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Sample records for cajamarca peru determined

  1. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

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    William H. Roldán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  2. Paragonimosis in the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Peru Paragonimíase nos distritos de Cajabamba e Condebamba, Cajamarca, Peru

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    William CORNEJO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Stool samples from 409 pre-school and school students, living in six villages of the Cajabamba and Condebamba districts, Cajamarca, Perú, were examined using wet preparations and Lumbreras' method, looking for Paragonimus eggs. Fecal and sputum samples from two children (0.5% of 6 and 8 year-old showed eggs of Paragonimus. One hundred and twenty freshwater crabs, Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni, were collected from the Condebamba valley and 21 (17.5% of them were infected with P. mexicanus (syn. P. peruvianus metacercariae. Our results show the persistence of Paragonimus in human beings and in the main source of infection, the crabs.As amostras de fezes de 409 pré-escolares e escolares de 6 localidades dos distritos de Cajabamba e de Condebamba, departamento de Cajamarca, Peru, foram avaliados pelo método de Lumbreras na busca de ovos de Paragonimus sp. Dois meninos (0,5%, de 6 a 8 anos de idade, revelaram ovos de Paragonimus sp. nas suas fezes, bem como nas amostras de escarro. O exame radiográfico de tórax mostrou lesões pulmonares. Foram coletados 120 caranguejos de rio, Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni, no vale de Condebamba , encontrando-se 21 (17,5% infectados com metacercárias de P. mexicanus (sin. P. peruvianus. Nossos resultados revelam a persistencia de Paragonimus sp. na população na sua principal fonte de infecção, os caranguejos.

  3. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  4. A One-Health integrated approach to control fascioliasis in the Cajamarca valley of Peru

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection is reported from many Latin American countries, with very high prevalence rates in both humans and livestock in the Andean countries. Due to its environmental characteristics, particularly suitable for liver fluke infection, the Cajamarca valley of Peru has often been chosen as a model to study the epidemiology of liver fluke infection in the Andes. In this paper we describe the profile of a project aimed at a multidisciplinary and integrated approach for the control of fascioliasis in animals and humans in this valley. The One-Health integrated approach applied here is based on accurate and sensitive diagnostics, namely the FLOTAC, and the use of geospatial tools for epidemiological scrutiny.

  5. Culicoides huaynacapaci, a new species from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria L. Felippe-Bauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Culicoides of the subgenus Mataemyia Vargas, Culicoides huaynacapaci Felippe-Bauer, is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens collected biting humans in Department of Cajamarca, in Peruvian Amazonia. The new species is compared with its similar congener C. albuquerquei Wirth & Blanton.Uma nova espécie de Culicoides do subgênero Mataemyia Vargas, Culicoides huaynacapaci Felippe-Bauer, é descrita e ilustrada baseada em exemplares fêmeas e machos coletados picando humanos no Estado de Cajamarca, na Amazônia Peruana. A nova espécie é comparada com a espécie afim, C. albuquerquei Wirth & Blanton.

  6. Evaluación de una prueba de ELISA con antígeno metabólico de Fasciola hepatica para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana en Cajamarca, Perú Evaluation of an ELISA test with Fasciola hepatica metabolic antigen for diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Hernán Cornejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el antígeno metabólico (antígeno excreción - secreción de Fasciola hepatica de ovinos infectados de Cajamarca, con una concentración proteica de 1 005 μg/μL, compuesta principalmente por proteνnas de peso molecular entre 1,2 y 170 KDa. Se detectaron bandas de 170; 150; 31; 24; 18-14 y 10 kDa. Con este antνgeno se desarrollσ una prueba de ELISA y se determinσ su punto de corte en 0,140. Se evaluσ 33 sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por visualización de huevos en heces, 177 sueros de pacientes sin fasciolosis provenientes de áreas endémicas de Cajamarca y 88 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones parasitarias y bacterianas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 97,0%, especificidad de 96,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 78,1% y valor predictivo negativo de 99,6%. Se encontró reacción cruzada en 9/88 sueros evaluados. Se recomienda la implementación y uso de esta prueba para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis.Metabolic (excretion/secretion antigen was obtained from sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica, with a 1005 μg/μL of protein concentration, composed principally by proteins of molecular weight between 1.2 and 170 KDa. Bands of 170, 150, 31, 24, 18-14 and 10 kDa were detected. With this antigen an ELISA test was developed and the cut off was determined in 0.140. We evaluated 33 serums of patient with fascioliasis confirmed by visualization of eggs in feces, 177 serums of persons without fascioliasis from endemic rural areas of Cajamarca and 88 serums of patients with others parasitic and bacterial infections. We found a 97.0% of sensitivity, 96.6 specificity, 78.1% predictive positive value, 99.6 % predictive negative value. In 9/88 serums was found cross reactions. We recommended the implementation and use of this test for the fascioliasis diagnosis.

  7. Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Peru assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Peru perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Peru on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Peru; 2) ...

  8. Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations. PMID:12178073

  9. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  10. Antes que La Colosa a "galerizar" Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    A los 25 años del desastre de Armero asociado a la erupción del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia ha tenido avances, pero igualmente enfrenta retos como la amenaza volcánica del Cerro Machín, que gravita fuertemente en poblados como Cajamarca y otros más del Tolima: ¿qué hacer y cómo hacerlo?

  11. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

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    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  12. 78 FR 58378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Peru: Kingdoms of the...

