. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², p<0.05 test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p<0.05. Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  18. Abundance and prevalence of Aedes aegypti immatures and relationships with household water storage in rural areas in southern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Anh P; Clements, Archie C A; Jeffery, Jason A L; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Nam, Vu Sinh; Vaughan, Gregory; Shinkfield, Ramon; Kutcher, Simon C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Since 2000, the Government of Viet Nam has committed to provide rural communities with increased access to safe water through a variety of household water supply schemes (wells, ferrocement tanks and jars) and piped water schemes. One possible, unintended consequence of these schemes is the concomitant increase in water containers that may serve as habitats for dengue mosquito immatures, principally Aedes aegypti. To assess these possible impacts we undertook detailed household surveys of Ae. aegypti immatures, water storage containers and various socioeconomic factors in three rural communes in southern Viet Nam. Positive relationships between the numbers of household water storage containers and the prevalence and abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures were found. Overall, water storage containers accounted for 92-97% and 93-96% of the standing crops of III/IV instars and pupae, respectively. Interestingly, households with higher socioeconomic levels had significantly higher numbers of water storage containers and therefore greater risk of Ae. aegypti infestation. Even after provision of piped water to houses, householders continued to store water in containers and there was no observed decrease in water storage container abundance in these houses, compared to those that relied entirely on stored water. These findings highlight the householders' concerns about the limited availability of water and their strong behavoural patterns associated with storage of water. We conclude that household water storage container availability is a major risk factor for infestation with Ae. aegypti immatures, and that recent investment in rural water supply infrastructure are unlikely to mitigate this risk, at least in the short term.

  19. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Results of gas flux records in the seismically active area of Val d'Agri (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Val d Agri area is well-known for oil exploration. An old 500 m deep exploration well in the northern part of this area has been used for long-term hydrogeochemical investigations. The well is characterized by a discharge of about 500 L/min of thermal water (27.8°C and a simultaneous methane gas emission of about 200 L/min. Gas analyses gave evidence that the methane come from a multiple deep reservoir. Continuous records of gas emission showed some anomalous variations occurred during the past three years. The gas flux anomalies were in a distinctive coincidence with self-potential anomalies of one station close to the hydrogeochemical station. The present paper describes the interpretation of these anomalies in relation to the geodynamic activity in the area.

  1. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.

  2. Study of fault configuration related mysteries through multi seismic attribute analysis technique in Zamzama gas field area, southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seismic attribute analysis approach has been applied for the interpretation and identification of fault geometry of Zamzama Gas Field. Zamzama gas field area, which lies in the vicinity of Kirthar fold and thrust belt, Southern Indus Basin of Pakistan. The Zamzama fault and its related structure have been predicted by applying the Average Energy Attribute, Instantaneous Frequency Attribute, relative Acoustic Impedance Attribute and Chaotic Reflection Attribute on the seismic line GHPK98A.34. The results have been confirmed by applying the spectral decomposition attribute on the same seismic line that reveal the geometric configuration of Zamzama structure. The fault is reverse and started from 0 s and ended at the depth of 2.5 s on the vertical seismic section. Hanging wall moves up along the fault plane under the action of eastward oriented stress, which formed a large north–south oriented and eastward verging thrusted anticline.

  3. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals jointly measured in a a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuomo, V.; Di Bello, G. [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Heinecke, J. [Saxon Academy of Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.; Telesca, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Martinelli, G. [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Servizio Cartografico, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    In this work are analysed geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous find emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy). In the investigated area some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. Temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools are investigated. Scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded have been detected, they are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve the knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  4. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  5. Prevalence and acceptance of tattoos and piercings: a survey of young adults from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and acceptance of body piercings and tattoos among a community sample from the southern German-speaking area of Central Europe. A total of 440 respondents completed information about their own body piercings and tattoos and reported whether they would be likely never to have piercings and tattoos in the future. Analyses indicated that 19.8 and 15.2% of respondents had piercings (excluding the earlobe) and tattoos, respectively. Women were more likely to have body piercings than men, but there were no sex differences in tattooing. There were also few sociodemographic differences in piercings and tattoos, and most participants reported being likely to consider body art in the future. These results are considered in relation to prevalence estimates of body art in other Western countries and the associated health risks.

  6. Investigating the temporal fluctuations in geoelectrical and geochemical signals jointly measured in a a seismic area of Southern Apennine chain (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuomo, V; Di Bello, G [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Heinecke, J [Saxon Academy of Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Lapenna, V; Piscitelli, S; Telesca, L [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy); Martinelli, G [Regione Emilia-Romagna, Servizio Cartografico, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    In this work are analysed geoelectrical and geochemical time series jointly measured by means of a multiparametric automatic station close to an anomalous find emission in Val d'Agri (Basilicata, Southern Italy). In the investigated area some destructive seismic events occurred in past and recent years. Temporal fluctuations of the signals by spectral tools are investigated. Scaling behaviours in the power spectra of the time series recorded have been detected, they are typical fingerprints of fractional Brownian motions. The estimated values of the spectral indices reveal the presence of antipersistent behaviour in the time dynamics of all geoelectrical and geochemical data recorded. This work intends to improve the knowledge of the inner time dynamics of geophysical non-seismometric parameters.

  7. Management of water resources to control groundwater levels in the southern area of the western Nile delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sobeih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was initiated with the objective of simulating and predicting the effect of future development on the groundwater flow and levels. This supports applications for future planning and wise management of water resources. The study area extends south of El Nubariya canal including Sadat City area and its vicinities in the western Nile delta region. A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW has been employed to simulate flow and get the budget of groundwater in the study area. The model showed that about 28,101,041 m3/day of surface water is infiltrated to groundwater dominantly from canals and excess irrigation water. About the same quantity (28,101,052 m3/day, is discharged from groundwater through production wells, open drains and through some reaches of canals. Three development scenarios were simulated to give predictions of the impact of future increasing recharge, construction of new canal and new open drains, and also increased pumping on the groundwater levels in the study area.

  8. Spatial Distribution of earthquakes off the coast of Fukushima Two Years after the M9 Earthquake: the Southern Area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Rupture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2014-12-01

    Huge earthquakes cause vastly stress field change around the rupture zones, and many aftershocks and other related geophysical phenomenon such as geodetic movements have been observed. It is important to figure out the time-spacious distribution during the relaxation process for understanding the giant earthquake cycle. In this study, we pick up the southern rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). The seismicity rate keeps still high compared with that before the 2011 earthquake. Many studies using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) have been doing since soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in order to obtain aftershock activity precisely. Here we show one of the studies at off the coast of Fukushima which is located on the southern part of the rupture area caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We deployed 4 broadband type OBSs (BBOBSs) and 12 short-period type OBSs (SOBS) in August 2012. Other 4 BBOBSs attached with absolute pressure gauges and 20 SOBSs were added in November 2012. We recovered 36 OBSs including 8 BBOBSs in November 2013. We selected 1,000 events in the vicinity of the OBS network based on a hypocenter catalog published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and extracted the data after time corrections caused by each internal clock. Each P and S wave arrival times, P wave polarity and maximum amplitude were picked manually on a computer display. We assumed one dimensional velocity structure based on the result from an active source experiment across our network, and applied time corrections every station for removing ambiguity of the assumed structure. Then we adopted a maximum-likelihood estimation technique and calculated the hypocenters. The results show that intensive activity near the Japan Trench can be seen, while there was a quiet seismic zone between the trench zone and landward high activity zone.

  9. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  10. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The area designated by the city of San Antonio as the Rancho Diana Natural Area is in northern Bexar County, near San Antonio, Texas. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of San Antonio, documented the geologic framework and mapped the hydrogeologic characteristics for the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area. The geologic framework of the study area and its hydrogeologic characteristics were documented using field observations and information from previously published reports. Many of the geologic and hydrogeologic features were found by making field observations through the dense vegetation along gridlines spaced approximately 25 feet apart and documenting the features as they were located. Surface geologic features were identified and hydrogeologic features such as caves, sinkholes, and areas of solutionally enlarged porosity were located using hand-held Global Positioning System units. The location data were used to create a map of the hydrogeologic subdivisions and the location of karst features. The outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifer recharge zones were mapped by using hydrogeologic subdivisions modified from previous reports. All rocks exposed within the study area are of sedimentary origin and Lower Cretaceous in age. The valley floor is formed in the cavernous member of the upper Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group. The hills are composed of the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group. Field observations made during this study of the exposed formations and members indicate that the formations and members typically are composed of mudstones, wackestones, packstones, grainstones, and argillaceous limestones, along with marls. The upper Glen Rose Limestone is approximately 410 to 450 feet thick but only the upper 70 feet is exposed in the study area. The Kainer Formation is approximately 255 feet thick in

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Murcia Region, a southern European Mediterranean area with low cardiovascular risk and high obesity

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    Huerta José M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be

  12. Heavy Metals Concentrations in top Soils of Urban Areas (Naples - Southern Italy) as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchella, D.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.

    2001-12-01

    Heavy metals pollution, which mainly originates from automobile exhausts and industry, is a serious danger for human health. The source and extension of heavy metals pollution in the top soils has been studied extensively in the past 30 years. The role of the soil processes in accumulating or mobilising metals is very important in environmental science due to the central position of the soil in the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. Concentrations of heavy metals in top soils, collected in green areas and public parks in metropolitan Naples area have been determined to provide information on specific emission sources. In addition to toxic metals, such as Pb, As, Cd, Cr and others, we have investigated the top soils as well for Pt group elements (PGEs), because since 1993 it is mandatory within EC for all new petrol driven motor vehicles to be equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converter. In Italy this law has come into effect in 1998, but still is allowed to old vehicles use lead gasoline, though now the big majority of cars is equipped with Pt/Pd/Rh catalytic converters. Emission of abraded fragments of catalytic converters in vehicle exhausts will certainly determine environmental contamination with Pt group elements (PGEs), since many Pt complexes are highly cytotoxic and, in small dose, are strong allergens and potent sensitiser. The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities and vehicles traffic is an interesting area to be monitored in order to check the pollution state of the soils. The geology of the area is prevalently represented by volcanics, erupted from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. To compile multi-element geochemical maps baseline we have sampled in situ and transported top soil for a total of 200 samples. The survey have been carried at about 200 sites covering an area of about 120 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the highly urbanised area and 1 km x 1 km

  13. Short time scale laws in self-potentialsignals from two different seismically active Mediterranean areas(the Southern Apennine chainand Crete Island

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    M. Macchiato

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-potential time series are investigated to characterise self-potential time scales. The data analysed were recorded in stations located in two active seismic areas of the Mediterranean region, the Southern Apennine chain (Giuliano and Crete Island (Heraklion, where in past and recent years many destructive seismic events have taken place. The seismological and geological settings, combined with a low level of cultural noise, allow us to consider these areas ideal outdoor laboratories to study the time dynamics of geophysical parameters of electrical nature. At the same time, the different seismological features of such areas make an inter-comparison between the geoelectrical variability observed at the two sites interesting. Fractal analysis tools, able to detect scale laws and quantify persistence features, are used to better understand the background variability properties of the self-potential signals. As results from our analysis, antipersistence seems to be a ubiquitous feature on short time scales (minutes regardless of environmental conditions. On such scales, the accumulation of random fluctuations is not particularly efficient and significant variations mostly occur as sudden jumps.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Cervical Neoplasia in Women from a Rural Area of Southern Mozambique

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    Clara Menéndez

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors associated with the presence of some of the STIs were being divorced or widowed, having more than one sexual partner and having the partner living in another area. A higher prevalence was observed in the reproductive age group and some of the STIs were more frequently diagnosed in pregnant women. STI control programs are a priority to reduce the STIs burden, including HIV and cervical neoplasia.

  15. Human Visceral Leishmaniasis: a Serological Survey in Rural Areas of Dashti District of Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

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    Mohammad Gorgipoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. Mediterranean type of the disease is endemic in some parts of Iran and more than 95% of cases were reported in children up to 12 years of age. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of VL in the rural areas of the Dashti district from Bushehr province.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a randomized cluster sampling method was used for the collection of blood samples from children up to 12 years old from rural areas of Dashti district. Before sampling; a questionnaire was filled out for each case. All the collected blood samples were examined after the serum separating by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The cutoff titers of ≥1: 3200 with specific clinical features were supposed to be considered as VL.Results: Altogether, 24 out of 1221 (1.96% blood samples showed titers between 1:800 and 1:1600 which considered as suspicious cases. None of the suspicious cases had a history of kala-azar. None of 1221 collected blood samples showed anti Leishmania infantum (L. infantum at titer ≥1:3200.Conclusion: This study confirms the circulation of L. infantum in Dashti district and highlights the sporadic pattern of VL in the studied areas which necessitates the surveillance system to be monitored by health authorities.

  16. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

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    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  17. Perennial grasses for recovery of the aggregation capacity of a reconstructed soil in a coal mining area in southern Brazil

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    Lizete Stumpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7 and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control, mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4 and Hemarthria altissima (T5. However, the great differences between the

  18. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed Mohamed; El-Badrawy, Hussein Tawfek; Abuo El-Ela, Amin Mohamed; Solimaan, Mohamed Refaat; Alrefaee, Hamed Abdelhamid; Elbowab, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Potential field data of the area east of Abu Gharadig basin were used to delineate the tectonic framework of probable economic interest and for future development plans for the area. To achieve this goal, the RTP and Bouguer gravity maps of the study area were subjected to several filtering and processing techniques. The regional magnetic map shows NE-SW high regional magnetic trends at the northwestern and southeastern parts as well as low magnetic trends at the central part reflecting thick non-magnetized sediments and/or deep highly magnetized basement rocks. Similarly, the regional gravity map shows NE-SW diagonal high and low gravity trends across the entire area of study as well as a distinct increase of gravity values toward the northwest corner reflecting thickening of sedimentary cover and/or deepening of denser basement rock at the central part. The residual maps reveal many anomalies of shallow sources with different polarities, amplitudes and extensions in the form of alternating high and low gravity and magnetic indicating that the basement rocks are dissected by faults forming uplifted and downthrown blocks. Edge detection techniques outlined effectively the boarders and extensions of the structural highs and lows through showing gravity and magnetic maxima over the edges of these tectonic features. Moreover, the River Nile course is controlled by shallow normal faults affecting the recent Nile sediments and is clearly shown by edge detection maps of gravity data. Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE-WSW Syrian Arc, NW-SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE-SW Aqaba, E-W Mediterranean and N-S East Africa tectonic trends. The older

  19. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  20. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

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    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², pEl robalo blanco Centropomus undecimalis representa un ingreso monetario significativo y un recurso alimentario para todas las comunidades rurales cercanas a su distribución. Se determinó la edad y crecimiento de esta especie. Los organismos se recolectaron mensualmente en los desembarcos de la pesca artesanal de las cooperativas de mayor contribución en la zona costera (Barra Bosque y San Pedro y ribereña (San Pedro y Tres Brazos entre julio 2006 y marzo 2008. La edad se determinó mediante otolitos seccionados. La edad estimada fue de 2 a 17 años. Mensualmente se estableció la

  1. Austrian phase on the northern African margin inferred from sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary records in southern Tunisia (Chotts and Djeffara areas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzez, Marzouk; Zouaghi, Taher; Ben Youssef, Mohamed

    2008-08-01

    A multidisciplinary study concerning Aptian and Albian deposits is reported from petroleum wells and the exposed section. The biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis defined four sedimentary units. Well-logging signals' analysis allows us to refine the record resolution on Aptian series and reveals, in the Djeffara field, a transgressive system tract (TST) and a highstand system tract (HST). Exceptionally, the first sequence (S1) in the Mareth 1 well and the fifth sequence in the two wells Mareth 1 and Gourine 1 reveal the lower-stand system tract (LST). The unconformities characterized by the absence of Upper Aptian (Clansayesian) and Lower to Middle Albian deposits signed by a significant gamma-ray reduction. The Middle and Upper Albian is represented by only one deposit sequence (S6) in Mareth 1. Towards the south, in the Gourine well, two deposit sequences were identified (S6 and S7); to specify the Aptian and Albian evolution of the deposit sequences, a tentative correlation has been established between the Chotts and Djeffara areas. This correlation allows us to characterize the sedimentary unconformities related to the tectonics and eustatic events. The Chotts and the Djeffara deposition areas were developed, characterized by an irregular subsidence and separated by the Tebaga Medenine high area. The Aptian-Albian subsidence platform of southern Tunisia may be considered as a block diagram of environmental deposit with regressive and transgressive trends, showing the impact of tectonic deformations on the palaeogeographic evolution of southeastern Tunisia during the Austrian phase. This study also must be replaced within regional structural patterns that may explain both the sequential and sedimentological evolution of the area. Deformations regionally identified are integrated in the more general context of both Tethyan and Atlantic areas related to the drift of the African platform.

