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Sample records for cajamarca peru determined

  1. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

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    William H. Roldán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  2. Paragonimosis in the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Peru Paragonimíase nos distritos de Cajabamba e Condebamba, Cajamarca, Peru

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    William CORNEJO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Stool samples from 409 pre-school and school students, living in six villages of the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Perú, were examined using wet preparations and Lumbreras' method, looking for Paragonimus eggs. Fecal and sputum samples from two children (0.5% of 6 and 8 year-old showed eggs of Paragonimus. One hundred and twenty freshwater crabs, Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni, were collected from the Condebamba valley and 21 (17.5% of them were infected with P. mexicanus (syn. P. peruvianus metacercariae. Our results show the persistence of Paragonimus in human beings and in the main source of infection, the crabs.As amostras de fezes de 409 pré-escolares e escolares de 6 localidades dos distritos de Cajabamba e de Condebamba, departamento de Cajamarca, Peru, foram avaliados pelo método de Lumbreras na busca de ovos de Paragonimus sp. Dois meninos (0,5%, de 6 a 8 anos de idade, revelaram ovos de Paragonimus sp. nas suas fezes, bem como nas amostras de escarro. O exame radiográfico de tórax mostrou lesões pulmonares. Foram coletados 120 caranguejos de rio, Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni, no vale de Condebamba , encontrando-se 21 (17,5% infectados com metacercárias de P. mexicanus (sin. P. peruvianus. Nossos resultados revelam a persistencia de Paragonimus sp. na população na sua principal fonte de infecção, os caranguejos.

  3. Hyperendemic human fascioliasis in Andean valleys: an altitudinal transect analysis in children of Cajamarca province, Peru.

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    González, L Carolina; Esteban, José Guillermo; Bargues, M Dolores; Valero, M Adela; Ortiz, Pedro; Náquira, Cesar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    A coprological survey including 476 2-18 year old school children from six rural localities between 2627 and 3061 m altitude was performed in Cajamarca province, Peru. Prevalences of fascioliasis ranging from 6.7 to 47.7% (mean 24.4%) proved to be the highest so far recorded in that human hyperendemic area. Higher prevalences in females and in the 2-5 year old group were not significant. Intensities ranged from 24 to 864 eggs per gram (arithmetic mean: 113; geometric mean: 68), the majority shedding less than 100, and without significant differences according to gender or age group. Fasciola hepatica was the most common helminth within a spectrum of 11-12 protozoan and 9-11 helminth species, 97.3% of the children showing infection with at least one parasite. The highest levels corresponded to coinfection with seven different species in females and subjects older than 5 years. Fascioliasis prevalence correlation with altitude appeared significant. An epidemiological characterisation of the valley transmission pattern of fascioliasis in Cajamarca is made by comparison with other better known hyperendemic areas. Results suggest that human fascioliasis may be widespread throughout different parts of Cajamarca province, even far away from the city, and that long-term fascioliasis chronicity and superimposed repetitive infections may be probably frequent.

  4. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  5. A One-Health integrated approach to control fascioliasis in the Cajamarca valley of Peru.

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    Rinaldi, Laura; Gonzalez, Sergio; Guerrero, Jorge; Aguilera, Luisa Carol; Musella, Vincenzo; Genchi, Claudio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection is reported from many Latin American countries, with very high prevalence rates in both humans and livestock in the Andean countries. Due to its environmental characteristics, particularly suitable for liver fluke infection, the Cajamarca valley of Peru has often been chosen as a model to study the epidemiology of liver fluke infection in the Andes. In this paper we describe the profile of a project aimed at a multidisciplinary and integrated approach for the control of fascioliasis in animals and humans in this valley. The One-Health integrated approach applied here is based on accurate and sensitive diagnostics, namely the FLOTAC, and the use of geospatial tools for epidemiological scrutiny.

  6. A One-Health integrated approach to control fascioliasis in the Cajamarca valley of Peru

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection is reported from many Latin American countries, with very high prevalence rates in both humans and livestock in the Andean countries. Due to its environmental characteristics, particularly suitable for liver fluke infection, the Cajamarca valley of Peru has often been chosen as a model to study the epidemiology of liver fluke infection in the Andes. In this paper we describe the profile of a project aimed at a multidisciplinary and integrated approach for the control of fascioliasis in animals and humans in this valley. The One-Health integrated approach applied here is based on accurate and sensitive diagnostics, namely the FLOTAC, and the use of geospatial tools for epidemiological scrutiny.

  7. Are technological projects reducing social inequalities and improving people's well-being? A capability approach analysis of renewable energy-based electrification projects in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Fernández-Baldor Martínez, Álvaro; BONI ARISTIZÁBAL, Alejandra; LILLO RODRIGO, PAU; Hueso, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Journal of Human Development and Capabilities on 18/11/2013, available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19452829.2013.837035". This paper analyses four renewable energy-based electrification projects that were implemented by the non-governmental organization Practical Action in the rural area of Cajamarca, Peru. Using the capability approach, the research examines the effect of the projects on the things p...

  8. Desenhos, relações e desenvolvimento : conflitos em torno da mineração na região andina de Cajamarca, Peru

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    Adriana Paola Paredes Peñafiel

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho de tese trata das dinâmicas da mineração a céu aberto e seus efeitos na água da região andina de Cajamarca, ao norte do Peru. O objetivo consiste em analisar “desenhos locais” que entram em conflito com os desenhos propostos – e alguns já instalados – pela mineração moderna, que começam a proliferar no Peru a partir de 1990 como um caminho inquestionável de desenvolvimento. Por meio de pesquisa de abordagem etnográfica, realizada entre 2013 e 2014, analisam-se dois casos. No pri...

  9. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

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    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics.

  10. Evaluación de una prueba de ELISA con antígeno metabólico de Fasciola hepatica para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana en Cajamarca, Perú Evaluation of an ELISA test with Fasciola hepatica metabolic antigen for diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Hernán Cornejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el antígeno metabólico (antígeno excreción - secreción de Fasciola hepatica de ovinos infectados de Cajamarca, con una concentración proteica de 1 005 μg/μL, compuesta principalmente por proteνnas de peso molecular entre 1,2 y 170 KDa. Se detectaron bandas de 170; 150; 31; 24; 18-14 y 10 kDa. Con este antνgeno se desarrollσ una prueba de ELISA y se determinσ su punto de corte en 0,140. Se evaluσ 33 sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por visualización de huevos en heces, 177 sueros de pacientes sin fasciolosis provenientes de áreas endémicas de Cajamarca y 88 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones parasitarias y bacterianas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 97,0%, especificidad de 96,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 78,1% y valor predictivo negativo de 99,6%. Se encontró reacción cruzada en 9/88 sueros evaluados. Se recomienda la implementación y uso de esta prueba para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis.Metabolic (excretion/secretion antigen was obtained from sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica, with a 1005 μg/μL of protein concentration, composed principally by proteins of molecular weight between 1.2 and 170 KDa. Bands of 170, 150, 31, 24, 18-14 and 10 kDa were detected. With this antigen an ELISA test was developed and the cut off was determined in 0.140. We evaluated 33 serums of patient with fascioliasis confirmed by visualization of eggs in feces, 177 serums of persons without fascioliasis from endemic rural areas of Cajamarca and 88 serums of patients with others parasitic and bacterial infections. We found a 97.0% of sensitivity, 96.6 specificity, 78.1% predictive positive value, 99.6 % predictive negative value. In 9/88 serums was found cross reactions. We recommended the implementation and use of this test for the fascioliasis diagnosis.

  11. Resistencia antihelmíntica de nematodos a los antiparasitarios más utilizados en Bovinos en los fundos “Tres Molinos, distrito Cajamarca” e “Ingatambo, distrito San Pablo”, Región Cajamarca. Perú. 2006 (Antihelmintic resistance from nematodes to the most used antiparasitic in Bovines in the farms “Tres Molinos, Cajamarca” and “Ingatambo, San Pablo”, Cajamarca. Peru. 2006

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    Rojas, J

    2007-09-01

    Resistencia Antihelmíntica a Levamisol en los distritos de Cajamarca y San Pablo, Región Cajamarca, Perú. SummaryThe present investigation was made with the purpose of determining the antihelmintic resistance of the nematodes to Fenbendazol 10%, Albendazol 10%; Levamisol 15% and Ivermectina 1%. On each farm was used 50 positive bovine to gastrointestinals Nematodes, in “Tres Molinos” farm only females Holstein were used, raised to the pasturing and stable, fed with Rye grass plus Trebol and a food supplement concentrated; while in “ Ingatambo” farm Criollos bovines male and females were used, fed with natural pasture; distributed on 5 groups of 10 animals each one, 6 months without dosing, their ages oscillated of 4 to 60 months, homogenized by ages and epg. The therapeutic dose of Fenbendazol and Levamisol was 7.5 mg/Kg., Albendazol 10 mg/Kg. and Ivermectina 0.2mg/Kg., the dose was calculated according to the individual corporal weight. The feces were collected directly from the rectum, 3 days before and at the 10th day after the treatment. The Antihelmintic Resistance was determined by means of the Reduction of the Egg Count by gram of feces (RECT and Culture of Larvae. The collected data were processed using an electronic list of echevarr@cppsul.embrapa.br . The results were Antihelmintic Resistance to Levamisol in both farms; with percentages of egg reduction of 17% in “Ingatambo” farm and 67% in “Tres Molinos”. On the control group from “Tres Molinos” was identified Haemonchus, Ostertagia , Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum; in “Ingatambo” farm Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was resistant to Levamisol in both farms . It concludes that it exists Antihelmintic Resistance to Levamisol in the districts of Cajamarca and San Pablo.

  12. [Determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru].

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    Cansino, Kenyi; Gálvez, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This document attempts to establish the determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru using the economic structure presented by Cawley and a participation choice model proposed by Humphreys and Ruseski. Through the National Survey of Nutritional, Biochemical, Socioeconomic and Cultural Indicators related to Chronic-Degenerative Diseases in 2006, a logistic model was estimated through which an observation was made: more educated individuals are more likely to participate in physical activities. Also, characteristics like socioeconomic status and employment decrease the likelihood of participating in physical activities due to a higher opportunity cost. In the same way, it was observed that adults are less likely to participate in physical activities due to biological characteristics related to age.

  13. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

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    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  14. Eco-systemic services in Cajamarca Region

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    Alcántara Boñón, Germán Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The study of the eco-systemic services –ESE relies on 15 priority sites on biodiversity conservationidentified in the Sub Model of Bio-ecologic Value of the Ecologic-Economic Zonation process (ZEE) of the department of Cajamarca. The area studied covers 525,419 ha that represent 13,75% of the department area. The objectives of this study were: to identify the main eco-systemic services- SE.; to analyze the factors associated to the conditions of the main Eco-systemic Services and to find meas...

  15. 78 FR 58378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun...

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    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Peru: Kingdoms of the...

  16. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

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    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  17. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  18. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

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    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  19. Contaminación fecal en hortalizas que se expenden en mercados de la ciudad de Cajamarca, Perú

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    Marco Rivera-Jacinto; Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa; John López-Orbegoso

    2009-01-01

    Se determinó el nivel de coliformes fecales y la frecuencia de Escherichia coli en 85 muestras de hortalizas, obtenidas de manera aleatoria y expendidas en los principales mercados de Cajamarca. El procesamiento, aislamiento e identificación bacteriana se realizó según la Food and Drug Administration (FDA). El 40% de muestras presentaron coliformes fecales, con elevado numero más probable por gramo (NMP/g) e importante frecuencia de E. coli en perejil y lechuga. El análisis revela un alto niv...

  20. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

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    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases.

  1. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

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    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  2. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

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    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  3. Understanding Underage Drinking in Peru: Determinants of Its Frequency and Intensity

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    Janice Seinfeld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Underage drinking is a serious problem worldwide. In the case of Peru, 50% of those who have ever used alcohol started doing so before the age of 13, and 90% before 16. In this study, we examine the correlations of frequency and intensity of underage drinking in Peru. We find that individual characteristics (smoking and carrying guns, exposure to traumatic events (sexual abuse and domestic violence, peer effects, and access to information are significantly correlated with drinking. This highlights the importance of addressing the problem in a comprehensive manner that includes students, parents, schools, and the government, especially considering that policies targeted at adolescents may have multiplier effects.

  4. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

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    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  5. Observaciones sobre la verruga en el departamento de Cajamarca: I. Hemocultivos

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    Arístides Herrer

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available En personas que no mostraban síntomas de verruga hasta el momento de extraérseles la sangre, se ha llevado a cabo las dos series, siguientes de hemocultivos: P un total de 182 en escolares delas ciudades de Cajamarca, Cajabamba, Celendín y Utco; y, 2º, 28 cultivos en personas que habitaban la parte alta de la ciudad de Cajamarca. Solamente en dos casos de la segunda serie se obtuvo cultivos positivos para la Bartonella bacilliformis.

  6. Contaminación fecal en hortalizas que se expenden en mercados de la ciudad de Cajamarca, Perú

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    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el nivel de coliformes fecales y la frecuencia de Escherichia coli en 85 muestras de hortalizas, obtenidas de manera aleatoria y expendidas en los principales mercados de Cajamarca. El procesamiento, aislamiento e identificación bacteriana se realizó según la Food and Drug Administration (FDA. El 40% de muestras presentaron coliformes fecales, con elevado numero más probable por gramo (NMP/g e importante frecuencia de E. coli en perejil y lechuga. El análisis revela un alto nivel de contaminación fecal, un estado sanitario inaceptable y la necesidad de establecer medidas de control frente al riesgo que esto representa para la salud.

  7. Determination of Nazca slab geometry and state of stress beneath the southern Peru and northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Young, B. E.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.; Minaya, E.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate in the north central Andes beneath southern Peru and northern Bolivia is of prime importance because of the role it plays in the evolution of topographic features since the late Eocene (~40 Ma). Previous studies based on slab event locations constrained only with teleseismic data defined a broad area of flat slab subduction in central and southern Peru, which transitions to a normally dipping slab beneath the northernmost Altiplano Plateau. We present earthquake locations and focal mechanisms using data from two temporary arrays: the network of 50 broadband seismic stations that were part of the NSF-Continental Dynamics-funded project 'CAUGHT' (Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography) and the 40 station NSF- Geophysics funded 'PULSE' array (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment). Our earthquake locations provide new information about the geometry of subducting Nazca slab between 13°S to 18°S. A significant clustering of intermediate depth earthquakes at ~15.5°S and 18°S suggests strong and localized release of tectonic stress in the slab perhaps due to bending and unbending. There are not enough intra-slab events at depth greater than 100 km to constrain the flat slab width north of 14°S. Our analyses indicate that the flat slab is at least 10 to 12 km shallower than the previous estimates (e.g. Cahill and Isacks, 1992; Ramos, 2009). Focal mechanisms and stress axis orientation of slab events at ~15.5°S indicate down-dip extension, where the dip changes from subhorizontal to steeply dipping slab. The continuity in the trend of stress suggests that the slab is deformed but not torn where it transitions from flat to steeply dipping. Data from local slab events will eventually be incorporated into a local tomographic body wave inversion to better constrain the velocity structure of the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere below the Altiplano. This in turn will provide the valuable information on the process

  8. Determinants of Anopheles seasonal distribution patterns across a forest to periurban gradient near Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Sardelis, Michael R; Jones, James W; Watts, Douglas M; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A; Turell, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region.

  9. Determinants of burnout in acute and critical care military nursing personnel: a cross-sectional study from Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ayala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05 and inversely associated with the time working in the current department (p<0.05. Higher depersonalization scores were independently associated with being single compared with being divorced, separated or widowed (p<0.01, working in the emergency room/intensive care unit compared with the recovery room (p<0.01, and inversely associated with age (p<0.05. Finally, higher personal achievement scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Among Peruvian military acute and critical care nursing personnel, potential

  10. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  11. COMPETITIVENESS TEXTILE CLUSTER PERU MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Amador Murguía, María Eugenia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research study entitled "A comparative study in Peru- Mexico textile cluster in determining competitive strategies" that was developed in 2010 by the author in collaboration with a team of researchers at the University of Guadalajara. This article basically presents the results in comparative terms of the competitive situation of the textile cluster, Peru and Mexico, "Gamarra" and "Zapotlanejo" respectively representing the textile industry in their countries,...

  12. The use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, L E; Cubas-Delgado, F; Sammel, M D; Smith, G; Galligan, D T; Levy, M Z; Hennessy, S

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in lower/middle-income countries. The use of these drugs can have profound impacts on animal health, farmer income and public health. A survey of 156 farmers was conducted in Cajamarca, a major dairy-producing center in the highlands of Peru characterized by small farms (advanced stage of clinical disease. Few farmers were able to define an antibiotic, but many farmers understood that the use of antibiotics carried inherent risks to their animals and potentially to the consumers of dairy products from treated animals. The results of this study are useful for understanding the patterns of antibiotic use and associated management, demographic and knowledge factors of farmers on small dairy farms in rural Peru.

  13. New KAr age determinations of intrusive rocks from the Cordillera Occidental and Altiplano of central Peru: Identification of magmatic pulses and episodes of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, P.; Bonhomme, M. G.

    The post-Albian evolution of the Andes of central Peru is characterized by igneous activity, both effusive and intrusive, and by at least six distinct episodes of compressional tectonics. New KAr age determinations have been made of intrusive rocks from the Cajatambo-Oyón-Cerro de Pasco area. In conjunction with already published information, these new data permit a better estimate of the ages and the lateral extent of successive Cenozoic magmatic arcs. Metallogenetic implications of the 26.3-29.3 Ma age of mineralized Milpo-Atacocha intrusions are also discussed.

  14. Volatile Evolution and Anhydrite-Bearing Dacite, Yanacocha Gold Deposit, Cajamarca, Peru: Relevance for the Sulfur Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambefort, I. S.; Dilles, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic water, sulfur and chlorine evolved during volcanic eruptions have important climactic effects, but during passive degassing these volatiles may transport metals and produce hydrothermal ore deposits. At the Yanacocha Mine, we are examining the volatile evolution of the Miocene andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks (ca 20 to 8 Ma). High sulfidation epithermal deposits contain >50 Moz of gold in oxides with additional deeper sulfide resources containing >5 Mt of copper. Large volumes (>10 km3) of rock are hydrothermally altered by sulfate-rich and low pH fluid to quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite, illite. Pyrite (1-5 vol.%), native sulfur, covellite, enargite and chalcopyrite constitute reduced S-species. In total, at least 500 M tonnes of sulfur were added during alteration. The San Jose ignimbrite (SJI) erupted 30 km3 magma in two cooling units at 11.50 and 11.28 Ma, and immediately predates the bulk of gold mineralization at about 10.80 Ma (Longo, 2005). This hornblende- plagioclase dacitic magma is highly oxidized with fO2 ≍ 2 NNO. Low-Al2O3 (~7 wt.%), and high- Al2O3 (~12 wt.%) amphiboles coexist in most of the samples. Plag-hbl thermobarometry on low-Al content amphibole yields ca. 1.5-2 kb and 800°C. High-Al pargasitic hornblende forms sparse crystals up to 1 cm long that often show resorption or oxide rims associated with oxyhornblende breakdown. Apatite is an inclusion but generally not plagioclase or oxide. These petrographic relations suggest that the high-Al hornblende is the liquidus phase (at 950 to 1000°C, PH2O > 3 kb) in an andesitic or basaltic magma. The high-Al amphibole in two samples contains anhydrite inclusions, one with >5 vol.% anhydrite associated with apatite having up to 1.2 wt.% SO3. Comparison of these data with experimental sulfate solubilities at NNO+2 suggests the andesitic or basaltic melt dissolved at least 1000 ppm S. One low-Al amphibole contains anhydrite, demonstrating that the cooler dacite magma was also sulfate saturated (~400 ppm S). The water content and D/H isotopic composition of amphiboles have been analyzed by TC-EA-CF mass spectrometry and by SIMS. High-Al amphiboles from three SJI samples yield δ D values of -25, -100, and -130 ‰, respectively. Partial analyses suggest that low-Al amphiboles have δ D 2000 ppm sulfate sulfur, would be needed to produce the observed hydrothermal sulfur anomaly.

  15. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  16. Identification and biochemical characterization of Leishmania strains isolated in Peru, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Vargas, Franklin; Córdova, Ofelia; Barrera, Mario; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Alunda, Jose María; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Eight Leishmania promastigotes were isolated from different geographical areas: three (LP1, LP2, and LP3) from the provincial department La Libertad and the fourth (LP4) from the department of Cajamarca (northern Peru); another three (LM1, LM2, and LM3) in the province of Campeche (Mexico); and the last (LS1) from a clinical case of a dog in Madrid (Spain). The isolates were characterized by carbohydrate cell-surface residues using agglutinations with four purified lectins, by isoenzyme analysis using different isoenzymes, by analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism using four different restriction endonucleases and by the final metabolite patterns after in vitro culture. These isolates were compared with four reference strains and typified as: Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, two strains of L. (L.) infantum, and one species of L. (Viania) peruviana. According to our results and the statistical study, the Peruvian isolates represent three different strains: one would be L. (V.) peruviana, another the strain isolated in Cajamarca (LP4) and the third would include the three strains from the department of La Libertad (LP1, LP2, and LP3), these latter three isolates being phylogenetically closer to the reference strain L. (L.) donovani. Meanwhile, the three isolates from Mexico form a group with close phylogenetic relationships to each other. The isolate from Spain belongs to the species L. (L.) infantum. Thus, a close correlation was drawn between the identity of each strain and its geographical origin.

  17. La infección de cangrejos procedentes del valle de Condebamba (Cajamarca por metacercarias de Paragonimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En los meses de febrero y julio de 1973 se colectaron cangrejos del Valle de Condebamba (Cajamarca correspondientes a Pseudothelphusa chilensis, 69 de ellos (34 machos y 35 hembras fueron examinados, buscando metacercarias de Paragonimus; 22 (64.7% de los machos y 29 (28.85 % de las hembras resultaron infectados con metacercarias, o sea 52 (72.46% de los 69 cangrejos estaban infectados, esta cifra es coincidente con la obtenida por Cuba y cols. (1974.

  18. Shear Wave Velocity Profiles Determined from Surface Wave Measurements at Sites Affected by the August 15th, 2007 Earthquake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblad, B. L.; Bay, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of near-surface soils is a critical parameter for understanding recorded ground motions and predicting local site effects in an earthquake. In structural design, the Vs profile in the top 30 m is used to modify design response spectra to account for local soil effects. In addition, knowledge of the near- surface Vs profile at strong motion stations can be used to account for changes in frequency content and amplification caused by the local site conditions. Following the August 15th, 2007 earthquake in Peru, a field testing program was performed to measure Vs profiles in the top 20 to 30 m at twenty-two locations in the affected region. The measurements were performed primarily at the sites of damaged school buildings but were also performed at several strong motion station sites as well as a few locations where evidence of soil liquefaction was observed. Nineteen of the sites were located in the severely affected cities of Chincha, Ica, Pisco and Tambo de Mora, with the remaining three sites located in, Lima, Palpa and Paracus. The Vs profiles were determined from surface wave velocity measurements performed with an impact source. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the range of Vs profile conditions encountered in the regions affected by the Pisco-Peru earthquake. In the city of Ica, the profiles generally exhibited gradually increasing velocities with depth, with velocities which rarely exceeded 400 m/s in the top 30 m. In contrast, the profiles measured in Pisco, often exhibited strong, shallow velocity contrasts with Vs increasing from less than 200 m/s at the surface to over 600 m/s at some sites. The profiles measured in Chincha generally fell in between the ranges measured in Ica and Pisco. Lastly, soil liquefaction was evident throughout Tambo de Mora on the coast of Peru. Measurements indicated very low shear wave velocities of 75 to 125 m/s in the top 4 m, which is consistent with the observed

  19. Peru : Opportunities for All, Peru Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Peru faces high levels of poverty and inequality. In 2004, over half of Peru's population was poor and about 20 percent were extremely poor. Following improvements during the 1990s, poverty increased in the wake of the 1998 economic crisis, while extreme poverty remained stable. Notwithstanding the economic recovery since 2001, with a strong positive impact in reducing extreme poverty, progress on poverty rates however, has been limited to rural areas. A main focus of this report is to explai...

  20. A household-based study of contact networks relevant for the spread of infectious diseases in the highlands of Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G Grijalva

    Full Text Available Few studies have quantified social mixing in remote rural areas of developing countries, where the burden of infectious diseases is usually the highest. Understanding social mixing patterns in those settings is crucial to inform the implementation of strategies for disease prevention and control. We characterized contact and social mixing patterns in rural communities of the Peruvian highlands.This cross-sectional study was nested in a large prospective household-based study of respiratory infections conducted in the province of San Marcos, Cajamarca-Peru. Members of study households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire of social contacts (conversation or physical interaction experienced during the last 24 hours. We identified 9015 reported contacts from 588 study household members. The median age of respondents was 17 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4-34 years. The median number of reported contacts was 12 (IQR 8-20 whereas the median number of physical (i.e. skin-to-skin contacts was 8.5 (IQR 5-14. Study participants had contacts mostly with people of similar age, and with their offspring or parents. The number of reported contacts was mainly determined by the participants' age, household size and occupation. School-aged children had more contacts than other age groups. Within-household reciprocity of contacts reporting declined with household size (range 70%-100%. Ninety percent of household contact networks were complete, and furthermore, household members' contacts with non-household members showed significant overlap (range 33%-86%, indicating a high degree of contact clustering. A two-level mixing epidemic model was simulated to compare within-household mixing based on observed contact networks and within-household random mixing. No differences in the size or duration of the simulated epidemics were revealed.This study of rural low-density communities in the highlands of Peru suggests contact patterns are highly assortative

  1. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  2. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85% were Dicotyledons, 46 (9% Monocotyledons, 21 (4% Pteridophytes, and 5 (1% Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each, and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each. One hundred eighty-two (85% of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%, 12 ferns (5.5%, and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83% were

  3. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  4. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  5. Factores de riesgo asociados a fasciolosis humana en tres provincias del departamento de Cajamarca, Perú (Periodo 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    León, Daphne; Cabanillas, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    Estudio Epidemiológico transversal retrospectivo. Objetivo: identificar factores de riesgo asociados a exposición a Fasciola hepatica en pobladores de las provincias de Cajabamba, San Marcos y Celendín, del departamento de Cajamarca – Perú. Metodología: Se utilizaron fichas clínico epidemiológicas del “Estudio de prevalencia de fasciolosis en humanos en la Región Cajamarca” desarrollado el año 2010. Las variables consideradas en el estudio fueron: lugar de procedencia, grupo poblacional (edad...