  13. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  14. Alliances for local development success factors. Comparative experiences of Spain and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo Mory, Elsa; Schwalb Helguero, María Matilde; Alva Gonzáles, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Alliances are formed to overcome the constraints partners face to achieve certain goals. When the goal is to promote local development, it requires the participation of stakeholders: private sector, local government, civil associations and community groups, among others. This article seeks, through the comparative analysis of three experiences of local development led by the district of Villa El Salvador (Lima - Peru), the mining company Yanacocha (Cajamarca -Peru) and the Spanish Agency for ...

  15. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann Rainer W; Sharon Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first mi...

  16. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  17. Contaminación fecal en hortalizas que se expenden en mercados de la ciudad de Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto; Claudia Rodríguez-Ulloa; John López-Orbegoso

    2009-01-01

    Se determinó el nivel de coliformes fecales y la frecuencia de Escherichia coli en 85 muestras de hortalizas, obtenidas de manera aleatoria y expendidas en los principales mercados de Cajamarca. El procesamiento, aislamiento e identificación bacteriana se realizó según la Food and Drug Administration (FDA). El 40% de muestras presentaron coliformes fecales, con elevado numero más probable por gramo (NMP/g) e importante frecuencia de E. coli en perejil y lechuga. El análisis revela un alto niv...

  18. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

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    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  19. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases.

  20. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos F. Jiménez; Heidi Quintana; Víctor Pacheco; Derek Melton; Javier Torrealva; Guillermo Tello

    2011-01-01

    Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca), based on 2002 (dry season) and 1264 (wet s...

  1. The politics of Land Use Planning: Gold mining in Cajamarca, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preciado Jeronimo, R.; Rap, E.R.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and Economic Zoning (EEZ) is a Land Use Planning (LUP) methodology that aims at defining separate areas for productive uses and conservation. EEZ is designed as a method that balances different interests and it devises land use policy through stakeholder participation, technical expertise

  2. Die Kirche von Cajamarca - die Herausforderung einer Option für die Armen in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Die Kirche in Lateinamerika hat für die Profilbildung wissenschaftlicher Theologie im 20. Jahrhun-dert eine Reihe von theoretischen Entwürfen vorgelegt, die für die Programmatik der Theologie ins-gesamt grundlegend und richtungweisend sind. In der europäischen Rezeption wird jedoch zu wenig beachtet, dass sich hinter dem Sammelbegriff „Theologie der Befreiung“ eine Reihe sehr differenzier-ter Konzeptionen verbergen, die in je unterschiedlichen kulturellen Kontexten die Evangelisierung themati...

  3. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  4. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  5. Contaminación fecal en hortalizas que se expenden en mercados de la ciudad de Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el nivel de coliformes fecales y la frecuencia de Escherichia coli en 85 muestras de hortalizas, obtenidas de manera aleatoria y expendidas en los principales mercados de Cajamarca. El procesamiento, aislamiento e identificación bacteriana se realizó según la Food and Drug Administration (FDA. El 40% de muestras presentaron coliformes fecales, con elevado numero más probable por gramo (NMP/g e importante frecuencia de E. coli en perejil y lechuga. El análisis revela un alto nivel de contaminación fecal, un estado sanitario inaceptable y la necesidad de establecer medidas de control frente al riesgo que esto representa para la salud.

  6. Understanding Underage Drinking in Peru: Determinants of Its Frequency and Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Seinfeld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Underage drinking is a serious problem worldwide. In the case of Peru, 50% of those who have ever used alcohol started doing so before the age of 13, and 90% before 16. In this study, we examine the correlations of frequency and intensity of underage drinking in Peru. We find that individual characteristics (smoking and carrying guns, exposure to traumatic events (sexual abuse and domestic violence, peer effects, and access to information are significantly correlated with drinking. This highlights the importance of addressing the problem in a comprehensive manner that includes students, parents, schools, and the government, especially considering that policies targeted at adolescents may have multiplier effects.

  7. Determining of the level of lead and cadmium contamination in pregnant women living in an exposed mining area of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of this study to determine in the first year the level of acute pollution and their nutritional status in pregnant women living in a lead and cadmium exposed mining area of Peru. The complete project will focus on delivering women and their infants who are one of the most vulnerable groups of the life cycle. It is of particular interest to investigate the impact of pollution not only in the mother but also the possible transfer to the infant. (author)

  8. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  9. Water Yes, Gold No: Empowerment and social change through the social mobilizations against the Conga Mining Project in an Andean region of Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Llucià, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to identify and analyse the empowerment processes of civil participation in collective actions behind the social movement ‘Conga No Va’; as well as to contribute to the understanding of mining extraction causality upon social structures and gender relations in rural communities. The main focus is the social movement opposed to the mega mining project ‘Conga’ in the Andean region of Cajamarca, Peru. Taking in account sustainable and alternative development theories as well as ...