  2. The Effect Of Land Cover/Land Use On Groundwater Resources In Southern Egypt (Luxor Area): Remote Sensing And Field Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, A.M.; Hinz, E.A.; Montgomery, H.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of land cover/land use on groundwater can be critical. Land cover / land use maps give an early warning for planners and developers to protect groundwater resources from depletion and preserve its sustain ability. These land cover / land use maps can be used for the planning of groundwater development to prevent the deterioration of the aquifer. The Research Institute for Groundwater of Egypt (RIGW) has carried out hydrogeological studies in 1990 to evaluate the potentiality of groundwater in Luxor area in southern Egypt close to the Nile valley. The region is characterized by a rapid and continuous increase in land reclamation and development on the fringes which surround the already heavily cultivated land within the Nile valley. This presented a need for continuous monitoring and information updating over a vast region in a short time and at a reasonable cost. This study illustrates how remote sensing techniques can be effectively used for monitoring changes in land cover / land use in an effort to aid groundwater management. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in 1984 and 2000 were processed and analyzed over the study area to produce land cover/land use maps. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique is used for Landsat TM images of to quantify areas which are covered by vegetation. Results indicated significant increase in cultivated areas. Remote sensing results are compared with iso-piezo metric maps and iso-salinity maps that were produced in 1984 and 2000. Comparison of these maps indicates groundwater depletion and salinity increase from 1984 to 2000. We relate this to the increase of the area being cultivated

  3. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

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    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  4. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  5. Integrated geophysical studies on the area east of Abu Gharadig basin, southern Cairo, Egypt, using potential field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohamed El-Awady

    2016-12-01

    Euler deconvolution of magnetic and gravity data reveals clustering of solution along fault trends or causative bodies centers. The Euler depth estimate to the basement surface shows a good correlation with the depth determined by the power spectrum method where its value ranges around 4 km. The interpreted basement tectonic map of the study area is dominated by ENE–WSW Syrian Arc, NW–SE Gulf of Suez and Red Sea, NE–SW Aqaba, E–W Mediterranean and N–S East Africa tectonic trends. The older tectonic trends were reactivated then intersected by younger ones.

  6. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  7. Monitoring of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the subarctic and in alpine areas of southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David C.; Jónsson, Ingi R.; Cypaité, Vaiva; Ognjanova, Nadja; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Trichkova, Teodora

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades invasive species have been spreading across Europe. Although the perceptions of invasive species are divergent among researchers there is a general consent that invasive species endanger the diversity of native biota and hence should be monitored to initiate appropriate counter measures in drastic cases. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are the main cause for the enhanced spreading of non-native species to new environments. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from two aquatic case studies, one located in subarctic Iceland (River Elliðaár) and one in the high mountains of Bulgaria (the Seven Rila lakes), focusing on the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo). The diatom is a single cell algae which's natural habitat is cold fresh water environments with low nutrient content, i.e. mountainous areas in Europe, Asia and North America. In the last decades Didymo has been increasingly observed in new areas, e.g. Iceland, North America and New Zealand. Within the ESENIAS-TOOLS project two field excursions will identify the existence of Didymo in the two study sites and compare current abundance to previous observations. The preliminary results in the Rila Mountains, including both fossil and recent records, confirm that the occurrence of Didymo is restricted to Lake Bliznaka, the largest of the seven lakes located at lower altitude. In River Elliðaár preliminary results indicate a high abundance of Didymo along all sampling locations, confirming the invasive proliferation described in previous studies. The upscaling of the preliminary results from Elliðaár and Rila Mountains can help us to formulate general conclusions about the spreading of this invasive species. Furthermore, this bilateral cooperation can be further extended to other countries and hence contribute to a better management of invasive alien species in Europe. Acknowledgement: This study is part of ESENIAS - The East and South European

  8. [Spatial and/or olfactory memory in sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Janaína Sales de; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Casanova, Cláudio; Silva, Joseane Padilha da; Previdelli, Isolde; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2009-01-01

    The results from an investigation on the possibility that sandflies in an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the state of Paraná, may have memory are reported. Sandflies were caught in Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo, State of Paraná, Brazil, using Falcão traps in two chicken sheds (G1 and G2), between November 15 and 26, 2007. A total of 2,080 sandflies were caught (1,000 in G1 and 1,080 in G2) and these were marked and released. Nyssomyia neivai was the most (90.5%) frequent species. Out of the total released, 168 sandflies (8%) were recaptured and the recapture rate in G2 was significant. The results show that it is possible that spatial or olfactory memory and/or host loyalty exists, and that this will guide the sandflies in recognizing the places where sources of blood are available.

  9. Distribution of 127Cs and 90Sr in southern part of Pyajyanne lake and in its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksen, R.; Rantavaara, A.; Yaakkola, T.

    1998-01-01

    Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137 Cs concentration is decreasing. 90 Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137 Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137 Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90 Sr washing out. The role of 137 Cs and 90 Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes

  10. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  11. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance (T value is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a, and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  12. ["Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual relations permeated by gender stereotypes and roles. We believe that planning of prevention should be based on the consideration of overall social practices and specifically the characteristics of gender relations, prioritizing relational strategies between women and men and promoting critical reflection on the main nodes organizing daily life and active participation in the production of social relations and practices of reciprocity and equity. The increasingly precarious conditions in social life intensifies poor women's vulnerability and social interaction contexts that relate to the socioeconomic and symbolic role played by women.

  13. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  14. Comparative assessment of soil contamination by lead and heavy metals in riparian and agricultural areas (southern Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(50)), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg(-1) (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg(-1) (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg(-1) (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg(-1)) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg(-1) (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg(-1), and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Baril

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb. These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1 in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5. Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  16. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  17. Exploring links between water quality and E. coli O157:H7 survival potential in well waters from a rural area of southern Changchun City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meiyue; Li, Jiahang; Liu, Xiaodan; Li, Huiru; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Jincai

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms. Our results also revealed that the average survival time (ttd) of E. coli O157:H7 in all well water samples was 30.09 days, with shortest and longest ttd being 17.95 and 58.10 days, respectively. The ttds were significantly correlated with pH and the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus. In addition, it was found that the shape parameter (p) and first decimal reduction parameter (δ) were negatively (P well water, suggesting that this pathogen could constitute a great public health risk.

  18. Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

    2010-11-01

    A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions.

  19. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation characteristic of the new high background radiation area of lambwe east southern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achola, S.O.; Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Rocks and soils from a number of areas underlined by carbonatite rocks in Kenya have been associated with high levels of natural background radioactivity. People in such high background radiation areas (HBRA), are exposed to abnormally high annual absorbed dose (that have health implications) than the global normal 1 mSvyr-1. In this paper, results of field background radiation measurements, activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in (mainly carbonatite rock and soil) matrices, and estimated annual external effective dose rates are presented for South and North Ruri hills in Lambwe East location of Suba District, which lies roughly between latitudes 0°30'S and 1°00'S, bounded on the east by longitude 34°30'E and on the west by the shores of Lake Victoria 16 and Winnam Gulf. Altitudes in the region range from about 1000 m on the shores of Lake Victoria to above 1800 m on top of the Ruri hills. The main geological features are carbonatite formations. Twenty one samples were analyzed using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentrations ranged 14.18 - 6559.99 Bqkg-1 (average: 1396.85 Bqkg-1) for Th-232; 2.73 - 499.24 Bqkg-1 (average: 178.69 Bqkg-1) for U-238; and 56.67 - 1454.73 Bqkg-1 (average: 508.67 Bqkg-1) for K-40. The variability in Th distribution could be due to another contributing factor apart from carbonatite: Homa hills geothermal field fluids might be responsible for delivery of Th to surface rocks; some hot spots have travertine deposits. Measured absorbed dose rates in air outdoors range 700 - 6000.00 nGyh-1 (mean: 2325.84 nGy h-1); assuming 0.4 occupancy factor, these values correspond to individual annual effective dose rates of 1.717 - 14.717 mSvyr-1 (mean: 5.705 mSv yr-1). Measured absorbed dose rates are higher than calculated values since they include the contribution of cosmic rays. The natural radioactivity is fractionated with higher levels in the soils than carbonatite rocks

  20. Groundwater recharge - climatic and vegetation induced variations. Simulations in the Emaan and Aespoe areas in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losjoe, K.; Johansson, Barbro; Bringfelt, B.; Oleskog, I.; Bergstroem, S.

    1999-01-01

    Climate change and man-made interference will cause an impact on runoff and groundwater recharge in the future. With the aim to give a conception of seasonal variations and the magnitude of the differences, the HBV model has been used as a tool for simulating five climate alternatives in two areas of south-east Sweden. The climate alternatives include both increased and decreased temperature and precipitation. These are not predictions of a future climate change, and should only be regarded as examples. The purpose has been to exemplify a conceivable magnitude of change during temperate/boreal conditions. It has not been within the scope of this report to evaluate the most probable climate change scenarios. The impacts of different climate scenarios on the total groundwater recharge and the deep groundwater recharge have been calculated as long-term mean values and are presented in comparison with model-simulated values with an actual (recorded) climate sequence. The results show great differences between the climate alternatives. An increase in temperature will decrease snow accumulation and increase the evapotranspiration and can totally extinguish the spring snowmelt peak in runoff and groundwater recharge. A decreased temperature, on the contrary, will imply decreased winter runoff and recharge values and an increase in spring and summer values. Evapotranspiration and soil water content play a key role in the runoff and recharge processes. This report makes a review of some literature about work done within the areas of investigation and calculation of evapotranspiration. Research is in progress, not only on formulating future climate scenarios, but also on distinguishing evapotranspiration from different kinds of vegetation. These are complex questions, but vital ones, as a climate change will also affect the vegetation. Until new research results are presented, well-known methods can be used for simulating the effects of logging on runoff and groundwater

  1. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  2. A NEW EARLY SEMIONOTIDAE (SEMIONOTIFORMES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE UPPER LADINIAN OF MONTE SAN GIORGIO AREA SOUTHERN SWITZERLAND AND NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the Semionotiformes is still scarcely known as, apart from the Permian Acentrophorus, most of the Early and Middle Triassic taxa traditionally ascribed to this order are often poorly known and/or they actually belong to other groups. Sangiorgioichthys aldae gen. n. sp. n. is described from the Upper Ladinian Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride Limestone of the Monte San Giorgio area on specimens coming from both Italy and Switzerland. The new genus is ascribed to the family Semionotidae as it shows several of the characters usually considered as diagnostic of the family itself, even if no real synapomorphies have been so far proposed for it. As a Semionotidae, Sangiorgioichthys gen. n. has an almost complete circumorbital series, large ascending process of the premaxilla, rostral and nasals almost tube-like, short maxilla, several suborbital bones posterior and ventral to the infraorbitals, long antero-dorsal process of the suboperculum, sensory canal system very rich in pores, mid dorsal ridge scales with an incipient spine. Peculiar characters of the new genus are dermal skull bones completely covered by ganoine, a very large ventral infraorbital almost attaining the anterior edge of the preoperculum, two ‘ventral’ suborbitals, very elongate anterior supraorbital bone,  dentition made of a number of tiny pencil-like teeth, anterior and posterior lateral line scales differentiated. 

  3. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  4. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    the first archaic settlement (late 6th cent. BC) was unearthed. The Graeco-Roman town expanded downhill, exploiting the growth of a coastal plain, where occasional phases of flooding coexisted with the life of the citizens [6]. The onset of the 3rd cent. AD was characterized by phases of extreme floods which also occurred during the 4th and 5th cent. AD leading to several meters of ground-level aggradation and the burial of buildings [6, 7]. Although the three investigated sites are located in rather different morphological context, they show the evidence of a disequilibrium in the morphodynamics which started in the 3rd-4th cent. AD. The vast amount of collected data strongly suggest that this disequilibrium is a clear sign of a socio-economic decline which affected the Roman Empire during this period rather than the consequence of a climatic deterioration towards dryer conditions, for which no detailed data are available in the Mediterranean area [8]. The abandonment of the towns and their surroundings triggered increased soil erosion on the slopes suffering deforestation and in the farmlands for reduced maintenance, enhancing accumulation rates at the foothills and along coastal areas. References [1] D'Agostino, B., Giampaola, D., 2005. Osservazioni storiche e archeologiche sulla fondazione di Neapolis, in: Harris, W.V., Lo Cascio, E. (Eds.), Noctes Campanae, studi di storia antica e archeologia dell'Italia pre-romana e romana in memoria di Martin W. Frederiksen, Napoli, 63-72. [2] Giampaola, D., Carsana, V., Boetto, G., Bartolini, M., Capretti, C., Galotta, G., Giachi, G., Macchioni, N., Nugari, M. P., Pizzo, B., 2006. La scoperta del porto di Neapolis: dalla ricostruzione topografica allo scavo e al recupero dei relitti. Arch. Mar. Medit., Int. J. Underwat. Arch. 2, 47-91, Ist. Ed. Poligr.Int. MMVI, Pisa - Roma. [3] Allevato, E., Russo Ermolli, E., Boetto, G., Di Pasquale, G., 2010. Pollen-wood analysis at the Neapolis harbour site (1st-3rd century AD, southern

  5. Seismic reflection data processing in active volcanic areas: an application to Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius offshore (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Campanian volcanism develops near the sea. Therefore, the geophysical study of the marine environment is a key to a better understanding of the tectonic evolution and the origin of volcanism in the area. An abundance of high quality seismic data in the marine sector, where little direct information is available, is critical to the study of Campanian volcanism. This paper concerns the reprocessing of a seismic reflection dataset acquired in Naples Bay and processed during 1973. Even though the overall data quality was high for that time, of course their acquisition technological limits have been overcome by the new processing. Our reprocessing aimed at: 1 reduction of random noise in the data; 2 removal of unwanted coherent events; 3 reduction of spatial aliasing by means of trace interpolation on Commod Shot Point (CSP gathering; 4 improvement of resolution of the seismic wavelet with spiking deconvolution algorithms and finally 5 reposition of reflectors in their correct locations in the space-TWT domain by means of dip moveout and post-stack time migration. A comparison between the new and old data shows that the new sections are characterized by a much higher S/N ratio. Diffraction hyperbole has been collapsed. Reverberations, ghosts and multiples have been removed or greatly attenuated, especially between the reflectors of interest, allowing us to follow them with more detail and with greater continuity. Furthermore, data resolution has been boosted by the reprocessing, allowing the interpreter to evaluate reflector position and continuity in greater detail. The reinterpretation phase of such lines, that is already in an advanced stage, will therefore allow us to gain new insights into the structural setting of the bay, with the aim of exploring the connection between tectonics and volcanism.

  6. Lamprophyres from the Harohalli dyke swarm in the Halaguru and Mysore areas, Southern India: Implications for backarc basin magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Shubhangi; Randive, Kirtikumar

    2018-05-01

    The Bangalore and Harohalli dyke swarms occur in the eastern part of the Dharwar craton. The older Bangalore dyke swarm is made up of dolerites, trending east-west, and the younger contains alkaline dykes that trend approximately north-south. The lamprophyres of the Harohalli dyke swarm occur in the Halaguru and Mysore industrial areas where they are exposed as fresh porphyritic - panidiomorphic dykes, containing crustal xenoliths, and showing chilled contacts with the country rock charnokites. They are chiefly composed of amphiboles which form well-developed phenocrysts. Clinopyroxenes are present in some of the dykes. Compositional zoning is observed in clinopyroxenes and amphiboles; their zoning patterns indicate that the magma experienced cryptic variations and that fractional crystallization was a dominant process in the evolution of the Harohalli Lamprophyres (HRL). The HRL are calc-alkaline with shoshonitic affinity and exhibit a K2O/Na2O ratio of ∼1. They show primitive (MORB-like) trace-element characters. LILE and LREE both show marginally enriched patterns; whereas HFSE and HREE show strongly depleted patterns. In the regional geologic sense, HRL dykes are characterised by two major influences; namely, (i) primary source region characteristics, which are geochemically more primitive, roughly falling within fields of primitive - MORB and enriched- MORB and (ii) the continental lithosphere. The data points for the HRL distinctly show their proximity to N-MORB and scatter towards the continental crust. Moreover, features like xenolith assimilation might influence the trace-element characteristics of the HRL dykes. Such magmas with mixed characters can be formed in a backarc basin environment. Geochemical proxies such as Ba/Nb vs Nb/Yb, Ba/Th vs Th/Nb, and the water content of magmas; which have been effectively used for discriminating backarc basin magmas worldwide, also indicate that the HRL magmas were generated in a backarc environment with inputs from

  7. Selected examples of needs for long term pilot areas in Mediterranean catchments: a mountain traditional agricultural system and a large and regulated hydrographic basin in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías

    2015-04-01

    Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed

  8. Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity are not significant risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A prominent factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and obesity have also been implicated in HCC development, but these associations are not observed in all HBV- and HCV-endemic areas. We attempted to clarify the role of these factors in HCC development in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area in southern Taiwan. A community-based health examination was conducted in 2004 in Tainan County. After individuals with incomplete data and those with known HCC were excluded, there were 56,231 participants who were over 40 years of age. A further 262 HCC cases were identified from the National Cancer Registration Database records from 2005 to 2007. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity, anti-HCV seropositivity, platelet count, serum biochemical data, blood pressure, sociodemographic information, and anthropometric measurements were analyzed. Survival analyses were used to identify the associations between these factors and HCC. For the 262 HCC cases, male gender and age greater than 65 years were risk factors. Furthermore, a high alanine aminotransferase level, chronic HBV and/or HCV infection, and liver cirrhosis were also risk factors for HCC. However, DM, MetS and obesity were not associated with HCC development in the non-HBV-/non-HCV-infected, HBV, HCV, or dual B/C groups. In this HBV- and HCV- endemic area, DM, MetS and obesity were not risk factors for developing HCC.