  6. Sustainable development and communities : lessons from Yanacocha, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, G. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The implications that the theory of enactment has for the way mining companies relate to communities were discussed with particular reference to Newmont Mining Corporation's experiences with the Yanacocha mine in Peru. The theory of enactment states that 'the environment that the organization worries about is put there by the organization'. Newmont is the world's largest gold company. It is relatively small with a capitalization of about $10 billion. Although company policies are carried out with the highest degree of sensitivity to local concerns, sometimes there is tension between corporate and site visions of reality. The paper referred to an event at Yanacocha mine in which a woman put a small amount of mercury in a glass of drinking water, claiming it had come from her kitchen tap. The event sparked an uprise from 400 members of the community who threatened the mine's administration offices. In another incident, a truck carrying mercury from Cajamarca to Lima accidentally spilled 150 kgs on the road through three communities. Newmont spent US$17 million to replace and repave roads and to bring in health experts, but as months passed, the people of the community were still upset. Tensions began to ease when Co-Development Canada, a small Vancouver-based NGO, got involved by working inside the community to help it identify what the issues were rather than try to fix parts of it.

  7. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  8. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions.

  9. Expansión del Aedes aegypti a localidades rurales de Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Troyes R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia, magnitud y expansión de Aedes aegypti en las localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio, departamento de Cajamarca. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre abril y mayo de 2004, en 21 (100% localidades rurales ubicadas en las márgenes de la carretera Jaén-San Ignacio y al interior de ella, hasta en 90 minutos. Se inspeccionó recipientes de 1460 viviendas para la búsqueda de larvas y adultos del mosquito, se determinaron los índices aédicos, de recipiente y de Breteau. Resultados: Se demostró la presencia de Aedes aegypti en tres localidades rurales de la provincia de Jaén y en cuatro de la provincia de San Ignacio. Los índices aédicos variaron de 1,2 a 16,6%. Los recipientes infestados con mayor frecuencia fueron las llantas y los artículos en desuso. Conclusiones: Se reporta la expansión de A. aegypti en la tercera parte de localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio; esta expansión necesita ser más estudiada y considerada al implementarse las estrategias de prevención y control del dengue en la DISA Jaén, para evitar la aparición de brotes de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico, incluso fiebre amarilla urbana.

  10. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  11. Mining mountains: neoliberalism, land tenure, livelihoods, and the new Peruvian mining industry in Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Bury

    2005-01-01

    Peru has been transformed over the course of the past decade into a neoliberal, mineral-based, export-oriented, country. The author evaluates the neoliberal transformation of the country in three parts. First he examines the economic and political transformation of the country in the early 1990s, particularly in terms of how the Peruvian state and economy were rapidly restructured according to neoliberal principles. He then illustrates how, both through privatization and through transnational...

  12. 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  13. Small vertebrates in the spectacled bear’s diet (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in the north of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella N. Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous studies about Spectacled bear´s diet, however little is known about the small vertebrates it consumes. This study present nine vertebrate species (seven rodent and two birds as preys of the Spectacled bear, based on the analysis of six feces collected from two locations Upa (Amazonas and Lagunas Arreviatadas (Cajamarca in northern Peru. Six of these records were new food items and a new family Caviidae. Vertebrates were found only in the Upa location. Additionally a sampling of small non flying mammals was conducted in there. Our results suggest that the Spectacled bear would be a generalist species. It prefers plants, however if it finds vertebrates in the environment, it could feed on them.

  14. Determinants of first trimester attendance at antenatal care clinics in the Amazon region of Peru: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nora; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Casapia, Martin; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify determinants which influence the timing of the first antenatal care (ANC) visit in pregnant women. Design Retrospective matched nested case-control study. Setting Two health centres, Belén and 6 de Octubre, in the Peruvian Amazon. Population All pregnant women who had attended ANC during the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Methods All cases (819 women initiating ANC in their first trimester) were selected from ANC registries from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (819 women initiating ANC in their second or third trimester) was matched 1:1 to cases on health centre and date of first ANC visit. Data were obtained from ANC registries. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measure Case-control status of each woman determined by the gestational age at first ANC visit. Results Cases had higher odds of: 1) being married or cohabiting (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.41); 2) completing secondary school or attending post-secondary school (aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.06); 3) living in an urban environment (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.10) and 4) having had a previous miscarriage (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.15), compared to controls. No statistically significant difference in odds was found for parity (aOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.36). Conclusions This study provides empirical evidence of determinants of first ANC attendance. These findings are crucial to the planning and timing of local interventions, like deworming, aimed at pregnant women so that they can access and benefit fully from all government-provided ANC services. PMID:28207749

  15. [Determination of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in high risk areas at the Central Air Force Hospital of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Alvarez, G; Galarza, J; Espinoza, J; Nieri, A; Makino, R; Berrocal, A; Grados, N

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper, the serologic markers of Hepatitis B virus were studied in 123 people belonging to the Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú that had been working in areas of high risk to get contact with this virus. The determination was done with the enzimo inmuno assay (EIA Abbot) and the results were the following: In 15 individuals (12.1%), at least one positive marker was found, evidence which proved to have been in contact with the virus in some moment of his life. Only one carrier (0.8%) was found, in 6 (4.8%) the presence of anti-HBc as only marker was found and in 8 (6.5%) the presence of Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs was observed which means post infection immunity. The great number of the individuals in which the markers were found, were male: 13 (16.0%) against only 2 (4.7%) female. There wasn't great difference with relation to the prevalency of markers according to the years of work like there has been observed in other greater series. It can be concluded that in this group the incidence of infection due to VHB was no greater than that of general population, which indicates us the little contact that they have had with the contaminating material during their professional life.

  16. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  17. INFECCIÓN DE HYPOLOBOCERA CHILENSIS EIGENMANI POR METACERCARIAS DE PARAGONIMUS MEXICANUS (= PERUVIANUS EN EL DISTRITO DE CONDEBAMBA (CAJAMARCA, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Huiza F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cangrejos de rio Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni fueron colectados de acequias durante el año 1997 en estación seca (mayo a diciembre en Chaquicocha, Área que pertenece al distrito de Condebamba (departamento de Cajamarca en la parte norte del Perú. Ciento treinta y un cangrejos colectados fueron transportados al Laboratorio de Parasitología y examinados por disección, 27 de 131 (20,6% estaban infectados por metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus(=peruvianus. La intensidad de la infección fue de 1 a 5 en la mayoría de los; casos (81,5% con un promedio de 4,85 por cangrejo. Estos datos son diferentes; a los de estudios anteriores; en la misma Área donde fueron más; altos, lo que indica una tendencia al decrecimiento del número de cangrejos infectados.

  18. Impacto económico de la peste bubónica en Cajamarca - Perú¹

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    Juan Modesto C

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer el impacto económico de la peste en tres provincias de Cajamarca en los años 1994 y 1999. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo se estimaron los costos directos e indirectos (institucionales, de las familias y comunidades de la peste en las provincias de San Miguel, San Pablo y Contumazá del departamento de Cajamarca en los años de 1994 y 1999. La información necesaria para el cálculo de los costos se obtuvo de diversas fuentes: recopilación de datos documentados, entrevistas a personal de salud y/o directores o jefes de instituciones o establecimientos, encuestas a hogares, etc. Resultados: en 1994, el costo total estimado de la peste ascendió a 2 333 169 dólares: insumos- MINSA (65 034 dólares, atención directa-MINSA (81 388 dólares, otras instituciones (106 428 dólares, de las familias (663 449 dólares y por mortalidad (1 416 870 dólares. En tanto que en 1999, el costo total ascendió a 741 431 dólares: insumos-MINSA (322 371 dólares, atención directa-MINSA (34 063 dólares, otras instituciones (15 477 dólares, de las familias (369 550 dólares y ningún costo por mortalidad. Conclusiones: La peste tiene un alto costo en la economía peruana a nivel regional, existiendo variaciones en el tiempo, de acuerdo al comportamiento de la enfermedad y a las políticas adoptadas para su control y prevención.

  19. Religious Regimes in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, Fred

    1994-01-01

    This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the variou

  20. Calidad del agua en relación con las propiedades del geoecosistema: un estudio de caso de una zona de jalca cerca de Cajamarca, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammeraat, L.H.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Sevink, J.; Hoogzaad, Y.P.G.; Stoops, W.S.; de Vet, S.J.; de Vries, M.E.; van Veelen, M.; Weiler, H.A.; Weiss, N.; Sánchez-Vega, I.; Chunga-Castro, F.; Roncal-Rabanal, M.; Cuesta, F.; Sevink, J.; Llambí, L.D.; De Bièvre, B.; Posner, J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este estudio presenta una primera aproximación a la relación entre hidrología,calidad del agua, geología y suelos para un ecosistema de jalca cerca de Cajamarca en el norte de Perú. Debido a que las áreas de jalca son propensas a la degradación de sus suelos húmicos, como resultado del uso d

  1. Giant Otters in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk C.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  2. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  3. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  4. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  5. Optica Precolombina Del Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, J J

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological American mirrors are common findings and the images obtained with them are often described by archaeologists as possessing high quality. However, photographs attesting this fact are rare, if any. To the best of my knowledge, only two papers show that quality concerning the Olmeca culture, and only one of them mentions the pre-Inca cultures case. Certainly more images are needed to increase awareness of the importance of the existence of sophisticated imaging elements, particularly when evaluating the cultural degree of the pre-Columbian civilizations. In this paper we show images made in two museums in Lima, Peru, by means of mirrors and the lens action on a necklace element.

  6. Social determinants of health and disease: the role of small-scale projects illustrated by the Koster health project in Sweden and Ametra in Peru Determinantes sociais de saúde e doença: o papel de pequenos projetos em saúde ilustrado pelos projetos Koster na Suécia e Ametra no Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Lis Follér

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different health projects are evaluated in this paper. The Koster Health project taking place at the Koster Islands in Sweden and the Ametra project going on among the Shipibo-Conibo in Peru. Both projects focus more on the determinants of health than on sickness and more on the individual's subjective feeling of illness than on the biomedically "objectively" recognizable disease. "Mobilization" and "responsibility"for the individual's own health are central concepts in both projects. In the theoretical part of the paper a human ecological perspective is suggested to analyse the interaction between human health and environmental changes. The author emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary research when evaluating how the external determinants from the natural and social environment affect human beings and health. The human ecological approach is seen as a complement to the biomedical research. Health and disease are two poles in a continuum. In a pluralistic society we should struggle towards the pole of health.Este artigo revê e avalia dois projetos de saúde - o Koster Health Project realizado nas ilhas Koster, Suécia, e o Ametra Project, realizado entre os indígenas Shipibo-Conibo, Peru. Ambos enfocam, principalmente, os determinantes de saúde, ao invés da doença. Os projetos também privilegiam em suas abordagens os sentimentos subjetivos individuais sobre a doença, ao invés de doenças "objetivamente" reconhecidas pela biomedicina. "Mobilização" e "responsabilidade" pela saúde do próprio indivíduo são conceitos centrais em ambos os projetos. O artigo busca na ecologia humana o suporte teórico para analisar a interação entre saúde humana e mudanças ambientais. A autora enfatiza a importância da pesquisa interdisciplinar na avaliação do papel exercido pelos fatores naturais e sociais sobre os seres humanos e a saúde. A abordagem da ecologia humana é vista como complementar à pesquisa biomédica sendo, sa

  7. Frecuencia relativa de fasciolosis en niños de edad escolar en las provincias de San Marcos, Cajabamba y Celendín, departamento de Cajamarca - año 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Orfanos, Nikolás; Cabanillas, Oswaldo; León, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia relativa de casos de Fasciolosis en niños en edad escolar en las provincias de San Marcos, Cajabamba y Celendín, departamento de Cajamarca, que formaron parte del “Estudio de prevalencia de fasciolosis en humanos en la región Cajamarca – periodo 2010”. Para ello se recuperaron 248 fichas epidemiológicas en los que se encontraron 27 niños positivos a la prueba de ELISA, representando una frecuencia relativa de 10.9 %. La única variable asoci...

  8. NIVEL DE CÁNDIDA ALBICANS EN PACIENTES DIABÉTICOS TIPO II CON ESTOMATITIS SUB PLACA Y SU RELACIÓN CON FACTORES LOCALES ASOCIADOS, HOSPITAL II ESSALUD - CAJAMARCA, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES ZAVALA, CLAUDIA KATHERINE

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como propósito determinar la relación entre el nivel de Cándida albicans en pacientes diabéticos tipo II con estomatitis sub placa y sus factores locales asociados en el Hospital II EsSalud de Cajamarca en el año 2012. El estudio descriptivo, transversal, comparativo y correlacional se desarrolló en el Programa de Control de Diabetes y en el Área de Odontología del Hospital II EsSalud Cajamarca, en una muestra de 60 individuos portadores de prótesis total superior ...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  10. BIOSISTEMA PARA PURIFICAR AGUAS RESIDUALES DEL BENEFICIO HÚMEDO DEL CAFÉ DEL DISTRITO LA COIPA EN AL REGIÓN CAJAMARCA 2014

    OpenAIRE

    GARAY ROMÁN, JUAN MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    Una de las formas más comunes, en la ceja de selva peruana, de contaminar el medio ambiente es con el agua residual del beneficio húmedo de café, como lo vienen haciendo los caficultores del distrito La Coipa, provincia de San Ignacio, Región Cajamarca. El análisis del agua residual de despulpado arrojó DBO: 7287 ppm y sólidos totales (ST): 11355 ppm; el agua residual de lavado de café presentó DBO: 5847 ppm y ST: 7977 ppm; ambas son descargadas a quebradas de las fincas cafetaleras, cuyo imp...

  11. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  12. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  13. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

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    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  14. Ante los ojos del mundo: música, minería y conflicto social en el norte andino de Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos prehispánicos Cajamarca ha sido una importante zona agropecuaria. Pero en las décadas recientes se ha convertido en una zona de agudas convulsiones sociales. Durante el gobierno anticonstitucional de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2002, el estado permitió el ingreso de trasnacionales mineras para la extracción de oro a gran escala. Estas han dañado considerablemente el eco-sistema, la salud y el bienestar de la población local, creando descontento social y protestas. En ese contexto, el estado y la minería han impulsado una satanización de Cajamarca como un espacio cultural atrasado, reacio a las inversiones y al desarrollo. El presente artículo explora el rol que la música viene jugando en la representación de las protestas contra la minería y las actividades musicales y etnomusicológicas se complementan para contrarrestar una imagen demonizada por quienes defienden la inversión minera.

  15. La chicha y Atahualpa: el Encuentro de Cajamarca en la Suma y narración de los Incas de Juan Diez de Betanzos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván R. Reyna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Encuentro de Cajamarca es probablemente el momento más representativo de la conquista de los Incas y uno de los más simbólicos en el establecimiento del sistema colonial en la región andina. Mediante el análisis de la versión de Juan Diez de Betanzos que aparece en su Suma y Narración de los Incas, este ensayo trata de proponer una lectura alternativa sobre dicho evento, en la cual el Inca Atahualpa, luego de haber consumido chicha en exceso, se encontraría embriagado al momento de confrontarse con Fray Vicente de Valverde, lo que le impediría discernir con claridad la amenaza que significaban los invasores.The Cajamarca Encounter is probably the most representative event of the conquest of the Incas and one of the most symbolic in the establishment of the colonial system in the Andean region. By analyzing Juan Diez de Betanzos’ version which appears in his Narrative of the Incas, this essay proposes an alternative reading of the event, in which the Inca Atahualpa, after consuming chicha in excess, is probably drunk when confronted with Fray Vicente de Valverde, preventing him from clearly discerning the threat posed by the invaders.

  16. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  17. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  18. Assessing Landscape Change in a Mining Area of the Peruvian Andes. A Case Study in The Yanacocha Mine, Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Berrios, Hildebrando

    2006-01-01

    This study examines physical and perceived landscape change in a mining area in northern Peru. Mining conflicts between companies and local people have intensified; this highlights the necessity of a better understanding of environmental and social consequences of mining activities. Landscape studies could be relevant to understand such problematic. I aim to assess the landscape change in a mining area by (1) mapping the physical landscape change and (2) surveying the local lan...

  19. A numerical method for determining the state of stress using focal mechanisms of earthquake populations: application to Tibetan teleseisms and microseismicity of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Louis Mercier, Jacques

    1987-03-01

    give a good evaluation of the regional (mean) state of stress. Focal mechanisms of the small events are also modelled by a mean stress deviator, but this differs significantly from the regional state of stress in southern Peru deduced from Quaternary faulting. This may be due to imprecise location of the small events. However, some movements are strongly different from those predicted by the computed mean stress deviator. This suggests that small fault kinematics surely depend on the regional state of stress but that local effects may control the small deformations.

  20. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  1. Alliances for local development success factors. Comparative experiences of Spain and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Del Castillo Mory

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alliances are formed to overcome the constraints partners face to achieve certain goals. When the goal is to promote local development, it requires the participation of stakeholders: private sector, local government, civil associations and community groups, among others. This article seeks, through the comparative analysis of three experiences of local development led by the district of Villa El Salvador (Lima - Peru, the mining company Yanacocha (Cajamarca -Peru and the Spanish Agency for Development Iraugi Lantzen (Basque Country - Spain, to identify the success factors of cooperation agreements for local development. We believe that a better understanding of the factors associated with the success of partnerships could help those who seek the challenge of looking for possible partners, as well as those concerned with the effective management of partnerships in place. The case of Villa El Salvador shows how government support was fundamental in the establishment of the district, but the achievements of this group could not be explained without the active participation of the community. On the other hand, the experience of the company Yanacocha reminds the reader that there is still a big gap to fill in Peru in terms of the joint efforts between private enterprises and stakeholders, and that is necessary to learn from the experiences of those who have gone through part of this path. A different case is shown by the experience of the Spanish Agency Iraugi Lantzen, highlighting the challenges and opportunities that arise from a concerted action between municipal entities pursuing local development. Overall, it can be said that although there are context and situational conditions that favor the development of alliances for development, there are other factors that mediate the success of partnerships. The case studies show that the most successful cooperation experiences are those where there are key individuals that are leaders

  2. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  3. Primer registro del ratón colombiano del bosque Chilomys instans (Cricetidae: Rodentia en Cajamarca: actualizando el listado de mamíferos del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El roedor Chilomys instans (Thomasomyini, Cricetidae es una especie común en la comunidad de mamíferos que habita los Andes del Norte en Sudamérica. Aquí presentamos el primer registro de la especie para el Perú, en base a la revisión morfológica de tres ejemplares colectados en el departamento de Cajamarca (Andes del Centro. Se presentan comentarios sobre la taxonomía de C. instans e información sobre su historia natural. La amplia distribución del género Chilomys en los Andes pone de manifiesto la necesidad de realizar la revisión taxonómica de éste género para esclarecer los límites de las especies que la conforman.

  4. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en madres de una zona rural andina del norte peruano Knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis among mothers from an andean rural area of north Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en 62 madres de familia de una zona rural endémica de la región andina de Cajamarca, Perú. Sólo el 37,0% reconoce a la alicuya (nombre popular de la Fasciola hepática como parásito responsable de la enfermedad; 56,5 y 85,5% conocen que afecta el hígado de humanos y de los animales respectivamente; 98,4% tiene predisposición positiva para participar de charlas informativas sobre la enfermedad y 75,8% para apoyar activamente a sus autoridades en la solución del problema. El 38,7% indica que bebe emolientes en la calle y 75,6% cría animales considerados huéspedes del parásito. En conclusión, las actitudes de las encuestadas son mayoritariamente favorables para realizar actividades de prevención y control, pese a que sus conocimientos son incorrectos y el entorno familiar realiza ciertas prácticas de riesgo para la enfermedad.A survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis was administered to 62 mothers from a rural endemic zone of Cajamarca’s Andean Region, Peru. Only 37.0% recognized the alicuya (local name for Fasciola hepatica as the parasite responsible for the disease; 56.5% knows that the disease affects the liver in the humans and 85.5% knows affects also animals; 98.4% have a positive predisposition to attend informative talks about the disease and 75.8% to support their authorities actively to solve of the problem. 38.7% referred drinking emollients in the street, 75.6% have domestic animals considered host for the parasite. In conclusion, attitudes of mothers are mostly favourable for prevention and control activities, despite their mistaken knowledge risky practices for fasciolasis among members of their families.

  5. Determinantes del sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños en edad escolar en Perú Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L Mispireta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad en escolares es un problema que se encuentra en incremento en el Perú. Está concentrado en las zonas urbanas, principalmente en Lima donde uno de cada tres niños tiene exceso de peso. Un estudio inicial en 80 colegios de Lima mostró que más importante sería la falta de actividad física que el volumen de la ingesta para explicar el sobrepeso y la obesidad en escolares. Se requieren estudios más detallados al respecto. A pesar de la limitada información disponible de sus determinantes, es necesario implementar medidas culturalmente apropiadas para combatirla como parte de las políticas nutricionales actuales, y así prevenir que el problema continúe incrementándose y que la sostenibilidad del sistema de salud no se vea afectadaObesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected

  6. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  7. Crime, race, and morals : the development of criminology in Peru 1890-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Criminology arrived in Peru by the late 1880s, and with it the promise of both scientific explanations of crime and effective policies of crime control. As in Europe, Peruvian criminologists also debated the relative importance of biological and social factors in explaining crime tendencies. This article reviews the adoption and early developments of positivist criminology in Peru. It shows that the most radical versions of biological determinism were rejected by Peruvian criminologists in fa...

  8. Susceptibilidad a betalactámicos y resistencia por betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Enterobacteriaceae aisladas de reservorios ambientales de un hospital general en Cajamarca, Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Jacinto, Marco; Biólogo-Microbiólogo. Maestro en Ciencias. Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca., Cajamarca.; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Claudia; Bióloga-Microbióloga. Maestra en Salud Pública. Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Huayán-Dávila, Gladys; Bióloga-Microbióloga. Hospital Regional de Cajamarca. Cajamarca.; Mercado-Martínez, Pedro; Biólogo-Microbiólogo. Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo.

    2011-01-01

     Objetivos:Identificar enterobacterias en reservorios intrahospitalarios, evaluar su sensibilidad a betalactámicos y determinar su capacidad de producir betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), en el Hospital Regional de Cajamarca. Material y métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras mediante hisopado de grifos, lavatorios, mesas, camas y tablillas de historia clínica en las áreas de cirugía y pediatría; se recuperaron, aislaron e identificaron 45 cult...

  9. Peruánská gastronomie

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize culture and gastronomy of Peru as a specific tourist destination. First part -- the theoretical one -- deals with explanation of main terms from the fields of tourism and gastronomy. Following parts include characteristics of Peru and its gastronomy. The second chapter, in particular, involves basic information about realia, geography and history of Peru, followed by characteristics of tourism in the country. The third chapter, first of all, explains ...

  10. Supervising road safety in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sagástegui, Freddy; Abogado, Adjuntía para el Medio Ambiente, Servicios Públicos y Pueblos Indígenas, Defensoría del Pueblo. Lima, Perú.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. facing ...

  11. Using 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the evolution of the Purgatorio active fault in the Andean forearc, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Benavente; Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Fabrizio, Delgado; Marianne, Saillard; Sarah, Hall R.; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Active transpressive deformation has been occurring along the Andean hyperarid forearc for the last 3 Myrs but many of these faults are still not described even if able to produce large damaging earthquakes. Active faulting along the northern part of the Arica Bend can be recognized due to the presence of well-preserved and sharp fault scarps indicating recent surface slip. During the Mio-Pliocene, deposition within the forearc continental basins resulted in the formation of vast fan deposits and conglomerates of the Moquegua Formation, which can be considered as bedrock in this exposure study (~45-4 Ma; Tosdal et al., 1984; Sebrier et al., 1988a; Roperch et al., 2006). The typical vertical Purgatorio fault scarps offset both the Moquegua bedrock and several younger geomorphic features associated with Moquegua formation outcroping vertically along the fault scarp. These samples are well-suited to the application of in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides for surface exposure dating, as the hyperarid region has extremely low erosion rates. We sampled the scarp away from any significant drainage so as to avoid possibly disturbed areas. The sampling did involve extracting quarzite conglomeratic material along the bedrock scarp and on the upper surrounding crests. The aim has been to measure Berylium-20 TCN (Terrestrial in situ Cosmogenic Nuclides) concentrations to determine exposure age as a function of height on the scarp. This has been successfully employed on one scarp in Italy based on Chlorine-36 TCN (Palumbo et al., 2004). However, slow faults behaviour remains unclear and more contributions are needed. Quaternary activity of the Purgatorio fault system was evidenced by Hall et al. (2008). They highlighted a vertical offset of about ~100 m for a pediment surface intercepted by the fault, and dated at ~280 ka. Considering that the pediment surface is horizontal, this would gave a maximum of ~0.3 mm/yr of vertical deformation since 280 ka. Our new data provide

  12. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Garavito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data for urban Peru in the year 2014. We find that young people will stay in the educative system, even if they are working, when their negotiation power at home is high, when their opportunity cost is low, and when their parents have a higher level of education.

  13. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  14. Factors Affecting Reading Achievement in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Cecilia; Pinzas, Juana

    Two exploratory studies examined Peru's elementary reading programs. The first looked at reading curriculum, texts, and teachers; the second, at students' reading ability. In Peru performance goals are not specified for each grade by the reading curriculum nor are specific instructional materials recommended (reading is not considered a separate…

  15. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  16. Justicia local mixta en Cajamarca (Perú: análisis etnológico de un pluralismo práctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuele Piccoli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El tema del pluralismo jurídico, del encuentro posible de varias maneras de “hacer justicia”, moviliza a numerosos antropólogos y juristas. Más allá de las discusiones acerca de los textos jurídicos, quisiéramos exponer una situación de pluralismo jurídico en el nivel local y describir la manera cómo diferentes formas de justicias pueden encontrarse. Se tratará entonces de abordar el pluralismo no como una noción, sino como una práctica. En esta contribución, nos aproximaremos más específicamente al caso de la provincia de Hualgayoc, en la región andina de Cajamarca, en Perú. Allá, las Rondas Campesinas, organizaciones de vigilancia, de justicia y de gestión del vivir juntos, reconocidas por el Estado, colaboran con la policía y un asesor legal para la resolución de problemas en la zona rural. Dejaremos aquí un espacio amplio para los datos de campo ya que nos parece que dan mucho que pensar acerca de la emergencia de una justicia mixta y pueden permitir el desarrollo de reflexiones de tipo comparativo.