  10. Determination of Nazca slab geometry and state of stress beneath the southern Peru and northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Young, B. E.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.; Minaya, E.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate in the north central Andes beneath southern Peru and northern Bolivia is of prime importance because of the role it plays in the evolution of topographic features since the late Eocene (~40 Ma). Previous studies based on slab event locations constrained only with teleseismic data defined a broad area of flat slab subduction in central and southern Peru, which transitions to a normally dipping slab beneath the northernmost Altiplano Plateau. We present earthquake locations and focal mechanisms using data from two temporary arrays: the network of 50 broadband seismic stations that were part of the NSF-Continental Dynamics-funded project 'CAUGHT' (Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography) and the 40 station NSF- Geophysics funded 'PULSE' array (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment). Our earthquake locations provide new information about the geometry of subducting Nazca slab between 13°S to 18°S. A significant clustering of intermediate depth earthquakes at ~15.5°S and 18°S suggests strong and localized release of tectonic stress in the slab perhaps due to bending and unbending. There are not enough intra-slab events at depth greater than 100 km to constrain the flat slab width north of 14°S. Our analyses indicate that the flat slab is at least 10 to 12 km shallower than the previous estimates (e.g. Cahill and Isacks, 1992; Ramos, 2009). Focal mechanisms and stress axis orientation of slab events at ~15.5°S indicate down-dip extension, where the dip changes from subhorizontal to steeply dipping slab. The continuity in the trend of stress suggests that the slab is deformed but not torn where it transitions from flat to steeply dipping. Data from local slab events will eventually be incorporated into a local tomographic body wave inversion to better constrain the velocity structure of the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere below the Altiplano. This in turn will provide the valuable information on the process

  11. Determinants of Anopheles seasonal distribution patterns across a forest to periurban gradient near Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold-Wasson, Drew D; Sardelis, Michael R; Jones, James W; Watts, Douglas M; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A; Turell, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1-2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region.

  12. Asociación de Productores Ecológicos de la Región Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    APERC, APERC

    2013-01-01

    Somos una organización que agrupa a pequeños productores, transformadores y comercializadores de productos ecológicos de las diferentes provincias de la región Cajamarca. La APER Cajamarca es base regional y fundadora de Asociación Nacional de Productores Ecológicos del Perú (ANPE Perú), iniciativa de un conjunto de organizaciones de productores ecológicos organizados con la finalidad de unir esfuerzos en torno a una propuesta de desarrollo nacional basada en la agroecología.

  13. Determinants of burnout in acute and critical care military nursing personnel: a cross-sectional study from Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ayala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05 and inversely associated with the time working in the current department (p<0.05. Higher depersonalization scores were independently associated with being single compared with being divorced, separated or widowed (p<0.01, working in the emergency room/intensive care unit compared with the recovery room (p<0.01, and inversely associated with age (p<0.05. Finally, higher personal achievement scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Among Peruvian military acute and critical care nursing personnel, potential

  14. The use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, L E; Cubas-Delgado, F; Sammel, M D; Smith, G; Galligan, D T; Levy, M Z; Hennessy, S

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in lower/middle-income countries. The use of these drugs can have profound impacts on animal health, farmer income and public health. A survey of 156 farmers was conducted in Cajamarca, a major dairy-producing center in the highlands of Peru characterized by small farms (advanced stage of clinical disease. Few farmers were able to define an antibiotic, but many farmers understood that the use of antibiotics carried inherent risks to their animals and potentially to the consumers of dairy products from treated animals. The results of this study are useful for understanding the patterns of antibiotic use and associated management, demographic and knowledge factors of farmers on small dairy farms in rural Peru.

  15. Spotlight: Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacher, L

    1985-09-01

    This article highlights population statistics from Peru, the 3rd largest country in Latin America. The population in 1985 has been estimated at 19.7 million. In 1982, the birth rate was 35/1000 and the mortality rate was 10/1000. Infant mortality stood at 99/1000 live births and life expectancy at birth was 59 years. 41% of Peru's population is under 15 years of age, and only 4% is 65 years of age or older. The country's total fertility rate is 5.2 births/woman. Only 0.4% of the population is foreign born. Peru is highly urbanized, and 65% of the country's total population growth in 1981 occurred in its cities. 1 in 3 Peruvians resides in the capital city of Lima. The 2 largest racial groups are mestizos and whites (53%) and Indians (46%). 21% of the population is illiterate. 40.7% of the labor force is employed in agriculture; however, only 15% of the national income is derived from agriculture. The GNP per capita was US$1040 in 1983. The country's economy is in serious trouble at present, with an annual inflation rate of 250% and a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. PMID:12340368

  16. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  17. La infección de cangrejos procedentes del valle de Condebamba (Cajamarca por metacercarias de Paragonimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En los meses de febrero y julio de 1973 se colectaron cangrejos del Valle de Condebamba (Cajamarca correspondientes a Pseudothelphusa chilensis, 69 de ellos (34 machos y 35 hembras fueron examinados, buscando metacercarias de Paragonimus; 22 (64.7% de los machos y 29 (28.85 % de las hembras resultaron infectados con metacercarias, o sea 52 (72.46% de los 69 cangrejos estaban infectados, esta cifra es coincidente con la obtenida por Cuba y cols. (1974.

  18. New KAr age determinations of intrusive rocks from the Cordillera Occidental and Altiplano of central Peru: Identification of magmatic pulses and episodes of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, P.; Bonhomme, M. G.

    The post-Albian evolution of the Andes of central Peru is characterized by igneous activity, both effusive and intrusive, and by at least six distinct episodes of compressional tectonics. New KAr age determinations have been made of intrusive rocks from the Cajatambo-Oyón-Cerro de Pasco area. In conjunction with already published information, these new data permit a better estimate of the ages and the lateral extent of successive Cenozoic magmatic arcs. Metallogenetic implications of the 26.3-29.3 Ma age of mineralized Milpo-Atacocha intrusions are also discussed.

  19. Peru; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines application of fiscal framework alternatives to the case of Peru. Although growth has been at historical highs over the last decade, Peru still has an important infrastructure gap and a quarter of its population still lives in poverty. This paper applies illustratively new modified frameworks recently developed by the IMF to the case of Peru. It takes stock of analytical considerations to resource management, and analyzes Peru’s natural resource wealth an...