  9. Sedimentary architecture and palaeogeography of lower Slochteren Aeolian cycles from the Rotliegend desert-lake margin (Permian), the Markham area, Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, F.J.G. van den; Hulten, F.F.N. van

    2011-01-01

    The Rotliegend gas play in the Southern Permian Basin has yielded over 200 gas fields in the Netherlands; they are found in an E-W fairway along the southern flank of the basin. Sandstones generally pinch out basinward, but localized, isolated sands are present north of the main fairway. The

  10. Undulating Band Style and Fringe Style Matt-Painted Pottery from the Sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide Area (CS) Calabria - southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Francesco, Anna Maria; Andaloro, Eliana; Jacobsen, Jan K.

    This paper presents a comparison of two different classes of Matt-Painted pottery attributed to the 8th century B.C. from the sanctuary on the Timpone della Motta in the Sibaritide (CS), Calabria, southern Italy. Matt-Painted pottery was widely produced in southern Italy during the early Iron Age,

  11. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  12. Cross-sectional study of area-level disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in community health service users in the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Roger; Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Weston, Kathryn M

    2017-09-19

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in health service users in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. Methods HbA1c values recorded between 2010 and 2012 for non-pregnant individuals aged ≥18 years were extracted from the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) database. Individuals were assigned quintiles of the Socioeconomic Indices for Australia (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) according to their Statistical Area 1 of residence. Glycaemic risk categories were defined as HbA1c 5.0-5.99% (lowest risk), 6.0-7.49% (intermediate risk) and ≥7.5% (highest risk). Logistic regression models were fit with glycaemic risk category as the outcome variable and IRSD as the study variable, adjusting for age and sex. Results Data from 29064 individuals were analysed. Higher disadvantage was associated with belonging to a higher glycaemic risk category in the fully adjusted model (most disadvantaged vs least disadvantaged quintile; odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.58, 1.93; Pdisadvantage was a significant correlate of increased glycaemic-related risk. Geocoded clinical data can inform more targeted use of health service resources, with the potential for improved health care equity and cost-effectiveness. What is known about the topic? The rapid increase in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), both globally and nationally within Australia, is a major concern for the community and public health agencies. Individual socioeconomic disadvantage is a known risk factor for abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), including T2D. Although small-area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is a known correlate of AGM in Australia, less is known of the association of area-level disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in individuals with AGM. What does this paper add? This study demonstrates a robust association between small-area

  13. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  14. How the expanded crowd-funding mechanism of some southern rural areas in China affects cooperative behaviors in threshold public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Tong; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of emotions on the public goods game can not be ignored. • Individuals’ emotions will be influenced by list and lobbyists’ words when making decisions. • Unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value, it is necessary to encourage more people to act as lobbyists. • Whether and how to publish the list depend on the situation. - Abstract: The pursuit of high cooperation rates in public goods games has attracted many researchers. However, few researchers attach much weight to the influence of emotions on decision-making, especially on public goods games. From ancient to modern times, publishing the list of cooperators to stimulate cooperation has been a common phenomenon in some southern rural areas in China. Actually, the published list can influence individuals’ behaviors by affecting their emotions. Here we extend the method of publishing the list and optimize it by adding a lobbyist mechanism. Through numerical simulations, we find that the role of lobbyists can not be ignored unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value. Additionally, we find that publishing the list certainly has a great effect on individual’s cooperative behavior. But whether to publish the list or not and how to publish the list depend on the situation.

  15. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  16. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  17. Electric resistivity distribution in the Earth's crust and upper mantle for the southern East European Platform and Crimea from area-wide 2D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Igor M.; Tarasov, Viktor N.

    2018-03-01

    Previously obtained magnetotelluric 2D models for 30 profiles made it possible to create an overview model of electric resistivity for the territory between 28°E and 36°E and between 44.5°N and 52.5°N. It allows us to distinguish a number of low resistivity objects (LRO) with resistivities lower than 100 Ω m the Earth's crust and mantle. Two regional conductivity anomalies are traced. The Kirovograd conductivity anomaly extends south to the Crimea mountains. A new regional conductivity anomaly (Konkskaya) can be distinguished along the southern slope of the Ukrainian Shield from 29° to 34°E. In addition, many local LROs have been identified. According to the modeling results, the local low resistivity objects on the East European Platform appear along fault zones activated during last 5-7 M years and the model suggests their relation to known zones of graphitization and polymetallic ore deposits. Local LROs in the Dnieper-Donets Basin correlate with the main oil and natural gas fields in this area. The depth of the anomalous objects amounts to 5-22 km. This is consistent with the hypotheses that hydrocarbon deposits are related to generation and transport zones of carbon-bearing fluids.

  18. An effort in increasing the use of natural resources around southern coast of Yogyakarta, A case-study of coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJALAL S. TANDJUNG

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal in the southern coast of Yogyakarta is an arid and dried area, and marginal agriculture land. The potential vegetation resources only live on the lands that produce cassava, corn, peanut, and soybean. The increasing benefits of sea products such as fishes still need to be invented. The aims of this research are to inventories and to increase the use of disadvantage resources. This research was conducted from October 1995 to March 1996. The result invents 70 species of useful plants and 21 species of weed that can be used by the people for the needs of their own households. The remainder products of Anona squamosa L., which might easily rot and until now unprofitable, could be used to make some jam. Phylantus emblica L. can be put into a useful product by making them to become candies. Another natural resources that are neglected are the cattle excrement and sharkskin. All kind of sharkskin’s can be manufactured into leather products. While cattle excrement can be produced methane for cooking and lighting. There are 163 species of ornamental fishes in Kukup, and 20 species of consumed fishes in Baron. In search of ornamental fishes, the fishermen have a bad-habit of using hazardous materials such as potassium cyanide. Besides endangers the reef communities, algae and fish-larvae, it makes the ornamental fishes they caught unhealthy and cannot be exported since their lifespan is very short. Due to this factor, ornamental fishes are only available in the local market of Kukup.

  19. The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereure, Jacques; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Malé, Pierre; Martinez, Susana; Pratlong, Francine; Balard, Yves; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-12-01

    In 1994, an ecoepidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. The seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43% in the foothill villages. Five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in five locations by CDC light traps. Both of the known French vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were identified. Bioclimatic and floristic studies showed that this area is an enclave of the supra-Mediterranean climatic zone, containing a typically xerothermophilic Mediterranean flora. The Pyrenees Mountains are usually considered to be outside of the endemic range of leishmaniasis in southern France, and so our demonstration of a microfocus of canine leishmaniasis in the northern foothills is noteworthy. A second serologic survey carried out in 2007 (216 dogs) showed an inversion of the seropositive rates between the two groups of villages compared with those of 1994: only 2.72% in the valley villages and 11.32% in the foothills villages. The decrease of seroprevalence in the first area (valley villages) can be related to a considerable use of deltamethrin collars during the transmission season. The increase of seroprevalence of the foothill villages could be related to climatic conditions, since there was an increase of about 1 degrees C in the mean annual temperature.

  20. Imaging the Shallow Crust in the Epicentral Area of the 1857 M7 Agri Valley Earthquake (Southern Italy) by Combined Traveltime and Full-Waveform Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Operto, S.; Piromallo, C.; Valoroso, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Agri Valley is a Quaternary extensional basin located in the Southern Apennines range. This basin was struck by a M7 earthquake in 1857. In spite of extensive morphotectonic surveys and hydrocarbon exploration, major unsolved questions remain about the upper crustal structure, the recent tectonic evolution and seismotectonics of the area. Most authors consider a SW-dipping normal-fault system bordering the basin to the East as the major seismogenic source. Alternatively, some authors ascribe the high seismogenic potential of the region to NE-dipping normal faults identified by morphotectonic surveys along the ridge bounding the basin to the West. These uncertainties mainly derive from the poor performance of commercial reflection profiling that suffers from an extreme structural complexity and unfavorable near-surface conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, ENI and Shell Italia carried out a non-conventional wide-aperture survey with densely spaced sources (60 m) and receivers (90 m). The 18-km-long wide-aperture profile crosses the basin, yielding a unique opportunity to get new insights into the crustal structure by using advanced imaging techniques. Here, we apply a two-step imaging procedure. We start determining multi- scale Vp images down to 2.5 km depth by using a non-linear traveltime tomographic technique able to cope with strongly heterogeneous media. Assessment of an accurate reference Vp model is indeed crucial for the subsequent application of a frequency-domain full-waveform inversion aimed at improving spatial resolution of the velocity images. Frequency components of the data are then iteratively inverted from low to high frequency values in order to progressively incorporate smaller wavelength components into the model. Inversion results accurately image the shallow crust, yielding valuable constraints for a better understanding of the recent basin evolution and of the surrounding normal-fault systems.

  1. The LAMOST Complete Spectroscopic Survey of Pointing Area (LaCoSSPAr) in the Southern Galactic Cap. I. The Spectroscopic Redshift Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Hong; Yang, Fan; Lam, Man I.; Cao, Tian-Wen; Wu, Chao-Jian; Zhao, Pin-Song; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Xue-Bing; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Shao, Zheng-Yi; Jing, Yi-Peng; Shen, Shi-Yin; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Du, Wei; Lei, Feng-Jie; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jian-Ling; Wu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Luo, A.-Li; Yuan, Hai-Long; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Kong, Xu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Xu; Ma, Jun; Hu, Zou; Nie, Jun-Dan; Wang, Jia-Li; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2018-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic redshift catalog from the LAMOST Complete Spectroscopic Survey of Pointing Area (LaCoSSPAr) in the Southern Galactic Cap (SGC), which is designed to observe all sources (Galactic and extragalactic) by using repeating observations with a limiting magnitude of r=18.1 {mag} in two 20 {\\deg }2 fields. The project is mainly focusing on the completeness of LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys (LEGAS) in the SGC, the deficiencies of source selection methods, and the basic performance parameters of the LAMOST telescope. In both fields, more than 95% of galaxies have been observed. A post-processing has been applied to the LAMOST 1D spectrum to remove the majority of remaining sky background residuals. More than 10,000 spectra have been visually inspected to measure the redshift by using combinations of different emission/absorption features with an uncertainty of {σ }z/(1+z)visual inspection. Our analysis also indicates that up to one-fourth of the input targets for a typical extragalactic spectroscopic survey might be unreliable. The multi-wavelength data analysis shows that the majority of mid-infrared-detected absorption (91.3%) and emission line galaxies (93.3%) can be well separated by an empirical criterion of W2-W3=2.4. Meanwhile, a fainter sequence paralleled to the main population of galaxies has been witnessed both in M r /W2-W3 and M */W2-W3 diagrams, which could be the population of luminous dwarf galaxies but contaminated by the edge-on/highly inclined galaxies (∼ 30 % ).

  2. Biological monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage, in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenbing; Fan, Ruifang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage in Southern China and research the influence of environment smoke tobacco (EST) to people through active and passive smoking. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in 141 randomly selected voluntary residents aged 13 to 81 years in two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed groups, two control groups, and an EST research group. The concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in PAH-exposed groups are significantly higher (pelectronic garbage (1.1 μmol/mol creatinine) is a little higher than those of iron foundry workers, automobile repair workers, and firefighters. Mean value of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (11.3 μmol/mol creatinine) is much higher than that of shipyard and aircraft maintenance and much lower than some occupational exposure, such as coking batteries, sorting department, and distillation department in coking plant. Some metabolites of PAHs (PAHm) are significantly elevated through active and passive smoking, while the influence of EST to other PAHm is not statistically significant. 2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers are, respectively, 3.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.9 times to those of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers, passive smokers excreted 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, and 1.5 times of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene compared to nonpassive smokers.

  3. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  5. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  6. Exposure to ticks and seroprevalence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]among a healthy young population living in the area of southern Podlasie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pańczuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objectives[/b]. The objective of the study was assessment of risk of infection with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] in the area of southern Podlasie in Poland, near the border with Belarus, by analysis of post-exposure procedure, and evaluation of asymptomatic infection in adolescents bitten by a tick, confirmed by serologic tests. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among 128 healthy individuals aged 16–20 who declared being bitten by a tick. The level of IgM and IgG class antibodies was determined using the immunoenzymatic test (Borrelia 14 kD + OspC IgM ELISA and Borrelia IgG + VlsE ELISA, DRG Diagnostics. Positive and doubtful results were confirmed using the Western blot method (EUROLINE-WB, EUROIMMUN. [b]Results[/b]. In the study group, the largest number of respondents (59.4% declared tick bite in the region of the lower extremities, most often in the knee pit. Among the methods for removing the tick the largest number of respondents indicated removing it with the use of tweezers, with a simple, swift steady movement (29.7%, and pulling it out with the fingers (22.7%. In the ELISA test, a positive or doubtful result in at least one class was observed in 25.0% of respondents (n=32/128: in IgM class – 23.4% (n=30/128, and in IgG class – 4.7% (n=6/128. After verification with the Western blot test, infection was confirmed in 5.5% of respondents (n=7/128: in IgM class – 1.6% (n=2/128, in IgG class – 3.9% (n=5/128. In IgM class antibodies, the Western blot test confirmed positive or doubtful results of the ELISA test in 6.7%, while in IgG class antibodies in 83.3%. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Evaluation of the actual infection with [i]Borrelia spp.[/i] using serologic tests is difficult due to a certain non-specificity of the ELISA test, especially in IgM class antibodies, and difficulties with performance of a wide scope of specific Western blot tests. The variety of methods of tick removal declared by adolescents suggests

  7. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1956 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.2353 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; 207 Pb/ 206 Pb between 0.8372 and 0

  8. Strategies to take into account variations in extreme rainfall events for design storms in urban area: an example over Naples (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, P.; Rianna, G.

    2017-12-01

    Eminent works highlighted how available observations display ongoing increases in extreme rainfall events while climate models assess them for future. Although the constraints in rainfall networks observations and uncertainties in climate modelling currently affect in significant way investigations, the huge impacts potentially induced by climate changes (CC) suggest adopting effective adaptation measures in order to take proper precautions. In this regard, design storms are used by engineers to size hydraulic infrastructures potentially affected by direct (e.g. pluvial/urban flooding) and indirect (e.g. river flooding) effects of extreme rainfall events. Usually they are expressed as IDF curves, mathematical relationships between rainfall Intensity, Duration, and the return period (frequency, F). They are estimated interpreting through Extreme Theories Statistical Theories (ETST) past rainfall records under the assumption of steady conditions resulting then unsuitable under climate change. In this work, a methodology to estimate future variations in IDF curves is presented and carried out for the city of Naples (Southern Italy). In this regard, the Equidistance Quantile Matching Approach proposed by Sivrastav et al. (2014) is adopted. According it, daily-subdaily maximum precipitation observations [a] and the analogous daily data provided by climate projections on current [b] and future time spans [c] are interpreted in IDF terms through Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) approach. After, quantile based mapping approach is used to establish a statistical relationship between cumulative distribution functions resulting by GEV of [a] and [b] (spatial downscaling) and [b] and [c] functions (temporal downscaling). Coupling so-obtained relations permits generating IDF curves under CC assumption. To account for uncertainties in future projections, all climate simulations available for the area in Euro-Cordex multimodel ensemble at 0.11° (about 12 km) are considered under

  9. Identifying the Infection Control Areas Requiring Modifications in Thoracic Surgery Units: Results of a Two-Year Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in Hospitals in Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Grzegorz; Rogoziński, Paweł; Żaloudik, Elżbieta; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered to be a priority in infection control. The objective of this study is the analysis of results of active targeted surveillance conducted over a two-year period in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra, in southern Poland. The retrospective analysis was carried out on the basis of results of active monitoring of SSI in the 45-bed Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra between April 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. Surgical site infections were identified based on the definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) taking into account the time of symptom onset, specifically, whether the symptoms occurred within 30 d after the surgical procedure. Detection of SSI relied on daily inspection of incisions by a trained nurse, analysis of medical and nursing entries in the computer system, and analysis of all results of microbiologic tests taken in the unit and in the operating room. In the study period, data were collected regarding 1,387 treatment procedures meeting the registration criteria. Forty cases of SSI were detected yielding an incidence rate of 3%. Most cases (55%) were found in the course of hospitalization and 45% were detected after the patient's discharge. The SSIs were classified as follows: superficial, 37.5%; deep infections, 7.5%; and organ/space infection, 55%. Among patients who were diagnosed with SSI, most were male (77.5%). For patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I-II the incidence rate was 2%; ASA score III or more, 3.7%. The incidence rate varied from 0.3% in clean surgical site to 6.5% in clean-contaminated site. The study validated the usefulness of targeted surveillance in monitoring SSIs in patients hospitalized in thoracic surgery departments. Surgical site infection surveillance identified areas of care requiring modifications, namely

  10. Stratigraphy and palaeoceanography of a topography-controlled contourite drift in the Pen Duick area, southern Gulf of Cádiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandorpe, T.; Van Rooij, D.; de Haas, H.