  17. The Cyber Media in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.

  18. Archaeoastronomical Fieldwork in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Mike J.; Malville, J.

    2006-09-01

    During June-July 2005, sets of 14 horizon photographs were obtained at 10 major monumental sites of the Inca as identified in Hemming and Ranney (1982) . The photographs were combined to yield complete 360o panoramas at each of the sites. To calibrate the panoramas a Wild T-2 theodolite was used to obtain 5 pairs of altitude/azimuth measurements of the Sun at each site. The standard deviation of multiple determinations of true north was typically 0.25'to 0.5'. As a check on the sun sights, a line-of-sight azimuth was also established with GPS measurements at each site. Agreement between these baselines and the sun sights are satisfactory. We find evidence of June solstice and/or Pleiades orientations at Llactapata, Sayhuite, and Ollantaytambo; cardinal orientation at Vilcashuman; June solstice established by horizon towers above Urubamba; and both zenith and anti-zenith solar alignments at the tower of Muyuc Marca of Sacsayhuman. Terracing, walls, and water features at Ollantaytambo suggest interest in both June and December solstices. The statistical significance of these orientations is evaluated. A permit was issued by the office of the Institute Cultura National in Cusco for field work at all of these sites. This work was undertook as partial fulfillment of the requirement for a MA degree in Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. Funding was provided by Sigma Xi and The University of Northern Colorado. Hemming, J. and E. Ranney. 1982. Monuments of the Inca, Boston: Little, Brown

  19. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  20. Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Sexton, Rachael; Thompson, Kathryn C; Osorio, Soledad; Reyes, Italo Novoa; Crowley, John J; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gastric carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer mortality in Peru. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, is a Group 1 carcinogen due to its causal relationship to gastric carcinoma. While eradication of H. pylori can help prevent gastric cancer, characterizing regional antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to determine targeted treatment for each region. Thus, we examined primary antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with histologically proven H. pylori infection. Primary antibiotic resistance among isolates was examined using E-test strips. Isolates were examined for the presence of the cagA pathogenicity island and the vacA m1/m2 alleles via polymerase chain reaction. Results Seventy-six isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies. Clinical isolates showed evidence of antibiotic resistance to 1 (27.6%, n=21/76), 2 (28.9%, n=22/76), or ≥3 antibiotics (40.8%). Of 76 isolates, eight (10.5%) were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin, which are part of the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection. No trends were seen between the presence of cagA, vacA m1, or vacA m2 and antibiotic resistance. Conclusion The rate of antibiotic resistance among H. pylori isolates in Lima, Peru, is higher than expected and presents cause for concern. To develop more targeted eradication therapies for H. pylori in Peru, more research is needed to better characterize antibiotic resistance among a larger number of clinical isolates prospectively. PMID:28331349

  1. Los organizadores de conocimiento para potencializar el aprendizaje desarrollador en los educandos del 4º grado de educación primaria, área personal social de la IE. N°00925 Santa Isabel – Nueva Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Napo, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar que los organizadores de conocimiento potencializan el aprendizaje desarrollador en los educandos del 4º grado de educación primaria, Área Personal Social de la Institución Educativa Nº 00925 Santa Isabel – Nueva Cajamarca. Los organizadores de conocimiento utilizados fueron: mapa semántico, mapa de ideas, meta plan y hexagrama; las teorías que sustentan son: la teoría de la codificación dual, la teoría de los esquemas y la teorí...

  2. Parasitosis intestinales y factores socio-sanitarios en niños del área rural del distrito de Los Baños del Inca, Cajamarca-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Ulloa, Claudia; Bióloga-Microbióloga. Maestra en Salud Pública. Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Rivera-Jacinto, Marco; Biólogo-Microbiólogo. Maestro en Ciencias. Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Saucedo-Duran, Edith; Estudiante de obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Rojas-Huamán, Yessica; Estudiante de obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Valdivia-Meléndez, Nayeli; Estudiante de obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Cabanillas-Vásquez, Quely; Estudiante de obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.; Blanco-Burga, Hebert; Estudiante de obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Cajamarca.

    2011-01-01

    Sr. Editor: La parasitosis intestinal, de alta incidencia en los niños, es un importante problema de salud pública en Cajamarca, y agrupadas dentro de las enfermedades infecciosas intestinales constituyen una de las diez primeras causas de morbilidad y de mortalidad en este grupo poblacional (1). La alta ruralidad de la región cajamarquina es favorable, desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, socioeconómico y ecológico, para que los niños ...

  3. Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. Northern Pacific Global Health Research Fellows Training Consortium. Bethesda, Maryland, EE. UU. Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, EE. UU.; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics ResearchCenter located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. Fromthe beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCRgenotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to theimplementation ...

  4. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  5. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  6. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    and Prevmtive Medicine Unit Two. Norfolk, Virginia’ Hospital Naciorwl Daniel Alcides Carrion , Callao, Pent~; Hospital Arzobi5po Loayza, Lima, Peru5...Alcides Carrion (Callao, Peru). All cultures, species identification, and antimicrobial suscep- tibility tests were performed in the Bacteriology

  8. [Frequency of hepatitis a in children and adolescents from five cities of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Roger; Chaparro, Eduardo; Díaz, Carlos; Carbajal, Martha; Cieza, Érico; Cerpa, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the frequency of hepatitis A in children and adolescents in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, Piura, Cajamarca and Iquitos, a descriptive cross-sectional study which measured serum anti-hepatitis A antibodies from 1,721 children and adolescents aged 1-15 years was performed. The overall frequency of positive serology was 50.5% (95% CI: 48.1 to 52.9), with lower rates for Lima at 37.4% (95% CI: 35.1 to 39.8) and higher rates for Iquitos at 68.7% (95% CI: 63.6 to 73.4). Seropositivity was higher in the group of 10-15 year-olds with 66.1% and in the socioeconomic status group E with 64.6%. We concluded that the cities studied have a pattern of intermediate endemicity. The frequency of hepatitis A was greater in children and adolescents of lower socioeconomic status and older age.

  9. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  10. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen.

  11. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  13. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination.

  14. Development of solar energy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

    1981-06-01

    Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

  15. Astrocaryum ulei (Arecaceae newly discovered in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kahn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocaryum ulei, previously known from Brazil and Bolivia, is here reported from Madre de Dios in Peru. Based on the new material collected it has been possible to write an amended description of this species, which is presented here.

  16. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru. PMID:21629731

  17. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  18. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  19. Peru's population in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1984-12-01

    In this discussion of Peru's population in the 1980s, attention focuses on the following; population growth; population policy and family planning; internal migration; and economic and social characteristics. Peru's rate of population growth was 1.8% annually between the censuses of 1940-61, a little less than 2.9% between 1961-71, and 2.7% in the decade preceding the 1981 census. These figures demonstrate that the national population is now growing at a less rapid rate than 1 or 2 decades ago but that Peru did not experience a marked drop like that in several other countries. As with overall population growth, the decline of fertility in Peru has been slow and gradual. During the past 20 years the crude birthrate dropped from 46.27 to 36.71/1000 and the total fertility rate from 6.85 to 5.00. The reason why Peru's population growth rate never exceeded 3% is a direct result of its exceptionally high mortality and infant mortality levels. Peru has a crude mortality rate of 10.74/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 98.63/1000. These are extremely high compared with other Latin American countries. Theoretically, the momentum of progress should be carrying Peru rapidly into the demographic transition. Some modernizing factors, i.e., improved health care, urbanization, communications, and education, are slowly reducing fertility and mortality, but progress on other factors such as per capita income and social mobility is not occurring. A table projects Per's population at various projected growth rates until 2025. Differences in fertility among Peruvian women indicate that family planning and contraception are relatively common in urban areas. The adoption of contraception occurred totally without government assistance before 1980, when policy changed. Until then, Peru was the only major Latin American country with population growing at over 2.5% annually that did not have some kind of public family planning program. In 1981 a survey on contraceptive use was conducted

  20. Influencia de la inteligencia emocional en el rendimiento académico en el área de comunicación, de alumnos de secundaria de la Institución Educativa San Ramón de Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Leyva, Gasdali

    2009-01-01

    Asesor Hugo Fernandez Se ha planteado la interrogante ¿En qué medida la Inteligencia Emocional influye en el rendimiento académico en el área de Comunicación, de los alumnos de secundaria de la Institución Educativa San Ramón de Cajamarca?, La muestra fué de 325 estudiantes, se aplicó el Inventario de inteligencia Emocional de BarOn ICE: NA, en niños y adolescentes, se utilizo el análisis de varianza ANOVA y desde el punto de vista inferencial se utilizó el análisis factorial de Componen...

  1. Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Mariajosé; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2014-07-02

    Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described and illustrated; Alpaida losamigos n. sp. based on females from Madre de Dios, and Alpaida penca n. sp. based on females and males from Cajamarca.

  2. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia V Aguilar

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  3. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, Josephine; Huaman, Jose Luis; Forshey, Brett M; Morrison, Amy C; Castillo, Roger; Huaman, Alfredo; Caceda, Roxana; Eza, Dominique; Rocha, Claudio; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2011-04-01

    Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection has been commonly documented among domestic animals, less is known about EMCV transmission among humans. Recently, we described the isolation of EMCV from two febrile patients in Peru. To further investigate EMCV transmission in Peru, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Peru for serological evidence of recent EMCV infection. We also conducted a serological survey for EMCV-neutralizing antibodies in the city of Iquitos, located in the Amazon basin department of Loreto, Peru. Additionally, we screened serum from rodents collected from 10 departments in Peru for evidence of EMCV exposure. EMCV infection was found to be only rarely associated with acute febrile disease in Peru, accounting for 17% in cities in the tropical rainforest of northeastern Peru (Iquitos and Yurimaguas). On the basis of the serological survey conducted in Iquitos, risk factors for past infection include increased age, socioeconomic indicators such as residence construction materials and neighborhood, and swine ownership. Evidence from the rodent survey indicates that EMCV exposure is common among Murinae subfamily rodents in Peru (9.4% EMCV IgG positive), but less common among Sigmodontinae rodents (1.0% positive). Further studies are necessary to more precisely delineate the mode of EMCV transmission to humans, other potential disease manifestations, and the economic impact of EMCV transmission among swine in Peru.

  5. MAGDAS I and II Magnetometers in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Ed.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yumoto, K.; Veliz, O.; Rosales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Car negie Institution of Washington founded in 1919 the Huancayo Observatory, in Peru (Lat. -12.060, Long - 75.210) and installed a classical magnetometer which has provided a long standing flow of data since March 1st, 1922. Today, there are 10 magnetometers in operation in Peru. On October 13th, 2006, Space Environment Research Center - SERC of Kyushu University installed a new Magnetic Dat a Acquisition System MAGDAS I (PI; Prof. K. Yumoto) at Ancon Observatory (Geographic Latitude: -11.790, Longitude: - 77.160 and Geomagnetic Latitude (2000): 3.100 and Longitude (2000): 354.660). On July 13th, 2011, SERC installed a MAGDAS II at Ica Solar Station (Geographic Latitude: - 140 04' Longitude: -750 44'). Details of the magnetometer that we are hosting will be explained in this presentation.

  6. The Tres Ventanas Mummies of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido; Ojeda, Bernadino; Benfer, Robert A; Rivera, Ricardo; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S; Thompson, Randall C

    2015-06-01

    The Tres Ventanas mummies of Peru are thought to be among the oldest mummies in existence, dating to between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these mummies for use in future research on mummified remains. Although the Tres Ventanas cave and the four mummies were explored and then excavated by Frederic Engel in 1966-67, and the project is named in his honor as the "Engel Study Group", the importance of both the physical remains and the context in which they were found has only come to light in the last few years. Most important is the paleopathological examination of these remains, since these mummies are found in a high altitude area of Peru where adaptation to the limited partial pressure of oxygen is perhaps a key component in broadening our understanding of human diversity in past populations.

  7. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  8. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth.Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31 on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43, while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43. Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP per capita.The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  9. Determinantes de la inclusion financiera en Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Camara; Ximena Pena; David Tuesta

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio ofrece una primera aproximacion cuantitativa a los determinantes de la inclusion financiera en Peru a partir de microdatos de encuestas. A traves de correlaciones significativas, se identifican aquellas caracteristicas socioeconomicas que podrian afectar a la inclusion (exclusion) financiera para hogares y empresas. Para aquellos individuos no bancarizados, se analiza la sensibilidad a algunas barreras con el fin de determinar su importancia y los factores por los que podrian ver...

  10. Comprehensive Cooperation of CHINA-PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 19th,Chinese President Hu Jintao warmly welcomed Peruvian President Alan Garcia at the Great Hall of the People.Accompanying President Alan Garcia was the Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Mercedes Araoz, who came to China to attend the forum on Investment and Business Opportunities in Peru, sponsored by CCPIT.At the event, the graceful lady meticulously introduced her country to the all of the Chinese and Peruvian entrepreneurs in attendance.

  11. Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Máximo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between ethnic exclusion and earnings in Urban Peru. Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the diffe...

  12. Area Handbook Series: Peru: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    were only two. Tourist arrivals in Peru continued to decline in 1990 and 1991. According to the National Tourism Board (Cimara Nacional de Turismo ...Callej6n de Huaylas, 73 Central Highway (Trans-Andean High- Climara Nacional de Turismo . Se& Na- way), 163, 237 tional Tourism Board Central Railroad...Inteligencia Nacional-SIN), xlvi, 251, cional de Turismo -Canatur), 165 279 National War College (Escuela Superior nationalism, 252 de Guerra-ESG), 275, 279

  13. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  14. Sino-American Corporation in Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming

    1996-01-01

    @@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.

  15. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  16. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  17. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Zachary; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Waller, Lance A; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Cordova Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2006-09-01

    In Arequipa, Peru, vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans has become an urban problem. We conducted an entomologic survey in a periurban community of Arequipa to identify risk factors for triatomine infestation and determinants of vector population densities. Of 374 households surveyed, triatomines were collected from 194 (52%), and Trypanosoma cruzi-carrying triatomines were collected from 72 (19.3%). Guinea pig pens were more likely than other animal enclosures to be infested and harbored 2.38x as many triatomines. Stacked brick and adobe enclosures were more likely to have triatomines, while wire mesh enclosures were protected against infestation. In human dwellings, only fully stuccoed rooms were protected against infestation. Spatially, households with triatomines were scattered, while households with T. cruzi-infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment.

  18. [Rabies in Potos flavus identified in Madre de Dios, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Linares, Elena; Romaní-Romaní, Franco; López-Ingunza, Ricardo; Arrasco-Alegre, Juan; Yagui-Moscoso, Martín

    2014-01-01

    The Potos flavus is a nocturnal mammal that lives in neotropical forests from Central America to South America. A study of four cases of rabies in Potos flavus was conducted; these occurred in April 2012 in the Madre de Dios region in Peru and were collected as part of epidemiological surveillance. The analysis performed in the regional reference laboratory of Madre de Dios determined the presence of the rabies virus antigen in three of the brain tissue samples. Results were verified in the Laboratory of Viral Zoonoses of the Peruvian National Institute of Health by direct immunofluorescence. The typification did not identify any of the known variants in bats or dogs. The occurrence of four cases of rabies in Potos flavus adds evidence of the emergence of a new reservoir of the rabies virus previously reported in the same region in 2007.

  19. Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) a...

  20. Elimination of Taenia solium Transmission in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; O’Neal, Seth E.; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Gauci, Charles G.; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. METHODS We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. RESULTS Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all

  1. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-01-01

    Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N) and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weeke...

  2. Presence of Enterocytozoon BieneusI in backyard pigs in TumbeS, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos M., Ivette; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; López U., Teresa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Gonzáles G., Eloy; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; González Z., Armando; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the presence of spores of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs under extensive breeding in the department of Tumbes, Peru. Three hundred samples of feces and 300 of bile were taken twice between March and October 2009. Samples were processed by the staining technique using Chromotrope 2R (microsporidia exclusive). All samples resulted negative. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la presencia de esporas de Enterocytozoon bieneusi en cerdos de t...

  3. High frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in infants in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa J. Ochoa; Ruiz, Joaquím; Molina, Margarita; Luis J. Del Valle; Vargas, Martha; Gil, Ana I.; Ecker, Lucie; Barletta, Francesca; Hall, Eric; Cleary, Thomas G.; Lanata, Claudio F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In a prospective passive diarrhea surveillance cohort study of 1,034 infants of low socioeconomic communities in Lima, Peru, we determined the prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility of the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli was 29% (161 of 557) in children with gastroenteritis and 30% (58 of 195) in the control group without diarrhea. The most common E. coli pathogens in diarrhea were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (14%),...

  4. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  5. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  6. MLVA genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Smits; B. Espinosa; R. Castillo; E. Hall; A. Guillen; M. Zevaleta; R.H. Gilman; P. Melendez; C. Guerra; A. Draeger; A. Broglia; K. Nöckler

    2009-01-01

    Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique genotypes

  7. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  8. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  9. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  10. Variables Associated with Utilization of a Centralized Medical Post in the Andean Community of Pampas Grande, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Stephen P.; Rohrer, James E.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Integral to the location of health resources is the distance decay of utilization observed in a population. In rural Peru, a nongovernmental organization planning to increase the availability of health services needed this information. Purpose: To determine variables associated with utilization of a central medical clinic and determine…

  11. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  12. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620

  13. A Multi-disciplinary Overview of Chagas in Periurban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McCune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas

  14. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia E. Milton.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  15. Information technology project risk management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carpio Gallegos, Javier; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how some principles, uses, and practices of risk management are applied in information technology projects in Peru; in the last four years, in representative sectors like manufacturing, banking, information and communications, academics institutions, construction, government, consulting, services, and others. El presente artículo muestra algunos principios, usos y prácticas de cómo la gestión de riesgos de proyectos de tecnología se ha llevado a cabo en los últimos cuatr...

  16. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  17. U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    widespread violations of human rights ensued.15 During the regime of former President Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), the government led a major crackdown...on terrorism , and implemented a radical economic reform program to control hyperinflation and bring economic stability to the country. President...President Alberto Fujimori (1990 to 2000), labor laws in Peru were relaxed significantly as the government implemented a radical economic reform program to

  18. Dentistry with a difference: volunteering for 'Dental Project Peru'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, M A

    2008-03-01

    As a young dentist looking for new challenges and experiences, Mary Bussell decided to use her skills and training by volunteering for a dental charity working in Peru. Here she gives an account of her 'dental adventure'.

  19. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  20. 75 FR 1 - Importation of Hass Avocados From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... management document (RMD) as part of our evaluation of the request from the NPPO of Peru to export Hass... separated, redescribed, and named F. consobrina (Williams and Watson, 1988), a name that was the...

  1. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well.

  2. Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Nacional de San Agustı́n, Arequipa , Peru, 6 Universidad Nacional de Ucayali, Pucallpa, Peru, 7 Dirección Regional de Salud de Puno, Ministerio de Salud...country. The sites included in this study were from 1) the southern highlands, including Arequipa , Cusco, Puno and Juliaca, all located over 2,500 meters...noted if the patient spent at least one night in the hospital or health center. Study participants from Sullana, Arequipa , Puno, Pucallpa and Iquitos

  3. Creative women in Peru: outliers in a machismo world

    OpenAIRE

    Mensa, M. (Marta); Grow, J.M. (Jean M.)

    2015-01-01

    Gender segregation begins early and is reinforced within the workplace. Advertising creative departments appear to have extreme gender segregation with women representing just 20% of all those working within creative departments worldwide. Yet, creativity does not depend on gender. Thus, the underrepresentation of women is particularly troubling. In Peru women comprise 3% to 10.4% of all people working in advertising creative, which suggests the situation for creative women in Peru is dire. I...

  4. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  5. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2004-01-01

    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  6. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.

  7. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  8. Prevalencia, Factores de riesgo y efectos de la infección por Fasciola Hepatica en niños de educación básica regular de los distritos de los Baños del Inca y Condebamba, Cajamarca.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Ulloa, Claudia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Esta investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica, factores de riesgo y efectos en niños de Instituciones Educativas (IE) del nivel primario de los distritos de Los Baños del Inca y Condebamba, Cajamarca. Para ello, a los niños y padres de familia de las IE seleccionadas, se les explicó los objetivos y metodología del estudio. Se aplicó un cuestionario a niños desde los 9 años y a padres de familia, a fin de recolectar información relacionada co...

  9. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  10. Calidad y estilo de vida adolescente: su relación con el rendimiento académico, en los alumnos de educación secundaria en la institución educativa “Comandante Leoncio Martínez Vereau”, Cajamarca, 2008.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación busca establecer la relación entre rendimiento académico y las variables calidad de vida y estilo de vida, en estudiantes de la I.E de varones “Comandante Leoncio Martínez Vereau” de la provincia de Cajabamba, Cajamarca, 2008. La muestra estuvo constituida por 177 estudiantes, a quienes se les aplicó el cuestionario adaptado de calidad de vida Kindl y el cuestionario de estilo de vida para adolescentes, diseñado y validado para tal fin. Los resultados de estas prueba...

  11. Aplicación de estrategias de investigación en el aprendizaje de la histología humana por los estudiantes de ll ciclo de enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca - sede Chota, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza Yrigoín, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional de Educacion - UNE El presente trabajo de Investigación tuvo por finalidad analizar en qué medida dichas estrategias impactan en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes citados. Se desarrolló bajo el enfoque cuantitativo orientado por el diseño pre-experimental, con el propósito de mejorar los aprendizajes de los estudiantes en la asignatura de Histología Humana, con una población de 31 estudiantes del II ciclo de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca - sede Cho...

  12. [An assessment of fiscal space for public health in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-López, Mauricio; Toledo, Lorena Prieto; Pedraza, Camilo Cid

    2016-08-01

    Objective To assess the fiscal space for public health in Peru so as to attain the goal of raising health spending to 6% of gross domestic product, as agreed upon by member countries of the Pan American Health Organization in 2014. Methods The main sources of fiscal space were identified by means of a thorough literature review. Technical feasibility was determined from statistics and national and international surveys and by reviewing various documents and official reports. Political feasibility was ascertained by studying policy guidelines. Results The sources showing the greatest technical and political feasibility are economic growth, a broadening of the personal income tax base, and an increase in tobacco-specific taxes. Decreasing informality in the job market and increasing contributory coverage are considered to be less politically feasible, but there is ample technical space for these measures. Conclusions There is enough fiscal space to allow for an increase in public health spending. Nevertheless, the 6% target will be reached only if the timeline is extended, tax revenues are increased, and informality in the job market is reduced.

  13. Identification of bloodmeal sources of Lutzomyia spp. in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusuku, E; Perez, J E; Paz, L; Nieto, E; Monje, J; Guerra, H

    1994-06-01

    Bloodmeal sources of Lutzomyia spp. were determined, using the bloodmeal analysis precipitin test, in Chaute, Lima, Peru, an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (uta). From April 1990 to May 1991, sandflies were sampled in and around the village houses, with CDC light traps and a Shannon trap with protected human bait, respectively. Overall, 1424 sandflies were collected engorged. In indoor collections, human blood (N = 275) was the most frequent bloodmeal found, followed by cow (171) and cat (152). The most frequent bloodmeals of the flies caught in the Shannon trap collections were from cow (31), man (23) and cat (23). Of the two predominant sandfly species in the area, Lutzomyia peruensis was more anthropophilic than Lu. verrucarum (chi 2 = 14.13, P < 0.001). The sandflies from Chaute appear to be opportunistic feeders; 16 different hosts were identified. There was evidence of bloodmeals from more than one host in each of 151 sandflies, including bloodmeals containing blood from an animal only present within the houses mixed with blood from animals only present in the corrals near the house. Some sandflies must therefore have flown from the corrals to the houses (or vice versa) to take the last bloodmeals before their capture.

  14. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

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    Marco Cossio-Bolaños

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b determine biological age; and (c analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m. Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV. Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05 was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05 was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight.

  15. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  16. Poverty Dynamics in Peru 2001-2003: A Probit Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this paper consist on two main parts:a descriptive one and an explanatory one. For the first part I used transition matrices to identify people who entered and left the poverty line in Peru between 2001-2003.Probabilistic regressions models were used to explain the main determinants of poverty dynamics. Changes in house members, decrease of active members,changes in years of schooling and changes in the access of essential public services play an important role to expl...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in females alpacas of SAIS Pachacutec, Central Sierra of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz C., Hernán; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in alpacas at the production unit of Cuyo, part of SAIS Pachacutec in the Central Sierra of Peru. Blood samples were collected in 258 female alpacas in January 2003. Sera were tested against T. gondii antibodies by the Indirect Immunoflorescence test (IFI). The results showed that 8.5 ± 3.4% (22/258) of animals had antibodies against the parasite. This frequency is lower than in other alpac...

  18. Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huánuco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Bloodsamples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogswere randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographicimmunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with thepresence of Ehrlich...

  19. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP) in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio) introduced in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Scotto; Fernando Serna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio), found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color) in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the...

  20. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content.

  1. Review of the Huaytapallana project in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Adam; Welsch, Walter

    1986-11-01

    In 1969, two consecutive earthquakes activated a reverse fault at an elevation of 4600 m in the Huaytapallana mountain range near Huancayo in central Peru. In 1975, a small geodetic network was established and measured across the fault covering an area of about 1.5 km 2. The network has been remeasured in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1982, using standard geodetic instruments, as a joint effort by two Canadian and one German universities in cooperation with the Peruvian Institute of Geophysics. In 1978, the network was expanded to cover 6 km 2. High-altitude sickness, logistic problems with old vehicles, civil unrest and riots plagued the survey expeditions. The results show a cyclic rigid body motion of the southwest side versus the northeast side of the fault in a general east-west direction of about ± 3 mm/year. The direction of the motion agrees with the direction of compressive forces expected in this subduction region. The next survey campaign is planned for 1987.

  2. [Stem cells: limitations and opportunities in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel-Pérez, José; Casado, Fanny

    2015-10-01

    Stem cells are defined as rare cells that are characterized by asymmetric division, a process known as self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into more than one type of terminally differentiated cell. There is a diversity of stem cells including embryonic stem cells, which exist only during the first stages of human development, and many adult stem cells depending on the specific tissues from where they derive or the ones derived from mesenchymal or stromal tissues. On the other hand, there are induced pluripotent stem cells generated by genetic engineering with similar properties to embryonic stem cells that are derived from adult tissues without the ethical and legal limitations. In all cases, there are many questions that are being addressed by research in basic sciences to better inform clinical practice. In Peru, there is much to do refining techniques and improving methodologies, which requires experience, proper facilities and highly specialized human resources. However, there are interesting efforts to place Peruvian stem cell research in the international scientific arena.

  3. A new species of Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southwestern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, César E; Gregorin, Renato; Zeballos, Horacio; Zamora, Hugo T; Moras, Ligiane M

    2014-10-22

    The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species.

  4. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru.

  5. The tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Figueroa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.

  6. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  7. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis.

  8. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Tashu

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind†as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to epis...