  20. Identification and biochemical characterization of Leishmania strains isolated in Peru, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Isabel; Marín, Clotilde; Vargas, Franklin; Córdova, Ofelia; Barrera, Mario; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Alunda, Jose María; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Eight Leishmania promastigotes were isolated from different geographical areas: three (LP1, LP2, and LP3) from the provincial department La Libertad and the fourth (LP4) from the department of Cajamarca (northern Peru); another three (LM1, LM2, and LM3) in the province of Campeche (Mexico); and the last (LS1) from a clinical case of a dog in Madrid (Spain). The isolates were characterized by carbohydrate cell-surface residues using agglutinations with four purified lectins, by isoenzyme analysis using different isoenzymes, by analysis of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism using four different restriction endonucleases and by the final metabolite patterns after in vitro culture. These isolates were compared with four reference strains and typified as: Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani, two strains of L. (L.) infantum, and one species of L. (Viania) peruviana. According to our results and the statistical study, the Peruvian isolates represent three different strains: one would be L. (V.) peruviana, another the strain isolated in Cajamarca (LP4) and the third would include the three strains from the department of La Libertad (LP1, LP2, and LP3), these latter three isolates being phylogenetically closer to the reference strain L. (L.) donovani. Meanwhile, the three isolates from Mexico form a group with close phylogenetic relationships to each other. The isolate from Spain belongs to the species L. (L.) infantum. Thus, a close correlation was drawn between the identity of each strain and its geographical origin.

  1. Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban a...

  2. Expansión del Aedes aegypti a localidades rurales de Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Troyes R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia, magnitud y expansión de Aedes aegypti en las localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio, departamento de Cajamarca. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre abril y mayo de 2004, en 21 (100% localidades rurales ubicadas en las márgenes de la carretera Jaén-San Ignacio y al interior de ella, hasta en 90 minutos. Se inspeccionó recipientes de 1460 viviendas para la búsqueda de larvas y adultos del mosquito, se determinaron los índices aédicos, de recipiente y de Breteau. Resultados: Se demostró la presencia de Aedes aegypti en tres localidades rurales de la provincia de Jaén y en cuatro de la provincia de San Ignacio. Los índices aédicos variaron de 1,2 a 16,6%. Los recipientes infestados con mayor frecuencia fueron las llantas y los artículos en desuso. Conclusiones: Se reporta la expansión de A. aegypti en la tercera parte de localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio; esta expansión necesita ser más estudiada y considerada al implementarse las estrategias de prevención y control del dengue en la DISA Jaén, para evitar la aparición de brotes de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico, incluso fiebre amarilla urbana.

  3. Woody vegetation, endemism and conservation status in the seasonally dry forests of Jaen, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marcelo Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight relictual areas of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF from the surroundings Jaen city, in Cajamarca, were investigated using a rapid inventory technique. The areas were situated between 5°38’ and 5°48’ S and 78°41’ and 78°48’ W, and between 615 and 1100 m altitude. A total of 151 species, 103 genera and 40 families of woody plants were recorded. The area shows high diversity of woody plants in comparison with other neighbouring regions. Most notable is its endemism, which is the highest in the region of southwest Ecuador and Peru. However, the area is seriously threatened by demand for firewood and the need for land for crops, large cattle farms and housing.

  4. On the wave energy resource of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The wave energy resource of Peru was assessed for the first time. • Peru has a moderate to high offshore wave energy resource. • The south coast of Peru has a higher wave energy potential than the north coast. • The Peruvian wave energy resource has low temporal variations. • The wave energy resource exceeds by seven times electric power demand in Peru. - Abstract: This is the first assessment of the wave energy resource in Peru, an emerging country with an increasing energy demand and a high dependence on fossil fuels. On the basis of wave buoy measurements, we characterize the offshore wave energy resource and analyze its temporal variability, comparing the results with those obtained in previous works for other regions. A wave propagation numerical model (SWAN) is used to determine the nearshore spatial distribution of wave energy. A total of 357 offshore sea states, representing 90% of the wave energy and 94% of the time in an average year, were propagated. The wave energy in Peru presents a resource exceeding by more than seven times the total electric demand of the country. Because of the large amount of resource available and its low seasonal variation, wave energy must be considered in Peru as an alternative to conventional energy resources

  5. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  6. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  7. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85% were Dicotyledons, 46 (9% Monocotyledons, 21 (4% Pteridophytes, and 5 (1% Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each, and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each. One hundred eighty-two (85% of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%, 12 ferns (5.5%, and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83% were

  8. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  9. Chimney stoves modestly improved indoor air quality measurements compared with traditional open fire stoves: results from a small-scale intervention study in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Commodore, A A; Hattendorf, J; Lanata, C F; Gil, A I; Verastegui, H; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Mäusezahl, D; Naeher, L P

    2013-08-01

    Nearly half of the world's population depends on biomass fuels to meet domestic energy needs, producing high levels of pollutants responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We compare carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures and kitchen concentrations in households with study-promoted intervention (OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves) in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. We determined 48-h indoor air concentration levels of CO and PM2.5 in 93 kitchen environments and personal exposure, after OPTIMA-improved stoves had been installed for an average of 7 months. PM2.5 and CO measurements did not differ significantly between OPTIMA-improved stoves and control stoves. Although not statistically significant, a post hoc stratification of OPTIMA-improved stoves by level of performance revealed mean PM2.5 and CO levels of fully functional OPTIMA-improved stoves were 28% lower (n = 20, PM2.5, 136 μg/m(3) 95% CI 54-217) and 45% lower (n = 25, CO, 3.2 ppm, 95% CI 1.5-4.9) in the kitchen environment compared with the control stoves (n = 34, PM2.5, 189 μg/m(3), 95% CI 116-261; n = 44, CO, 5.8 ppm, 95% CI 3.3-8.2). Likewise, although not statistically significant, personal exposures for OPTIMA-improved stoves were 43% and 17% lower for PM2.5 (n = 23) and CO (n = 25), respectively. Stove maintenance and functionality level are factors worthy of consideration for future evaluations of stove interventions.