    2014-01-01

    The northern part of the Gulf of Cádiz has and still is receiving a lot of attention from the scientific community due to (amongst others) the recent IODP Expedition 339. In contrast, its southern part, or the Moroccan margin has received far less attention, although mud volcanoes, diapiric ridges

  11. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  12. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  13. Multi-temporal InSAR for Deformation Monitoring of the Granada and Padul Faults and the Surrounding Area (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, J.J.; Ruiz, A.M.; Hooper, A.J.; Hanssen, R.F.; Perski, Z.; Bastos, L.C.; Gil, A.J.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Alfaro, P.; Garrido, M.S.; Armenteros, J.A.; Gimenez, E.; Aviles, M.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of low rate active tectonic structures is a major target of geodetic and geological studies to improve the knowledge of seismic hazards. The central Betic Cordillera (southern Spain) is affected by moderately active tectonic structures and seismicity. Part of this seismic activity

  14. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2017), s. 959-965 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earth quake swarms * Southern Ryukyu * Wadati-Benioff zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  15. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C

    2013-10-01

    Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation area of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 μg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 μg m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass burning, uncontrolled waste burning, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass burning was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the

  16. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  17. Vertical leaf area distribution, light transmittance, and application of the Beer-Lambert Law in four mature hardwood stands in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Neal H. Sullivan; Barton D. Clinton; Paul V. Bolstad

    1995-01-01

    We quantified stand leaf area index and vertical leaf area distribution, and developed canopy extinction coefficients (k), in four mature hardwood stands. Leaf area index, calculated from litter fall and specific leaf area (cm²·g-1), ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 m²·m-2. In three of the four stands, leaf area was distributed in...

  18. Zooplankton studies with special reference to krill Euphausia superba Dana from fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector in Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    from 16 stations du r- ing the FIKEX (December 1995 to March 1996) of FORV Sagar Sampada to the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, covering within the geographical limits of latitude 58 ?00 minute to 61 ?17 minuteS and longitude 30 ?00 minute....22 to 8.03 ml 1 ? 1 ( x ? =7.68 ? 0.24). Zooplankton biomass values fluctuated widely du ring the present investigation. They were generally higher and varied between 9.79 and 303.62 ml 100 m ? 3 ( x ? =143.14 ? 77...

  19. The business of environmental conservation: how nature has become a new strategy of capitalist accumulation in the Andean lake area of Los Ríos, in southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    De Matheus e Silva, Luis Fernando; Zunino, Hugo Marcelo; Huiliñir Curío, Viviana

    2018-01-01

    Today, “nature” has turned into the target of a new strategy of capitalistic accumulation and in many locations the meaning that ascribed to places has shifted, taken advantages of unique ecological and landscape characteristics. This is the case of the Andean lake region of Los Ríos, in southern Chile. At the end of the 19th century, this place was joined to the national economy by means of the forestry industry. Nevertheless, from the decade of 1990, depending on the conditions generated by...

  20. Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 1978–2002, in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, from ASTER satellite data, field survey and existing inventory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gjermundsen, EF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available patches on separate peaks (Chinn, 2001). The average summit height across the range varies from 1850 m a.s.l. in Fiordland in the south to 3000 m a.s.l. in the central Southern Alps (including the country?s highest summit, Mount Cook, at 3754 m a..., these areas were not always easy to extract with automatic methods, depending on the type of snow or ice (clean snow versus dirty ice) and steepness of the slope (snow in steeper slopes tended to be harder to extract). Most of the shaded clean snow could...

  1. Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural African community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.

  2. Body size, diet and endoparasites of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba in an Atlantic Forest area of southern Bahia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Sluys

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet composition, endoparasites and sexual size dimorphism of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis capixaba (Microhylidae from a "mussununga" habitat in the municipality of Nova Viçosa, southern Bahia state, Brazil. All the 119 specimens analyzed were collected in a single night of heavy rainfall. Females (mean snout-vent length = 15.7 + 3.0 mm were significantly larger than males (mean snout-vent length = 13.2 + 2.1 mm, and specimens of both sexes were smaller than those of a conspecific population previously reported in Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo state. The diet of C. capixaba was dominated by mites, ants and collembolans. Seventy-nine frogs (66.4% of the total were infected by helminths, all belonging to a single species, Cosmocerca ornata, an intestinal nematode parasite.

  3. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  4. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  5. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a highly significant (P < 0.01) degree of exophagic behaviour. The present study constitutes the first effort to characterize the

  6. Facies analysis of the Codó Formation (Late Aptian in the Grajaú Area, Southern São Luís-Grajaú Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Dilce F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facies descriptions of the Codó Formation in the Grajaú area are provided for the first time, and its sedimentary characteristics compared to those from the Codó area to allow paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Deposits in the Grajaú area include evaporites, limestones and argillites bearing features indicative of a shallow, low energy, subaqueous, saline environment exposed to meteoric and/or capillary conditions. Flooding-evaporative concentration-desiccation cycles suggest a saline pan complex surrounded by extensive evaporitic mudflats. The location of the system, whether coastal or inland, is a matter open for debate. However, the later hypothesis is favored considering: 1. Sr isotopic data, with values higher than those expected for Late Aptian marine waters; 2. calcitic composition of limestones (instead of dolomitic and/or magnesitic as expected in coastal settings; and 3. presence of continental ostracods and lack of marine fauna. This interpretation is consistent with that proposed for UpperAptian deposits of the Codó area, but the depositional system there was one dominated by more stable, well-stratified, anoxic waters and evaporite precipitation in central lacustrine areas, while in the Grajaú area the salt pan was more oxygenated and ephemeral, with salt precipitation mainly in marginal areas or along surrounding mudflats.

  7. Spatial overlap of shark nursery areas and the salmon farming industry influences the trophic ecology of Squalus acanthias on the southern coast of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Gómez, Daniela; Hobday, Alistair J; Daley, Ross; Lamilla, Julio; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2017-06-01

    Potential interactions between marine predators and humans arise in the southern coast of Chile where predator feeding and reproduction sites overlap with fisheries and aquaculture. Here, we assess the potential effects of intensive salmon aquaculture on food habits, growth, and reproduction of a common predator, the spiny dogfish-identified as Squalus acanthias via genetic barcoding. A total of 102 (89 females and 13 males) individuals were collected during winter and summer of 2013-2014 from the Chiloé Sea where salmon aquaculture activities are concentrated. The low frequency of males in our study suggests spatial segregation of sex, while immature and mature females spatially overlapped in both seasons. Female spiny dogfish showed a functional specialist behavior as indicated by the small number of prey items and the relative high importance of the austral hake and salmon pellets in the diet. Immature sharks fed more on pellets and anchovies than the larger hake-preferring mature females. Our results also indicate that spiny dogfish switch prey (anchovy to hake) to take advantage of seasonal changes in prey availability. Despite differences in the trophic patterns of S. acanthias due to the spatial association with intensive salmon farming, in this region, there appears to be no difference in fecundity or size at maturity compared to other populations. Although no demographic effects were detected, we suggest that a range of additional factors should be considered before concluding that intensive aquaculture does not have any impact on these marine predators.

  8. Seasonal flight and resource collection patterns of colonies of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor schencki Gribodo (Apidae, Meliponini in an Araucaria forest area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Telles Ferreira Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona bicolor schencki occurs in southern Brazil and at high elevations in southeastern Brazil. It has potential for use in meliponiculture but this stingless bee species is vulnerable to extinction and we have little knowledge about its ecology. In order to gather essential information for species conservation and management, we made a study of seasonal flight activities in its natural environment. We sampled bees entering the nests with pollen, nectar/water and resin/mud, in five colonies during each season. In parallel, we analyzed the influence of hour of the day and meteorological factors on flight activity. Flights were most intense during spring and summer, with daily mean estimates of 2,100 and 2,333 flights respectively, while in fall and winter the daily flight estimate was reduced to 612 and 1,104 flights, respectively. Nectar and water were the most frequently-collected resources, followed by pollen and building materials. This preference occurred in all seasons, but with variations in intensity. During spring, daily flight activity lasted over 14 hours; this period was reduced in the other seasons, reaching eight hours in winter. Meteorological factors were associated with 40.2% of the variation in flight and resource collection activity. Apparently, other factors that we did not measure, such as colony needs and availability of floral resources, also strongly influence the intensity of resource collection.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Case of study of groundwater pollution in a critical area of the southern-Friuli exposed to agricultural and landfill pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, G.; Siviero, P.; Barbieri, P.; Piselli, S.; Reisenhofer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater of the Southern-Friuli displays high levels of agricultural pollutants, such as nitrates and triazinic herbicides not only in the surficial layers, but also in the deeper ones, below 150 m. Some wells of the district of Gonars was monitored. The examined waters, used for irrigation but also for drinkable use, are exposed to environmental risk due to both agricultural practices and presence of many waste disposal sites. Heavy metals, nitrates and triazinic herbicides were measured in samples taken at four wells in three periods having different rain conditions. It was found that the groundwater quality is affected mainly by agricultural practices: nitrates and triazines are present at levels very near as well as superior to the maximum concentration allowable by Italian law. These agricultural contaminants have similar levels at all sampled sites: no difference ws detected between dry periods and rain ones. Heavy metal contents are negligible in all cases; this fact suggests that ion-exchange, sorbing and complexing properties of the soils hinder the way of the metal leachates towards underlying groundwater. Zinc constitutes an exception; it is found at levels near or superior to the maximum allowable concentration (CMA), and the highest contents are observed in rain periods; different sites display different zinc levels, suggesting that this metal could have various point sources. Nitrates fertilisers were found in all sites at similar levels, very near to CMA (50 mg/L). Triazines are specific herbicides for corn growing, highly diffused here: their use in recent years is forbidden by Italian law, but the presence in groundwater of parent triazines and metabolites is a persistent problem of this are. The Italian law indicates a CMA of 0.10 μ/L for the sum of atrazine and desethylatrazine, but it was found that desethylatrazine by itself exceeds largely CMA in all sites [it

  11. BAT (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA DIVERSITY IN AN AREA OF MANGROVE FOREST IN SOUTHERN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, WITH A NEW SPECIES RECORD AND NOTES ON ECTOPARASITES (DIPTERA: STREBLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO A.M. SOARES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the occurrence of bat species and their ectoparasites to a mangrove area of the State of Pernambuco. The bats were captured for seven consecutive months in four mangrove areas. Sampling occurred for 12 consecutive hours each night collection where mist-nets were used. Eighty-three bats of 14 species were captured. Of these, only 53 Phyllostomidae family bats found themselves parasited. We identified seven species of flies of the family Streblidae parasitizing bats. The diversity of bats is H’ = 2.19 for all areas sampled and the prevalence of streblid ranged from 8.3 to 66,6. The mean intensity ranged from one and five. It is reported for the first time the occurrence of Lophostoma brasiliense to the mangrove ecosystem, besides two species of streblid to Pernambuco.

  12. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  13. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  14. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  15. Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P.K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Bruner, D.J.; Batatian, L.D.; Wilson, Eric; Williams, F.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper version of the Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1x2 Quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1x2 Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was compiled by Paul Link and others in 1995. The plate was compiled on a 1:100,000 scale topographic base map. TechniGraphic System, Inc. of Fort Collins Colorado digitized this map under contract for N.Shock. G.Green edited and prepared the digital version for publication as a GIS database. The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

  16. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  18. Evaluation of shallow landslide-triggering scenarios through a physically based approach: an example of application in the southern Messina area (northeastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, L.; Esposito, C.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are a widespread phenomenon that frequently causes substantial damage to property, as well as numerous casualties. In recent~years a wide range of physically based models have been developed to analyze the triggering process of these events. Specifically, in this paper we propose an approach for the evaluation of different shallow landslide-triggering scenarios by means of the TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based slope stability) numerical model. For the validation of the model, a back analysis of the landslide event that occurred in the study area (located SW of Messina, northeastern Sicily, Italy) on 1 October 2009 was performed, by using different methods and techniques for the definition of the input parameters. After evaluating the reliability of the model through comparison with the 2009 landslide inventory, different triggering scenarios were defined using rainfall values derived from the rainfall probability curves, reconstructed on the basis of daily and hourly historical rainfall data. The results emphasize how these phenomena are likely to occur in the area, given that even short-duration (1-3 h) rainfall events with a relatively low return period (e.g., 10-20~years) can trigger numerous slope failures. Furthermore, for the same rainfall amount, the daily simulations underestimate the instability conditions. The high susceptibility of this area to shallow landslides is testified by the high number of landslide/flood events that have occurred in the past and are summarized in this paper by means of archival research. Considering the main features of the proposed approach, the authors suggest that this methodology could be applied to different areas, even for the development of landslide early warning systems.

  19. The effects of anthropogenic organic matter inputs on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in organisms from different trophic levels in a southern Mediterranean coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios were used to determine the impact of anthropogenically derived organic matter from onshore and offshore fish farming and a sewage outfall on organisms at different trophic levels (primary producers and consumers) on the south-east coast of Sicily (Italy, Mediterranean). Representative macroalgae and consumers were collected in three sampling locations: 'Impact' and two putative 'Controls' sited to the north of the impacted location. While δ 13 C values of both organic matter sources and consumers varied little between locations, δ 15 N spatial variability was higher and δ 15 N was shown to be a good descriptor of organic enrichment and uptake of anthropogenically derived material within coastal food webs. Isotopic data were analysed using a multivariate approach. Organic matter sources and benthic components were more sensitive to pollution than nektobenthic species and revealed that the effects of anthropogenic activities seem to be detectable over a wide area. The study site is characterised by wide waste dispersal, which brings a reduction in impact in the area directly affected by organic matter inputs and enlarges the area of moderate impact

  20. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  1. The geology and petroleum potential of the North Afghan platform and adjacent areas (northern Afghanistan, with parts of southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Michael E.; Hashmat, Ajruddin

    2001-10-01

    platform began in the Miocene. Oil and gas traps are mainly in Upper Jurassic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous sandstones across the entire North Afghan block. Upper Jurassic carbonate traps, sealed by evaporites, occur mainly north of the southern limit of the Upper Jurassic salt. Lower Cretaceous traps consist of fine-grained continental sandstones, sealed by Aptian-Albian shales and siltstones. Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene carbonates, sealed by Palaeogene shales are the main traps along the northern edge of the platform and in the Tajik basin. Almost all the traps are broad anticlines related to Neogene wrench faulting, in this respect, like similar traps along the San Andreas fault. Hydrocarbon sources are in the Mesozoic section. The Lower-Middle Jurassic continental coal-bearing beds provide about 75% of the hydrocarbons; the Callovian-Oxfordian provides about 10%; the Neocomian a meagre 1%, and the Aptian-Albian about 14%. The coal-bearing source rocks decrease very markedly in thickness southwards cross the North Afghan platform. Much of the hydrocarbon generation probably occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene and migrated to structural traps during Neogene deformation. Since no regional structural dip aids southward hydrocarbon migration, and since the traps are all structural and somewhat small, then there is little chance of very large petroleum fields on the platform. Nevertheless, further studies of the North Afghan platform should be rewarding because: (a) the traps of strike-slip belts are difficult to find without detailed exploration; (b) the troubles of the last 20 years mean that almost no exploration has been done; and, (c) conditions may soon become more favorable. There should be ample potential for oil, and particularly gas, discoveries especially in the northern and western parts of the North Afghan platform.

  2. Microbial Community Strucure of a Tropical Wastewater Stabilization Pond (Cajati, Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishio, Sandra; Schramm, Andreas; Pellizari, V.

    seasons. CARD-FISH successfully detected 55-85% and 40-50% of all cells in the water and sludge samples, respectively, and generally confirmed the DGGE results. The bacterial community was dominated by unicellular cyanobacteria, followed by either Beta- or Alphaproteobacteria, depending on the season...

  3. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5 years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5 years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5 years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  4. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIETER UHL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  5. Deterministic estimation of hydrological thresholds for shallow landslide initiation and slope stability models: case study from the Somma-Vesuvius area of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; De Vita, P.; Napolitano, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall-induced debris flows involving ash-fall pyroclastic deposits that cover steep mountain slopes surrounding the Somma-Vesuvius volcano are natural events and a source of risk for urban settlements located at footslopes in the area. This paper describes experimental methods and modelling results of shallow landslides that occurred on 5–6 May 1998 in selected areas of the Sarno Mountain Range. Stratigraphical surveys carried out in initiation areas show that ash-fall pyroclastic deposits are discontinuously distributed along slopes, with total thicknesses that vary from a maximum value on slopes inclined less than 30° to near zero thickness on slopes inclined greater than 50°. This distribution of cover thickness influences the stratigraphical setting and leads to downward thinning and the pinching out of pyroclastic horizons. Three engineering geological settings were identified, in which most of the initial landslides that triggered debris flows occurred in May 1998 can be classified as (1) knickpoints, characterised by a downward progressive thinning of the pyroclastic mantle; (2) rocky scarps that abruptly interrupt the pyroclastic mantle; and (3) road cuts in the pyroclastic mantle that occur in a critical range of slope angle. Detailed topographic and stratigraphical surveys coupled with field and laboratory tests were conducted to define geometric, hydraulic and mechanical features of pyroclastic soil horizons in the source areas and to carry out hydrological numerical modelling of hillslopes under different rainfall conditions. The slope stability for three representative cases was calculated considering the real sliding surface of the initial landslides and the pore pressures during the infiltration process. The hydrological modelling of hillslopes demonstrated localised increase of pore pressure, up to saturation, where pyroclastic horizons with higher hydraulic conductivity pinch out and the thickness of pyroclastic mantle reduces or is

  6. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Weituo; Gu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Juan; Cheng, Shenggao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the imple...