  9. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ancca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén y 68 (Cajaruro. Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2. La amplificación del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón, permitió la caracterización molecular de los trypanosomas aislados. Se utilizó la prueba de precipitina para conocer las fuentes de alimentación de los vectores y así poder asociarlos a posibles reservorios del parásito. Resultados. El análisis morfométrico demostró que el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño fue similar (p>0,05; no ocurrió lo mismo con el dimorfismo de la conformación; asimismo no se encontró diferencias de tamaño al comparar por separado hembras y machos de Jaén y Cajaruro. Por ITS-2, se evaluó cinco especímenes de cada distrito, en ellos se observó una banda de 960 pb aproximadamente. Sólo en Cajaruro se encontraron triatominos parasitados, que fue caracterizado como Trypanosoma cruzi TCI (350 pb. Se identificó al cobayo como la fuente de alimento más frecuente. Conclusiones. Ambas poblaciones de P. herreri por morfometría geométrica e ITS-2, no evidenció diferencias, indicando que se trataría de una misma población y por consiguiente de la misma procedencia. La sangre de cobayo fue la más frecuente fuente de alimento, pudiendo ser el principal reservorio para la enfermedad de Chagas en esta zona del Perú.

  10. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  11. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa; Romero, Karina M; Velazquez, Eric J; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-05-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3 billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥ 35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age, 55.3 years; 51.7% women) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher systolic blood pressure (7.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-9.6) and a higher diastolic blood pressure (5.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-7.6) when compared with nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted forced vital capacity for either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. Biomass fuel use was associated with a higher likelihood of having hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention.

  12. Genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Amazon basin of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carmen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic and could render a vaccine ineffective if their antigenic sites were not represented in the vaccine. In this study, characterization of genetic variability was performed in major B and T-cell epitopes within vaccine candidate antigens in isolates of P. falciparum from Peru. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was completed on 139 isolates of P. falciparum collected from endemic areas of the Amazon basin in Loreto, Peru from years 1998 to 2006. Genetic diversity was determined in immunological important regions in circumsporozoite protein (CSP, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1, liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1 and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the vaccine strain 3D7 and DNA polymorphism analysis and FST study-year pairwise comparisons were done using the DnaSP software. Multilocus analysis (MLA was performed and average of expected heterozygosity was calculated for each loci and haplotype over time. Results Three different alleles for CSP, seven for MSP-1 Block 2, one for MSP-1 Block 17, three for AMA-1 and for LSA-1 each and one for TRAP were identified. There were 24 different haplotypes in 125 infections with complete locus typing for each gene. Conclusion Characterization of the genetic diversity in Plasmodium isolates from the Amazon Region of Peru showed that P. falciparum T and B cell epitopes in these antigens have polymorphisms more similar to India than to Africa. These findings are helpful in the formulation of a vaccine considering restricted repertoire populations.

  13. INVASION OF PREDATOR HARMONIA AXYRIDIS (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE AND AN EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, José

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The generalist predator Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1772, is an effective and voracious biological control of pests, especially of aphids. However, worldwide is considered a threat to fruit production, in the reduction of beneficial fauna native and as a household pest. It has been detected from 90 of the last century in several South American countries, mainly in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia and Chile. Its invasion in Peru in recent years includes the arrival, establishment and spread in different urban, agricultural and natural ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the invasion of H. axyridis and an environmental risk assessment in Peru. The study was non-probabilistic, not experimental, and cross-sectional chance in 20 towns of Lima, Callao and Madre de Dios, Peru from January to March 2011 to search for different species of Coccinellidae, using standard procedures for collecting entomological. It was recorded aphid-prey specie, and specie and family plant associated. Of the total individuals of coccinellid collected, the 48.60% were H. axyridis, Cycloneda sanguinea (29.01%, Hippodamia convergens (7.37%, Prodilis inclytus (3.81%, Eriopis connexa (3.56% and other seven species (7.66%. Harmonia axyridis, C. sanguinea and H. convergens were surveyed in the following families and locations: 14:14, 13:14 and 4:4, respectively. With regard to the environmental risk assessment of H. axyridis was used van Lenteren protocol that assesses the magnitude and likelihood of risk based on their ability to establish, dispersal potential nontarget habitats, host range, and direct and indirect effects. The environmental risk index (ARI was 77 points from a maximum of 125. The results show a reduction in frequency relative percentage of other species of coccinellids, especially H. convergens and an increase in H. axyridis related to high voracity as a predator, and a high fertility and fecundity. It includes an

  14. Analysis of the 23 June 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake Using Locally Recorded Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Comte, D.; Boroschek, R.; Dorbath, L.; Portugal, D.; Haessler, H.; Montes, H.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Salas, H.; Inza, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Glass, B.; Correa, E.; Balmaceda, I.; Meneses, C.

    2001-12-01

    The 23 June 2001, Mw=8.4 southern Peru earthquake ruptured the northern and central part of the previous large earthquake occurred on 13 August 1868, Mw ~9. A detailed analysis of the aftershock sequence was possible due to the deployment of a temporary seismic network along the coast in the Arequipa and Moquegua districts, complementing the Peruvian permanent stations. The deployed temporary network included 10 short period three component stations from the U. of Chile-IRD-France and 7 broad-band seismic stations from the Instituto Geofísico del Perú. This network operated during the first weeks after the mainshock and recorded the major aftershocks like the larger one occurred on 7 July 2001, Mw=7.5, this event defines the southern limit of the rupture area of the 2001 Peruvian earthquake. The majority of the aftershocks shows a thrusting fault focal mechanisms according with the average convergence direction of the subducting Nazca plate, however, normal faulting events are also present in the aftershock sequence like the 5 July 2001, Mw=6.6 one. The depth distribution of the events permitted a detailed definition of the Wadati-Benioff zone in the region. The segment between Ilo and Tacna did not participated in the rupture process of the 2001 southern Peru earthquake. Seismicity located near the political Peruvian-Chilean boundary was reliable determined using the data recorded by the northern Chile permanent network. Analysis of the mainshock and aftershock acelerograms recorded in Arica, northern Chile are also included. The occurrence of the 1995 Antofagasta (Mw=8.0) and the 2001 southern Peru earthquakes suggests that the probability of having a major earthquake in the northern Chile region increased, considering that the previous large earthquake in this region happened in 1877 (Mw ~9), and since that time no earthquake with magnitude Mw>8 had occurred inside of the 1877 estimated rupture area (between Arica and Antofagasta).

  15. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  16. Enterovirus-71 genotype C isolated in Peru between 2006 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Jose L; Carrion, Gladys; Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Victor; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Hontz, Robert D

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) was first isolated in California, United States in 1969, belongs to the genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae. Although infection normally causes mild, often undiagnosed illness, it can cause central nervous system infections that could turn fatal. Based on VP1 gene analysis, EV71 has been classified into six separate genotypes. Although the molecular epidemiology of EV71 has been well described via studies originating from Asia and Europe, it is mostly unknown in South America. From our study, four EV71 isolates from Peru were characterized using phylogenetic methods to determine their relationship with known reference strains. These four Peruvian EV71 isolates from between 2006 and 2009 were analyzed by RT-PCR using primers capable of amplifying the entire VP1 gene. Reference strains representing all six known genotypes were used to determine any recognizable phylogenetic relationships. In fact, all of our isolates clustered together within the genotype C1 lineage- separate from Asian, European, North American, and Australian strains. We present evidence that EV71 genotype C1 exists in Peru, and this is the first such report documenting EV71 genotype C1 circulating in South America. Gathering additional isolates will help elucidate a more complete global epidemiological picture of EV71 infections.

  17. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  18. Recent glacier retreat and climate trends in Cordillera Huaytapallana, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Fontaneda, S.; Bazo, J.; Revuelto, J.; Azorin-Molina, C.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Zubieta, R.; Alejo-Cochachín, J.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 19 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1984 to 2011 to determine changes of the glaciated surface and snow line elevation in six mountain areas of the Cordillera Huaytapallana range in Peru. In contrast to other Peruvian mountains, glacier retreat in these mountains has been poorly documented, even though this is a heavily glaciated area. These glaciers are the main source of water for the surrounding lowlands, and melting of these glaciers has triggered several outburst floods. During the 28-year study period, there was a 55% decrease in the surface covered by glaciers and the snowline moved upward in different regions by 93 to 157 m. Moreover, several new lakes formed in the recently deglaciated areas. There was an increase in precipitation during the wet season (October-April) over the 28-year study period. The significant increase in maximum temperatures may be related to the significant glacier retreat in the study area. There were significant differences in the wet season temperatures during El Niño (warmer) and La Niña (colder) years. Although La Niña years were generally more humid than El Niño years, these differences were not statistically significant. Thus, glaciers tended to retreat at a high rate during El Niño years, but tended to be stable or increase during La Niña years, although there were some notable deviations from this general pattern. Climate simulations for 2021 to 2050, based on the most optimistic assumptions of greenhouse gas concentrations, forecast a continuation of climate warming at the same rate as documented here. Such changes in temperature might lead to a critical situation for the glaciers of the Cordillera Huaytapallana, and may significantly impact the water resources, ecology, and natural hazards of the surrounding areas.

  19. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  20. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department
    of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish
    maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepa

  1. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.

    2016-01-01

    Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepals with pale purp

  2. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  3. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  4. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.

  5. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  6. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  7. Peru: Political Situation, Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-06

    2007. 13 See CRS Report RS22548, ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues, by M. Angeles Villarreal. 14 For more information see CRS Report RL34108, U.S...from Peru have received preferential duty treatment through the Andean Trade Preference Act ( ATPA ), later amended by the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug

  8. The Rise and Development of Sendero Luminoso in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-27

    at the University of San Cristobal de Huamanga in Ayacucho in the southern sierra. He was described as "a theorist of the highest level" and a...Larmer. "Peru: Into the Cross-fire." Newsweek, 19 August 1991, pp. 29-30. Bourque, Susan C. and Kay B. Warren. "Democracy Without Peace: The Cultural

  9. The United States Counter Drug Strategy for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-23

    Policy 85 (Winter 1991-92): 113. 21 13. Oscar Madrid, "Fujimori: un liderazgo firme," Vision 78:1 (15 January 1992): 12. 14. Thomas Kamm, "Peru Leader’s...Cocaine Industry," Journal of InterAmerican Studies and World Affairs 30 (Summer/Fall 1988): 87-103. Madrid, Oscar. "Fujimori: un liderazgo firme." Vision

  10. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  11. Internationalization at home : Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines intercult

  12. Arenaria acaulis (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Kool, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract
    During studies on the flora of Moquegua (Southern Peru), some interesting Arenaria populations (subgen. Dicranilla, Caryophyllaceae)
    were found. The morphology of the plants does not resemble any other neotropical Arenaria species. The most
    similar species known so far is Arenar

  13. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Ecuador (Sec. 319.56-25). The risk management document for papayas from Peru evaluated the effectiveness... from the export program of production sites with confirmed pest problems, and the papaya orchards would... used to treat papayas imported from Central America, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador for fruit...

  14. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  15. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  16. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  17. Naipes (axe moneys: a pre-Hispanic currency in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Merkel

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Between AD 900 and 1100 in northern Peru, high-status members of the Middle Siccin culture were buried in large tombs accompanied by elaborate grave goods that included gold, silver and copper objects, and also pieces of sheet metal known as naipes. Metallurgical study of naipes at the Institute supports the view that they were a form of "primitive money".

  18. Beyond Guzman? The Future of the Shining Path in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    3414Interview with Chairman Gonzalo, conducted by Luis Arce Borja and Janet Talavera , El Diario, 24 Jul 88, translated by the Committee to Support the...Chairman Gonzalo." Interview by Luis Arce Borja and Janet Talavera . (July 1988). Trans. and Reprinted by The Committee to Support the Revolution in Peru

  19. Range distribution extension of Asthenes sclateri (Aves: Furnariidae in Peru

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    Grace P. Servat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We extent the distribution range in Peru of Asthenes sclateri, Cabanis (“Puna Canastero”, a species reported only for the Puno Department. The observations of many individuals of the species (documented with pictures and specimens were made in high Andean pastures nearby Polylepis woodlands in the Arequipa Department.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  1. NEW RECORDS OF BIRDS OF VENTANILLA WETLANDS, CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 2005 and October 2006, diversity of birds of Ventanilla wetland, Callao, Peru was evaluated, through counting two twice a month. 59 species of birds were registered; 16 were new records for this wetland. Adding these count to others obtained in previous studies, results in 78 species registered for this wetland of Ventanilla.

  2. Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in a village in the highlands of Cusco, Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzalez, A E; Pacheco, R; Verastegui, M; Tsang, V C

    1999-05-25

    A serological survey was performed using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) in a village in the highlands of Peru where there are three distinct but close neighborhoods, to determine if there is a direct relationship between human and porcine Taenia solium infection. One hundred and eight out of 365 individuals were sampled, and 14 were seropositive (human seroprevalence 13%). Most seropositive individuals were neurologically asymptomatic. Thirty-eight out of 89 sampled pigs (43%) were seropositive. There was a clear geographical clustering of cases, and positive correlation between human and porcine seroprevalence found when comparing the three neighborhoods. Cysticercosis is an important cause of neurological morbidity in most developing countries, and control/eradication trials are now being increasingly applied. Porcine serology provides an appropriate indicator of T. solium environmental contamination and should be used to estimate the risk of infection when evaluating control measures.

  3. Reservoir storage and irrigation in Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Swiech, Theoclea; Machicao Pererya, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    In countries such as Peru, irrigated agriculture is not only vital for the subsistence of many but can also be a factor of economic development and by extent social improvement. To answer the local demand and respond to the water scarcity in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, near city of Arequipa, the government decided the construction of a dam for irrigation. The irrigation systems are affected by the lack of water during the dry season for lack of storage and of water distribution between downstream and upstream sectors, among other issues. Water scarcity is the main issue in the basin, leading to poor yields and the inability of growing crops with a high commercial value. Rainfall is available only from November to April, the rest of the year being very dry. Furthermore, the lowest areas of Yarabamba, Sogay and Quequeña are disadvantaged compared to the highest area of Polobaya. By creating a large storage area to regulate the variations of water availability through the year, the dam would allow to at least palliate the lack of water in existing lands, and at best to extend agricultural lands. Farmers would then be able to shift toward higher value crops more easily than without this extra storage. The main focus of the research was the dam which was supposed to improve the water distribution and availability in the sub-basin. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that other factors, related to the irrigation system itself, are involved in the efficiency of the new structure. The farmers, the main stakeholders, believe that more could be done to improve the system and their standard of living. Most of all, the main issue that should be resolved is the fair distribution of water. However, this is not possible without a strong cooperation between sectors, and a potential change in diversion structures. The competition between the districts should be reduced, otherwise the benefits of the dam would not give the expected results. This example shows that

  4. Constituents in Erythroxylum coca I: gas chromatographic analysis of cocaine from three locations in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C E; Ma, C Y; Elsohly, M A

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of cocaine content in coca leaves (Erythroxylum coca) has been developed. The procedure involves refluxing the powdered leaves in 95% ethanol for 15 minutes, followed by acid-base partitioning with chloroform and a GLC assay. The recovery of cocaine was quantitative. This procedure was applied to determine cocaine content in three samples of Erythroxylum coca Lam. collected from different geographic locations in Peru. Using androst-4-ene-3,17-dione as the internal standard the calibration curve was linear over a factor of 0.5 to 10 fold cocaine concentration relative to internal standard. The slope (b) was 0.733, the coefficient of determination (r2) was 1.00 and the average precision was 3.9%.

  5. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  6. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weygandt Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.

  7. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Sýkora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, V.; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  8. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  9. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

  10. Genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains isolated from nasal swabs of healthy individuals in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; González, Ana C; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Free Living Amoebae (FLA) of Acanthamoeba genus are widely distributed in the environment and can be found in the air, soil and water; and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. In humans, they are causative agents of a sight-threating infection of the cornea, Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and a fatal infection of the central nervous system known as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE). In this study, a survey was conducted in order to determine the presence and pathogenic potential of free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus in nasal swabs from individuals in two regions of Peru. Identification of isolates was based on cyst morphology and PCR-sequencing of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 to identify strains at the genotype level. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was also assayed using temperature and osmotolerance assays and extracellular proteases zymograms. The obtained results revealed that all isolated strains exhibited pathogenic potential. After sequencing the highly variable DF3 (Diagnostic Fragment 3) region in the 18S rRNA gene as previously described, genotype T4 was found to be the most common one in the samples included in this study but also genotype T15 was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the characterization of Acanthamoeba strains at the genotype level and the first report of genotype T4 and T15 in Peru.

  11. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  12. Prophylaxis and treatment of endemic goiter with iodized oil in rural Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B

    1969-12-01

    Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.

  13. Invoking conscientious objection in reproductive health care: evolving issues in Peru, Mexico and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia

    2009-11-01

    As Latin American countries seek to guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights, opponents of women's rights and reproductive choice have become more strident in their opposition, and are increasingly claiming conscientious objection to providing these services. Conscientious objection must be seen in the context of the rights and interests at stake, including women's health needs and right to self-determination. An analysis of law and policy on conscientious objection in Peru, Mexico and Chile shows that it is being used to erode women's rights, especially where it is construed to have no limits, as in Peru. Conscientious objection must be distinguished from politically-motivated attempts to undermine the law; otherwise, the still fragile re-democratisation processes underway in Latin America may be placed at risk. True conscientious objection requires that a balance be struck between the rights of the objector and the health rights of patients, in this case women. Health care providers are entitled to their beliefs and to have those beliefs accommodated, but it is neither viable nor ethically acceptable for conscientious objectors to exercise this right without regard for the right to health care of others, or for policy and services to be rendered ineffectual because of individual objectors.

  14. Crustal Seismicity and Recent Faults in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Comte, D.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Herail, G.

    2004-12-01

    Most seismological studies in southern Peru have been focused on the downgoing slab seismicity in order to constrain the Wadati-Benioff zone. This study deals with the intra-continental seismicity of the southern Peru forearc (17,3° S - 18,5° S) in a post-seismic context (Arequipa thrust earthquake, Mw=8.4, 23 June, 2001). It is difficult to identify historical crustal earthquake from available catalogues, however some crustal events teleseismically recorded can be found since 1976; they exhibit normal focal mechanism solutions in the southern Peru volcanic arc and inverse focal mechanism solutions in the Central Depression. Following a notable increase of shallow crustal seismicity located close to the Western Cordillera after the 23 June 2001, a temporary seismic network was deployed between January and March 2003 in order to study the Wadati-Benioff zone and monitoring the crustal seismicity in southern Peru. From the about 1700 events locally recorded by the local network, 300 crustal earthquakes were identified in the Peruvian forearc between Tacna and Moquegua. This crustal seismicity is distributed along a lineament located at depths between 0 and 60 km, dipping at about 45° from the Western Cordillera towards the coast, almost perpendicular to the subducting slab; this behaviour was previously observed in northern Chile and in southern Peru, north of the study zone (16° S). In the Central Depression, seismic activity is not superficial occurring between 25-60 km depth and it is mostly characterized by inverse focal mechanism solutions. Superficial faults situated in the Central Depression and in the Coastal Cordillera can not be associated with the seismic activity observed in this area. However, in the Pre-Cordillera, crustal seismicity occurs at depths between 0-15 km and can be correlated with shallow fault systems recognized by satellite images and on the field. For examples, the Incapuquio fault system which was a transpressive system in Cretaceous

  15. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Resistance in Peru: A Ten-year Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http... access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits...Laboratorio Gastrolab, Lima, Peru 9 Hospital Apoyo de Iquitos, Iquitos, Peru 10 Hospital Regional, Iquitos, Peru 11 Facultad de Medicina

  16. Nutrients, oxygen and biogeochemical processes in the Humboldt upwelling current system off Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Graco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The upwelling system of the Humboldt Current, is considered among the most productive systems in the world, extending along the eastern South Pacific off Chile and Peru. In particular the coastal waters off Peru attracted considerable interest for being among the most fertile and productive the world, highlighting fisheries, such as anchovy, which represent one of the pillars of the economy of Peru.

  17. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  18. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  19. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK.

  20. Molecular detection of Bartonella species in ticks from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gonzales-Hidalgo, James; Luna-Caypo, Deysi; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2011-11-01

    A total of 103 ticks, collected from canines, horses, donkeys, and snakes from Peru, were screened for the presence of Bartonella DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in two ticks using Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region primers and in an additional two ticks using Bartonella NADH dehydrogenase gamma subunit gene (nuoG) primers. Bartonella rochalimae Eremeeva et al., B. quintana Schmincke, and B. elizabethae Daly et al. DNA was detected in a Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (Acari: Ixodidae) female tick removed from a dog and B. quintana DNA was present in a Dermacentor nitens Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) pool of five larvae, one nymph, and one adult male tick collected from donkeys. This is the first study to report the detection of B. rochalimae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae DNA in ticks from Peru. Further investigations must be performed to decipher the role ticks may play in the transmission of Bartonella species.

  1. Randomized, controlled human challenge study of the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a single dose of Peru-15, a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell B; Giannella, Ralph A; Bean, Judy; Taylor, David N; Parker, Susan; Hoeper, Amy; Wowk, Stephen; Hawkins, Jennifer; Kochi, Sims K; Schiff, Gilbert; Killeen, Kevin P

    2002-04-01

    Peru-15 is a live attenuated oral vaccine derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by a series of deletions and modifications, including deletion of the entire CT genetic element. Peru-15 is also a stable, motility-defective strain and is unable to recombine with homologous DNA. We wished to determine whether a single oral dose of Peru-15 was safe and immunogenic and whether it would provide significant protection against moderate and severe diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human volunteer cholera challenge model. A total of 59 volunteers were randomly allocated to groups to receive either 2 x 10(8) CFU of reconstituted, lyophilized Peru-15 vaccine diluted in CeraVacx buffer or placebo (CeraVacx buffer alone). Approximately 3 months after vaccination, 36 of these volunteers were challenged with approximately 10(5) CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Among vaccinees, 98% showed at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers. After challenge, 5 (42%) of the 12 placebo recipients and none (0%) of the 24 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (> or = 3,000 g of diarrheal stool) (P = 0.002; protective efficacy, 100%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 75%). A total of 7 (58%) of the 12 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 24 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P Peru-15 is a well-tolerated and immunogenic oral cholera vaccine that affords protective efficacy against life-threatening cholera diarrhea in a human volunteer challenge model. This vaccine may therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers and is a strong candidate for further evaluation to prevent cholera in an area where cholera is endemic.

  2. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  3. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  4. Conservation narratives in Peru: envisioning biodiversity in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Zinngrebe

    2016-06-01

    In a second step, a comparative analysis of the dominant and diverging political perspectives is made. I argue that by deconstructing underlying premises and ideologies, common ground and possible opportunities for collaboration can be identified. Moreover, although the presented results can serve as a discussion scaffold to organize conservation debates in Peru, this example demonstrates how the terms biodiversity and sustainability are operationalized in conservation narratives.

  5. Gender Equality in Education: GTZ and indigenous communities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cortina

    2010-01-01

    Regina Cortina explores new forms of collaboration between European donor countries and countries in Latin America in support of education. Placed in the larger context of the European Union Development Aid policy, the focus is the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) impact on projects in Latin America, which illustrate how to mainstream gender equality into education. For a closer understanding of this success, she examines the Basic Education Programme in Peru (PROEDUCA).

  6. [Nurses' work in Peru: origin and social conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, M C; de Martos, M V; da Fonseca, R M

    2000-07-01

    The study aimed at reviewing the history of the genesis and social formation of nurses work in Peru in order to understand it according to women's social situation in the context of a masculine society organized under capitalism. Thus, nursing formation was influenced by the Nightingale School and the exercise of the Peruvian nurses was characterized by the reproduction of social functions that are historically feminine, with a knowledge and practice subordinated to medical knowledge, that is mainly directed by a masculine ideology.

  7. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  8. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in the Iquitos Area of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    1991 at three sylvan sites near tl ing arboviruses have been reported: Mayaro , quitos, Department of Loreto, Peru. Situatu on Oropouche, Guama... virus isolation was begun in 1988. within Iquitos. This report deals specifically with the capture Mosquito Collections. In total, eight different...Lima for virus isolation. Mos- groups of mosquitoes not identifiable to the spe- quitoes were identified to species using several cies level because of

  9. Early mineralization at Cerro de Pasco (central Peru) revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Rottier, Bertrand; Casanova, Vincent; Fontboté, Lluis; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Alvarez, Hugo; Bendezú, Ronner

    2013-01-01

    The large Cerro de Pasco Cordilleran base metal deposit in central Peru is located on the eastern margin of a Middle Miocene diatreme-dome complex. A striking characteristic is the presence of a N-S trending massive funnel-shape pyrite-quartz replacement ore body that contains pyrrhotite pipes grading outwards to lead-zinc replacement bodies, along the eastern contact of the diatreme-dome complex. Earlier workers interpreted the pyrrhotite pipes as postdating the pyritequartz body. This study...

  10. Evidence of Rickettsial and Leptospira Infections in Andean Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    about health in six Latin American countries, 1973- 1992. Rev Panam Salud Publica 1: 23–34. 3. Cowan G, 2000. Rickettsial diseases: the typhus group of...Leonardo Mendoza Instituto Nacional de Salud , Capac Yupanqui No. 1400, Jesús Maria, Lima 11, Peru, Telephone: 51-1-471-9920. Allen L. Richards, Viral and...Colli C, 1997. Leptospira interrogans in a canine population of greater Bue- nos Aires: variables associated with seropositivity. Rev Panam Salud

  11. Monetary policy in a dollarised economy: The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Misaico, Zenon

    2000-01-01

    Persistent high inflation in Peru during the 1970s led households to hold foreign currency as store of value. This process of dollarisation increased significantly during the hyperinflation of 1988-90. In the years that followed, a wide-ranging package of reforms in the financial system and in the conduct of monetary policy and fiscal policy were introduced to bring a halt to the hyperinflation. But despite nearly a decade of subsequent economic stabilisation, the decrease in dollarisation ha...

  12. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (departmentof Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplishmaroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepals with pale purplish and bluish spots and stripes. Tigridiaarequipensis is morphologically similar to T. raimondii and T. philippiana, it differs by having longer basal leaves,narrower and larger bracts, an...

  13. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  14. The Arequipa (Peru) earthquake of June 23, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Buforn, E.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Vilacapoma, L.

    The Arequipa earthquake of 23 June 2001 hasbeen the largest earthquake (Mw = 8.3)occurredin the last century in southern Peru with amaximum intensity of VIII (MM scale). Focalmechanisms of main shock and three largeraftershocks have been studied, showingthrusting solutions for main shock and twoaftershocks and normal motion for the eventof July, 5. The rupture area has beenobtained from distribution of aftershocks.The occurrence of the Arequipa earthquakeis related with the convergence processbetween the Nazca and South Americaplates.