  10. INFECCIÓN DE HYPOLOBOCERA CHILENSIS EIGENMANI POR METACERCARIAS DE PARAGONIMUS MEXICANUS (= PERUVIANUS EN EL DISTRITO DE CONDEBAMBA (CAJAMARCA, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Huiza F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cangrejos de rio Hypolobocera chilensis eigenmanni fueron colectados de acequias durante el año 1997 en estación seca (mayo a diciembre en Chaquicocha, Área que pertenece al distrito de Condebamba (departamento de Cajamarca en la parte norte del Perú. Ciento treinta y un cangrejos colectados fueron transportados al Laboratorio de Parasitología y examinados por disección, 27 de 131 (20,6% estaban infectados por metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus(=peruvianus. La intensidad de la infección fue de 1 a 5 en la mayoría de los; casos (81,5% con un promedio de 4,85 por cangrejo. Estos datos son diferentes; a los de estudios anteriores; en la misma Área donde fueron más; altos, lo que indica una tendencia al decrecimiento del número de cangrejos infectados.

  11. Small vertebrates in the spectacled bear’s diet (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in the north of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella N. Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous studies about Spectacled bear´s diet, however little is known about the small vertebrates it consumes. This study present nine vertebrate species (seven rodent and two birds as preys of the Spectacled bear, based on the analysis of six feces collected from two locations Upa (Amazonas and Lagunas Arreviatadas (Cajamarca in northern Peru. Six of these records were new food items and a new family Caviidae. Vertebrates were found only in the Upa location. Additionally a sampling of small non flying mammals was conducted in there. Our results suggest that the Spectacled bear would be a generalist species. It prefers plants, however if it finds vertebrates in the environment, it could feed on them.

  12. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  13. 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  14. Calidad del agua en relación con las propiedades del geoecosistema: un estudio de caso de una zona de jalca cerca de Cajamarca, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Cammeraat; A.C. Seijmonsbergen; J. Sevink; Y.P.G. Hoogzaad; W.S. Stoops; S.J. de Vet; M.E. de Vries; M. van Veelen; H.A. Weiler; N. Weiss; I. Sánchez-Vega; F. Chunga-Castro; M. Roncal-Rabanal

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este estudio presenta una primera aproximación a la relación entre hidrología,calidad del agua, geología y suelos para un ecosistema de jalca cerca de Cajamarca en el norte de Perú. Debido a que las áreas de jalca son propensas a la degradación de sus suelos húmicos, como resultado del uso d

  15. Peru; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper describes recent investment dynamics in Peru, and assesses the relationship between private investment and its fundamentals. Over the last decade, average growth in Peru exceeded 6 percent, anchored by a substantial contribution from investment. A series of structural reforms in the 1990s, growing political stability, and the implementation of a solid macroeconomic framework in the early 2000s set the stage for this investment boom. Actions were also taken to streng...

  16. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  17. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  18. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  19. Religious Regimes in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spier, Fred

    1994-01-01

    This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the variou

  20. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  1. El pluralismo jurídico y político en Perú: el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Piccoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza, desde un enfoque antropológico, algunos desafíos del pluralismo político y jurídico en el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca (Perú. Organizaciones sociales nacidas con la finalidad de protegerse de robos de ganado, las Rondas Campesinas de la zona norte del Perú, fueron convirtiéndose en un espacio de administración de justicia y de gestión pública comunitaria.

  2. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  3. Ante los ojos del mundo: música, minería y conflicto social en el norte andino de Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Martínez; Julio Mendívil

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehispánicos Cajamarca ha sido una importante zona agropecuaria. Pero en las décadas recientes se ha convertido en una zona de agudas convulsiones sociales. Durante el gobierno anticonstitucional de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2002), el estado permitió el ingreso de trasnacionales mineras para la extracción de oro a gran escala. Estas han dañado considerablemente el eco-sistema, la salud y el bienestar de la población local, creando descontento social y protestas. En ese contexto, e...

  4. Modeling economic behavior in Peru's informal urban retail sector

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. Barry; Stelcner, Morton

    1990-01-01

    In Lima, Peru, the informal sector makes up half the labor force, accounts for 61 percent of the hours worked, and generates an astounding 39 percent of GDP. More than half the street vendors are women. In the informal sector, the free play of market forces determines returns to productive factors, especially labor. Informal enterprises are concentrated in low-income areas of urban centers. The authors analyze Peru's urban informal sector - particularly women's role in it - based on a theoret...

  5. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  6. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  7. Giant Otters in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk C.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  8. Ante los ojos del mundo: música, minería y conflicto social en el norte andino de Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos prehispánicos Cajamarca ha sido una importante zona agropecuaria. Pero en las décadas recientes se ha convertido en una zona de agudas convulsiones sociales. Durante el gobierno anticonstitucional de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2002, el estado permitió el ingreso de trasnacionales mineras para la extracción de oro a gran escala. Estas han dañado considerablemente el eco-sistema, la salud y el bienestar de la población local, creando descontento social y protestas. En ese contexto, el estado y la minería han impulsado una satanización de Cajamarca como un espacio cultural atrasado, reacio a las inversiones y al desarrollo. El presente artículo explora el rol que la música viene jugando en la representación de las protestas contra la minería y las actividades musicales y etnomusicológicas se complementan para contrarrestar una imagen demonizada por quienes defienden la inversión minera.