  7. An evaluation of satellite data for estimating the area of small forestland in the southern lower peninsula of Michigan. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karteris, M. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A winter black and white band 5, a winter color, a fall color, and a diazo color composite of the fall scene were used to assess the use and potential of LANDSAT images for mapping and estimating acreage of small scattered forest tracts in Barry County, Michigan. Forests as small as 2.5 acres were mapped from each LANDSAT data source. The maps for each image were compared with an available forest-type map. Mapping errors detected were categorized as boundary and identification errors. The most frequently misclassified areas were agriculture lands, treed-bogs, brushlands and lowland and mixed hardwood stands. Stocking level affected interpretation more than stand size. The overall level of the interpretation performance was expressed through the estimation of classification, interpretation, and mapping accuracies. These accuracies ranged from 74 between 74% and 98%. Considering errors, accuracy, and cost, winter color imagery is the best LANDSAT alternative for mapping small forest tracts. However, since the availability of cloud-free winter images of the study area is significantly lower than images for other seasons, a diazo enhanced image of a fall scene is recommended as the best next best alternative.

  8. Participatory development of peri-urban and rural poor communities in tourism in the Garden Route area of Southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory development approach facilitates implementation of principles of sustainable tourism development by creating better opportunities for local people to gain larger and more balanced benefits from tourism development taking place in their localities. The main objective of this study was to examine nature of community participation in tourism development in order to ensure their participation in the benefits of tourism in the Garden Route area in South Africa. A conceptual framework was developed by examining typologies of community participation. Under the guidance of this conceptual framework, a field research was designed and applied where ninety (90 different stakeholders in the tourism industry across the different sub-sectors were sampled. This Chi-Squared test was done to test the statistical significance on the differences of the responses from the respondents in the different group sectors (accommodation, government department, travel/tour operators, transport and other. It was found that community members expect to be involved in three different stages of the process of tourism development which are decision-making, actual development and marketing as well as the management of operating tourism projects in their areas.

  9. PM2.5 and Associated Ionic Species in a Sub-urban Coastal Area of Kuala Terengganu, Southern South China Sea (Malaysia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Meikee, Koh; Suhaimi Suratman

    2013-01-01

    PM 2.5 mass concentration and associated water-soluble ionic species in a sub-urban coastal area of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia were investigated intermittently from year 2006 to 2009. A total of 78 weekly PM 2.5 samples were analyzed. The mass concentration of PM 2.5 exhibited annual, seasonal and diurnal variations. Temporal distributions of rainfall, sporadic haze episodes and local air flow (sea breeze circulation) were factors controlling PM 2.5 mass variations in the study area. Although the PM 2.5 concentrations were increased during haze episodes in 2006 (August and October) and 2007 (October), their concentrations however, were still within the international guidelines. The average concentration of individual ions was in decreasing trend; SO 4 2- > NH 4 + > K + > Na + > NO 3 - > Cl - > Ca 2+ . The concentrations of SO 42- and NH 4 + accounted for > 70 % of the water-soluble aerosol mass. More than 80 % of ionic species associated with PM 2.5 are from non-marine sources. Major processes affecting the ionic composition of PM 2.5 are biomass burning, crustal loading and sea spray. Air quality mitigation strategies should focus on anthropogenic activities emitting SO 2 , which promotes aerosol SO 4 2- formation. (author)

  10. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  11. SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Angélica Finger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02 and flooding (p = 0.03. Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study.

  12. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Weituo; Gu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Juan; Cheng, Shenggao

    2017-11-29

    Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective : This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies. Methods : Contamination factors ( CFs ) and integrated pollution indexes ( IPIs ) and enrichment factors ( EFs ) were used to assess their ecological risk and the sources were identified by using multivariate statistics analysis, spatial distribution investigation and correlation matrix. Results : The IPI and EF values indicated the soils in the mine site and the closest downstream one were extremely disturbed by metal(loid)s such as As, Bi, W, B, Cu, Pb and Sn, which were emitted from the mining wastes and acid drainages and delivered by the runoff and human activities. Arsenic contamination was detected in nine sites with the highest CF values at 24.70 next to the mining site. The Cd contamination scattered in the paddy soils around the resident areas with higher fraction of bioavailable forms, primarily associated with intense application of phosphorus fertilizer. The lithogenic elements V, Ti, Ag, Ni, Sb, Mo exhibit low contamination in all sampling points and their distribution were depended on the soil texture and pedogenesis process. Conclusions : The long term historical mining activities have caused severe As contamination and higher enrichment of the other elements of orebody in the local soils. The appropriate remediation treatment approach should be proposed to reduce the bioavailability of Cd in the paddy soils and to immobilize As to reclaim the soils around the mining site. Furthermore, alternative fertilizing way

  13. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loids into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies. Methods: Contamination factors (CFs and integrated pollution indexes (IPIs and enrichment factors (EFs were used to assess their ecological risk and the sources were identified by using multivariate statistics analysis, spatial distribution investigation and correlation matrix. Results: The IPI and EF values indicated the soils in the mine site and the closest downstream one were extremely disturbed by metal(loids such as As, Bi, W, B, Cu, Pb and Sn, which were emitted from the mining wastes and acid drainages and delivered by the runoff and human activities. Arsenic contamination was detected in nine sites with the highest CF values at 24.70 next to the mining site. The Cd contamination scattered in the paddy soils around the resident areas with higher fraction of bioavailable forms, primarily associated with intense application of phosphorus fertilizer. The lithogenic elements V, Ti, Ag, Ni, Sb, Mo exhibit low contamination in all sampling points and their distribution were depended on the soil texture and pedogenesis process. Conclusions: The long term historical mining activities have caused severe As contamination and higher enrichment of the other elements of orebody in the local soils. The appropriate remediation treatment approach should be proposed to reduce the bioavailability of Cd in the paddy soils and to immobilize As to reclaim the soils around the mining site. Furthermore, alternative fertilizing

  14. Petrography, mineral chemistry of tourmaline, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Tertiary igneous rocks in Shurab area(west of Khusf), Southern Khorasan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, A. A.; Mohammadi, S. S.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary igneous rocks of Shurab area in eastern part of Lut block include pyroxene andesite, andesite, trachy andesite, quartz andesite, diorite, quartz diorite and porphyric quartz monzodiorite. Plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene, biotite and quartz are common minerals and alkali feldspar, opaque, sphene, apatite, tourmaline and zircon exists as minor minerals. Propylitization, chloritization, silisification and tourmalinization are common alterations. Based on electron micro prob analysis, tourmaline in quartz monzodiorite is characterized by weakly chemical zoning, high Mg/Fe ratio from dravite type with alkaline nature that originated from Ca-poor metapelites and metapsammites. The studied rocks have low to medium-K calk-alkaline nature and their spider diagrams display enrichment in LILE such as Cs, Rb ,K , Sr and LREE and depletion in Nb,Ti and HREE that indicate their relation to subduction zone. Geochemical characteristics such as high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, high SiO_2 and no Eu anomaly are comparable to high-SiO_2 adakites. Shuorab adakitic rocks are likely originated from partial melting of the crust during delamination process.

  15. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  16. Social networks and substance use among at-risk emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas in the southern United States: a cross-sectional naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D; Crawford, Scott M; Simpson, Cathy A

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and risk-taking are common during emerging adulthood, a transitional period when peer influences often increase and family influences decrease. Investigating relationships between social network features and substance use can inform community-based prevention programs. This study investigated whether substance use among emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas was influenced by peer and family social network messages that variously encouraged and discouraged substance use. Cross-sectional, naturalistic field study. Lower-income neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, USA with 344 participants (110 males, 234 females, ages 15-25 years; mean = 18.86 years), recruited via respondent-driven sampling. During structured interviews conducted in community locations, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test assessed substance use and related problems. Predictor variables were network characteristics, including presence of substance-using peers, messages from friends and family members about substance use and network sources for health information. Higher substance involvement was associated with friend and family encouragement of use and having close peer network members who used substances (Ps Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the United States. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Distributed-Temperature-Sensing Using Optical Methods: A First Application in the Offshore Area of Campi Flegrei Caldera (Southern Italy for Volcano Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Carlino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A temperature profile 2400 m along the off-shore active caldera of Campi Flegrei (Gulf of Pozzuoli was obtained by the installation of a permanent fiber-optic monitoring system within the framework of the Innovative Monitoring for Coastal and Marine Environment (MON.I.C.A project. The system consists of a submerged, reinforced, multi-fiber cable containing six single-mode telecom grade optical fibers that, exploiting the stimulated Brillouin scattering, provide distributed temperature sensing (DTS with 1 m of spatial resolution. The obtained data show that the offshore caldera, at least along the monitored profile, has many points of heat discharge associated with fluid emission. A loose association between the temperature profile and the main structural features of the offshore caldera was also evidenced by comparing DTS data with a high-resolution reflection seismic survey. This represents an important advancement in the monitoring of this high-risk volcanic area, since temperature variations are among the precursors of magma migration towards the surface and are also crucial data in the study of caldera dynamics. The adopted system can also be applied to many other calderas which are often partially or largely submerged and hence difficult to monitor.

  18. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  19. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  20. Identical assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and vegetables in an urban area in southern Brazil indicates a relationship among them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Colli

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A-H, are described for this species.We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of β giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34 of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34 of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27 of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables, and the one most often found in humans.This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain.

  1. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz Yanomami villages were selected among sentinel communities of the ivermectin control program, representing hypo- to hyperendemicity conditions of infection. Spatial variation was explored via increasing village altitude on two river systems (A: Ocamo-Putaco and B: Orinoco-Orinoquito). Temporal variation was studied between 1995 and 1999 by sampling the biting population during dry and rainy mouths. Environmental variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  2. Concentrations of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 and metallic elements around the Schmidt Stream area, in the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Alves

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the air quality, by determining the concentrations of PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and the metallic elements Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the leaf part of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum in an area close to Schmidt Stream, at the lower section of Sinos River Basin (SRB, in a research campaign of six months, from October 2013 to March 2014. The particles collected in the PM sampling were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, in order to study their morphology and chemical composition. The mean concentration of PM2.5-10 was 9.1 µg m–3, with a range of 2.2 µg m–3 to 15.4 µg m–3 and the mean concentration of PM2.5was 4.7 µg m–3, with a range of 1.9 µg m–3 to 8.2 µg m–3. Concentrations of metallic elements, especially Pb, Cr and Zn, were classified as Class 4 (very high pollution levels, according to the classification proposed by Klumpp et al. (2004. Chemical and morphological analysis of PM revealed the presence of particles of biological origin, soot (Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb, salts (KCl and soil resuspension (Al and Si. The integrated study methodology, employing environmental variables, such as PM and ryegrass, can be of help in the preparation of wide-ranging environmental diagnoses, in addition providing information needed to develop precautionary measures designed to minimize the effects of atmospheric pollution that takes into consideration the environment’s supportive capacity and environmental quality.

  3. Concentrations of PM₂.₅₋₁₀ and PM₂.₅ and metallic elements around the Schmidt Stream area, in the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D D; Osório, D M M; Rodrigues, M A S; Illi, J C; Bianchin, L; Benvenuti, T

    2015-12-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the air quality, by determining the concentrations of PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and the metallic elements Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg in the leaf part of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in an area close to Schmidt Stream, at the lower section of Sinos River Basin (SRB), in a research campaign of six months, from October 2013 to March 2014. The particles collected in the PM sampling were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS), in order to study their morphology and chemical composition. The mean concentration of PM2.5-10 was 9.1 µg m(-3), with a range of 2.2 µg m(-3) to 15.4 µg m(-3) and the mean concentration of PM2.5 was 4.7 µg m(-3), with a range of 1.9 µg m(-3) to 8.2 µg m(-3). Concentrations of metallic elements, especially Pb, Cr and Zn, were classified as Class 4 (very high pollution levels), according to the classification proposed by Klumpp et al. (2004). Chemical and morphological analysis of PM revealed the presence of particles of biological origin, soot (Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb), salts (KCl) and soil resuspension (Al and Si). The integrated study methodology, employing environmental variables, such as PM and ryegrass, can be of help in the preparation of wide-ranging environmental diagnoses, in addition providing information needed to develop precautionary measures designed to minimize the effects of atmospheric pollution that takes into consideration the environment's supportive capacity and environmental quality.

  4. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

  5. Task 1: Whole-body concentrations of elements in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that offshore oil platforms in the Southern California Bight may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005-2006 for whole-body analysis of 63 elements. The natural areas, which served as reference sites, were assumed to be relatively uninfluenced by contaminants originating from platforms. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons for one of three reasons: they consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations under ambient exposure conditions; they were not detected by the analytical procedures; or they were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these 21 elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. Eight comparisons yielded significant interaction effects between total length (TL) of the fish and the two habitat types (oil platforms and natural areas). This indicated that relations between certain elemental concentrations (i.e., copper, rubidium, selenium, tin, titanium, and vanadium) and habitat type varied by TL of affected fish species. To better understand these interactions, we examined elemental concentrations in very small and very large individuals of affected species. Although significant interactions were detected for rubidium, tin, and selenium in kelp rockfish, the concentrations of these elements did not differ significantly between

  6. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  7. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  8. Exploring sustainable transportation for Texas Southern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Texas Southern University is a commuter campus with students, faculty, and staff traveling from the : Greater Houston area to the university. Over the past few years, the TSU campus has made marked : improvements to move towards a greener more ...

  9. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge and community based management of wildlife resources: a study of the Mumbwa and Lupande Game Management areas of Zambia. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  11. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  12. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  13. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Edwards, Daniel D.; Campbell, Linford J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concen- trations exceeded their respective laboratory reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Ethylbenzene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample.

  14. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  15. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  16. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  17. Source and fractionation controls on subduction-related plutons and dike swarms in southern Patagonia (Torres del Paine area) and the low Nb/Ta of upper crustal igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, Othmar; Ewing, Tanya; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Manzini, Mélina; Roux, Thibaud; Pellaud, Pierre; Allemann, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The subduction system in southern Patagonia provides direct evidence for the variability of the position of an active continental arc with respect to the subducting plate through time, but the consequences on the arc magmatic record are less well studied. Here we present a geochemical and geochronological study on small plutons and dykes from the upper crust of the southern Patagonian Andes at 51°S, which formed as a result of the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates beneath the South American continent. In situ U-Pb geochronology on zircons and bulk rock geochemical data of plutonic and dyke rocks are used to constrain the magmatic evolution of the retro-arc over the last 30 Ma. We demonstrate that these combined U-Pb and geochemical data for magmatic rocks track the temporal and spatial migration of the active arc, and associated retro-arc magmatism. Our dataset indicates that the rear-arc area is characterized by small volumes of alkaline basaltic magmas at 29-30 Ma that are characterized by low La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios with negligible arc signatures. Subsequent progressive eastward migration of the active arc culminated with the emplacement of calc-alkaline plutons and dikes 17-16 Ma with elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios and typical subduction signatures constraining the easternmost position of the southern Patagonian batholith at that time. Geochemical data on the post-16 Ma igneous rocks including the Torres del Paine laccolith indicate an evolution to transitional K-rich calc-alkaline magmatism at 12.5 ± 0.2 Ma. We show that trace element ratios such as Nb/Ta and Dy/Yb systematically decrease with increasing SiO2, for both the 17-16 Ma calc-alkaline and the 12-13 Ma K-rich transitional magmatism. In contrast, Th/Nb and La/Nb monitor the changes in the source composition of these magmas. We suggest that the transition from the common calc-alkaline to K-rich transitional magmatism involves a change in the source component, while the trace element ratios

  18. The use of a hydrological physically based model to evaluate the vine adaptability to future climate: the case study of a Protected Designation of Origin area (DOC and DOCG) of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Manna, Piero; Langella, Giuliano; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The quality of grape and wine is variety-specific and depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions, thus from the terroir characteristics. In viticulture the concept of terroir is known to be very complex. At present some changes are occurring in the studies of terroir. Their spatial analysis is improving by means of studies that account for the spatial distribution of solar radiation and of bioclimatic indexes. Moreover, simulation models are used to study the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system in order to determine the water balance of vines as a function of i) soil physical properties, ii) climatic regime and iii) agro-ecosystems characteristics. The future climate evolution may endanger not only yield production (IPCC, 2007), but also its quality. The effects on quality may be relevant for grape production, since they can affect the sustainability of the cultivation of grape varieties in the areas where they are currently grown. This study addresses this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of grape's cultivars in a 20000 ha viticultural area in the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). This area has a long tradition in the production of high quality wines (DOC and DOCG) and it is characterized by a complex geomorphology with a large variability of soils and micro-climate. Two climate scenarios were considered: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050), the latter constructed applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the moisture regime of the soils of the study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (47 soil units); the soil hydraulic properties were estimated (by means of pedo-transfer function HYPRES) and measured. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower

  19. Reproductive outcomes in an area adjacent to a petrochemical plant in southern Brazil Riscos reprodutivos em região próxima ao pólo petroquímico de Triunfo no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Minussi Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible adverse reproductive outcomes in an area adjacent to a petrochemical plant in southern Brazil. METHODS: A review of 17,113 birth records of the main hospital of the municipality of Montenegro, southern Brazil, from 1983 to 1998 was carried out. Three groups of cases were selected: (1 newborns with major congenital malformations; (2 newborns with low birth weight (500 g. A control was assigned to each case. Controls were the first newborns weighing > or = 2,500 g without malformations and of case-matching sex. Mother's residence during pregnancy was used as an exposure parameter. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test or Fisher test, odds ratio, 0.05 significance level, and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: For unadjusted analysis, it was found a correlation between low birth weight and geographical proximity of mother's residence to the petrochemical plant (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.01--2.72 or residence on the way of preferential wind direction (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.03--2.56. When other covariates were added in the conditional logistic regression (maternal smoking habits, chronic disease and age, there was no association. CONCLUSIONS: Despite final results were negative, low birth weight could be a good parameter of environmental contamination and should be closely monitored in the studied area.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os possíveis riscos reprodutivos em uma região próxima a pólo petroquímico situado no Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 17.113 registros de nascimentos ocorridos no principal hospital da região, localizado no município de Montenegro, RS, desde 1983 até 1998. Foram selecionados três diferentes grupos de casos: (1 recém-nascidos portadores de malformações congênitas maiores; (2 recém-nascidos com baixo peso ao nascer (500 g. Para cada caso, foi atribuído um controle específico, que foi a primeira criança nascida viva, pesando 2.500 g ou mais, com ausência de

  20. Anemia ferropriva em populações da região sul do Estado de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in populations of the Southern area of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Cornblüth Szarfarc

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da ocorrência de anemia ferropriva no Vale do Ribeira, nas localidades de Iguape, Apiaí, Ribeira, Barra do Chapéu e Pontal do Ribeira, através de dosagens, no sangue, de Hemoglobina, Hematócrito, Ferro sérico e Capacidade de Ligação de Ferro. Na mesma amostra populacional, pelo estudo da composição dos alimentos consumidos, foi obtida a ingestão de ferro, média, diária, "per capita" nas seis localidades referidas. Os resultados da adequação de consumo foram: em Iguape, 91%; Pontal do Ribeira, 63%; Icapara, 81%; Apiaí, 122%; Ribeira, 99% e em Barra do Chapéu, 125%. Através dos índices aplicados, evidenciou-se a existência de anemia como problema de Saúde Pública na grande maioria das áreas estudadas.A study of iron deficiency anaemia in seaside and mountain population of the southern area of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil, was carried out. The towns studies were, Iguape, Pontal do Ribeira, Icapara, Apiai, Ribeira and Barra do Chapeu. Studying the composition of food-stuff consumed a "per capita" average iron consumption was stablished for each town. Results showed that consumption of iron in Iguape was 91% of minimum needs, Pontal do Ribeira, 63%, Icapara, 81%, Apiai, 122%, Ribeira, 99% and Barra do Chapeu, 125%. It was found that in most localities iron deficiency anaemia constitutes a public health problem.