  15. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  16. Drought Monitoring in Peru as a Climate Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Waldo; Felipe, Oscar; Caycho, Tania; Sosa, Jesus; Fernandez, Carlos; Endara, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    Given the need to reduce socio- economic and environmental drought in Peru as well as the vulnerability and increasing responsiveness and recovery to these events, the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru (SENAMHI ) in conjunction with the Peru's Environment Ministry has developed a plan Drought Monitoring nationwide, which consists of two components: 1) Monitoring System and 2 ) Dissemination System . The first component consists of calculating drought indicators at national level; and for that purpose we have selected the following indexes: Normal Precipitation Index (NPI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) , Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) , Vegetation Condition Index (VCI ) , Temperature Condition Index ( TCI) , Healthy Vegetation Index (VHI ) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). In order to estimate these index observed climatological and hydrological data of SENAMHI network is used as well as remote sensing data of precipitation, temperature and vegetation (TRMM, CHIRPS and MODIS). The second component is the spread of these indicators and a compilation thereof to a summary document that integrates all indicators (Monthly Bulletin). This will be done through newsletters and a website (www.senamhi.gob.pe/serviciosclimaticos); in the case of exceptional drought events special notes will be made. A date has launched the first newsletter in September 2014. This drought monitoring system will be used as an instrument of climate service and we intend to make it a useful tool for decision makers and the general population .

  17. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  18. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome.

  19. [National congenital hypothyroidism screening in Peru: a broken program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Sáenz, Lina; Del Águila, Carlos; Espinoza, Oscar; Falen-Boggio, Juan; Mitre, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most important cause of preventable mental retardation. The prevalence of CH varies by geographic region, race and ethnicity. In the countries of the Northern hemisphere, the prevalence has been reported as 1:4,000 live newborns. The prevalence is remarkably different among the countries of Latin America not only because of their different races and ethnicities but also because of the heterogeneous social-economic development. The prevalence of CH in 1984 in Peru was reported as 1:1250. In 2007, the reported incidence by the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal was 1:1638. A recent retrospective study performed by the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru described the average age of diagnosis of CH as 5,9 months +/- 5,28. This late age of CH diagnosis certainly suggests the poor efficiency of the current neonatal CH screening programs in Peru. Every Peruvian infant deserves a timely newborn screening and treatment for CH. The Peruvian government is responsible for ensuring this mandatory goal is achieved promptly.

  20. Description of Lutzomyia (Evandromyia sipani, a new species of Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae from Loreto Department, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia sipani n.sp. is described from males collected in Loreto Department, Peru. The new species belongs to the subgenus Evandromyia mangabeira and confirms the presence of this group in Peru.

  1. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  2. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.

  3. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  4. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle - Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, M. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Fejer, B. G.; Gonzalez, S. A.; Hallenbeck, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    Near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, are determined over about two-thirds of a solar cycle using Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line. Mean monthly nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components are calculated from the nightly data to remove short-term (day-to-day) variability as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak (more than 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990).

  5. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  6. Emerging Markets Integration in Latin America (MILA Stock market indicators: Chile, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R Lizarzaburu Bolaños

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA start-up in the main indicators of the stock markets of the countries that conform it (Chile, Colombia, and Peru. At the end, several indicators were reviewed to measure the impact on profitability, risk, correlation, and trading volume between markets, using indicators such as: annual profitability, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and trading volume. The sample period runs from November 2008 to August 2013; and involves the three stock markets associated with MILA: Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago (BCS, Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (BVC y Bolsa de Valores de Lima (BVL. An additional evaluation for further research would consist of the calculation of relevant indicators to corroborate the validity of the effects found in this investigation corresponding to the integration of the stock exchanges of Lima, Santiago and Bogota, after the integration of the Mexican stock exchange that occurred in 2014.

  7. Present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru; Peru no chika shigen no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-05

    This paper introduces the present state and outlook of mineral resources in Peru. Peru is a great mineral resource country in the world. Silver (the third in the world in 1993), lead (the fifth), zinc (the fourth), tin (the fifth), copper (the sixth), gold (the fourteenth), and iron are occurred as main mineral resources. Peru was laid waste due to long-term colonial rule by Spain. After the independence, confusion caused by the political distrust and breakdown of national economy was continued. Mineral resources were not utilized, effectively. Based on the nationalism of mineral resources, mines were nationalized after the 1970`s. Thus, mines lost the international competitive power due to the withdrawal of overseas capitals. Recently, based on the privatization policy, national mines have been sold through bids with participation of foreign capitals. Law systems for the development have been also arranged, which results in the ambitious participation of major mining companies in the world for the development. Survey companies have gone into the exploration. Prevention of environmental pollution, such as waste water quality standards, has been promoted. Environmental pollution by the illegal alluvial mining is serious. The government is promoting the positive measures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador... from the USFCS, including in Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador. Each trade mission stop...

  9. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  10. Taxonomy and new collections of wild potato species in Central and Southern Peru in 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, A.R.; Spooner, D.M.; Huamán, Z.; Torres Maita, R.V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schüler, K.; Hijmans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peru contains about half of the described wild potato taxa, and many of these are not yet preserved in genebanks. This paper reports results of the second of a series of five planned collecting expeditions to Peru. Collections were made in the central Peruvian departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La

  11. Annotated checklist of the mosquito species encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecor, J E; Jones, J; Turell, M J; Fernandez, R; Carbajal, F; O'Guinn, M; Sardalis, M; Watts, D; Zyzak, M; Calampa, C; Klein, T A

    2000-09-01

    A checklist of the mosquito fauna encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru, is presented. A total of 16 genera, 30 subgenera, and 96 species were identified, including 24 species reported from Peru for the 1st time. Notations on the taxonomy and biology for 28 species are also provided.

  12. Interspecies Interactions and Potential Influenza A Virus Risk in Small Swine Farms in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http... Medicina y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru Aff2 Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru Aff3

  13. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  14. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9...

  15. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  16. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on ] Forest Sector Governance,...

  17. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance,...

  18. 75 FR 69403 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    .... (``Shanghai Canghai''), its Chinese exporter and supplier, submitted a product exclusion request for... Aluminium Industry Engineering Co., Ltd. (``CNYD''), a Chinese exporter of assorted aluminum components... determined that India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Ukraine and Peru are countries comparable to...

  19. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  20. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  1. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Díaz-Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community Kitchens (CKs are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (<5 vs. ≥5 servings/day was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i.e. age, gender, education level, etc., and self-reported intention to change eating- and exercise-related habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%, mean age 43.7 (±14.5 years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%–11.2% customers reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥12 vs. <7 years, and 64% less common for migrants relative to non-migrants. In terms of intentions to change habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population.

  2. Mineral pigments at Huaca Tacaynamo (Chan Chan, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, William E.; Piminchumo, Víctor; Suárez, Héctor; Jackson, John C.; McGeehin, John P.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analyses of five samples of pigments from a recently excavated mural at the archaeological site of Huaca Tacaynamo, a part of the Chan Chan archaeological complex, northern Peru, show that minerals related to metal occurrences known to have been exploited by ancient Andeans were also used as pigments. These minerals include: atacamite [Cu2Cl(OH3)] for green; azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] for blue; calcite [CaCO3] for white; cinnabar [HgS] for red; and goethite [HFeO2] for yellow....

  3. Beyond Guzman? The Future of the Shining Path in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    the organizacion all too often effectively exploits. Again, however, this scenario is unlikely, given the challenge now facing SL’s organizational...provide a simplified and ý"Bases for Discussion," C320. ŗEl Diario Internacional , Aug-Sep 1991, 10. 27 accessible version of the only "scientific truth...and the Future of Peru, 23. "E•E Diario Internacional , Aug-Sep 91, 8-9. Even with a poor yield, Tarazona-Sevillano reports that the average annual

  4. [Abnormal hemoglobins in a Negroid population in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Franco, O E; Villacorta Wettstein, M E; Zaga Catacora, R E; Márquez Torres, M C

    1990-08-01

    A study was performed on 100 blood samples from black people native of the Chincha province and living in Pueblo Nuevo Ica district, in Peru. No haematological abnormalities were seen in any of the cases. Upon haemoglobin electrophoresis, 8 carriers of abnormal haemoglobin were found, the A/S pattern appearing in 5 instances and the A/C pattern in 3. These 8 samples were subjected to deoxyhaemoglobin solubility tests and to differential solubility test with urea, the initial results being confirmed. These data correlate, in general terms with previous findings.

  5. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.

  6. Legislation and applicable concepts to protected natural areas in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Solano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 78 protected areas in Peru covering 22 million hectares corresponding almost 17 percent of national territory. This article reviews essential aspects of protected natural areas studying scopes, purposes, types, categories and levels such as: requirements for setting, amendment and repeal; activities allowed and forbidden within them; institutional management, among others. Finally, this work concludes with some brief thoughts on legal and institutional challenges of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas NaturalesProtegidas por el Estado (SINANPE (National System of State ProtectedNatural Areas.

  7. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  8. History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M.; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Psicólogo.

    2014-01-01

    In Peru, the industry´s development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Oc...

  9. The Progreso Basin Province of Northwestern Peru and Southwestern Ecuador: Neogene and Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2004-01-01

    The Progreso Basin province (6083) in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador consists of the Paleogene Santa Elena block and Peru Bank, and the Neogene Tumbes-Progreso subbasin. The Santa Elena block and Peru Bank are part of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum System (TPS)(608302), which contains the Cretaceous-Paleogene Santa Elena Block Assessment Unit (60830201). The Tumbes- Progreso subbasin includes the Neogene TPS (608301) and associated Neogene Pull-Apart Basin Assessment Unit (60830101). The complex tectonic history of the Progreso Basin province influenced depositional and erosional patterns across the region, and also the location, timing, and types of seals, traps, possible source and reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon generation and migration. Marine shales that are interbedded with and overlie reservoir intervals are the probable hydrocarbon source rocks. Timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration was probably Miocene and younger, following creation of the Tumbes-Progreso subbasin by movement along the Dolores-Guayaquil megashear. More than 220 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 255 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) have been produced from the Progreso Basin province. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) resources from undiscovered fields in the province are 237 MMBO, 695 BCFG, and 32 MMB NGL, respectively. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and NGL resources from undiscovered onshore fields are 45 MMBO, 113 BCFG, and 5 MMBNGL, and from undiscovered offshore fields are 192 BBO, 582 BCFG, and 27 MMBNGL. These are USGS grown undiscovered resources that were determined by using a minimum field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent.

  10. Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo V P Diniz

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64. Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%. Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40% of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.

  11. Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.

  12. A positive correlation between atypical memory B cells and Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in cross-sectional studies in Peru and Mali.

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    Greta E Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies that protect against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. The B cell biology that underlies this observation is poorly understood. We previously reported that "atypical" memory B cells are increased in children and adults exposed to intense Pf transmission in Mali, similar to what has been observed in individuals infected with HIV. In this study we examined B cell subsets of Pf -infected adults in Peru and Mali to determine if Pf transmission intensity correlates with atypical memory B cell expansion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study venous blood was collected from adults in areas of zero (U.S., n = 10, low (Peru, n = 18 and high (Mali, n = 12 Pf transmission. Adults in Peru and Mali were infected with Pf at the time of blood collection. Thawed lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry to quantify B cell subsets, including atypical memory B cells, defined by the cell surface markers CD19(+ CD20(+ CD21(- CD27(- CD10(-. In Peru, the mean level of atypical memory B cells, as a percent of total B cells, was higher than U.S. adults (Peru mean: 5.4% [95% CI: 3.61-7.28]; U.S. mean: 1.4% [95% CI: 0.92-1.81]; p<0.0001 but lower than Malian adults (Mali mean 13.1% [95% CI: 10.68-15.57]; p = 0.0001. In Peru, individuals self-reporting ≥1 prior malaria episodes had a higher percentage of atypical memory B cells compared to those reporting no prior episodes (≥1 prior episodes mean: 6.6% [95% CI: 4.09-9.11]; no prior episodes mean: 3.1% [95% CI: 1.52-4.73]; p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared to Pf-naive controls, atypical memory B cells were increased in Peruvian adults exposed to low Pf transmission, and further increased in Malian adults exposed to intense Pf transmission. Understanding the origin, function and antigen specificity of atypical memory B cells in the context of Pf infection could contribute to our

  13. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  14. Serologic evidence for human hantavirus infection in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Oré, Roger M; Forshey, Brett M; Huaman, Alfredo; Villaran, Manuel V; Long, Kanya C; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Guevara, Carolina; Montgomery, Joel M; Alvarez, Carlos A; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Morrison, Amy C; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    While human illness associated with hantavirus infection has been documented in many countries of South America, evidence for hantavirus transmission in Peru has been limited to the isolation of Rio Mamore virus from a pigmy mouse rat (Oligoryzomys microtis) in the Amazon city of Iquitos. To address the possibility of human hantavirus exposure in the region, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Iquitos from 2007 to 2010 for serological evidence of recent hantavirus infection. In addition, we conducted a serological survey for hantavirus-reactive IgG among healthy participants residing in Iquitos and rural areas surrounding the city. Through the febrile surveillance study, we identified 15 participants (0.3%; 15/5174) with IgM reactive to hantavirus (Andes virus) antigen, all with relatively mild, self-limited illness. From the cross-sectional serosurvey we found that 1.7% (36/2063) of residents of the Iquitos area had serum IgG reactive to one or more hantaviruses, with a higher prevalence in the urban population (2.2%, compared to 1.1% in rural areas). These results suggest that human infection with hantavirus has occurred in Peru.

  15. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  16. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

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    Roberto F. Kometter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  17. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, A.; Delgado, M.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.

    2007-02-01

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800 100 b.c.) using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Mössbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Mössbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  18. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, A., E-mail: abustamanted@unmsm.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Delgado, M. [Qallta (Peru); Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B. [UFF, Instituto de Quimica, Depto. Fisico-Quimica (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800-100 b.c.) using Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe{sup 2+} in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe{sup 3+} doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Moessbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  19. Frequency of maternal and newborn birth outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013.

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    Adriane Wynn

    Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.

  20. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru.

  1. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  2. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-11-10

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies.

  3. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from Peru by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Elizabeth; Cáceres, Omar; Náquira, César; Garcia, David; Patiño, Gladys; Silvia, Herrera; Volotão, Aline C; Fernandes, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, the etiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and other animal species, is distributed worldwide. Ten intra-specific variants, or genotypes (G1-G10), have been defined based on genetic diversity. To determine the genotypes present in endemic areas of Peru, samples were collected from cattle (44), sheep (41) and humans (14) from Junín, Puno Huancavelica, Cusco, Arequipa and Ayacucho. DNA was extracted from protoscolex and/or germinal layers derived from 99 E. granulosus isolates and used as templates to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. The resulting polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and further examined by sequence analysis. All isolates, independent of the host, exhibited the G1 genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three isolates from Ayacucho shared the same cluster with microvariant G1(4). The G1 genotype is considered the most widespread and infectious form of E. granulosus worldwide and our results confirm that the same patterns apply to this country. Therefore, these findings should be taken into consideration in developing prevention strategies and control programs for CE in Peru.

  4. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens. PMID:28129377

  5. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosusfrom Peru by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene

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    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus, the etiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE in humans and other animal species, is distributed worldwide. Ten intra-specific variants, or genotypes (G1-G10, have been defined based on genetic diversity. To determine the genotypes present in endemic areas of Peru, samples were collected from cattle (44, sheep (41 and humans (14 from Junín, Puno Huancavelica, Cusco, Arequipa and Ayacucho. DNA was extracted from protoscolex and/or germinal layers derived from 99 E. granulosus isolates and used as templates to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. The resulting polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and further examined by sequence analysis. All isolates, independent of the host, exhibited the G1 genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three isolates from Ayacucho shared the same cluster with microvariant G1(4. The G1 genotype is considered the most widespread and infectious form of E. granulosusworldwide and our results confirm that the same patterns apply to this country. Therefore, these findings should be taken into consideration in developing prevention strategies and control programs for CE in Peru.

  6. Co-seismic luminescence in Lima, 150 km from the epicenter of the Pisco, Peru earthquake of 15 August 2007

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    J. A. Heraud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first photographs of Co-seismic Luminescence, commonly known as Earthquake lights (EQLs, were reported in 1968 in Japan. However, there have been documented reports of luminescence associated with earthquakes since ancient times in different parts of the world. Besides this, there is modern scientific work dealing with evidence of and models for the production of such lights. During the Peru 15 August 2007 Mw=8.0 earthquake which occurred at 06:40 p.m. LT, hence dark in the southern wintertime, several EQLs were observed along the Peruvian coast and extensively reported in the capital city of Lima, about 150 km northwest of the epicenter. These lights were video-recorded by a security camera installed at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP campus and time-correlated with seismic ground accelerations registered at the seismological station on campus, analyzed and related to highly qualified eyewitness observations of the phenomena from other parts of the city and to other video recordings. We believe the evidence presented here contributes significantly to sustain the hypothesis that electromagnetic phenomena related to seismic activity can occur, at least during an earthquake. It is highly probable that continued research in luminescence and the use of magnetometers in studying electromagnetic activity and radon gas emanation detectors will contribute even more towards determining their occurrence during and probably prior to seismic activity.

  7. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 4 Volumes Annexes 8-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that could be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  8. Influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance in Peru.

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    V Alberto Laguna-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illnesses and influenza-like illnesses (ILI are a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the public health importance, little is known about the etiology of these acute respiratory illnesses in many regions of South America. In 2006, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD initiated a collaboration to characterize the viral agents associated with ILI and to describe the clinical and epidemiological presentation of the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with ILI (fever > or =38 degrees C and cough or sore throat were evaluated in clinics and hospitals in 13 Peruvian cities representative of the four main regions of the country. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, as well as epidemiological and demographic data, were collected from each patient. During the two years of this study (June 2006 through May 2008, a total of 6,835 patients, with a median age of 13 years, were recruited from 31 clinics and hospitals; 6,308 were enrolled by regular passive surveillance and 527 were enrolled as part of outbreak investigations. At least one respiratory virus was isolated from the specimens of 2,688 (42.6% patients, with etiologies varying by age and geographical region. Overall the most common viral agents isolated were influenza A virus (25.1%, influenza B virus (9.7%, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, (HPIV-1,-2,-3; 3.2%, herpes simplex virus (HSV; 2.6%, and adenoviruses (1.8%. Genetic analyses of influenza virus isolates demonstrated that three lineages of influenza A H1N1, one lineage of influenza A H3N2, and two lineages of influenza B were circulating in Peru during the course of this study. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive study to date of the etiologic agents associated with ILI in Peru. These results demonstrate that a wide range of respiratory pathogens are circulating in Peru and this

  9. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  10. Cooperation and development in local communities of Spain and Peru

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    María Isabel Quevedo Alejos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies

  11. Two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza (Solanaceae from Arequipa and Ayacucho (Peru

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    Eliana Linares Perea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza for the flora of Southern Peru are reported, including taxonomical, biogeographical and phytosociological data on this species.

  12. PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU

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    Jhonson K. Vizcarra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758 in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.

  13. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... the subject line ``U.S.-Peru EAC Meeting'' or by fax to (202) 647-5947; and (2) Mara M. Burr, Deputy.../index.cfm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jacqueline Tront, Telephone (202) 647- 4750 or Mara M....

  14. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  15. Peru-15, an improved live attenuated oral vaccine candidate for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A F; Barrera-Oro, M; Hyman, T; Adams, J M; Beattie, D T; Killeen, K P; Spriggs, D R

    1995-10-01

    Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.

  16. Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 (Nematoda: Heterakidae in Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae in Ica, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufino Cabrera Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866 is redescribed. It is a parasitic heterakid nematoda living in the caecum of murid rodent, Rattus norvegícus "gray rat" from district of Parcona, province of Ica, Peru.

  17. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  18. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  19. Two new species of the catfish genus Corydoras from Brazil and Peru (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras, C. maculifer from Brazil and C. panda from Peru. The relationships of the new species with other species of Corydoras are discussed.

  20. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae) in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Jordán A.; José Pérez Z.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru) was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Mic...

  1. New records of digeneans from Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae from Iquitos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 8 digestive tract of the turtle Podocnemis expansa and 18 of P. unifilis from the Belen market (Iquitos, Peru. Only digeneans were studied and identified. Four species were found: Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839 Travassos, 1934, Halltrema avitellina Lent & Freitas, 1939, Podocnemitrema papillosum Alho & Vicente, 1964 and Telorchis hagmanni Lent & Freitas, 1937. Halltrema avitellina, Podocnemitrema papillosum and Telorchis hagmanni are new records from Peru.

  2. A new species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae without stridulatory organ, from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

  3. Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburu, Adolfo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Munares-García, Óscar; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magíster en Salud Pública.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano especialista en Epidemiologia de Campo.; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano. especialista en Gestión de Salud.; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Red para la Acción y Avance de la Salud Mental y Psiquiatría (Red AVANSE-PSI). Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this a...

  4. Islay And The Economy Of Southern Peru In 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article notes the specificity of the regional economic history of Southern Peru, which in 1780-1840 experienced an important economic growth while the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was in crisis. This important fact is not well known because of the lack of research on regional economy. It presents data on the dynamics of international markets and its relation with the southern economy. Finally, the article argues some problems related to the general development of the Peruvian economy.

  5. Elite Settlements and Democracy in Latin America: The Dominican Republic and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    even jailed in some rural areas by the local military 25Facts on File, Vol. 38, no. 1951, March 31, 1978, pg. o. _.74 ri2 "La Violencia Electoral...34Perspectivas Para La Consolidacion Democratica En El Peru," in Democracia Y Violencia En El Peru, Diego Garcia Sayan, editor (Lima: Centro Peruano De...Estado Y Sociedad (Lima: DESCO, Centro de Estudios y Pomocion del Desarrollo, 1981), pg. 48. 136 leadership placed a great deal of distance between

  6. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.

  7. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  8. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  9. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  10. Magda Mateus Cardenas, director of Centro Amauta, Cusco, Peru: interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, C

    1997-02-01

    Magda Mateus Cardenas, trained as an anthropologist, is currently director of Centro Amauta, a feminist organization in Peru that addresses issues of gender, class, and culture. In this interview, Mateus Cardenas describes her long involvement with development organizations and grass-roots campaigns to improve women's status. She notes that, although many organizations have adopted a gender perspective, few comprehend its highly political, transformational aspects. Women's rights tend to be viewed by development agencies as just one more factor to be incorporated into development projects rather than as a perspective that changes views of development itself. A genuine gender perspective entails changes in the organizational, social, and political aspects of the themes of autonomy and empowerment, with adaptations of content and methods to local conditions. A precondition to women's emancipation is access to and control of financial and economic resources. This, in turn, requires training in technical skills and access to the marketplace on more competitive terms.

  11. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  12. Women's Participation in a Postconflict Community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building.

  13. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  14. Word play, ritual insult, and volleyball in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.

  15. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  16. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  17. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  18. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  19. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  20. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  1. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  2. Paleomagnetism of the Puente Piedra Formation, Central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.

    1985-02-01

    Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  4. Nonlinear Source Tomography Of The Mw=8.4, 23 June 2001 Arequipa, Peru, Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, A.; Madariaga, R.; Clévédé, E.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate on the rupture process of the Mw=8.4 tsunami-genic earthquake of June 23, 2001 in Arequipa, Peru, putting special emphasis on the determination of rupture velocity. Since the determination of rupture velocity is nonlinear we use the Neighbourhood algorithm for the inversion. We use 16 broad band far field seismograms band pass filtered between 0.01 and 0.4Hz. The goodness of the fit between observed and synthetics is mesured with an L2 norm. The fault is parameterized with a model containing 57 patch of size 9× 20km. Because of computer time problems the final steps in the inversion, once the solution has converged to a well defined minimum, are done with a downhill simplex algorithm. The best solution for this unilateral event is found to have propagated southward at a very low speed (1,6km/s) with 80% of the final moment released as one patch 80s after the onset of rupture. The general features of the inversion are compatible with results of linearized inversion and the slow rupture speed is similar to that observed for tsunami earthquakes. The location of the main energy patch is confirmed by a CMT grid search over the whole area of rupture and by tsunami observations.

  5. Alphus marinonii sp. nov., nova espécie para o Peru e Brasil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Santana Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alphus marinonii sp. nov., new species from Peru and Brazil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. A new species of Alphus, A. marinonii sp. nov., from Peru and Brazil (Rondônia is described. Key to identification and pictures for the four species of the genus are provided. Notes on distribution of A. tuberosus are included, with a new record for Peru and Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul.

  6. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Annexes 2-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a brief study of industral, mining, and agricultural sector energy demands in Peru. The study establishes current energy demands and sectoral activities, and projects future energy needs through the year 2000. With respect to energy demands, the subsectors covered are: mining and non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, cement, oil refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and agriculture (major crops). Total energy demands for these subsectors are developed for 1976, 1985, and 2000, assuming full-capacity operation for the majority of the plants. Potential options developed for reducing energy use in these sectors are: increased coal use, improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, use of agricultural wastes as fuel, possible displacement of oil by hydroelectricity, use of geothermal energy, increased use of water materials for the cement and construction industries, and possible promotion of cogeneration systems (electricity/steam). (MCW)

  7. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  8. Myxomycete diversity in the coastal desert of Peru with emphasis on the lomas formations

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    Lado, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from the first survey for myxomycetes in the hyperarid areas of Peru are reported. Sampling over three consecutive years was carried out at 96 localities between 0 and 1500 m elevation. A total of 78 species from 23 genera in all 6 myxomycete orders were determined from 723 collections of myxomycetes. One new species, Didymium peruvianum, is described, 2 species new to the Neotropics, 4 new records for South America and 41 additional new species for Peru are reported, increasing the country catalogue by over 50%. Results show that arid areas are rich in myxomycetes, and that each area has a unique species assemblage. Endemic plants had a particular relevance as myxomycete substrates. The predominance of the order Physarales in arid areas is reinforced, and the ecological importance of coastal fogs (garúas is evident from the results. Comments are included on interesting or rare collections, as are SEM micrographs of several species and statistical evaluation of the results.Se dan a conocer los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre los Myxomycetes de las regiones hiperáridas de Perú. El muestreo, realizado en tres años consecutivos, se ha llevado a cabo en 96 localidades situadas entre 0 y 1500 m de altitud. En total se obtuvieron 723 colecciones de mixomicetes, pertenecientes a 6 órdenes, 23 géneros y 78 especies. Se describe una nueva especie, Didymium peruvianum, 2 especies se citan por primera vez en el Neotrópico, 4 son nuevos registros para América del Sur y 41 especies más son nuevos registros para Perú, con lo que el catálogo del país se incrementa en un 50%. Los resultados muestran que las zonas áridas son ricas en mixomicetes, y que cada area tiene un conjunto único de especies. Las plantas endémicas, dominantes en estos ambientes, tuvieron una relevancia especial como sustrato para los myxomycetes. Se pone de manifiesto el predominio de los representantes del órden Physarales en las zonas

  9. Modeling a glacial lake outburst flood process chain: the case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo A.; Chisolm, Rachel E.; Rivas, Denny S.; Portocarrero, Cesar; McKinney, Daene C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on 13 December 1941, killing about 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and preliminary hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 × 103 m3 s-1), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil

  10. Pepper necrotic spot virus, a new tospovirus infecting solanaceous crops in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Roger; Larenas, Javiera; Fribourg, Cesar; Romero, Javier

    2012-04-01

    Two virus isolates, T1 and T2, causing necrotic spots on leaves and stems of pepper and tomato, respectively, were isolated in the La Joya valley, Arequipa, Peru, in 2010. These two isolates were inoculated to differential hosts for tospoviruses and showed differential fitness: T1 induced necrotic local lesions in Vigna unguiculata, whereas T2 produced only chlorotic spots. The complete nucleotide sequence of the small (S) RNA from T2 and 1863 bp of the S RNA from T1 were determined. The deduced N protein sequence showed high amino acid identity (97%) between the isolates, indicating that the T1 and T2 are isolates of the same virus. Sequence comparisons indicated that the amino acid sequence of the N protein shared 53.49-87.98% identity with known American tospoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of both the NSs and N proteins revealed that this new tospovirus belongs to the American group. We conclude that this tospovirus should be considered a member of a new species. The name Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV) is proposed.