  9. Assessing Landscape Change in a Mining Area of the Peruvian Andes. A Case Study in The Yanacocha Mine, Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Berrios, Hildebrando

    2006-01-01

    This study examines physical and perceived landscape change in a mining area in northern Peru. Mining conflicts between companies and local people have intensified; this highlights the necessity of a better understanding of environmental and social consequences of mining activities. Landscape studies could be relevant to understand such problematic. I aim to assess the landscape change in a mining area by (1) mapping the physical landscape change and (2) surveying the local lan...

  10. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  11. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  12. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale. PMID:27515649

  13. Optica Precolombina Del Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, J J

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological American mirrors are common findings and the images obtained with them are often described by archaeologists as possessing high quality. However, photographs attesting this fact are rare, if any. To the best of my knowledge, only two papers show that quality concerning the Olmeca culture, and only one of them mentions the pre-Inca cultures case. Certainly more images are needed to increase awareness of the importance of the existence of sophisticated imaging elements, particularly when evaluating the cultural degree of the pre-Columbian civilizations. In this paper we show images made in two museums in Lima, Peru, by means of mirrors and the lens action on a necklace element.

  14. Peru; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Peru during the 1990s. During 1990–92, real GDP growth was negative by 0.9 percent a year on average, reflecting in part deterioration in the terms of trade and adverse weather conditions. During that period, growth in the construction, manufacturing, and fishing sectors was more than offset by a contraction in the agricultural and mining sectors. Gross domestic investment rose from about 15½ percent of GDP in 1990 to 16½ percent in 1992 mainl...

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  16. Social determinants of health and disease: the role of small-scale projects illustrated by the Koster health project in Sweden and Ametra in Peru Determinantes sociais de saúde e doença: o papel de pequenos projetos em saúde ilustrado pelos projetos Koster na Suécia e Ametra no Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Lis Follér

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different health projects are evaluated in this paper. The Koster Health project taking place at the Koster Islands in Sweden and the Ametra project going on among the Shipibo-Conibo in Peru. Both projects focus more on the determinants of health than on sickness and more on the individual's subjective feeling of illness than on the biomedically "objectively" recognizable disease. "Mobilization" and "responsibility"for the individual's own health are central concepts in both projects. In the theoretical part of the paper a human ecological perspective is suggested to analyse the interaction between human health and environmental changes. The author emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary research when evaluating how the external determinants from the natural and social environment affect human beings and health. The human ecological approach is seen as a complement to the biomedical research. Health and disease are two poles in a continuum. In a pluralistic society we should struggle towards the pole of health.Este artigo revê e avalia dois projetos de saúde - o Koster Health Project realizado nas ilhas Koster, Suécia, e o Ametra Project, realizado entre os indígenas Shipibo-Conibo, Peru. Ambos enfocam, principalmente, os determinantes de saúde, ao invés da doença. Os projetos também privilegiam em suas abordagens os sentimentos subjetivos individuais sobre a doença, ao invés de doenças "objetivamente" reconhecidas pela biomedicina. "Mobilização" e "responsabilidade" pela saúde do próprio indivíduo são conceitos centrais em ambos os projetos. O artigo busca na ecologia humana o suporte teórico para analisar a interação entre saúde humana e mudanças ambientais. A autora enfatiza a importância da pesquisa interdisciplinar na avaliação do papel exercido pelos fatores naturais e sociais sobre os seres humanos e a saúde. A abordagem da ecologia humana é vista como complementar à pesquisa biomédica sendo, sa

  17. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  18. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  19. Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rat...

  20. A numerical method for determining the state of stress using focal mechanisms of earthquake populations: application to Tibetan teleseisms and microseismicity of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Louis Mercier, Jacques

    1987-03-01

    give a good evaluation of the regional (mean) state of stress. Focal mechanisms of the small events are also modelled by a mean stress deviator, but this differs significantly from the regional state of stress in southern Peru deduced from Quaternary faulting. This may be due to imprecise location of the small events. However, some movements are strongly different from those predicted by the computed mean stress deviator. This suggests that small fault kinematics surely depend on the regional state of stress but that local effects may control the small deformations.

  1. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  2. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  3. LAND TITLING IN PERU: IS IT FULFILLING ITS PROMISE?

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Janelle M.; Smith, Stephen M.; Abler, David G.; Trivelli, Carolina

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of land titling in coastal Peru on the beneficiaries of this program. The paper examines the effects of land titling on access to credit, on-farm investment, the use of conservation techniques and the functioning of land markets.