  1. Evaluation of Quality-Assurance/Quality-Control Data Collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Wells and Springs between the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1989 through 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.M.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Campbell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Geological (USGS) and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected and analyzed water samples to monitor the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Concurrently, replicate samples and blank samples were collected and analyzed as part of the quality-assurance/quality-control program. Samples were analyzed from inorganic constituents, gross radioactivity and radionuclides, organic constituents, and stable isotopes. To evaluate the precision of field and laboratory methods, analytical results of the water-quality and replicate samples were compared statistically for equivalence on the basis of the precision associated with each result. Statistical comparisons of the data indicated that 95 percent of the results of the replicate pairs were equivalent. Blank-sample analytical results indicated th at the inorganic blank water and volatile organic compound blank water from the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory and the distilled water from the Idaho Department of Water Resources were suitable for blanks; blank water from other sources was not. Equipment-blank analytical results were evaluated to determine if a bias had been introduced and possible sources of bias. Most equipment blanks were analyzed for trace elements and volatile organic compounds; chloroform was found in one equipment blank. Two of the equipment blanks were prepared after collection and analyses of the water-quality samples to determine whether contamination had been introduced during the sampling process. Results of one blank indicated that a hose used to divert water away from pumps and electrical equipment had contaminated the samples with some volatile organic compounds. Results of the other equipment blank, from the apparatus used to filter dissolved organic carbon samples, indicated that the filtering

  2. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP): A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations. The Southern Study Area, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M. [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Manobianco, John [MESO, Inc., Troy, NY (United States); Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). National Wind Inst.; Ancell, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Atmospheric Science Group; Brewster, Keith [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms; Basu, Sukanta [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences; Banunarayanan, Venkat [ICF International (United States); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Isabel [Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This Final Report presents a comprehensive description, findings, and conclusions for the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) -- Southern Study Area (SSA) work led by AWS Truepower (AWST). This multi-year effort, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), focused on improving short-term (15-minute - 6 hour) wind power production forecasts through the deployment of an enhanced observation network of surface and remote sensing instrumentation and the use of a state-of-the-art forecast modeling system. Key findings from the SSA modeling and forecast effort include: 1. The AWST WFIP modeling system produced an overall 10 - 20% improvement in wind power production forecasts over the existing Baseline system, especially during the first three forecast hours; 2. Improvements in ramp forecast skill, particularly for larger up and down ramps; 3. The AWST WFIP data denial experiments showed mixed results in the forecasts incorporating the experimental network instrumentation; however, ramp forecasts showed significant benefit from the additional observations, indicating that the enhanced observations were key to the model systems’ ability to capture phenomena responsible for producing large short-term excursions in power production; 4. The OU CAPS ARPS simulations showed that the additional WFIP instrument data had a small impact on their 3-km forecasts that lasted for the first 5-6 hours, and increasing the vertical model resolution in the boundary layer had a greater impact, also in the first 5 hours; and 5. The TTU simulations were inconclusive as to which assimilation scheme (3DVAR versus EnKF) provided better forecasts, and the additional observations resulted in some improvement to the forecasts in the first 1 - 3 hours.

  3. 'The Finn line' - a historical curiosity or a juridicial rality? The Sami reindeer herders' land rights in southern Sami areas evaluated from land consolidation practice (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Ravna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards the land rights of Sami reindeer herders have changed considerably during the last 100 years. So, too, has consideration of how such rights should be treated by Land Consolidation Courts. This paper reviews changes in attitudes to the Sami land rights with respect to how these are considered in Land Con¬solidation Courts in southern Sami areas in Norway. The review also considers changing attitudes regarding the competence of Land Consolidation Courts to deal with such matters. There were several cases in the 20th Century in which Land Consolidation Courts treated Sami land rights in a restricted and unfortunate manner. Legal practice, however, was not always like that, evidenced by the so-called 'Finn line' (Norwegian: 'finnelinja' -'Finn' is an archaic name for Sami. This boundary was established during a land consolidation case in 1873 and was confirmed in 1883. At that time, Sami land rights were evidently accepted as appurtenant right in privately owned mountain pasture and the Sami were treated in the same way as others who enjoyed rights of usufruct on it. The regulation of 1883 included rules governing compensation for grazing damage on farming land. In particular, responsibility for grazing damage was divided between owners and the reindeer herders, providing these looked after their animals properly, 'The Finn line' subsequently achieved wider importance. The case of 1873¬1883 has been referred to several times as a valuable and valid precedent for a way in which to organize grazing conflicts in other Sami areas. It was used in 1964 as evidence of the special rights of Sami reindeer people in the Brekken common land case. The Sami won this case in 1968 and, in its judgement, the Norwegian Supreme Court of Justice emphasised the importance of the line (Rt. 1968, p. 394. Although, owing to changes in land use practices, the 'Finn line' no longer has any practical significance, its juridical significance remains

  4. Structure of the San Andreas Fault Zone in the Salton Trough Region of Southern California: A Comparison with San Andreas Fault Structure in the Loma Prieta Area of Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Catchings, R.; Scheirer, D. S.; Goldman, M.; Zhang, E.; Bauer, K.

    2016-12-01

    The San Andreas fault (SAF) in the northern Salton Trough, or Coachella Valley, in southern California, appears non-vertical and non-planar. In cross section, it consists of a steeply dipping segment (75 deg dip NE) from the surface to 6- to 9-km depth, and a moderately dipping segment below 6- to 9-km depth (50-55 deg dip NE). It also appears to branch upward into a flower-like structure beginning below about 10-km depth. Images of the SAF zone in the Coachella Valley have been obtained from analysis of steep reflections, earthquakes, modeling of potential-field data, and P-wave tomography. Review of seismological and geodetic research on the 1989 M 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, in central California (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1550), shows several features of SAF zone structure similar to those seen in the northern Salton Trough. Aftershocks in the Loma Prieta epicentral area form two chief clusters, a tabular zone extending from 18- to 9-km depth and a complex cluster above 5-km depth. The deeper cluster has been interpreted to surround the chief rupture plane, which dips 65-70 deg SW. When double-difference earthquake locations are plotted, the shallower cluster contains tabular subclusters that appear to connect the main rupture with the surface traces of the Sargent and Berrocal faults. In addition, a diffuse cluster may surround a steep to vertical fault connecting the main rupture to the surface trace of the SAF. These interpreted fault connections from the main rupture to surface fault traces appear to define a flower-like structure, not unlike that seen above the moderately dipping segment of the SAF in the Coachella Valley. But importantly, the SAF, interpreted here to include the main rupture plane, appears segmented, as in the Coachella Valley, with a moderately dipping segment below 9-km depth and a steep to vertical segment above that depth. We hope to clarify fault-zone structure in the Loma Prieta area by reanalyzing active

  5. Climate and the inter-annual variability of fire in southern Africa: a meta-analysis using long-term field data and satellite-derived burnt area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available end of the rainfall range respectively. Fire occurs across a large part of southern Africa (34% of the region burned at least once in the last 8 years) but the extent and frequency of burning varies depends on tree cover, rainfall seasonality... of the total amount of rainfall that falls in a year (see Appendix S2 for details of the calculation). Number of high Fire Danger Index days (FDIdays): A number of di erent Fire Danger Indices have been tested and applied to southern African systems. The most...

  6. Preliminary analysis of relation between natural and anthropic elements in the calanco area of Podere Paiccia (Southern Tuscany - Italy): crowns of mudflow vs. erosion control practices (graticciate) during the period 1989-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Martinelli, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The study area Podere Paiccia, which is characterized by four calanchi, extends over a surface of 155,000 square meters, on N-NNW slopes, from 435 to 513m, with an average slope of 25° and it develops on Pliocene marine bedrocks. The calanchi represent an important morphology in southern Tuscany and also in Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene bedrock in nearby areas of piedmont zones of Apennines. During the 1989 the "Consorzio di Bonifica della Val d'Orcia" introduced erosion control practices named graticciate (fences) along three of the four calanchi. They consisted of chestnut stakes (about 1 m long), fixed in the ground, connected by smaller transverse stakes and placed perpendicularly to the slopes, at 7-10 meters intervals, extending laterally for about 10 meters. These calanchi are formed by gullies, rills, crowns and mudflows. The crowns, one of the more dynamic erosional forms, are generally arch-shaped (40-50 cm in height, vary in width, gradient 54°÷90°). The four calanchi, named 1-2-3-4, were divided into three zones of equal size: high, medium and low. The analysis conducted by photo shoots and field measurements, during the years 1989-1992-1996-2002-2005-2015, aim to discover the relation between crowns and graticciate. In 1989, 1 did not present graticciate, 2 had graticciate in all 3 zones (28), 3 and 4 had graticciate (24 and 22 respectively) but only in the medium and high zones. The crowns (57 in 1, 58 in 2, 78 in 3 and 56 in 4) rise towards the ridges. In case during the ascend crowns meet the graticciate, these last are deformed and then destroyed (periods: 1989÷1992, 1992÷1996, 1996÷2002, 2002÷2005, 2005÷2015, graticciate destroyed along the 2, 3, 4,% mean values: 51, 87, 100 - 26, 46, 72, 90 costant value from 2005 - 57, 75 costant value 1992÷2002, 78,100). Until total destruction, graticciate limit the number of crowns in the high zones. Along 2, 3 and 4 the number of crowns is greater in the medium zones (mean values of the ratios

  7. Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil Detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros de áreas urbanas de Curitiba, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4% were positive: 2/29 (6.9% were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2% between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4% older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%. Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.Neospora caninum é um protozoário parasita que afeta cães como hospedeiros definitivos e diversos mamíferos como hospedeiros intermediários, envolvido em abortos e distúrbios do sistema nervoso central. A população reemergente de cavalos de carroceiros utilizados para transportar material reciclável em áreas urbanas de grandes cidades brasileiras na disseminação de doenças, e estes animais podem ser utilizados como sentinelas para vigilância ambiental. Deste modo, no presente estudo foi investigada a frequência de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Anticorpos da classe IgG anti-Neospora sp. foram detectados utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, e t

  8. Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in relation to circulating concentrations of thyroxine and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-11-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, metabolites and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma concentrations of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (pturtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean concentration of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most concentrated of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most concentrated of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean concentrations of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13 ng

  9. A Streamlined Approach by a Combination of Bioindication and Geostatistical Methods for Assessing Air Contaminants and Their Effects on Human Health in Industrialized Areas: A Case Study in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica B. Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization in developing countries associated with urban growth results in a number of economic benefits, especially in small or medium-sized cities, but leads to a number of environmental and public health consequences. This problem is further aggravated when adequate infrastructure is lacking to monitor the environmental impacts left by industries and refineries. In this study, a new protocol was designed combining biomonitoring and geostatistics to evaluate the possible effects of shale industry emissions on human health and wellbeing. Futhermore, the traditional and expensive air quality method based on PM2.5 measuring was also used to validate the low-cost geostatistical approach. Chemical analysis was performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (EDXRF to measure inorganic elements in tree bark and shale retorted samples in São Mateus do Sul city, Southern Brazil. Fe, S, and Si were considered potential pollutants in the study area. Distribution maps of element concentrations were generated from the dataset and used to estimate the spatial behavior of Fe, S, and Si and the range from their hot spot(s, highlighting the regions sorrounding the shale refinery. This evidence was also demonstrated in the measurements of PM2.5 concentrations, which are in agreement with the information obtained from the biomonitoring and geostatistical model. Factor and descriptive analyses performed on the concentrations of tree bark contaminants suggest that Fe, S, and Si might be used as indicators of industrial emissions. The number of cases of respiratory diseases obtained from local basic health unit were used to assess a possible correlation between shale refinery emissions and cases of repiratory disease. These data are public and may be accessed on the website of the the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Significant associations were found between the health data and refinery activities. The combination of the spatial

  10. Analysis of hydrological response to land use changes based on Low Impact Development—a case study on the southern area of Fangshan National Geopark in Nanjing city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fu, D., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    and identifies the sponge facilities with the aid of XPDrainage software on the southern area of Fangshan National Geopark in Nanjing city, China. A technical method to evaluate the influence of land use change on hydrological process and its response during the sponge city construction process is preliminarily discussed.

  11. Soyabeans and sustainable agriculture in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Murwira, M.S.; Dhliwayo, D.K.C.; Mafongoya, P.L.; Mpepereki, S.

    2011-01-01

    Maize is the dominant staple crop across most of southern Africa - it is so dominant in some areas that more than 80 per cent of the smallholder land area is planted with maize. Soyabean was identified as the crop with a potential to address the need for diversifying the cropping systems, which

  12. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  13. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  14. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  15. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  16. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  17. The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S; Cassar, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity. (letter)

  18. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  19. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  20. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  1. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  2. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-01-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  3. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  4. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  5. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2018-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  6. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  7. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  8. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Assessing estuarine biota in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2005-01-01

    In southern California, most estuarine wetlands are gone, and what little habitat remains is degraded. For this reason, it is often of interest to assess the condition of estuaries over time, such as when determining the success of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how a particular estuary, or area...