  11. Entomological factors affecting the low endemicity of Chagas disease in Nazca, Southwestern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Lecaros, Emilio; Aguliar-Rosales, Mauro; Acosta, Hilda Solis; Castellanos, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Chagas disease is prevalent in Peru. The province of Nazca, in the southwestern region of the country, shows a high intradomiciliary infestation rate of Triatoma infestans bugs. Although the vector is present, the number of Chagas disease cases appears to be much lower than those reported in the neighboring region of Arequipa. We examined 624 T. infestans from Nazca to determine the current Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates, and found that no bugs were infected with this parasite. These results contrast with those found in Arequipa, where 19-30% triatomines have been reported infected. To compare their vectorial capacity, we infected 30 T. infestans specimens, selected both from Nazca and Arequipa, by feeding bugs on T. cruzi-infected mice. The parasites developed all stages expected in the vector; furthermore, the infective stage, metacyclic trypomastigote, was found in both insect populations from the second week after infection. In addition, those insects that accepted to be fed with mice blood defecated immediately after finishing blood meal, indicating that they might be efficient vectors. We maintain that differences observed in infection rates between vectors from Nazca and Arequipa may be explained by differences in host availability. In Arequipa hosts are mainly small animals, whereas in Nazca the main blood source comes from birds, which are refractory to the infection.

  12. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

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    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  14. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

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    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  15. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

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    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  16. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  17. Postseismic relocking of the subduction megathrust following the 2007 Pisco, Peru, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, D.; Perfettini, H.; Cotte, N.; Avouac, J. P.; Chlieh, M.; Bondoux, F.; Sladen, A.; Tavera, H.; Socquet, A.

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the time evolution of slip over different phases of the seismic cycle is crucial to a better understanding of the factors controlling the occurrence of large earthquakes. In this study, we take advantage of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and 3.5 years of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements to determine interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic slip distributions in the region of the 2007, Mw 8.0 Pisco, earthquake, Peru, using the same fault geometry and inversion method. Our interseismic model, based on pre-2007 campaign GPS data, suggests that the 2007 Pisco seismic slip occurred in a region strongly coupled before the earthquake while afterslip occurred in low coupled regions. Large afterslip occurred in the peripheral area of coseismic rupture in agreement with the notion that afterslip is mainly induced by coseismic stress changes. The temporal evolution of the region of maximum afterslip, characterized by a relaxation time of about 2.3 years, is located in the region where the Nazca ridge is subducting, consistent with rate-strengthening friction promoting aseismic slip. We estimate a return period for the Pisco earthquake of about 230 years with an estimated aseismic slip that might account for about 50% of the slip budget in this region over the 0-50 km seismogenic depth range. A major result of this study is that the main asperity that ruptured during the 2007 Pisco earthquake relocked soon after this event.

  18. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

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    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weekend tours were conducted in different environments of the city, at morning (6:00-11:00 am and afternoon (3:00-6:30 pm hours, recording the bird species seen and heard. I recorded 104 species. Thirteen species belonged to the Tumbesian Endemic Bird Area. Atotal of 104 bird species was obtained, 13 endemic in the Endemic Bird Area Tumbesino. Twenty two were considered Neartic migrants with resident populations in the Neotropics. Nine were neartic migrants without resident populations in the Neotropics (obligate migrants and six were occasional. There is a richness of birds in Piura city and surroundings with Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Columbidae and Ardeidae dominance, which should be used as a vehicle in training in environmental education programs aimed primarily at school-aged students.

  19. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen

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    Ximena Salazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20% in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion: A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1 the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2 ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3 a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions: The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change.

  20. Policy outline for the conservation of Peru's renewable natural resources. Lineamientos de politica de conservacion de los recursos naturales renovables del Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on proposed programs for the conservation of coastal, marine, and mountain region natural resources of Peru, including the introduction of legislation, education, and management. Studies are also made on soil erosion prevention, wildlife preservation, desalination programs, and land reclamation.

  1. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

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    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  2. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

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    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  3. A high resolution stratigraphic framework for the remarkable fossil cetacean assemblage of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Leonard; Urbina, Mario; Chadwick, Arthur; DeVries, Thomas J.; Esperante, Raul

    2011-04-01

    The Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru contains a rich marine vertebrate fossil record, providing a unique opportunity for the study of paleoecology and evolution, along with the sedimentological context of the fossils. The lack of a high-resolution stratigraphic framework has hampered such study. In this paper we develop the needed stratigraphy for the areas in the Pisco Formation where most of the vertebrate paleontological research is occurring. In the Ica Valley and in the vicinity of Lomas, series of lithologically or paleontologically unique marker beds were identified. These were walked out and documented with GPS technology. Measured sections connecting these marker beds provide a stratigraphic framework for the areas studied. GPS locations, maps of the marker beds on aerial photographs, and outcrop photographs allow field determination of the stratigraphic positions of study areas.

  4. Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia

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    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers.

  5. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was

  6. Using the e-Chasqui, web-based information system, to determine laboratory guidelines and data available to clinical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Yagui, Martin; Contreras, Carmen C; Palma, Betty; Shin, Sonya S; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Fraser, Hamish S F

    2008-11-06

    13% of all drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) performed at a public laboratory in Peru were duplicate. To determine reasons for duplicate requests an online survey was implemented in the e-Chasqui laboratory information system. Results showed that 59.6% of tests were ordered because clinical staff was unaware of ordering guidelines or of a previous result. This shows a benefit of using a web-based system and the lack of laboratory information available to clinical staff in Peru.

  7. Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a forest near Puerto Almendras, Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W; Turell, Michael J; Sardelis, Michael R; Watts, Douglas M; Coleman, Russell E; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted as part of a field ecology study of arboviral activity in the Amazon Basin, Peru, to determine the taxonomy, frequency, seasonal, and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors. In addition, the relative efficiency of human-landing collections and dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-type light traps was determined for collecting mosquitoes. A total of 70 species of mosquitoes from 14 genera were collected from June 1996 through December 1997 at a forested site near Puerto Almendras, approximately 20 km west-southwest of Iquitos, Peru. Three species [Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassu), Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), and Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) serratus (Theobald)] accounted for 70% of all mosquitoes captured in human-landing collections. Overall, biting activity occurred throughout the 24-h cycle but was higher during the daytime, primarily because of large populations of two day-biting species, Ps. albigenu and Oc. serratus. Oc. fulvus was active throughout the 24-h cycle but was more frequently collected during the evening. Oc. fulvus, Ps. albigenu, Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, and a mixture of Culex (Melaonoconion) vomerifer Komp, and Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira, accounted for 73% of the mosquitoes captured during darkness) by human collectors. In general, Ochlerotatus spp. and Psorophora spp. were more commonly captured in human-landing collections, whereas most Culex spp. were more frequently collected in the dry ice-baited CDC-type light traps. In general, mosquito populations were lowest from June through August when river levels were at their lowest. Two large population peaks occurred in November-December and in February-March as a result of "flood water" mosquito populations (e.g., Ps. albigenu). These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal distribution of potential mosquito

  8. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  9. El Misti Volcano and the City of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view was created from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Model combined with a simulated natural color ASTER image, acquired July 13, 2001. It shows El Misti volcano towering 5822 meters high above the second city of Peru, Arequipa, with a population of more than one million. Geologic studies indicate that El Misti has had five minor eruptions this century, and a major eruption in the 15th century when residents were forced to flee the city. Despite the obvious hazard, civil defense authorities see it as a remote danger, and city planners are not avoiding development on the volcano side of the city. This view shows human development extending up the flanks of the volcano along gullies which would form natural channels for flows of lava, superheated ash and gas, or melted ice, snow, and mud from the summit snowfield in the event of an eruption. Image by Mike Abrams, NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Holocene vegetation history from fossil rodent middens near Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C.A.; Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, K.A.; Roque, J.; Tovar, O.; Zeballos, H.; Linares, E.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Rodent (Abrocoma, Lagidium, Phyllotis) middens collected from 2350 to 2750 m elevation near Arequipa, Peru (16??S), provide an ???9600-yr vegetation history of the northern Atacama Desert, based on identification of >50 species of plant macrofossils. These midden floras show considerable stability throughout the Holocene, with slightly more mesophytic plant assemblages in the middle Holocene. Unlike the southwestern United States, rodent middens of mid-Holocene age are common. In the Arequipa area, the midden record does not reflect any effects of a mid-Holocene mega drought proposed from the extreme lowstand (100 m below modern levels, >6000 to 3500 yr B.P.) of Lake Titicaca, only 200 km east of Arequipa. This is perhaps not surprising, given other evidence for wetter summers on the Pacific slope of the Andes during the middle Holocene as well as the poor correlation of summer rainfall among modern weather stations in the central AndesAtacama Desert. The apparent difference in paleoclimatic reconstructions suggests that it is premature to relate changes observed during the Holocene to changes in El Nin??o Southern Oscillation modes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  11. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  12. Ichthyological diversity of Inambari River, Madre de Dios, Peru

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    Vanessa Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to know the diversity of fishes in the Inambari river basin, at Mazuco district, (Madre de Dios and the state of conservation of the aquatic habitats. Samples were collected from 22 stations using seines of small mesh (5mm and recording data from each habitat. Taxonomic composition of fishes, diversity and abundance, ecological characterization by altitudinal range, habitat and water type; and the conservation state of each water bodies have been studied. A total of 1411 individuals were collected and four orders, 13 families, 35 genera and 52 species were identified. The groups with more diversity were Characiformes (65% and Siluriformes (25%. Three new records for Peru: Serrapinnus notomelas, Pseudopimelodus bufonius y Pseudocetopsis gobiodes and one endemic species: Chaetostoma marcapatae have been register. The altitudinal pattern influence in micro habitats presence and as consequence in abundance and species richness; so higher richness and abundance were found in the lower zone (52 species and 1309 individuals, in streams (44 species and rivers (712 individuals. According type of water, the clearwaters showed higher values of richness (37 species and the whitewater higher abundance (789 individuals. The higher diversity indexes (H’ were found in the rivers, white waters and altitudes lower. The higher values of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI were obtained in the main channel of the Río Inambari, up river of Mazuko and lower values in the Mirador stream, down river of Mazuko, where it was observed gold mining activity artisanal.

  13. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  14. Implementation and analysis of initial trauma registry in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Vincent; DeUgarte, Daniel; Bliss, David; Salazar, Ernesto; Casapia, Martin; Ford, Henri; Upperman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Peru, 11% of deaths are due to trauma. Iquitos is a large underserved Peruvian city isolated from central resources by its geography. Our objective was to implement a locally driven trauma registry to sustainably improve trauma healthcare in this region. Methods: All trauma patients presenting to the main regional referral hospital were included in the trauma registry. A pilot study retrospectively analyzed data from the first two months after implementation. Results: From March to April 2013, 572 trauma patients were entered into the database. Average age was 26.9 years. Ten percent of patients presented more than 24 hours after injury. Most common mechanisms of injury were falls (25.5%), motor vehicle collisions (23.3%), and blunt assault (10.5%). Interim analysis revealed that 99% of patients were entered into the database. However, documentation of vital signs was poor: 42% of patients had temperature, 26% had oxygen saturation documented. After reporting to registry staff, a significant increase in temperature (42 to 97%, P analysis of data to enhance prevention and treatment of injuries in Iquitos.

  15. Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved.

  16. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  17. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  18. Implementation and Analysis of Initial Trauma Registry in Iquitos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Duron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Peru, 11% of deaths are due to trauma. Iquitos is a large underserved Peruvian city isolated from central resources by its geography. Our objective was to implement a locally driven trauma registry to sustainably improve trauma healthcare in this region. Methods: All trauma patients presenting to the main regional referral hospital were included in the trauma registry. A pilot study retrospectively analyzed data from the first two months after implementation. Results: From March to April 2013, 572 trauma patients were entered into the database. Average age was 26.9 years. Ten percent of patients presented more than 24 hours after injury. Most common mechanisms of injury were falls (25.5%, motor vehicle collisions (23.3%, and blunt assault (10.5%. Interim analysis revealed that 99% of patients were entered into the database. However, documentation of vital signs was poor: 42% of patients had temperature, 26% had oxygen saturation documented. After reporting to registry staff, a significant increase in temperature (42 to 97%, P < 0.001 and oxygen saturation (26 to 92%, P < 0.001 documentation was observed. Conclusion: A trauma registry is possible to implement in a resource-poor setting. Future efforts will focus on analysis of data to enhance prevention and treatment of injuries in Iquitos.

  19. Markawasi: a cultural and natural patrimony of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research had as main aim to recognize the cultural and natural importance of Markawasi plateau for its possible consideration as a Hystorical Sanctuary into the National System of Protective Natural Areas by the Nation (SINANPE of Peru. Since 1994 until 2000, a photographic register of some of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculptures was evaluated and registered. Markawasi is important as origin center of the protohistory of our Andean culture and its biological richness. Markawasi plateau located at 4000 msnm, represent the rocky forest closer to Lima city, near to 90 km east, being studied since 1952 by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. To go to Markawasi should arrive to San Pedro de Casta, small town knew by its water party. The importance of Markawasi is increasing every day passed by its rocky formations, its archeological rest in the Fortress, Preinca stone tomb, irrigable channels, its center of observation and its natural amphitheatre formed. In addition, small lakes and its biological richness belonging to high mountain ecosystem make Markawasi an ideal place for ecotourism and cultural tourism. Markawasi due to its importance as cultural and national patrimony should be management by authorities of Peruvian state, and by communities surrounding to this natural area. Only by this way, could leave of its ostracism and stagnation of this town situated close to Markawasi plateau.

  20. Coseismic Displacement Field of the June 23, 2001 Peru Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Norabuena, E. O.; Dixon, T.; Sacks, I.; Stein, S.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23 2001, a Mw 8.3 earthquake followed by a tsunami with waves up to 7.8m affected the southern coastal region of Peru. The epicenter was located at 16.22 \\deg S, 76.60 \\deg W and caused significant damage in towns located along the shoreline between Atico and Ilo as well in the inland cities of Arequipa and Moquegua. We present coseismic displacement estimates from GPS data at 14 geodetic monuments having a spatial coverage of about 760 km x 340 km. Maximum horizontal coseismic offset of 1.02m and maximum vertical offset of 0.80m were observed at the coastal stations of JHAI and TANA respectively. To the east of the epicenter, two continuous stations: AREQ and MIST measured average horizontal coseismic offset of 0.47m. During the observation phase a Mw 7.6 aftershock occurred in the neighborhood of POCO. We will present results of elastic dislocation models based on available GPS and seismic data.

  1. Global Financial Partnerships in Microfinance: India, Peru and Tanzania

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    TUBARO, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the ‘wholesale’ market through which microfinance institutions operating in three contexts (Peru, Tanzania and the state of Tamil Nadu in India obtain loans from a variety of domestic and international funding bodies. The nature and characteristics of the relationships between them are captured through network analysis and visualization tools, with a dataset comprising inter-organisational lending relationships and organisations’ attributes over the years 2006-8. Focus is on the extent to which patterns in wholesale lending relationships relate to the legal status and characteristics of microfinance institutions; to the regulatory, business and social environment in which they operate; and to shifts in the balance between social and commercial interests of diverse types of lenders.The analysis brings to light considerable cross-country variation in the structure and features of wholesale lending relationships, and relates it primarily to differences in governance and regulation. On this basis, it makes the case that building a more enabling regulatory environment for funding partnerships may improve the capacity of microfinance to achieve its dual goals of poverty alleviation and financial sustainability.

  2. Evaluating program effects on institutional delivery in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J; Velasquez, Anibal

    2006-07-01

    We evaluate the joint effects of two targeted Peruvian health programs on a mother's choice of whether to deliver in a public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facility. The national maternal and child health insurance, or SMI Program, provided delivery care coverage to Peru's poorest households beginning in 1998. During 1996-2002, Proyecto 2000 sought to improve the quality of EmOC and increase utilization of public EmOC facilities in the districts reporting the highest maternal and neonatal mortality levels. Our data come from the Proyecto 2000 endline evaluation, which sampled 5335 mothers living in the catchment areas of 29 treatment and 29 matched control EmOC facilities. Using propensity scoring and two quality of care indices, we find significantly higher quality of care in Proyecto 2000 treatment facilities. Using variance components logistic models, we find a mother enrolled in the SMI Program was more likely to have delivered her last child in a public EmOC, controlling for household constraints. Residence in a Proyecto 2000 treatment area did not significantly affect the choice. A cross-level interaction term was insignificant, indicating the two program effects were independent.

  3. Genetic diversity of native potatoes (Solanumspp. conserved in landraces from Peru

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    Julián Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the genetic diversity of 79 accessions of native potato varieties (Solanum spp. using 18 microsatellite markers. A random sample from Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica and Puno from "chacras" of farmers who collaborated with the "In situ conservation of native crops and wild relatives" were used. 17 markers amplified one single polymorphic locus, the mean number of alleles per locus was 8.79. The mean similarity was 0.62 and clustering indexes varied between 0.41 and 0.98. 19 loci showed a total of 166 alleles. Cuzco had the highest number of alleles (130 alleles. Of the 166 characterized alleles, 72 alleles (43.37% were common or shared with 5 sampling sites. Puno had the highest number of exclusive alleles (8 alleles. The 42 varieties of S. tuberosum subsp. andigena showed a mean diversity of 0.74 and 18 varieties of S. x chauchaan average diversity of 0.70. Polymorphism (PIC = 0.55 to 0.85 and genetic diversity indices show that microsatellites evaluated can identify high levels of genetic diversity, but also are not sufficient to discriminate differentiated by origin or species groups. Our analyzes indicate a high genetic diversity and are consistent with inventories and morphological characterizations performed in situ, we can also conclude that there would be a common pool of genes would be found widely distributed among the regions studied.

  4. Genero y trabajo femenino en el Peru Gender and women's work in Peru

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    Margarita Cerna Barba

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se identifican las condiciones de trabajo de la mujer en el Perú con sus determinantes histórico-sociales, derivados de la diferenciación por clase social, raza y género que condicionan la subordinación de las mujeres en la estructura social. A través de revisión bibliográfica se verifica que la situación de la mujer peruana trabajadora, ha tenido grandes y profundas transformaciones a través del tiempo, condicionadas por patrones ideológico-culturales patriarcales que culminaron en la sociedad capitalista periférica de los dias actuales.This study identifies the peruvian women's labor conditions and its social and historical determinants due to social class, race and gender differences that influence women subordination in social structure. Bibliographic review shows that the peruvian working woman situation experienced great and deep changes in time, as a result of ideological and cultural patriarchal patterns that culminated in the current capitalist society.

  5. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

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    Juan C. Jordán A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Microlophus occipitalis, where air temperature accounts for a significant proportion of body temperature variation. We suggest more detailed studies on this lizard species, especially under climate change scenarios in northwestern Peru.

  6. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae) from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Lunde, Darrin; Zamora-Meza, Hugo Tomás; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos) gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights), including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record), discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension. PMID:26175605

  7. A 32 m Parabolic Antenna in Peru At 3,370m of Altitude

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    Ishitsuka, J; Kaifu, N; Miyama, S; Inoue, M; Tsuboi, M; Ohishi, M; Fujisawa, K; Kasuga, T; Miyazawa, K; Horiuchi, S

    2005-01-01

    At the altitude of 3,370 m on the Peruvian Andes, a 32m antenna owned by the telecommunications company Telefonica del Peru will be transformed to a Radio Telescope, it would be transferred to the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP). The parabolic antenna was constructed in 1984 by Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) and worked as an INTELSAT station until 2000. A team of the National Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) evaluated the antenna in 2003 and reported its availability to be used as a Radio Telescope. In collaboration of the NAOJ a 6.7 GHz receiver is under construction and will be installed within this year. Initially the telescope as a single dish will monitor and survey Methanol Maser of YSO, higher frequencies equipment and VLBI instruments will be considered. The antenna will be managed by the IGP and used by universities in Peru, becoming a VLBI station will be a grate contribution to astronomy and geodetic community.

  8. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  9. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  10. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru); Reconstruccion fisica del accidente radiologico de Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: alachosd1271@yahoo.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  11. Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Wheeler, Jane Collins; Rosadio, Raúl; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arnaiz-Seco, Ignacio; Hoces, Domingo; Castillo, Hugo; Veliz, Álvaro; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2014-04-01

    To determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in Peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic South American camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten Andean communities at the Salinas y Aguada Blanca reserve, province of Arequipa, southern Peru. Samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), brucellosis, bluetongue disease (BT), paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Serological results showed that 1.9% (4/207) of vicuñas, 18.6% (106/571) of alpacas, and 23.3% (10/43) of llamas were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars. One percent of vicuñas (2/207) and 2.4% of domestic camelids (15/614) had Neospora caninum antibodies tested by ELISA, but only two vicuñas and two alpacas were confirmed by Western blot. Epidemiological evaluation found an association of leptospirosis to sex and age (p < 0.001), with female subjects older than 2.5 years at higher risk of infection. Interestingly, antibodies against Leptospira serovars were only found in captive vicuñas. This is the first study where health status of free-ranging and captive vicuñas has been compared. Results indicate minimal to nil presence of FMD, BVD, BHV-1, brucellosis, BT, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis allied to health disorders in our sample. The detection of seropositive animals against Leptospira, however, unveils the likely significance of leptospirosis in wild and domestic South American camelids, the impact of mixed husbandry over vicuña population and the risk to human health.

  12. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  13. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  14. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic chronostratigraphy of coastal southern Peru: Temporal evolution of sedimentation along an active margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Sempere, T.; Spikings, R.; Schaltegger, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present an integrated geochronological and sedimentological study that significantly revises the basin and magmatic history associated with lithospheric thinning in southern coastal Peru (15-18°S) since the onset of subduction at ˜530 Ma. Until now, estimating the age of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks has heavily relied on paleontologic determinations. Our new geochronological data, combined with numerous field observations, provide the first robust constraints on their chronostratigraphy, which is discussed in the light of biostratigraphical attributions. A detailed review of the existing local units simplifies the current stratigraphic nomenclature and clarifies its absolute chronology using zircon U-Pb ages. We observe that the Late Paleozoic to Jurassic stratigraphy of coastal southern Peru consists of two first-order units, namely (1) the Yamayo Group, a sedimentary succession of variable (0-2 km) thickness, with apparently no nearby volcanic lateral equivalent, and (2) the overlying Yura Group, consisting of a lower, 1-6 km-thick volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Chocolate Formation, and an upper, 1-2 km-thick sedimentary succession that are in markedly diachronous contact across the coeval arc and back-arc. We date the local base of the Chocolate Formation, and thus of the Yura Group, to 216 Ma, and show that the underlying Yamayo Group spans a >110 Myr-long time interval, from at least the Late Visean to the Late Triassic, and is apparently devoid of significant internal discontinuities. The age of the top of the Chocolate Formation, i.e. of the volcanic arc pile, varies from ˜194 Ma to less than ˜135 Ma across the study area. We suggest that this simplified and updated stratigraphic framework can be reliably used as a reference for future studies.

  15. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

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    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  16. Job preferences of nurses and midwives for taking up a rural job in Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

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    Luis Huicho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Robust evidence on interventions to improve the shortage of health workers in rural areas is needed. We assessed stated factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru. Job attributes, and their levels, were based on literature review, qualitative interviews and focus groups of local health personnel and policy makers. A labelled design with two choices, rural community or Ayacucho city, was used. Job attributes were tailored to these settings. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of job preferences. Then we used the best-fitting estimated model to predict the impact of potential policy incentives on the probability of choosing a rural job or a job in Ayacucho city. We studied 205 nurses and midwives. The odds of choosing an urban post was 14.74 times than that of choosing a rural one. Salary increase, health center-type of facility and scholarship for specialization were preferred attributes for choosing a rural job. Increased number of years before securing a permanent contract acted as a disincentive for both rural and urban jobs. Policy simulations showed that the most effective attraction package to uptake a rural job included a 75% increase in salary plus scholarship for a specialization, which would increase the proportion of health workers taking a rural job from 36.4% up to 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban jobs were more strongly preferred than rural ones. However, combined financial and non-financial incentives could almost double rural job uptake by nurses and midwifes. These packages may provide meaningful attraction strategies to rural areas and should be considered by policy makers for implementation.

  17. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

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    Biondi, M.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Meriwether, J.W. Jr. (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)); Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Hallenbeck, D.C. (NASA Laser Tracking Station, Arequipa (Peru))

    1991-09-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over {approximately} 2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. The measured seasonal variations in the wind patterns are more pronounced than the solar cycle variations and are more readily understandable in terms of the expected, underlying forcing and damping processes. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak ({le} 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990). The zonal flows are predominantly eastward throughout the night, except for the solar minimum equinoxes, where brief westward flows appear in the early and the late night. The peak eastward velocities increase toward solar maximum; at the winter solstice, they are {approximately} 100-130 m/s in 1983, 1984 and 1986, reaching {approximately} 200 m/s in 1988, 1989 and 1990. The present equatorial thermospheric wind determinations agree in some respects with the satellite-data-based horizontal wind model IIWM-87 and the vector spherical harmonic form of the thermospheric general circulation model.