  4. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en madres de una zona rural andina del norte peruano Knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis among mothers from an andean rural area of north Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en 62 madres de familia de una zona rural endémica de la región andina de Cajamarca, Perú. Sólo el 37,0% reconoce a la alicuya (nombre popular de la Fasciola hepática como parásito responsable de la enfermedad; 56,5 y 85,5% conocen que afecta el hígado de humanos y de los animales respectivamente; 98,4% tiene predisposición positiva para participar de charlas informativas sobre la enfermedad y 75,8% para apoyar activamente a sus autoridades en la solución del problema. El 38,7% indica que bebe emolientes en la calle y 75,6% cría animales considerados huéspedes del parásito. En conclusión, las actitudes de las encuestadas son mayoritariamente favorables para realizar actividades de prevención y control, pese a que sus conocimientos son incorrectos y el entorno familiar realiza ciertas prácticas de riesgo para la enfermedad.A survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis was administered to 62 mothers from a rural endemic zone of Cajamarca’s Andean Region, Peru. Only 37.0% recognized the alicuya (local name for Fasciola hepatica as the parasite responsible for the disease; 56.5% knows that the disease affects the liver in the humans and 85.5% knows affects also animals; 98.4% have a positive predisposition to attend informative talks about the disease and 75.8% to support their authorities actively to solve of the problem. 38.7% referred drinking emollients in the street, 75.6% have domestic animals considered host for the parasite. In conclusion, attitudes of mothers are mostly favourable for prevention and control activities, despite their mistaken knowledge risky practices for fasciolasis among members of their families.

  5. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  6. Justicia local mixta en Cajamarca (Perú: análisis etnológico de un pluralismo práctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuele Piccoli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El tema del pluralismo jurídico, del encuentro posible de varias maneras de “hacer justicia”, moviliza a numerosos antropólogos y juristas. Más allá de las discusiones acerca de los textos jurídicos, quisiéramos exponer una situación de pluralismo jurídico en el nivel local y describir la manera cómo diferentes formas de justicias pueden encontrarse. Se tratará entonces de abordar el pluralismo no como una noción, sino como una práctica. En esta contribución, nos aproximaremos más específicamente al caso de la provincia de Hualgayoc, en la región andina de Cajamarca, en Perú. Allá, las Rondas Campesinas, organizaciones de vigilancia, de justicia y de gestión del vivir juntos, reconocidas por el Estado, colaboran con la policía y un asesor legal para la resolución de problemas en la zona rural. Dejaremos aquí un espacio amplio para los datos de campo ya que nos parece que dan mucho que pensar acerca de la emergencia de una justicia mixta y pueden permitir el desarrollo de reflexiones de tipo comparativo.

  7. Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

  8. Determinantes del sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños en edad escolar en Perú Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L Mispireta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad en escolares es un problema que se encuentra en incremento en el Perú. Está concentrado en las zonas urbanas, principalmente en Lima donde uno de cada tres niños tiene exceso de peso. Un estudio inicial en 80 colegios de Lima mostró que más importante sería la falta de actividad física que el volumen de la ingesta para explicar el sobrepeso y la obesidad en escolares. Se requieren estudios más detallados al respecto. A pesar de la limitada información disponible de sus determinantes, es necesario implementar medidas culturalmente apropiadas para combatirla como parte de las políticas nutricionales actuales, y así prevenir que el problema continúe incrementándose y que la sostenibilidad del sistema de salud no se vea afectadaObesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected

  9. Applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular, morphological, and ecological diversity in the Leaf-Toed Gecko Phyllodactylus reissii Peters, 1862 (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Flecks, Morris; Venegas, Pablo J; Bialke, Patrick; Valverde, Sebastian; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    An integrative taxonomic approach based on morphology, molecular analyses, and climatic niche modeling was used to uncover cryptic diversity in the phyllodactylid gecko species Phyllodactylus reissii. At least three distinct species could be identified among the examined specimens from southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Phyllodactylus magister, described by Noble (1924) from arid Andean valleys of the Chinchipe and Marañón rivers in the Peruvian Department of Cajamarca and synonymized with P. reissii by Dixon & Huey (1970) is elevated from synonymy and a detailed redescription is provided. A new species of the genus Phyllodactylus from the Andean dry forest of the southern Marañón valley is identified and described herein. Phyllodactylus pachamama sp. nov. is differentiated from other South American congeners on the basis of mtDNA sequence divergence, morphological characters, and differences in the realized climatic niche. At least in Peru, P. reissii seems to primarily inhabit the northern coastal region west of the Andes, while the inter-Andean area along the Río Marañón and its tributaries seems to be inhabited mostly by other species of the genus, which are endemic to this area. The Andean valleys are underestimated in terms of biodiversity and lack thorough investigation and conservation actions.

  10. Applying n-dimensional hypervolumes for species delimitation: unexpected molecular, morphological, and ecological diversity in the Leaf-Toed Gecko Phyllodactylus reissii Peters, 1862 (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Flecks, Morris; Venegas, Pablo J; Bialke, Patrick; Valverde, Sebastian; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    An integrative taxonomic approach based on morphology, molecular analyses, and climatic niche modeling was used to uncover cryptic diversity in the phyllodactylid gecko species Phyllodactylus reissii. At least three distinct species could be identified among the examined specimens from southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Phyllodactylus magister, described by Noble (1924) from arid Andean valleys of the Chinchipe and Marañón rivers in the Peruvian Department of Cajamarca and synonymized with P. reissii by Dixon & Huey (1970) is elevated from synonymy and a detailed redescription is provided. A new species of the genus Phyllodactylus from the Andean dry forest of the southern Marañón valley is identified and described herein. Phyllodactylus pachamama sp. nov. is differentiated from other South American congeners on the basis of mtDNA sequence divergence, morphological characters, and differences in the realized climatic niche. At least in Peru, P. reissii seems to primarily inhabit the northern coastal region west of the Andes, while the inter-Andean area along the Río Marañón and its tributaries seems to be inhabited mostly by other species of the genus, which are endemic to this area. The Andean valleys are underestimated in terms of biodiversity and lack thorough investigation and conservation actions. PMID:27615910

  11. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  12. Nutritional Determinants of Urban Deprived Youth: An Economic and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the U.S., Columbia, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the nutrition of North and South American urban youths from 14-21 years of age are examined. Economic factors which play a role in determining the demand for improved nutrition and the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in nutrition are assessed. The effectiveness of higher income as a solution to…

  13. Peruánská gastronomie

    OpenAIRE

    Bočková, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize culture and gastronomy of Peru as a specific tourist destination. First part -- the theoretical one -- deals with explanation of main terms from the fields of tourism and gastronomy. Following parts include characteristics of Peru and its gastronomy. The second chapter, in particular, involves basic information about realia, geography and history of Peru, followed by characteristics of tourism in the country. The third chapter, first of all, explains ...