  11. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  12. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  13. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  14. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  15. Characterizing pinniped use of offshore oil and gas platforms as haulouts and foraging areas in waters off southern California from 2013-01-01 to 2015-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0138984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  16. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  17. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  18. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  19. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  20. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  1. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  2. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  3. Southern Universities Nuclear Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute was created in 1961 to provide postgraduate research and teaching facilities for the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch. The main research tool is the 6,0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator installed in 1964. Developments and improvements over the years have maintained the Institute's research effectiveness. The work of local research groups has led to a large number of M Sc and doctorate degrees and numerous publications in international journals. Research at the Institute includes front-line studies of basic nuclear and atomic physics, the development and application of nuclear analytical techniques and the application of radioisotope tracers to problems in science, industry and medicine. The Institute receives financial support from the two southern universities, the Department of National Education, the CSIR and the Atomic Energy Board

  4. Calibration and evaluation of the FAO56-Penman-Monteith, FAO24-radiation, and Priestly-Taylor reference evapotranspiration models using the spatially measured solar radiation across a large arid and semi-arid area in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Crop evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main components in calculating the water balance in agricultural, hydrological, environmental, and climatological studies. Solar radiation (Rs) supplies the available energy for ET, and therefore, precise measurement of Rs is required for accurate ET estimation. However, measured Rs and ET and are not available in many areas and they should be estimated indirectly by the empirical methods. The Angström-Prescott (AP) is the most popular method for estimating Rs in areas where there are no measured data. In addition, the locally calibrated coefficients of AP are not yet available in many locations, and instead, the default coefficients are used. In this study, we investigated different approaches for Rs and ET calculations. The daily measured Rs values in 14 stations across arid and semi-arid areas of Fars province in south of Iran were used for calibrating the coefficients of the AP model. Results revealed that the calibrated AP coefficients were very different and higher than the default values. In addition, the reference ET (ET o ) was estimated by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56 PM) and FAO24-radiation methods by using the measured Rs and were then compared with the measured pan evaporation as an indication of the potential atmospheric demand. Interestingly and unlike many previous studies, which have suggested the FAO56 PM as the standard method in calculation of ET o , the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs showed better agreement with the mean pan evaporation. Therefore, the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs was used as the reference method for the study area, which was also confirmed by the previous studies based on the lysimeter data. Moreover, the accuracy of calibrated Rs in the estimation of ET o by the FAO56 PM and FAO24-radiation was investigated. Results showed that the calibrated Rs improved the accuracy of the estimated ET o by the FAO24-radiation compared with the FAO24-radiation using the measured

  5. Hereditary effects of low and chronic radiation exposure: a case-control study of mental retardation and cleft lip/palate in the monazite bearing coastal areas of Southern Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Jojo, P.J.; Predeep, P.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The high level natural radiation (HLNR) areas of Kerala in the south west coast of Kerala is suitable for direct human studies to assess the genetic and teratogenic effect of low and chronic radiation exposures. The radiation level in the region (about 55 km long and 0.5 km wide belt) range from ≤1.0 mGy to 45.0 mGy per year and is due to natural deposit of monazite sand containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products. A population based case-control study was carried out in the area to assess the role, if any, of HLNR as a causative factor in the etiology of two relatively frequent and easily identifiable congenital malformations, viz., mental retardation (MR) and cleft lip/palate (CLP). Findings from the study are discussed in this paper

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

  7. Southern Alberta system reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, A. [Alberta Electric System Operator, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    System planning for the Alberta Electric System Operator's (AESO) southern system was discussed in view of the growing interest in developing wind energy resources in the province. While Alberta currently has a total of 11,500 MW of installed wind power, southern Alberta has a very small capability for interconnecting additional wind resources. There are 3 main agencies involved in system planning for the southern region: (1) the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), (2) the AESO, and (3) the transmission facility owners. Transmission needs are studied by the AESO, who then applies to the AUC for approval. Transmission facility owners also apply to the AUC for approval to construct facilities. The AESO's roles are to operate the wholesale electricity market; plan the transmission system; arrange access for loads and generation; and oversee transmission system operation. The AESO is an independent agency with a public interest mandate. The AESO's queue management process has been designed to facilitate non-discriminatory system access. Development options currently being considered by the AESO include a 240 kV AC transmission line; a 500 kV AC transmission line; a 765 kV AC transmission line; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system; and a voltage source converter (VSC) HVDC system. Radial and looped configurations are also being considered. The AESO is currently conducting a participant involvement program that involves open houses with the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) and other provincial stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  8. Distribution and phenology of ixodid ticks in southern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, N; Madder, M; Van Den Bossche, P; Mtambo, J; Berkvens, N; Chaka, G; Mulumba, M; Brandt, J; Tirry, L; Berkvens, D

    2002-12-01

    Distribution data for epidemiologically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Southern Province of Zambia, one of the main cattle areas of the country, are presented. Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) was not recorded in southern Zambia, whereas Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) is present throughout the area. New distribution patterns for less economically important ixodid ticks are also discussed. Southern Zambia is a transition zone because it is the most northern area in Africa where mixed Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis Walker, Norval & Corwin populations were reported. Although a second generation of adult R. appendiculatus/R. zamnbeziensis was encountered, simulations indicated that this phenomenon is very rare in southern Zambia, mainly because of the colder temperatures during the early dry season and lower rainfall. These simulations were supported by a development trial under experimental conditions. Tick body size measurements showed that southern Zambian ticks are larger than eastern Zambian R. appendiculatus. It is hypothesized that body size is related to diapausing intensity in this species. The epidemiological consequences are that a different approach to control Theileria parva (Theiler) (Piroplasmida: Theileriidae) and other tick-borne diseases is needed in southern Zambia, compared to the one adopted in eastern Zambia.

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary.

  10. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  11. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  12. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil Febre maculosa brasileira em cavalo de carroceiro em área não-endêmica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira Freitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose, muitas vezes fatal, causada pela bactéria intracelular obrigatória Rickettsia rickettsii. A doença é transmitida para humanos pelo carrapato Amblyomma spp. Sorologia positiva por R. rickettsii foi relatada em cavalos, entretanto a patogenia de R. rickettsii em cavalos é desconhecida. Cavalos de carroceiros ainda são largamente utilizados em áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas no Brasil e estes animais podem representar sentinelas ideais para FMB nestas áreas, como exemplo, São José dos Pinhais, onde o primeiro caso humano de FMB foi descrita no Paraná. Amostras de soro foram obtidas aleatoriamente de 75 cavalos de carroceiros entre abril de 2005 e junho de 2006 e testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI com anticorpos contra riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa. Um total de 9,33% dos animais foi considerado positivo, com títulos entre 64 e 1.024. Estes resultados indicam

  13. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Era is thought to have experienced one of the most significant changes in earth's environment during earth history. Early continents started to diverge and collide accompanied by first major oxidation of the atmosphere-oceanic system known as the Great Oxidation Environment (GOE). Due to their well-preserved oceanic sedimentary sequences, Paleoproterozoic belts are usually good targets for studies on the history of earth's past environment. In addition, these belts provide great help to understand the nature of the Paleoproterozoic deeper oceanic environments. Birimian greenstone belt in southwestern Ghana is likely to have made up of subduction of oceanic basin to form a volcanic island arc. Birimian rocks are separated by nonconformity from the Tarkwaian Group which is a younger paleoplacer deposit (Perrouty et al., 2012). The Birimian is made up of island-arc volcanic rocks; foreland basin made up of shale, sandstone, quartzite and turbidities derived from 2.17 Ga granite intrusions during Birimian volcanism. In this study, we focused on the coastal area around Cape Three Points at the southernmost part of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) belt in Ghana. In the eastern part of the area, excellently preserved Paleoprotorozoic deeper oceanic sedimentary sequences extensively outcrop for over 4km stretch. This volcano-sedimentary sequence has been affected by greenschist facies metamorphism. Structurally, this region preserves S1 cleavage and asymmetrical synform with west vergence and S0 younging to the east. Provisional stratigraphy is very continuous up to more than 2000m thick and, in addition, suggests at least four different fining upward sequences in the area to the east and west of Atwepo, west of Kwetakora and Akodda. These sub-sequences are mainly composed of volcaniclasitc, sandstone, black shale and rare volcanics such as pillow basalt or massive volcanic lava. In other words, this continuous sequence suggests distal submarine

  14. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  15. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  16. Paleo-environmental conditions of the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Fenggang area, the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Platform, southern China: Evidence from major elements, trace elements and other proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tang, Shuheng; Zhang, Songhang; Xi, Zhaodong; Yang, Ning; Yang, Guoqiao; Li, Lei; Li, Yanpeng

    2018-06-01

    The Precambrian/Cambrian transition was a key time in Earth history, especially for marine biological evolution and oceanic chemistry. The redox-stratification with oxic shallow water and anoxic (even euxinic) deeper water in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, which gradually became completely oxygenated, has been suggested as a possible trigger for the "Cambrian explosion" of biological diversity. However, for some areas in northern Guizhou where the exploration and research are lacking, identifying this pattern of redox-stratification by paleo-environmental analysis from borehole data is still in need. Here, we report a remarkable variation range in trace elements (Mo, V, U, Ni, Th, Co, Sc, Zn and Cu), molar Corg:P ratios and pyrite morphology from 27 core samples from one new drill hole (XY1, located in the Fenggang area, northern Guizhou) on the Yangtze Platform, South China. High levels of Ba (from 3242 ppm to 33,800 ppm) and total organic carbon (TOC; from 4% to 9.36%) in 15 core samples in the Lower Member (LM) of the Niutitang Formation indicated elevated primary productivity in the study area. Redox change was recorded based on enrichment factors (EFs) for RSTEs (Mo, U, and V), redox proxies (V/(V + Ni), Ni/Co, V/Sc and Th/U), Corg:P ratios and particle size of framboidal pyrite. These signatures demonstrate that the LM was deposited under anoxic conditions with sulfidic episodes, whereas the Upper Member (UM) of the Niutitang Formation was deposited under suboxic/oxic conditions with intermittently anoxic episodes. Mo/TOC ratios (from 3.72 to 39.86, mean 18.76) suggest weak-moderate water mass restriction. Mo-U covariation patterns (strong but variable enrichment of Mo and U; MoEF ranging from 31.45 to 257.97; UEF ranging from 4.68 to 39.07) in the LM show alternation of particulate shuttling and redox conditions occurred in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, whereas Mo-U covariation patterns (moderate Mo enrichment but depletion or non-enrichment of U; mean Mo

  17. Generation of seismic base map using satellite images in the southern deltaic area, People`s Republic of Bangladesh; Eisei data ni motozuku jishin tansa base map no sakusei (Bangladesh nanbu delta no rei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Y [Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ochi, M [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Assuming a two-dimensional seismic survey in a mangrove jungle in the southeast part of People`s Republic of Bangladesh and trially making a basemap for the survey plan from images of satellites such as LANDSAT, the paper considered the use and marginal use in the case of using satellite remote sensing for such a use field. When utilizing water channels in the mangrove jungle in the southwest of Bangladesh and using the seismic survey method for shallow sea, it is important to grasp the distribution of channels in the planning stage of the survey. Satellite remote sensing data are extremely important for knowing the wide-regional information including factors of hourly variations. In the area for this survey, for directly recognizing the channel, it is good only if the difference in reflectance between water and substances except water is indicated in the image because of flatness of the topography. There was seen few difference in accuracy between the passive multispectral image and the active SAR image which is sensitive to topographical changes. 2 figs.

  18. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  19. Recent invasion of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris of a natural protected area from the southern Sonoran Desert Invasión reciente de zacate buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris en un área natural protegida del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick De la Barrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centro Ecológico de Sonora is a natural protected area where the natural vegetation remained undisturbed at least until 1997. Since then, Cenchrus ciliaris has become a prominent element of the vegetation because of disturbance. Climate, soil properties, population structure and biological activity for C. ciliaris were studied to gain understanding of the ecological mechanisms that favored the invasion by this exotic grass. Mean air temperature and annual rainfall were 24.8°C and 302 mm. The soil was a loamy-sand that was poor in most nutrients, but particularly rich in phosphorus. Pennisetum ciliare was the most abundant species at the Centro Ecológico, representing over one third of total plant ground cover. Basal area for individual plants ranged from less than 1 cm² to almost 1 m². Living leaves per plant increased with precipitation, peaking at 199 leaves in March 2005, and no living leaves were found after 103 days without rain. The environmental conditions prevalent at Centro Ecológico are very favorable for C. ciliaris, whose establishment was apparently triggered by a major disturbance caused by the development of housing projects.El Centro Ecológico de Sonora es un área natural protegida donde la vegetación autóctona permaneció sin disturbios por lo menos hasta 1997. Desde entonces, Cenchrus ciliaris se ha convertido en un elemento prominente de la vegetación. Se estudiaron el clima, las propiedades del suelo, la estructura de la población y la actividad biológica de C. ciliaris, como una aproximación al entendimiento de los mecanismos ecológicos que favorecieron la invasión por este pasto exótico. La temperatura media del aire y la precipitación anual fueron de 24.8 °C y 302 mm. El suelo fue una arena limosa pobre en minerales, pero particularmente rica en fósforo. Cenchrus ciliaris fue la especie herbácea más abundante en el Centro Ecológico, representando más de un tercio de la cobertura vegetal. El

  20. Mosses as indicators of atmospheric metal deposition in an industrial area of southern Brazil Musgos como indicadores da deposição atmosférica de metais em uma área industrial do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Caxias do Sul hosts the second largest metal-mechanic pole in Brazil, which increases the risk of atmospheric contamination. With the aim of identifying species that might be useful as indicators of atmospheric deposition of metals, 15 species of mosses from an urban and a rural setting were analyzed and compared with specimens deposited at the Herbarium of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Metal concentrations (Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. The Mann-Whitney test indicated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr that were significantly different between the urban and rural areas. Additionally, Concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were significantly higher in recently collected samples. The species Thuidium tomentosum Besch., Sematophyllum subpinnatum (Brid. E. Britton, Helicodontium capillare (Hedw. A. Jaeger, Schlotheimia jamesonii (W.-Arnott Brid. and Meteorium deppei (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal. Mitt. are potential biomonitors of atmospheric metal deposition.Caxias do Sul sedia o segundo maior pólo metal mecânico do Brasil, apresentando elevado risco de contaminação atmosférica. Com o objetivo de identificar espécies úteis como indicadoras da deposição atmosférica de metais, foram analisadas 15 espécies de musgos procedentes da zona urbana e da área rural e espécimens depositados no Herbário da Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Os metais (Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu e Pb foram determinados por meio de Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica (AAS. O Teste de Mann-Whitney indicou diferenças significativas nas concentrações de Zn, Cu, Pb e Cr entre as áreas urbana e rural. Um aumento significativo na presença de Zn, Cd, Cu e Pb foi evidenciado nas amostras recentes. As espécies Thuidium tomentosum Besch., Sematophyllum subpinnatum (Brid. E. Britton, Helicodontium capillare (Hedw. A. Jaeger, Schlotheimia jamesonii (W.-Arnott Brid. e Meteorium deppei (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal. Mitt. são indicadas

  1. COSMO-SkyMed sensor constellation and GPS data to study the source responsible of ground deformation beneath the urban area of Naples (Southern Italy) in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi

    2016-04-01

    that the most likely value for the viscosity is between 103-104 Pa•s and that to justify the observed deformation pattern it is required that the reservoir should have contained at least 1010 kg of liquid magma before 2012. The injection rate has two main peaks on September and December 2012, and a smaller one on March 2013. The first two peaks have a value of about 400 kg/s and duration of 3-4 months. The total amount of injected magma is of about 8.2•1010 kg. The magma viscosity value is compatible with that of the most common magmas erupted in the past 40 ky: phonolites. The first injection peak is associated with a seismic swarm, located beneath the town of Pozzuoli. The swarm consisted in about 200 earthquakes (maximum magnitude 1.8) occurring within an interval of about 1.5 hours. The hypocenters were located outside the area usually affected by microearthquakes in the previous years. Our finite element structural mechanical modeling shows that the inferred source caused a marked increase in the maximum shear stress along the rim of the sill. In fact, hypocenters were located very close to the northern edge of the growing magmatic reservoir. Our findings suggest a key to interpret the caldera unrest that, started about 60 years ago, has led to a maximum uplift in the area of more than 3 m. Consequently, the observed uplift phenomenon could be interpreted in terms of injection of limited magma batches feeding the growth of a shallow magmatic reservoir. Similar mechanisms have been inferred for other calderas, where the repeated emplacement of magmatic sills has been recognized having an important role in the evolution of the volcano. Accordingly, the observation of short evolution of volcanic precursory phenomena as well as the development of innovative real-time analysis techniques should be taken into account for an effective surveillance of the Campi Flegrei caldera. This work has been supported by MED-SUV project (European Union's Seventh Programme for

  2. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  3. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa publishes articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on responses to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Submissions are reviewed by at least two referees. The practice of 'blind' reviewing is adhered to. The Journal ...

  4. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  5. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  6. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  7. Dryland orchard development in southern Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, S.; Marimuthu, R.; Karthikeyan, M.

    2002-01-01

    With low annual rainfall and high potential of evaporation in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, it is difficult to grow the crops, successfully. Drylands of this tract are vulnerable to high radiation, high temperature and variable rainfall. Hence, dryfarming has become a risky enterprise in this zone and all the above factors altogether reduce the choice of agricultural crops. Considering the magnitude of the area and it's untapped potential, which offers enormous scope for dryland horticulture in this region and thereby improving the soil productivity for other crops too

  8. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  9. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  10. The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality. Assessment GEMs No. 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) carries out large-scale cross-national research studies in member countries in the Southern and Eastern Africa region. It aims to assess the conditions of schooling and performance levels of learners and teachers in the areas of literacy and numeracy. SACMEQ has…

  11. Human interactions with the environment through time in southern Nevada [Chapter 8] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada is rich in irreplaceable cultural resources that include archeological remains, historic sites, cultural landscapes, and other areas of significance to Native Americans and other cultural groups. This chapter provides information related to Goal 2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to “Provide for responsible use of Southern Nevada’s lands...

  12. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  13. Area selection using magnetotellurics examples from Southern Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, AG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of the continental upper mantle is highly sensitive to ambient temperature (e.g., Jones et al., 2008; Ledo and Jones, 2005), to iron content (Mg) (Jones et al., 2008), to the presence of an interconnected conducting phase...

  14. AREAS OF ENDEMISM IN THE SOUTHERN CENTRAL ANDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Aagesen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la distribución de especies de plantas vasculares endémicas de la porción sur de los Andes centrales (sudoeste de Bolivia y noroeste de Argentina. En el análisis se incluyeron 540 especies endémicas de la región estudiada (aproximadamente 720.600 km2. La mayoría de las especies endémicas se halla en ambientes semiáridos, entre 1500-3500 m s.m., encontrándose principalmente en valles, laderas y mesetas del topográficamente complejo sur de los Andes centrales. Las áreas de endemismos aquí halladas se presentan consecuentemente en ambientes áridos y no en ambientes húmedos subtropicales de las Yungas tucumano-bolivianas, a pesar de que en esta última región la diversidad de plantas vasculares es mayor. Se identificaron un total de 17 patrones de distribución bien definidos, y parcialmente solapados. El patrón de distribución más amplio define un área general de endemismos para los Andes centrales. Esta área se extiende a lo largo de casi toda la región y está delimitada por especies que se distribuyen en ambientes desérticos a sub-húmedos en laderas, valles o regiones altoandinas. Casi todas las restantes áreas de endemismo se encuentran anidadas dentro del patrón de distribución amplio antes citado, superponiéndose en el sentido norte-sur a lo largo de pendientes y valles de los Andes y de las Sierras Pampeanas. A pesar del sesgo observado en la distribución hacia ambientes áridos, aproximadamente la mitad de las especies endémicas están restringidas a unas pocas áreas de alto endemismo, las que se encuentran en yuxtaposición con las zonas más lluviosas de la región. Estas áreas de alto endemismo incluyen los rangos de hábitat más amplios de la región en términos de altitud y precipitación, siendo las especies endémicas igualmente variables en sus requerimientos de humedad y elevación. Las unidades fitogeográficas previamente definidas por diversos autores no fueron encontradas entre los patrones de distribución hallados; no obstante, la parte norte de la provincia Prepuneña puede ser definida con dos patrones de distribución parcialmente superpuestos.