  18. Epidemiological and ecological characteristics of past dengue virus infection in Santa Clara, Peru.

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    Reiskind, M H; Baisley, K J; Calampa, C; Sharp, T W; Watts, D M; Wilson, M L

    2001-03-01

    To determine risk factors associated with dengue (DEN) virus infection among residents of Santa Clara, Peru, a rural Amazonian village near Iquitos, a cross-sectional serological, epidemiological and environmental survey was conducted. Demographic, social and behavioural information was obtained by standardized questionnaire from 1225 Santa Clara residents (61.3%) aged 5 years or older. Additional data were obtained on the environmental variables and immature mosquito species and abundance surrounding each household (n = 248). Sera that had been collected previously by the Peruvian Ministry of Health from residents were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for DEN virus IgG antibody. Antibody identity was verified as DEN by plaque reduction neutralization test. Data on individuals were analysed by univariate and multivariable methods, and independent sample t-tests. Spatial clustering was evaluated by comparing distances among DEN positive households. Overall, antibody prevalence was 29.4 % and more than doubled from the youngest to the oldest age groups, but did not differ by sex. Curiously, length of residence in Santa Clara was negatively associated with DEN virus antibodies. More frequent travel to Iquitos was positively associated with seroprevalence. Residents who obtained water from a river source rather than a local well also had significantly higher antibody prevalence. None of the environmental variables measured at each household corresponded to the patterns of antibody distribution. Of the larval mosquitoes found around residences, all were determined to be species other than Aedes. No evidence of spatial autocorrelation among antibody-positive households was detected. These results strongly suggested that recent DEN virus transmission did not occur in the village and that most infections of residents of this rural village were acquired while visiting the city of Iquitos.

  19. Newly incriminated anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Calderon, G; Falcon, R; Zambrano, V

    1987-09-01

    Sporozoite data from salivary gland dissections are presented that clearly incriminate Anopheles trinkae, An. pseudopunctipennis, An. sp. near fluminensis, An. oswaldoi, An. nuneztovari and An. rangeli as vectors of malaria parasites in the Rio Ene Valley, a hyperendemic malarious area in Junin Department, eastern Peru. Anopheles trinkae is considered the most important vector based on dissections, abundance and man-vector contact. Other notes are presented on the relative abundance, bionomics and previous records of these species in Peru and in the study sites.

  20. [New case of human infection by a Pseudoterranova decipiens larva (Nematode, Anisakidae) in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rufino; Luna-Pineda, Miguel Angel; Suárez-Ognio, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to divulge a new case of human anisakidosis in Peru, caused by a larva of the Pseudoterranova decipiens nematode found in a 17 year old female patient from Lima, who had ingested "cebiche" in a restaurant in the city of Ica, in the central coast of Peru. Approximately 4 hours after having ingested the food, the patient reported a feeling of uneasiness, with a nauseous sensation in the epigastric region, which intensified 5 hours later when she vomited. In the vomit content a live nematode was found, which was identified as larva L3 of P. decipiens. This is one of the etiologic agents of anisakidosis.

  1. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

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    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  2. [Palaeoparasitological analysis of guinea pig mummies of the Chiribaya culture, Moquegua Valley, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar de la Cruz, Katharina; Ribbeck, Regine; Daugschies, Arwid

    2003-01-01

    During several excavations of archeological sites in the Moquegua Valley, Southern Peru, various guinea pig mummies (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) have been discovered. They belong to the Chiribaya Culture (900-1100 AD). The outstanding preservation of the mummified animals gave rise to the idea of a paleoparasitological analysis. In the fur, numerous well preserved ectoparasites (lice, fleas, mites) could be recovered. Generally, ectoparasite remains are rarely found among archeological material. This is the first account of an extensive ectoparasitological analysis of animal mummies in Peru. A modified technique for recovery and preservation of the ectoparasites has been developed.

  3. Possible future lakes in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Torres, Judith; Giraldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Santiago, Alexzander; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has caused large losses of glacier mass in the Andes of Peru. Also, given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier-climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. According to the national Peruvian glacier inventories 43% of glacier area has disappeared between 1970 and 2003-2010 in the 19 snowy mountain ranges and a total of 8 355 new lakes have formed in deglaciating terrain. With glacier retreat new lakes form in parts of the glacier tongue where there is an overdeepening, and these lakes can be a source of natural hazards to downstrean populations. Therefore, the identification of possible future lakes is important to plan for preventive measures concerning possible lake outbursts as well as to understand changes in freshwater storage in the corresponding source areas. Modeling of glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes forming in such topographic depressions when becoming ice-free was done using the SRTM DEM from the year 2000 with a 90 m resolution and the 2003-2010 glacier outlines from the recently published national glacier inventory of Perú. The GIS-based analysis followed three main steps: (1) identification of flat glacier areas with less than 10° surface slope as a first-order spatial approximation to possible occurrences of glacier-bed overdeepenings; (2) application, using Google Earth, of three morphological indications of glacier-bed overdeepenings following Frey et al. (2010): steepening surface slope, onset of crevasse formation, lateral flow-narrowing; and (3) verification of the results from steps (1) and (2) by comparison with GlabTop modeling of bed topographies following Linsbauer et al. (2012) using the SRTM DEM, contour lines and constructed branch lines for all glaciers. A pilot study has already been carried out for the Cordillera Blanca. The results show that 31 major new lakes may form in the future. The total

  4. Insect prey foraging strategies in Callicebus oenanthe in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluycker, Anneke M

    2012-05-01

    Titi monkeys (genus Callicebus) are small-bodied platyrrhines that supplement their predominantly frugivorous diet with variable amounts of leaves, seeds, and/or arthropod prey. Notable interspecific variation in the amount of insect prey in the diet has been observed in Callicebus, ranging from 0% to 20%. In this study, I investigate the degree and type of prey foraging in a little-known species, Callicebus oenanthe inhabiting a fragmented, secondary forest on the foothills of the Andes in northern Peru. I present data on prey type, prey search and capture techniques, substrate/vegetation use, foraging height, prey capture efficiency, and seasonal variation of insect prey foraging in one group of C. oenanthe observed from January to August 2005. Insect prey accounted for 22% of the diet, the highest amount reported for any Callicebus species to date, and insects from at least six different orders were included. C. oenanthe was mainly an investigative forager of hidden prey, manipulating easy-to-open substrates such as rolled up leaves, and hunted ant swarms and larger insects opportunistically. Insect foraging was predominant during the dry season (26%) and decreased during the wet season (13%). The study group foraged mostly in the understory (2-6 m) within vine-laden shrubs and trees, which may conform to an anti-predator strategy of crypticity. Overall the group had an 83% insect capture success rate. These data suggest that insect prey is an important part of the diet of C. oenanthe and may be especially notable during periods of resource scarcity. This study adds to the knowledge concerning insect prey foraging in Callicebus, which can have an important role in defining ecological strategies in the selection of secondary protein food resources within a given ecosystem.

  5. Analysis of a crater-forming meteorite impact in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P.; ReVelle, D. O.; Silber, E. A.; Edwards, W. N.; Arrowsmith, S.; Jackson, L. E.; Tancredi, G.; Eaton, D.

    2008-09-01

    The fireball producing a crater-forming meteorite fall near Carancas, Peru, on 15 September 2007 has been analyzed using eyewitness, seismic, and infrasound records. The meteorite impact, which produced a crater of 13.5 m diameter, is found to have released of order 1010 J of energy, equivalent to ~2-3 tons of TNT high explosives based on infrasonic measurements. Our best fit trajectory solution places the fireball radiant at an azimuth of 82° relative to the crater, with an entry angle from the horizontal of 63°. From entry modeling and infrasonic energetics constraints, we find an initial energy for the fireball to be in the 0.06-0.32 kton TNT equivalent. The initial velocity for the meteoroid is restricted to be below 17 km/s from orbit considerations alone, while modeling suggests an even lower best fit velocity close to 12 km/s. The initial mass of the meteoroid is in the range of 3-9 tons. At impact, modeling suggests a final end mass of order a few metric tons and impact velocity in the 1.5-4 km/s range. We suggest that the formation of such a substantial crater from a chondritic mass was the result of the unusually high strength (and corresponding low degree of fragmentation in the atmosphere) of the meteoritic body. Additionally, the high altitude of the impact site (3800 m.a.s.l) resulted in an almost one order of magnitude higher impact speed than would have been the case for the same body impacting close to sea level.

  6. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.

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    Rosario M Bartolini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

  7. Fundamental personal attitudes towards achieving business success in Peru

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    Karen Weinberger Villarán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on business activity have tried to explain the role played by an entrepreneur in society, as well as the psychological and non -psychological traits that distinguish him/ her from those who are not entrepreneurs. While this may be a very interesting characterization that allows for identifying any potential entrepreneurs, various studies have proven that such traits may be substantially different or unbelievably similar from one entrepreneur to another. These similarities or differences may depend on economic, social, cultural, political, and legal aspects that are peculiar in a specific business environment; the size of the business and the type of the organization that has been established; the personal traits and knowledge of the entrepreneurs, and the circumstantial or structural aspects in a specific industry. Therefore, it is almost impossible to talk about a model entrepreneur or an entrepreneur’s universal profile. Despite these differences between the entrepreneurs themselves, every business needs visionary entrepreneurs, who are able to identify a business opportunity, set in motion a business initiative, and reach business success, by meeting a society’s needs. In this sense, this article answers the following questions: why do some entrepreneurs are successful and others are not? Which would be an essential characteristic for business success to be achieved?  For a group of successful Peruvian entrepreneurs, training and professional knowledge, as well as professional experience are necessary and essential for a business initiative to be advanced. Perseverance is, however, a trait no entrepreneur can do without if he/ she wants to achieve success in a country like Peru.

  8. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups.

  9. A WELL PRESERVED SKELETON OF THE FOSSIL SHARK COSMOPOLITODUS HASTALIS FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF PERU, FEATURING FISH REMAINS AS FOSSILIZED STOMACH CONTENTS

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    ALBERTO COLLARETA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the preservation of the poorly mineralized skeleton of sharks and the preservation of stomach contents are rarely observed in the fossil record. Here we report on a partial skeleton of a lamniform shark, including portions of the visceral arches and the anterior segment of the vertebral column, collected from the late Miocene beds of the Pisco Formation exposed at Cerro Yesera (Ica Desert, South Peru. Based on the morphology of the preserved teeth, this specimen was determined as a juvenile of the extinct lamnid species Cosmopolitodus hastalis. The shark skeleton includes remains of fish (featuring a pilchard determined as Sardinops sp. cf. S. sagax in the abdominal region. These fish remains are interpreted herein as the fossilized stomach contents of the shark. For the first time, piscivory is demonstrated in a juvenile individual of Cosmopolitodus hastalis. This result is consistent with the current knowledge about the feeding habits of immature individuals of extant lamniform shark species (including Carcharodon carcharias and Isurus oxyrinchus. Our report further outlines the fundamental role of schooling pilchards in the late Miocene trophic chains of the highly productive coastal waters off present South Peru. Moreover, the find of this well preserved shark skeleton strengthens the qualification of the Pisco Formation as a Fossil-Lagerstätte, and emphasizes the role of early mineralization processes in cases of exceptional preservation.

  10. Magma sources and mixing for the Coastal Batholith in southern Peru: insights from new elemental and isotopic data and from comparison with California batholithic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, B. L.; Martinez, A. M.; Gonzalez, L. U.; Poma, O.; Paterson, S. R.; Ianno, A.

    2013-12-01

    depth, and least alkalinity] is the low-Sri (>To interpret the new Peru data: The range of SiO2 indicates extent of magma differentiation versus mixing with only low SiO2 in Pampahuasi, high SiO2 in Tiabaya, and a range of SiO2 in the other two super-units. The size of the range aids in determining whether the emplacement was during compression or extension. The crustal contamination increases from west to east, with relative proportions of mantle and lower crustal source dependant on local thickness of the crust; the Coastal Batholith in the Ica area is intermediate between having a primary mantle component as in central Peru where the crust is thin and having a significant crustal component in southern Peru where the crust is thick. The magma source depth ranges from shallow in the west to intermediate in the east with Tiabaya from the deepest source. The calc-alkalinity shows a slight trend of increasing alkalinity toward the east. The alumina content shows these rocks as metaluminous with a slightly higher content in the east than west, suggesting an increased crustal component. The TiO2/Fe2O3 ratios suggest a slight increase in the ilmenite to magnetite composition from west to east.

  11. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

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    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  12. Social dimensions of vulnerability to glacier-hydrology hazards in Peru and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Graham; Carey, Mark; Huggel, Christian; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2014-05-01

    Snow and ice hazards affect populations worldwide, and prevention and adaptation plans must devote more attention to the human dimensions of these hazards. Historically, most research on glacier hazards has emphasized glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and rock-ice landslides. This work often focuses on technical approaches or scientific knowledge about these high-magnitude and low-frequency hazards. This study examines a different type of cryospheric hazard, one that is low-magnitude and high-frequency, especially under future climate change projections: the increasingly recognized hydrologic hazards related to runoff variability in downstream communities below shrinking glaciers. By focusing on actual water users in glacier-fed watersheds, the research helps illuminate key vulnerabilities to hydrological change. It demonstrates that people are indeed vulnerable to decreased runoff, but that these vulnerabilities must be analyzed in the context of global change, including socio-economic and political variables, and not just through technical or scientific approaches. The study examines water use for export-oriented agriculture in Peru's billion-dollar Chavimochic Project, which depends on a single canal from the Santa River that could be damaged by a GLOF or avalanche. Or the canal could experience declining water supplies in the future if water use increases, particularly due to international agricultural demands, while water supplies from glacial ice decreases. The study also provides insights from Khumbu, Nepal, where changing hydrological conditions are leading to reduced water access for household uses, declining crop yields, reduced water access for meeting the high water demands of tourists, and reduced hydro-electricity generation capabilities. Although these effects are widespread, there are clear patterns of socially determined vulnerability among the population, with low livelihood diversity an important indicator of increased susceptibility to harm

  13. Giant hydrogen sulfide plume in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru supports chemolithoautotrophy.

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    Harald Schunck

    Full Text Available In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ. OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km(2, which contained ∼2.2×10(4 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ∼440 km(3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct γ-, δ- and ε-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ∼30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that

  14. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  15. Notes on the taxonomy of some Glassfrogs from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Amphibia: Centrolenidae

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    Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman; Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid as a synonym of Centrolenella mariae Duellman & Toft; and Cochranella tangarana Duellman & Schulte as a synonym of Cochranella saxiscandens Duellman & Schulte.

  16. Pre-Incan Archeology of Peru: Paleo-Indians in the Paleo-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    2011-01-01

    Peru's prehistory, climate, and terrain are the landscape upon which one of humankind's longest migrations occurred. When the glacial period ended, a geographic and cultural transition began when the meltwaters carved river valleys across the South American continent. Culture-rich communities of fishers, miners, artisans, and morticians populated…

  17. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  18. Hypanartia splendida Rothschild, 1903 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Nymphalini a rare species from the central rainforest of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Grados

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Hypanartia splendida Rothschild, 1903 was described from Perú, without giving further information about its type locality. After 105 years, the April 6 2008, a male specimen was collected at the upper parts of Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park, Pasco, Peru. This is the first specimen with precise collection data.

  19. Estimating Population Density of the San Martin Titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in Peru Using Vocalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, Silvy M; García-Suikkanen, Carolina; Tello-Alvarado, Julio C; Vermeer, Jan; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the population density of the critically endangered Callicebus oenanthe in the Ojos de Agua Conservation Concession, a dry forest area in the department of San Martin, Peru. Results showed significant differences (p Agua an important cornerstone in the conservation of the species, because it is one of the largest protected areas where the species occurs.

  20. Vulnerable Careers, tourism and livelihood dynamics among street vendors in Cusco, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.

    2008-01-01

    Tourism is one of the most important economic activities in the city of Cusco, Peru. The expectations of its potentials for economic development are high. Cusco’s local government claims that tourism is and will continue to be beneficial to the economy of the city; and the city’s inhabitants expect

  1. A new species of Andean semiaquatic lizard of the genus Potamites (Sauria, Gymnophtalmidae from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new lizard species of the genus Potamites from the montane forests of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba (Cusco region and Apurimac River valley (Ayacucho region, between 1500 and 2000 meters of elevation, in southern Peru. The new species is distinguishable from all other species of the genus mainly byhighly keeled scattered scales on dorsum and females lacking femoral pores.

  2. Property rights after market liberalization reforms: land titling and investments in rural Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fort Meyer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the links between land access, property rights, and economic development, analyzing the results and limitations of a public intervention- Land Titling and Registration- that constitutes one of the main instruments for contemporary land policy in Peru. It starts with a global per

  3. Insurgency in Peru, Retrospective Analysis of the Sendero Luminoso’s (Shining Path)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    fifteenth century.16 That the Spanish conquest had been catastrophic to Peru, because they brought feudalism and completely devastated the country by...the cooperative landholder and the independent small landowners. One example of this occurred in June 1990 when the Sociedades Agricolas de Intres

  4. Examples of transcultural processes in two colonial linguistic documents on Jebero (Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we bring to light the "transcultural processes" and "the impacts of colonial thinking" as contained in The British Library manuscripts Add. 25,323 and 25,324. The manuscripts deal with Jebero, an indigenous language of North-Peru, as it was spoken in the 18th century. (The language, al

  5. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communities after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Sykora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, Victor; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province
    of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted
    exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We

  6. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  7. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  8. Presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S Arriola

    Full Text Available We report the first detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in pigs in Peru. The isolates belong to a livestock-associated lineage previously reported in North America and Europe, CC398, and a highly virulent USA300-like ST8-IV variant, which is the predominant community-associated lineage in Latin America.

  9. Politicas de Seguridad Alimentaria en los Paises de la Comunidad Andina: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yep, Susana Chu; Gamarra, Rosario Gomez; Bucheli, Fausto Jordan; Studzinski, Karlos La Serna; Aguancha, Alberto Lora; Castro, Juan Fernando Marrero; Bohrt, Julio Prudencio; Baca, Salomon Salcedo; Mena, Raul Sanchez; Abril, Octavio Villamarin

    2005-01-01

    This book analyses the complex concept of food security in the Andean Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The food security situation is examined from a sub regional perspective, and the possible elements of a sub regional food security strategy are outlined. Food security policies are analyzed and policy proposals are made for each Andean country.

  10. Identification of stable resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato genotypes evaluated in field experiments in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Pérez, W.; Nelson, R.J.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, genotype by environment (G x E) interactions and phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, were analysed in Peru lot 13 potato genotypes, using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis and Huehn's non...

  11. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used...

  12. Peru : Impact of the Rural Roads Program on Democracy and Citizenship in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Remy Simatovia, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The rural roads program, overseen by Provias Descentralizado (subdivision of Peru's Ministry of Transportation and Communications), began in 1995, and has received funds from the Peruvian Government, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. It is a national program for the rehabilitation and maintenance of roads that link rural communities and villages with secondary and pri...

  13. Mummies and dental health in the ancient Ilo valley, southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hillson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the very arid climate of southern Peru, archaeological remains, including many human burials, are extremely well preserved. Study of the teeth of mummified people from different cultural groups and time periods is beginning to provide evidence of diet and disease among the ancient inhabitants of the Ilo valley between the foot-hills of the Andes and the desert coast.

  14. Dolphins and Children: A Blueprint for Marine Environmental Education in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, Marie-Francoise; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Geysen, Karen; Onton, Karina; Vega, Diana; Chavez-Lisambart, Laura; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2006-01-01

    To complement legislative measures protecting cetaceans and other marine animals, the Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research in the period 1993-2000 implemented an environmental education program at the kindergartens, primary and high schools of several fishing towns and in Lima, Peru. This program included environmental classes based on selected…

  15. Socio-cultural predictors of reading literacy in fourth graders in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, S.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates socio-cultural cognitive literacy predictors for reading literacy (RL), tested in 314 fourth graders from two different levels of social economic status in Lima, Peru. The following variables were tested as predictors: word decoding, vocabulary, motivation to read, reading st

  16. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  17. Biodiversity Business fron India to Peru; Insights into successes and chellenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Verweij, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development recently released the report 'Biodiversity Business from India to Peru'. The study, commissioned by Hivos, provides new insights in the impacts and success factors of the upcoming concept of biodiversity-friendly enterprise across the globe. By mea

  18. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over th

  19. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  20. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  1. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morph

  2. The Puna Vegetation of Moquegua, South Peru: Chasmophytes, grasslands and Puya raimondii stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sýkora, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    The phytosociology and ecology of puna vegetation in twelve localities at an altitude of 3750-4500 m in northern Moquegua (south Peru) have been studied. The study area has a pluviseasonal climate with summer rainfall. Using TWINSPAN, Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Farthest Neighbor Clusterin

  3. The Puna vegetation of Moquegua, South Peru: Chasmophytes, grasslands and Puya raimondii stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, Antoine; Sykora, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The phytosociology and ecology of puna vegetation in twelve localities at an altitude of 3750–4500 m
    in northern Moquegua (south Peru) have been studied. The study area has a pluviseasonal climate with summer
    rainfall. Using TWINSPAN, Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Farthest

  4. First records of Hysterothylacium pelagicum (Anisakidae and Toxocara alienata (Toxocaridae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ascaridoid nematodes are recorded by Peru: Hysterothylacium pelagicum parasitizing to common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus from a market of Lima and Toxocara alienata in a collared peccary (Pecari tajacu from Iquitos. Likewise, it is made a morphological description of the nematodes.

  5. Examples of transcultural processes in two colonial linguistic documents on Jebero (Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexander-Bakkerus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we bring to light the "transcultural processes" and "the impacts of colonial thinking" as contained in The British Library manuscripts Add. 25,323 and 25,324. The manuscripts deal with Jebero, an indigenous language of North-Peru, as it was spoken in the 18th century. (The language, al

  6. First Case of Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F

    2015-12-01

    A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade.

  7. Cultural Artefact, Ideology Export or Soft Power? Confucius Institute in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of the transnational interplay of cultural, educational and economic forces that culminated with the establishment of a Chinese language and cultural centre in Peru, the Confucius Institute. Confucius Institutes are government-sponsored cultural centres devoted mainly to Chinese language education around the…

  8. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate...

  9. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  10. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  11. Higher Education Decisions in Peru: On the Role of Financial Constraints, Skills, and Family Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Juan F.; Yamada, Gustavo; Arias, Omar

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relative importance of short-term financial constraints "vis-a-vis" skills and other background factors when explaining higher education access in Peru. We focus on the disparities in university enrollment between rich and poor households. We use a novel household survey that includes special tests to measure…

  12. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  13. Two new butterfly records for Peru: Orophila cardases cardases and Pedaliodes garlaczi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report to Peru, for the first time, two butterfly species, Orophila cardases cardases (Hewitson, 1869 and Pedaliodes garlaczi Pyrcz & Cerdeña, 2013, based on specimens collected in the Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary and neighboring areas.

  14. Sustaining innovations: schools, institutions and linkages in the Cuzco region, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez Tafur, J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is about linkages between the different institutions operating in the rural areas and the contributions these linkages provide. Numerous activities are found taking place in the rural areas of Peru. Many are the result of a specific intervention, designed and implemented towards the impr

  15. "A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae: Amarylloideae: Clinantheae)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, ...

  16. Origin of lead in andean calc-alkaline lavas, southern peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G R; Barreiro, B A

    1980-12-12

    Lead isotope data from Quaternary andesitic lavas of the Arequipa and Barroso groups of southern Peru and from regional Precambrian granulitic gneisses reveal a lead component in the lavas from the gneisses. The lava leads can be accounted for by two-component mixtures of lead from mantle and lower crustal sources, although the mixing process need not have occurred in the lower crust.

  17. Tropical rainforest palm communities in Madre de Dios in Amazonian Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Laumark, Per; Pedersen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    We studied palm communities, in particular species-richness and -abundance, in the tropical rainforests in southeastern Peru in 54 transects (5×500m) covering an area of 13,5 hectares in flood plain, terra firme, terrace and premontane hills. We found 42 palm species in the transects and we found...

  18. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  19. First record of Lophodinium polylophum (Daday Lemmermann 1910 (Dinophyceae: Lophodiniaceae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Samanez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the first record of Lophodinium polylophum from Peru is presented. This fresh water dinoflagellate was identified in plankton samples from the lagoon Picoplancha of Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath (Madre de Dios and from a stream in the Puinahua River basin in Loreto.

  20. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella Genotypes in Patients at a Major Hospital in Central Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Noeckler; R. Maves; D. Cepeda; A. Draeger; A. Mayer-Scholl; J. Chacaltana; M. Castaneda; B. Espinosa; R. Castillo; E. Hall; S. Al Dahouk; R.H. Gilman; F. Cabeza; H.L. Smits

    2009-01-01

    The multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis of 90 human Brucella melitensis isolates from a large urban area in central Peru revealed variations at 4 (Bruce07, Bruce09, Bruce18, and Bruce42) out of 16 loci investigated, of which 1 (Bruce42) also is used for species identification. Ten genotyp

  2. Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Obesity: Cross-Sectional Analysis in Peru and Patterns in Four Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz; J. Jaime Miranda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the patterns of nutritional status and sleep duration in children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam; to assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, and if this was similar among boys and girls in Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of the Young Lives Study, younger cohort, third round. In Ethiopia there were 1,999 observations, 2,011, 2,052 and 2,000 in India, Peru and Vietnam, respectively. Analyses included participa...

  3. Landslides triggered by the 1946 Ancash earthquake, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampherm, T. S.; Evans, S. G.; Valderrama Murillo, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 1946 M7.3 Ancash Earthquake triggered a large number of landslides in an epicentral area that straddled the Continental Divide of South America in the Andes of Peru. A small number of landslides were described in reconnaissance reports by E. Silgado and Arnold Heim published shortly after the earthquake, but further details of the landslides triggered by the earthquake have not been reported since. Utilising field traverses, aerial photograph interpretation and GIS, our study mapped 45 landslides inferred to have been triggered by the event. 83% were rock avalanches involving Cretaceous limestones interbedded with shales. The five largest rock/debris avalanches occurred at Rio Llama (est. vol. 37 M m3), Suytucocha (est. vol., 13.5 Mm3), Quiches (est. vol. 10.5 Mm3 ), Pelagatos (est. vol. 8 Mm3), and Shundoy (est. vol. 8 Mm3). The Suytucocha, Quiches, and Pelagatos landslides were reported by Silgado and Heim. Rock slope failure was most common on slopes with a southwest aspect, an orientation corresponding to the regional dip direction of major planar structures in the Andean foreland belt (bedding planes and thrust faults). In valleys oriented transverse to the NW-SE structural grain of the epicentral area, south-westerly dipping bedding planes combined with orthogonal joint sets to form numerous wedge failures. Many initial rock slope failures were transformed into rock/debris avalanches by the entrainment of colluvium in their path. At Acobamba, a rock avalanche that transformed into a debris avalanche (est. vol. 4.3 Mm3) overwhelmed a village resulting in the deaths of 217 people. The cumulative volume-frequency plot shows a strong power law relation below a marked rollover, similar in form to that derived for landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The total volume of the 45 landslides is approximately 93 Mm3. The data point for the Ancash Earthquake plots near the regression line calculated by Keefer (1994), and modified by Malamud et al

  4. Installation and operation of a large scale RAPS system in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    In 1997, International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc. (ILZRO), Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Peru signed a Memorandum of Understanding to facilitate the installation of hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) systems in the Amazon region of Peru. Many remote villages in this vast region have either no or limited electricity supplied by diesel generators running a few hours per day. Subsequently, ILZRO sponsored the engineering design of the hybrid RAPS system and SEIA supported a socio-economic study to determine the sustainability of such systems and the locations for pilot installations. In mid-1998, the Peruvian government approved the design of the system. ILZRO then began efforts to obtain governmental and inter-governmental funding to supplement its own funds to underwrite the cost of manufacture and installation of the systems in two villages in the Amazon region. Additional major funding has been received from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) administered by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). Funds have also been received from the US Department of Energy, the International Greenhouse Partnership (Australia) and the Peruvian government. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kW h per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA GEL batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an ac/dc inverter. The batteries and electrical components are housed in modified shipping containers. The modules can be installed with a new generator or retrofitted to an existing generator. The charging and discharging regime of the batteries has been recommended by a study carried out by CSIRO, which has simulated the RAPS operation. The system will employ a partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) regime in order to optimize the life of the

  5. The August 15, 2007 M=8.0 Ica, Peru Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, A.; Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    On August 15 at 6:40 PM a magnitude 8.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Peru. The hypocentral depth was 40 km. The earthquake was located 180 km southeast of the capital city of Lima, near the cities of Ica and Pisco. At least 500 people were killed, and over 1500 were injured. Tens of thousands of buildings were ruined and up to one-hundred thousand people were left homeless with most of the damage occurring in rural areas. In the two week period following the earthquake, at least 16 aftershocks hit Peru, with magnitudes ranging from 4.5 to 6.3. The earthquake occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The two plates are converging at a rate of 77 millimeters per year, and the earthquake was caused by the downward and eastward movement of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Since Peru is located at the boundary of these plates, earthquakes are quite common in this area, the last being an M=8.1 near the city of Arequipa in southern Peru in 2001. Prior to this event, the deadliest earthquake to hit Peru was in 1970 when an earthquake in the Peruvian Andes triggered landslides that buried the town of Yungay and killed more than 66,000 people. Since the epicenter of the recent earthquake was in the Pacific Ocean, it was feared that a major tsunami would be generated, however only minor waves were recorded along the Peruvian coast.

  6. Genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotada Iwamoto

    Full Text Available Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10, which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%. Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n=3], ST25 [n=1], ST19 [n=8]. Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3% and a high recent transmission index (RTI(n-1=0.707. These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999.

  7. CURRENT STATUS OF AMAZONIAN ORNAMENTAL FISH FROM PERU WITH HIGHER DEMAND OF EXPORTATION

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    Ortiz, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current status of Amazonian ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand of exportation was analyzed. The ornamental freshwater fishes from Peru with higher demand are Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 (Osteoglossidae, followed by ray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 (Potamotrygonidae. Main ornamental and continental fish family that exports is Loriicaridae (Siluriformes. The vast continental and ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand are climate tropical and clear waters with pH de 6.5 a 7.5. Four species (Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963, Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988, Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner, 1881 and Corydoras julii Steindachner, 1906 that exists are not reported on check-list of continental fishes from Peru performed by Ortega & Vari (1986 and, Chang & Ortega (1995. C. julii, is the unique fish not found in the ornamental fish list from Peru performed by “Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonia Peruana” (IIAP and “Comisión para la Promoción de Exportaciones” (PROMPEX. O. bicirrhosum, P. motoro, Corydoras arcuatus Elwin 1938 and C. julii are fish with more data obtained. Fish with less data obtained was Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski, 1981. Main problematic observed on ornamental continental Peruvian fish since an ecological point of view, are pollution of fish environment, mainly by heavy metals, alteration on great scale from habitat, where lives and surroundings, and also, introduction alien species. The main problem that suffer commercialization of ornamental fish as in other species, is regulation and foment by part of authority respect to bio-business initiatives bio-business; generating confusion between user and lack of motivation legalities of these bionegocio.

  8. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for a subtype IIIC virus in the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex isolated from mosquitoes captured in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; O'Guinn, M L

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, for their susceptibility to a subtype IIIC strain of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. This virus had been previously isolated from a pool of mixed Culex vomerifer and Cx. gnomatos captured near Iquitos, Peru, in 1997. After feeding on hamsters with viremias of about 10(8) plaque-forming units of virus per ml, Cx. gnomatos was the most efficient vector. Other species, such as Ochlerotatus fulvus and Psorophora cingulata, although highly susceptible to infection, were not efficient laboratory vectors of this virus due to a significant salivary gland barrier. The Cx. (Culex) species, consisting mostly of Cx. (Cux.) coronator, were nearly refractory to subtype IIIC virus and exhibited both midgut infection as well as salivary gland barriers. Additional studies on biting behavior, mosquito population densities, and vertebrate reservoir hosts of subtype IIIC virus are needed to determine the role that these species play in the maintenance and spread of this virus in the Amazon Basin region.

  9. Moderno love: sexual role-based identities and HIV/STI prevention among men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse; Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks.

  10. Modification of Thickened Orogenic Crust by a Subducting Ridge: Disruption of the Andean Lower Crust of Southern Peru by the Subducting Aseismic Nazca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of oceanic plateaus or aseismic ridges represent significant perturbations to the long term development of subduction systems and associated orogenies, the consequences of which are variable and determined by the physical characteristics of both the overriding and subducting plates. Flat subduction of the ~18 km oceanic crust of the aseismic Nazca Ridge under the 50 km to 65 km continental crust of the Peruvian Andes provides an opportunity to investigate these consequences. Through analysis of 2233 teleseismic P-wave receiver functions from 55 broadband seismometers deployed in southern Peru for the PULSE, CAUGHT and PeruSE seismic experiments we have identified the South American continental Moho and subducted Nazca oceanic Moho to a higher degree of detail than previously possible in the region.We find that the continental Moho beneath the Western and Eastern Cordilleras of the Peruvian Andes is at a depth >60 km to the north and south of the subducted Nazca Ridge but at 500 km from the trench.

  11. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than

  12. Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru, 01 February 1985 to 05 March 1985 (NODC Accession 9200026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NITROP - 85 was the major field of experiment of an N.S.F. funded program entitled "Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru". this...

  13. Genetic divergence in populations of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, in Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru.

  14. IV Estimation with weak instruments: an application to the determinants of school attainment in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García Núñez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El método de variables instrumentales (VI se ha convertido en uno de los más utilizados en econometría aplicada. Sin embargo, la literatura reciente ha mostrado que si los instrumentos no cumplen con las condiciones de relevancia y exogeneidad, al menos en una forma «fuerte», los resultados de la estimación podrían estar muy lejos de los verdaderos parámetros poblacionales, y que la interpretación de los resultados podría no tener ningún sentido. Este documento presenta este problema y muestra algunos tests para la verificación de la validez de los instrumentos usados. Adicionalmente, se realiza una aplicación de los mismos en la estimación del efecto de las horas de trabajo infantil y el trabajo en quehaceres del hogar sobre el logro educativo, usando un panel de 913 niños extraídos de la Encuesta Nacional de Niveles de Vida (ENNIV de los años 1997 y 2000. En esta estimación, los instrumentos seleccionados pasaron las pruebas de relevancia y exogeneidad, por lo que podemos confiar en que los resultados son consistentes. Estos muestran un impacto positivo del trabajo en quehaceres del hogar sobre el logro educativo observado tres años después. Por otro lado, se advierte un impacto negativo del trabajo infantil pero no es significativo.

  15. 76 FR 44609 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Notice of Determination Regarding Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., 2010, by a Peruvian union, the Sindicato Nacional de Unidad de Trabajadores de Superintendencia..., the Sindicato Nacional de Unidad de Trabajadores de Superintendencia Nacional de Administraci...

  16. A Best Practices Model for Implementing Successful Electronic Disease Surveillance Systems: Insights from Peru and Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    supervision guides was needed in order to facilitate this activity and ensure that capacity building would occur (38). A study by Huaman , Araujo...system in Peru. This strategy proved to be particularly important during the expansion phase of the system (87). A study of this same system ( Huaman et...capacity - Use of job aids for standard case definitions, data intepetation, etc. Huaman , M. A., R. V. Country : Peru System: Alerta 12 week

  17. Present and future water resources supply and demand in the Central Andes of Peru: a comprehensive review with focus on the Cordillera Vilcanota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Giráldez, Claudia; Suarez, Wilson; Rohrer, Mario; Molina, Edwin; Montoya, Nilton; Miñan, Fiorella

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers have been an important element of Andean societies and livelihoods as direct freshwater supply for agriculture irrigation, hydropower generation and mining activities. Peru's mainly remotely living population in the Central Andes has to cope with a strong seasonal variation of precipitations and river runoff interannually superimposed by El Niño impacts. Direct glacier and lake water discharge thus constitute a vital continuous water supply and represent a regulating buffer as far as hydrological variability is concerned. This crucial buffer effect is gradually altered by accelerated glacier retreat which leads most likely to an increase of annual river runoff variability. Furthermore, a near-future crossing of the 'peak water' is expected, from where on prior enhanced streamflow decreases and levels out towards a new still unknown minimum discharge. Consequently, a sustainable future water supply especially during low-level runoff dry season might not be guaranteed whereas Peru's water demand increases significantly. Here we present a comprehensive review, the current conditions and perspectives for water resources in the Cusco area with focus on the Vilcanota River, Cordillera Vilcanota, Southern Peru. With 279 km2 the Cordillera Vilcanota represents the second largest glacierized mountain range of the tropics worldwide. Especially as of the second half of the 1980s, it has been strongly affected by massive ice loss with around 30% glacier area decline until present. Furthermore, glacier vanishing triggers the formation of new lakes and increase of lake levels and therefore constitutes determining hazardous drivers for mass movements related to deglaciation effects. The Vilcanota River still lacks more profound hydrological studies. It is likely that its peak water has already been or might be crossed in near-future. This has strong implications for the still at 0.9% (2.2%) annually growing population of the Cusco department (Cusco city). People mostly

  18. Low HDL cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor in rural, urban, and rural-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, María; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H.; Acuña-Villaorduña, Ana; Cardenas-Montero, Deborah; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whilst the relationship between lipids and cardiovascular mortality has been well studied and appears to be controversial, very little has been explored in the context of rural-to-urban migration in low-resource settings. Objective Determine the profile and related factors for HDL-c patterns (isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c) in three population-based groups according to their migration status, and determine the effect of HDL-c patterns on the rates of cardiovascular outcomes (i.e. non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and mortality. Methods Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal data from the PERU MIGRANT study, designed to assess the effect of migration on cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality in Peru. Two different analyses were performed: first, we estimated prevalence and associated factors with isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c at baseline. Second, using longitudinal information, relative risk ratios (RRR) of composite outcomes of mortality, non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction were calculated according to HDL-c levels at baseline. Results Data from 988 participants, rural (n = 201), rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589), and urban (n = 199) groups, was analysed. Low HDL-c was present in 56.5% (95%CI: 53.4%–59.6%) without differences by study groups. Isolated low HDL-c was found in 36.5% (95%CI: 33.5–39.5%), with differences between study groups. In multivariable analysis, urban group (vs. rural), female gender, overweight and obesity were independently associated with isolated low HDL-c. Only female gender, overweight and obesity were associated with non-isolated low HDL-c. Longitudinal analyses showed that non-isolated low HDL-c increased the risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes (RRR = 3.46; 95%CI: 1.23–9.74). Conclusions Isolated low HDL-c was the most common dyslipidaemia in the study population and was more frequent in rural subjects. Non-isolated low HDL-c increased three-to fourfold

  19. Holocene denudation and landscape deformation in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K. R.; Hall, S. R.; Michalak, M.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Active orogenic systems are subject to a host of processes that influence their topographic and structural evolution. Broadly speaking, these processes can be divided into two general groups: tectonics and climate. Both are capable of inducing profound changes within an orogen, although many specifics regarding their forcings, interactions, and feedbacks remain unclear. Here, we address the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca Mountain Range of northern Peru: an elevated, high-relief, 200km long string of glaciated peaks along the spine of the Andes. The striking Cordillera Blanca Detachment Fault (CBDF) is actively facilitating the production of several kilometers of relief along the western flank of the range, and abundant records of past glaciations span from >440 ka to the present. Thus, tectonics (active faulting) and climate (glacial erosion) are operating in tandem to produce some of the highest topography in the western hemisphere, affording the opportunity to investigate their potential interactions. Through the use of cosmogenic 10Be, low temperature thermochronology and digital terrain analysis we characterize the rates of landscape change as well as the present morphology. Significant variation in range elevation (maximum, mean, modal and minimum), relief (local and within basins) and slope (maximum, mean and minimum) exist along the strike of the range, potentially reflecting variable displacement along the CBDF, varying degrees of glacial erosion along the mountain range, or some combination of the two. The morphology of the adjacent supradetachment basin varies as well, containing zones with distinct styles of faulting and basin growth likely defined by the segmentation history of the CBDF. New thermochronologic data extends the current dataset, which we combine with 10Be basin-averaged erosion rates from basins along the range. These two datasets constrain the exhumational and erosional history of the range-forming Cordillera Blanca Batholith from the

  20. ASSOCIATED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INITIATION OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS VILLA SAN FRANCISCO SCHOOL SANTA ANITA, LIMA-PERU, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Tenorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual, familiar and sociocultural factors that could associate to initiation of sexual activity in adolescents of schools of Villa San Francisco-Santa Anita, Lima-Peru in 2009 were determined. The research was quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational in a population of 90 school adolescents between 14 and 19 years-old of two mixed schools. A survey was applied and validated by expert judgements submitted to a pilot assay for its validity and statistical reliability. For determinate statistical significance was employed a binomial assay and Crombach Alpha coefficient. The best predictors for the initiation of sexual activity in adolescents were: at individual level (school repeating, attitude to initiation of sexual activity and self-appreciation, at familiar level (structure and familiar function and socio-cultural (lack of an adult, knowledge of sexuality and peer groups.

  1. A retrospective analysis of the change in anti-malarial treatment policy: Peru

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    Vincent-Mark Arlene

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National malaria control programmes must deal with the complex process of changing national malaria treatment guidelines, often without guidance on the process of change. Selecting a replacement drug is only one issue in this process. There is a paucity of literature describing successful malaria treatment policy changes to help guide control programs through this process. Objectives To understand the wider context in which national malaria treatment guidelines were formulated in a specific country (Peru. Methods Using qualitative methods (individual and focus group interviews, stakeholder analysis and a review of documents, a retrospective analysis of the process of change in Peru's anti-malarial treatment policy from the early 1990's to 2003 was completed. Results The decision to change Peru's policies resulted from increasing levels of anti-malarial drug resistance, as well as complaints from providers that the drugs were no longer working. The context of the change occurred in a time in which Peru was changing national governments, which created extreme challenges in moving the change process forward. Peru utilized a number of key strategies successfully to ensure that policy change would occur. This included a having the process directed by a group who shared a common interest in malaria and who had long-established social and professional networks among themselves, b engaging in collaborative teamwork among nationals and between nationals and international collaborators, c respect for and inclusion of district-level staff in all phases of the process, d reliance on high levels of technical and scientific knowledge, e use of standardized protocols to collect data, and f transparency. Conclusion Although not perfectly or fully implemented by 2003, the change in malaria treatment policy in Peru occurred very quickly, as compared to other countries. They identified a problem, collected the data necessary to justify the

  2. Trvale udržitelný cestovní ruch a jeho uplatňování ve vybrané destinaci - Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to describe the approach of Peru to the sustainable tourism. The thesis analyses therefore the situation of the sustainable tourism in Peru. In the first part, the tourism is characterized with its future trends, positive and negative impacts on the society and the environment. Hereafter, the conception of sustainability is introduced followed by the short characterization of Peru as a tourist destination and its approach to the sustainable tourism.

  3. Human toxocariasis: a seroepidemiological survey in the Amazonian city of Yurimaguas, Peru Toxocaríase humana: inquérito soroepidemiológico na cidade amazônica de Yurimaguas, Peru

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    William H. Roldán

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of the infection by Toxocara in the general population of the Amazonian city of Yurimaguas, Peru. From March to August 2008, a total of 300 subjects were sampled and tested by means of a Toxocara ELISA-IgG test. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire was used to assess the symptomatology and risk factors associated with human toxocariasis. The overall rate of seropositivity was 35.66%, with a significant high proportion in children (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a soroprevalência da infecção por Toxocara em população geral da cidade de Yurimaguas, Peru. Entre os meses de Março e Agosto de 2008, foi estudado um total de 300 pessoas por exame imunológico mediante Toxocara ELISA-IgG teste. Uma ficha clínico-epidemiológica foi utilizada para avaliar a sintomatologia e os fatores de risco associados à toxocaríase. A freqüência geral de anticorpos na população foi de 35,66% com proporção significativamente maior de positividade em meninos de um a 10 anos (p < 0.001. A avaliação clínica revelou que 95.33% do grupo de soropositivos apresentava algum tipo de sintomatologia associada à toxocaríase: 66,36% cefaléia, 63,55% sintomas respiratórios, 54,21% dor abdominal, 40,19% sinais cutâneos e 36,45% manifestações oculares e quase todos estes sinais foram estatisticamente associados ao resultado da sorologia (p < 0.001. Além disso, 56,07% das pessoas com sorologia positiva tinham pelo menos algum parasito intestinal patogênico e com predominância de helmintos, mas sem nenhuma associação significativa (p = 0.334. A análise dos fatores de risco mostrou que o uso de lugares públicos e história de geofagia tiveram significativa associação com a sorologia positiva (p < 0,001. Conclui-se que existem evidências clínicas, sorológicas e epidemiológicas de infecção por Toxocara na população estudada e futuros estudos são necessários para

  4. Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the floristic diversity of vascular plants is presented from the basin of the Tambo-Ichuña River, the high Andean Puna plateau and wetlands of Ichuña, Ubinas and Yunga Districts (3400 - 4700 m altitude, General Sanchez Cerro Province, Department of Moquegua, Peru. Vascular flora is composed of 70 families, 238 genera and 404 species. The Magnoliopsida represent 78% of the species, Liliopsida 16%, Gymnosperms 0.5% and Pteridophytes 6%. Among lifeforms, the Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous. Three vegetation formations have been identified, the humid scrubland being the most diverse in species richness. Between endemic species, 42 taxa are exclusive to Peru. A total number of 272 new additions of vascular species to the flora of the department of Moquegua are presented.

  5. [eHealth in Peru: implementation of policies to strengthen health information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.

  6. Voriconazole as a first-line treatment against potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Sifaoui, Ines; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba genus are the causative agents of fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. In a previous study, Acanthamoeba strains were isolated from nasal swabs collected from healthy individuals in Peru. In the present study, the pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was established based on temperature and osmotolerance assays as well as the secretion rate of extracellular proteases. Based on these experiments, four strains that showed the highest pathogenic potential were selected for sensitivity assays against two molecules (voriconazole and chlorhexidine) which are currently used for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. After performing sensitivity and activity assays, it was found that both drugs were active against the tested strains. However, voriconazole showed higher activity against the studied strains compared to chlorhexidine. Therefore, voriconazole should be established as a first-line treatment against Acanthamoeba infections at least in the studied region of Peru.

  7. Identification of stable resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato genotypes evaluated in field experiments in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Pérez, W.; Nelson, R.J.;

    2007-01-01

    -parametric test. The potato genotypes were tested in seven experiments over two years in the vicinity of Comas, Peru, an area used by the International potato Center to screen for resistance to late blight. Results of the two analyses generally correlated and indicated that quantitative resistance to P. infestans......Abstract: In this study, genotype by environment (G x E) interactions and phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, were analysed in Peru lot 13 potato genotypes, using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis and Huehn's non...... yearly means of the relative area under the disease progress curve (rAUDPC), genotypes could be assigned to one of three resistance categories, resistant, moderately resistant or Susceptible, but the need for a more readily applicable and truly quantitative scale for resistance was noted. Based...

  8. Evaluation of Peru-15, a new live oral vaccine for cholera, in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, D A; Sack, R B; Shimko, J; Gomes, G; O'Sullivan, D; Metcalfe, K; Spriggs, D

    1997-07-01

    A new live oral cholera vaccine, Peru-15, was studied for safety, immunogenicity, and excretion in 2 groups of healthy volunteers. Twelve inpatient volunteers received freshly harvested vaccine in doses of either 10(7) or 10(9) cfu. Subsequently 50 outpatient volunteers received freeze-dried vaccine in doses of 10(8) or 10(9) cfu or placebo in a three-cell, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. The strain was well tolerated at all dose levels, and it stimulated high levels of vibriocidal antibodies in most inpatient volunteers and in all outpatient volunteers. Although antitoxin responses were less frequent and of lower magnitude than the vibriocidal responses, antitoxin responses were seen in >60% of the outpatient volunteers. About 60% of the volunteers excreted the vaccine in their feces; however, fecal excretion did not correlate with serologic responses. It is concluded that Peru-15 is a safe and immunogenic oral vaccine for cholera.

  9. A public health achievement under adversity: the eradication of poliomyelitis from Peru, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.

  10. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions.

  11. Legal issues of humanitarian assistance after the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén, Celso

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event.

  12. ‘Race’ and inequality in postcolonial urban settings Examples from Peru, Jamaica, and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.M. Nas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we present three case studies of Peru, Jamaica and Indonesia toillustrate the use of the concept of race in daily life in relation to labour, popularculture and beauty respectively. These cases demonstrate how the use of theconcept of race changes in the transition from a colonial into a postcolonialsetting, depending on the role of the state and nation building. In Peru, we seea clear continuation of racialized thinking; thinking and speaking in terms of‘race’ is still the norm. In Jamaica we find a process of inversion: the concept ofrace is maintained as a frame of societal analysis, but blackness is revalidatedand has become a prerequisite for national and cultural belonging. In Indonesiaracialized categorizations have disappeared almost completely as ‘race’ hasbecome subjected to the development rhetoric, which just allows limited spacefor ethnic manifestations. However, discrimination on other rhetorical basis,such as non-citizenship, remains.

  13. Magnetometry and Ground-Penetrating Radar Studies in the Sihuas Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnicki, E.; Papadimitrios, K.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Quillcapampa la Antigua site in Peru's Sihuas Valley is a settlement from Peru's Middle Horizon (600-100 A.D.). Archaeological interest in the area stems from the question of whether ancient civilizations were able to have extensive state control of distant groups, or whether state influence occurred through less direct ties (e.g., marriage, religion, or trade). Our geophysical surveys are preliminary to archaeological digging in the area. Ground-penetrating radar and magnetometry attempt to locate areas of interest for focused archaeological excavation, characterize the design of architectural remains and burial mounds in the area, and allow archaeologists to interpret the amount of influence the Wari civilization had on the local residents.

  14. Demonstration of two pulses of Paleogene deformation in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, D.C.; Sebrier, M.; Megard, F.; McKee, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    New radiometric ages of about 25 m.y. on volcanic materials in a marine intercalation within clastic continental strata of the Upper Moquegua Formation near Caraveli, southern Peru, together with an age of 25.3 ?? 0.4 m.y obtained by Tosdal et al. from a locality about 300 km to the ESE, show that the formation contains strata of late Oligocene as well as Miocene age, and demonstrate that the coastal region was at a low elevation during latest Oligocene time. Because the unconformities between the Upper Moquegua Formation and the underlying Lower Moquegua Formation, and between the Lower Moquegua Formation and underlying Paleocene rocks cannot both represent the same tectonic event, two discrete Paleogene events must be present in the Andes of Peru. Although the exact timing of these events is uncertain, the unconformities are likely to be of Paleocene and middle Eocene age or possibly of middle Eocene and Oligocene age. ?? 1985.

  15. Burning down the brewery: establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baul, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E; Nash, Donna J; Williams, Patrick Ryan; DeFrance, Susan D; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-11-29

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning.

  16. Demonstration of two pulses of Paleogene deformation in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald C.; Sébrier, Michel; Megard, François; McKee, Edwin H.

    1985-05-01

    New radiometric ages of about 25 m.y. on volcanic materials in a marine intercalation within clastic continental strata of the Upper Moquegua Formation near Caraveli, southern Peru, together with an age of 25.3 ± 0.4 m.y obtained by Tosdal et al. from a locality about 300 km to the ESE, show that the formation contains strata of late Oligocene as well as Miocene age, and demonstrate that the coastal region was at a low elevation during latest Oligocene time. Because the unconformities between the Upper Moquegua Formation and the underlying Lower Moquegua Formation, and between the Lower Moquegua Formation and underlying Paleocene rocks cannot both represent the same tectonic event, two discrete Paleogene events must be present in the Andes of Peru. Although the exact timing of these events is uncertain, the unconformities are likely to be of Paleocene and middle Eocene age or possibly of middle Eocene and Oligocene age.

  17. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level.

  18. Sequential chemical extraction of heavy metals in a study of the chemical alteration of mine tailings at Ticapampa (Huaraz, Peru); Extraccion quimica secuencial de metales pesados en el estudio de alteracion quimica de relaves de mina en Ticapampa (Huaraz, Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara Facundo, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The upper reaches of the Rio Santa (Huaraz, Peru) are highly affected by the mining activities of generally small and very small mining companies located in two specific areas, Cordillera Blanca, and Cordillera Negra, with the largest mining claims located in the districts of Recuay and Ticapampa. To assess the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the abandoned tailings pond belonging to the Alianza mining company in the district of Ticapampa, and to identify the fractions to which they are associated we applied a sequential chemical extraction. The results were compared with studies into their mineralogical characterization, a quantitative chemical analysis and a determination of potential acidity and potential neutralization by the ABA (acid-base accounting) method applied to samples of tailings. The sequential extraction procedure confirmed the mode of general alteration observed in the area through mineralogical studies: a relatively easy mobility of Pb, and Cd, and considerable immobility with regard to Ag, Cr and Co, as well as an intermediate mobility of Cu, Zn, and As. Significant cadmium and lead contents found in the most mobile fractions of the tailings may represent an environmental threat, bearing in mind the toxic nature of these elements. Despite the low mobility of arsenic, the total quantities of this element are so high that the waters of the Rio Santa are being affected. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J., Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done. PMID:27635216

  20. Between uncertainty and individualism. Scientific ethos of adversity and nanotechnology in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Practising science in Peru means facing adversity. Due to the country’s recent economic growth and despite its weak institutions, there is a growing (yet insufficient) interest in raising the investment in science, technology and innovation activities. However, how are scientists and engineers overcoming these difficulties? To answer these questions, this research focuses in the study of the experts engaged in scientific practice through the analysis of a particular case: the nanotechnology e...