  15. Spectral analysis of ground magnetic data in Magadi area, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 38, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Groundwater conversion areas in chalk in the southern Frankish Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaff, T.

    1987-01-01

    In order to collect hydro-geological data, chalk water marking was done and/or interpreted, water balances were produced, the contents tritium, oxygen 18, calcium, magnesium and the groundwater temperatures and electrolytic conductivity of the groundwater were examined and the dry weather drainage of individual sources was analysed. (orig./PW) [de

  17. The Mysterious Southern Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our

  18. THE SOUTHERN AEGEAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Berg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although world-systems theory was originally formulated with our modern economic system in mind (Wallerstein 1974, it was not long before archaeologists began to apply it to ancient societies. Archaeologists and world-system theorists alike both argued that Wallerstein had disregarded evidence of interconnected, hierarchical systems in prehistoric times (Schneider 1977; Chase-Dunn & Hall 1991, 1997; Kardulias 1999a. Pailes and Whitecotton (1979 were among the first to modify world-systems theory for use in pre-capitalist settings. Since then many archaeologists have looked at data and regions with a world-systems perspective in mind (e.g. Champion 1989; Bilde et al. 1993; Rowlands & Larsen 1987; Kardulias 1999a. Some have attempted to map Wallerstein's theory directly onto prehistory (Kohl 1979; Whitecotton & Pailes 1986; Ekholm & Friedman 1982. Others have found the world systems model heuristically useful but lacking the analytical power needed for their prehistoric cases (Blanton et al. 1981; Upham 1982; Plog 1983; Alcock 1993. Building on the assumption that ancient societies were not qualitatively, but only quantitatively, different from modern capitalist ones (Schneider 1977; Sherratt & Sherratt 1991, this study applies world systems theory to the Southern Aegean during the Middle and Late Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1550 BC.

  19. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  20. Southern African Business Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of South Africa. ... the right to make minor editorial adjustments without consulting the author.

  1. Wood to energy: using southern interface fuels for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Staudhammer; L.A. Hermansen; D. Carter; Ed Macie

    2011-01-01

    This publications aims to increase awareness of potential uses for woody biomass in the southern wildland-urban interface (WUI) and to disseminate knowledge about putting bioenergy production systems in place, while addressing issues unique to WUI areas. Chapter topics include woody biomass sources in the wildland-urban interface; harvesting, preprocessing and delivery...

  2. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  3. Environmental survey of southern part of former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharikov, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses results of the environmental survey performed in selected areas of Semipalatinsk test site southern part and gives calculations of possible annual radionuclide (Cs-37, Sr-90 and Pu-239/240) intake due to local husbandry products. (author)

  4. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  5. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution aero-radiometric data from three radio-elements (Uranium, Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern Anambra basin for the prospect of producing radiogenic heat. The rock types in the study area were outlined while processing the elements in each rock ...

  6. Marketing in Southern Ghana: towards a planning typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dunham (David)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractThere are a number of strong historical and practical grounds for a regional planner operating in Southern Ghana to study marketing structures. The recent history of the area confirms an important axiom of regional theory, namely that the organisation of marketing has a considerable

  7. A history of southern forest science, management, and sustainability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2004-01-01

    The 13 Southern States from Virginia to Texas have a combined area of approximately 500 million acres. Our understanding of the complex cultural and ecological history of this large region is still evolving. It may be fair to say that until recently, our view of the native peoples of the South and the landscape in which they lived derived chiefly from reports provided...

  8. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Ty Hang, Vu Thi; Wills, Bridget; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; Holmes, Edward C

    2010-07-27

    Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV) in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  9. Coastal erosion and mangrove progradation of Southern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Sinsakul, S.; Panapitukkul, N.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the southern Thai coastline used to be occupied by mangroves according to the first mangrove forest assessment in 1961. During the past three decades, these mangrove areas have been reduced to about 50% with less than 10% left on the east coast. Coastal erosion and accretion

  10. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and groundwaters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for the study area.

  11. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  12. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W F.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  13. Threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-04-01

    This report is a companion one to Endangered Plant Species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada (COO-2307-11) and deals with the threatened plant species of the same area. The species are those cited in the Federal Register, July 1, 1975, and include certain ones listed as occurring only in California or Arizona, but which occur also in central-southern Nevada. As with the earlier report, the purpose of this one is to record in detail the location of the past plant collections which constitute the sole or principal basis for defining the species' distributions and frequency of occurrence in southern Nye County, Nevada, and to recommend the area of the critical habitat where this is appropriate. Many of the species occur also in southern California, and for these the central-southern Nevada records are presented for consideration of the overall status of the species throughout its range.

  14. Final report to DOE [Global guardianship initiative in southern Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this project is to establish models for community renewable energy deployment as a strategy for protected area management and an alternative to grid extension in developing countries in Latin America and Asia. Working together with the Nature Conservancy, the Center for Resource Solutions chose Southern Mexico and its 10 protected areas to launch this program. DOE funds supported Phase One activities: establishment of an advisory committee and selection of six to ten communities for renewable energy plans.

  15. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  16. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  17. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  18. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  19. Paleolakes in the Gobi region of southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Grunert, Jörg; Hülle, Daniela; Batkhishig, Ochirbat; Stauch, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Numerous lakes and remnants of paleolakes exist in western and southern Mongolia. For six basins in the area, detailed geomorphological maps were compiled, based on extensive field studies and remote sensing datasets. Several phases of high and low lake levels were reconstructed and dated by radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence. During the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 lakes in southern and western Mongolia mostly disappeared. In contrast, large paleolakes existed during the last interglacial (MIS 5e) and lasted probably until the beginning of the last glacial. These huge lakes were caused by a strong East Asian summer monsoon, which reached southern and even western Mongolia. During the MIS 3 the monsoon was considerably weaker and most of the lakes were relatively small or even disappeared. Higher lake levels of this period were only recorded at the Orog Nuur. However, at this time the lake was fed by glacial melt water from the Khangai Mountains. The MIS 2 was again a very dry period. The previously supposed phase of synchronous high lake levels and glaciations in southern and western Mongolia is not supported by the data presented here. During the Holocene, lakes in the western and southern part of the study area evolved differently. Early Holocene high lake levels were reconstructed for the western lakes, while most of the southern lakes had highest lake levels in the mid-Holocene. These differences can be attributed to different moisture bearing atmospheric systems. In the late Holocene lake levels were generally low and in the last 50 years most lakes completely disappeared due to a strong human usage of the water resources.

  20. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  1. 7 CFR 301.91-3 - Regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Deputy Administrator or an inspector may temporarily designate any nonregulated area in a... Division, 9th Southern Division, 10th Southern Division, and 16th Middle Division. Knox County. The entire... Division. [49 FR 18992, May 4, 1984, as amended at 49 FR 36817, Sept. 20, 1984; 50 FR 7033, Feb. 20, 1985...

  2. REC profile 2: Southern Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented of South Electric plc, one of the United Kingdom's Regional Electricity Companies (RECs), at present distributing electric power in central southern England. Known in financial markets as an efficient performer, the staff reductions and changes of employment conditions undertaken to achieve this end are described. The need to maintain success in its core business, while simultaneously seeking diversification, drive the company's keen competitive edge. The relationship between the RECs and the electricity regulator is also explored, as Southern Electric considers a friendly merger with another REC to improve its market competitiveness in price terms. (UK)

  3. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  4. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  5. Characteristics of southern California atmospheric rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah M.; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are channels of high water vapor flux that transport moisture from low to higher latitudes on synoptic timescales. In areas of topographical variability, ARs may lead to high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. ARs landfalling along North America's west coast are linked to extreme events including those leading to flooding and landslides. In southern California (SCA), proper AR forecasting is important for regional water resources as well as hazard mitigation and as the area's annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season, any changes to storm frequency and/or intensity may have dramatic consequences. Yet, as most regional AR studies focus on the Pacific Northwest, there is little information about SCA ARs. We develop an algorithm to identify ARs landfalling on North America's west coast between 1979 and 2013 within total precipitable water reanalysis fields. ARs are then categorized according to landfall region. To determine and differentiate the characteristics and spatial distributions of ARs affecting these areas, we examine lag composites of various atmospheric variables for each landfall region. SCA ARs differ from ARs landfalling farther north in the days prior to landfall with the position and amplitude of a trough offshore from the Asian continent and ridge over Alaska, as well as the displacement and eastward extension of the jet core that potentially guides AR moisture southwards. The relationships between AR landfalls and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the Pacific/North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA) are also investigated.

  6. Sexty Southerners: Sexting Content and Behaviors among Selected Southern Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Marshall, S. Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sexting is defined as sending/posting/sharing sexually explicit messages or nude/semi-nude images via electronic communication. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and determine relationships of sexting behavioral intentions, sexting behaviors, and sexting content among selected Southern undergraduate students. Methods: Survey…

  7. Storm wave deposits in southern Istria (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Devoto, Stefano; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to extreme waves are well documented in different areas of the Mediterranean coasts, such as in Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Greece (Lesbos and Crete islands), France, Spain, Malta, Italy (Sicily and Apulia regions). These deposits have been associated to storm or tsunami events or both, depending on the local history. If compared to the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea is considered a shallow basin, with very low wave energy. In particular the NE Adriatic, where Istria Peninsula (Croatia) is located, geological and geomorphological evidences of extreme wave events have never been described, as well as no tsunamis have been registered. We present the boulder deposits that have been recently found out in southern Istria, at Premantura and Marlera localities and we discuss the mechanisms that could have been responsible of the detachment and movement of these large rocky blocks from the emerged part of the coast and from the sea bottom inland. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted: geological and geomorphological surveyings, UAV and digital photogrammetric analysis, applying of the hydrodynamic equations as well as underwater profiles were carried out between 2012 and 2016. The southern Istrian coasts are composed of Cretaceous bedded limestones, sub-horizontal or gently inclined toward the sea and are exposed to southern winds, Scirocco and Libeccio, with wide fetch. The boulder deposits occur in correspondence of flat promontories or ancient quarry pavements, where the topography, together with the bedding planes and a dense fracture pattern constitute the predisposing factors of the boulder sizing and detachment. Boulder sizes, density, position and elevation have been measured in order to apply the hydrodynamic equations, which provide wave height values that can discriminate a storm from a tsunami origin. Biogenic marine encrustations, sometimes very recent, have been observed on large part of the boulders, attesting

  8. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Journal of Environmental Education (SAJEE) is an accredited and ... It is published at least once a year, by the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA). ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  9. Southern Coal Corporation Clean Water Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Coal Corporation is a coal mining and processing company headquartered in Roanoke, VA. Southern Coal Corporation and the following 26 affiliated entities are located in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

  10. Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Review of Southern African Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Review of Southern African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies is a multidisciplinary journal of Arts, Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol 13, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in Maseru ...

  12. Unprecedented emergency in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Despite knowledge of better prevention strategies, AIDS continues to be an unprecedented emergency in southern Africa. Statistics show that in 1998, 1.4 million people between the ages of 15 and 49 in the 9 countries of southern Africa were infected, with nearly three-quarters of a million of these new infections occurring in South Africa. In addition, some 2 million people died of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 and millions of new infections are occurring every year. Factors such as the loneliness suffered by migrant laborers, the wars and armed conflicts in Rwanda, and the stigma of shame, silence, and denial associated with AIDS all generate fertile conditions for the spread of HIV in southern Africa. Overcoming silence and denial, and bringing AIDS out into the open, has been considered by some countries in southern Africa. In Botswana and South Africa, appeals for greater awareness and openness by the top leadership have been coupled with a decision to set up government funding and AIDS. The challenge now will be to translate these into effective prevention and care programs.

  13. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  14. Sapwood area as an estimator of leaf area and foliar weight in cherrybark oak and green ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between foliar weight/leaf area and four stem dimensions (d.b.h., total stem cross-sectional area, total sapwood area, and current sapwood area at breast height) were investigated in two important bottomland tree species of the Southern United States, cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia ...

  15. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  16. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  18. Southern California Edison instrument setpoint program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhorst, R.M.; Quinn, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an electrical safety system functional inspection (ESSFI) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS), which was followed by an NRC audit on instrument setpoint methodology in January 1991. Units 2 and 3 at SONGS are 1100-MW(electric) Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Southern California Edison (SCE). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the NRC audit and SCE's follow-up activities. The NRC team inspection reinforced the need to address several areas relative to the SCE setpoint program. The calculations withstood the intensive examination of four NRC inspectors for 2 weeks and only a few minor editorial-type problems were noted. Not one of the calculated plant protections system setpoints will change as a result of the audit. There were no questions raised relative to setpoint methodology

  19. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  20. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of ... The dominant one strikes in the same direction with the same Ifewara mylonitic foliation. ... fractures (joints and faults), drainage, road network,.

  1. Rock glaciers, Fletschhorn Area, Valais, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a total amount of 74 rock glaciers which were investigated in the Fletschhorn Area in the southern Swiss Alps during the summer of 1995. The...

  2. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  3. Cooperativismo e dinâmicas produtivas em zonas desfavorecidas: o caso das pequenas cooperativas agrícolas do Sul da França Cooperatives and production dynamics in disadvantaged areas: the case of small agricultural cooperatives in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Lins e Silva Pires

    2011-01-01

    advancement of the territories? In the analysis of these issues, the article examines a qualitative survey conducted in southern France, with reference to two case studies - Société Coopérative Agricole Fromagerie des Cévennes and Coopérative Origine Cévennes. In both cases, the emphasis has been on the know-how and leadership of the local agents, which are seen as "subjects of their own development," rather than "objects of study." The study reveals the limits and the power of a cooperative; even if it is separated by a considerable distance from the centers of distribution, and suffers from high operating costs, arid lands and infrastructure problems. These cases are particularly important to reinforce the importance of the cooperatives, especially in areas considered disadvantaged.

  4. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  5. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  6. Recreation use on federal lands in southern Nevada [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice M. McSweeney

    2013-01-01

    Providing for appropriate, diverse, and high quality recreational use of southern Nevada’s lands and ensuring responsible visitor use is an ongoing challenge for the Federal agencies that manage the majority of the area (fig. 1.1). Over 87 percent (61,548,000 acres out of Nevada’s 70,275,000) of Nevada’s lands are administered by the Federal government, which is the...

  7. The last Frasnian Atrypida (Brachiopoda) in southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid, J.; Helsen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The last representatives of the order Atrypida on the southern flank of the Dinant Synclinorium (Vaulx-Nismes area) in Belgium belong to Costatrypa, Spinatrypa, Spinatrypina (?Spinatrypina), Spinatrypina (Exatrypa), Iowatrypa, ?Waiotrypa, Desquamatia (Desquamatia) and Desquamatia (?Seratrypa). Among the thirteen described taxa, five are new: Spinatrypa tumuli sp. n., Iowatrypa circuitionis sp. n., ?Waiotrypa pluvia sp. n., Desquamatia (Desquamatia) quieta sp. n. and Desquamatia (?Seratrypa) d...

  8. Nitrates in the drinking water of southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2000-01-01

    Four major cities of Southern Punjab were investigated for the nitrate-level in sources of drinking water. Values greater than the guideline value were obtained for 12 percent of the samples collected from Bahawalpur city, 23 percent from the city of Bahawalnagar and 7.3 percent from the city of Sadiqabad. For the city of Rahim Yar Khan, all the values were within the WHO Guidelines. Areas with higher contents of nitrate were latter investigated in detail. (author)

  9. Investment Potential in Southern Cross Lane East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify potential problems, and development challenges Trails South (JLS as well as increased investment strategies in an attempt to improve the welfare of the people in the southern region of East Java. The study was conducted using descriptive method with sample areas in several districts / cities in the area of JLS, namely Pacitan, Terri, Tulungagung, Blitar, Malang, Lumajang, Jember and Banyuwangi. By using the analysis of the competitiveness of the region as well as the analysis of the pricing structure that is known comparative advantage (comparative advantage and competitive advantage (competitive advantage owned by the industry in each region of the sample. Comparative advantage was reflected in the level of production costs, while the competitive advantage is reflected by the role of transaction costs, including transportation cost. Based to the results of the study revealed that: (i development of the industry in the southern region is largely determined by the ability of the industry to conduct cost reduction through production efficiency, (ii development JLS contribute to lower transport costs, thereby increasing competitive advantage, where the region is the biggest benefit Pacitan and Blitar, and (iii development of JLS will result in increased economic activity and employment, especially in Pacitan and Blitar. Recommendations that can be submitted is the preparation of a master plan development of JLS, especially for the area Pacitan, Blitar, and Psychology. Where in the preparation of the master plan is needed studies on southern regional development planning, such as the establishment of centers of development of the southern region is seen by the economic characteristics of the area.

  10. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  11. Photographs of the southern heavens

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