  14. The regulatory state in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi Trece, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Significant institutional changes have taken place during the government of Alberto Fujimori. What is the meaning of these changes? Do they reflect Alberto Fujimori's strategy of power consolidation? Are they the result of the strategy of dominant economic classes to continue exploiting Peru's resources? Or are these institutions reflecting a process of democratization of the state?   This article explores these questions by examining state institutions in the area of public services. The arg...

  15. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Garavito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data for urban Peru in the year 2014. We find that young people will stay in the educative system, even if they are working, when their negotiation power at home is high, when their opportunity cost is low, and when their parents have a higher level of education.

  16. Factors that Matter for Financial Inclusion: Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Camara; Ximena Pena; David Tuesta

    2014-01-01

    This study comprises a quantitative approach to the determinants of financial inclusion in Peru based on micro-data from surveys. Significant correlations are used to identify those socioeconomic characteristics that may affect financial inclusion (or exclusion) of households and enterprises. We also analyse the sensitivity to some barriers on the part of individuals who do not use banking services. The results show that the traditionally more vulnerable groups (women, individuals living in r...

  17. Floating Exchange Rates in Peru, 1950-54

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    I test three potentially complementary models in an effort to capture the fundamentals that underlaid the market's determination of Peru's floating exchange rate through the period 1950-54: the first is an expectational purchasing power parity (PPP) model which maintains that asset market forces were driving the exchange rate to its perceived PPP level; the second is a flexible-price monetary model; and the third is a model along the lines described by Tsiang (1957) which emphasizes world pri...

  18. Peru : Overcoming the Barriers to Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Hydropower has been the major source of electricity in Peru, traditionally supplying more than 80 percent of electricity requirements, and serving as a source of independent generation for major mines and industries. With the development of natural gas in the early 1990s, and the opening of the Camisea pipeline, the Government of Peru's (GOP's) attention turned to providing incentives for ...

  19. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  20. Archaeoastronomical Fieldwork in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Mike J.; Malville, J.

    2006-09-01

    During June-July 2005, sets of 14 horizon photographs were obtained at 10 major monumental sites of the Inca as identified in Hemming and Ranney (1982) . The photographs were combined to yield complete 360o panoramas at each of the sites. To calibrate the panoramas a Wild T-2 theodolite was used to obtain 5 pairs of altitude/azimuth measurements of the Sun at each site. The standard deviation of multiple determinations of true north was typically 0.25'to 0.5'. As a check on the sun sights, a line-of-sight azimuth was also established with GPS measurements at each site. Agreement between these baselines and the sun sights are satisfactory. We find evidence of June solstice and/or Pleiades orientations at Llactapata, Sayhuite, and Ollantaytambo; cardinal orientation at Vilcashuman; June solstice established by horizon towers above Urubamba; and both zenith and anti-zenith solar alignments at the tower of Muyuc Marca of Sacsayhuman. Terracing, walls, and water features at Ollantaytambo suggest interest in both June and December solstices. The statistical significance of these orientations is evaluated. A permit was issued by the office of the Institute Cultura National in Cusco for field work at all of these sites. This work was undertook as partial fulfillment of the requirement for a MA degree in Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. Funding was provided by Sigma Xi and The University of Northern Colorado. Hemming, J. and E. Ranney. 1982. Monuments of the Inca, Boston: Little, Brown

  1. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  2. Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.Size: 12 x 15 km (7.3 x 9.44 miles) Location: 13.2 deg. South lat., 72.5 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: June 25, 2001

  3. Infrastructure and economic growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Urrunaga; Carlos Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature analysing the importance of infrastructure for economic growth, and performs an econometric estimation to discover the relation between the two variables in the case of Peru. Different estimators are used with panel data from the 24 regions of Peru for the period 1980-2009. The econometric results confirm that public-service infrastructures (roads, electricity and telecommunications) are important in explaining temporary differences in regional output, in k...

  4. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  5. The Giant Otter Project In Peru 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schenck

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis are rarely investigated but highly endangered. The project "STATUS, HABITAT AND CONSERVATION OF GIANT OTTERS IN PERU" from the Frankfurt Zoological Society, - Help for Threatened Wildlife - started in 1990 with a two and half year fieldwork period. The project is actually run with a yearly two months fieldwork period in Peru and ongoing analyzing, management and coordination from Germany. Following we give the report for 1995.

  6. Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    Abstract: The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima. Aggregated data about migration have been related to information of socioeconomic and geographical conditions in rural and urban areas. Multivariate models of interregional migration are...

  7. [The health system of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care. PMID:21877089

  8. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of representative dairies in Peru: Nutritional strategies to reduce the emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of methane emissions from enteric fermentation of cattle in five typical locations of Peru and nutritional strategies to reduce those emissions are presented. The system in the coast considers animals in free-stall and in the highland cattle graze on pastures. Methodology applied was the Tier-2, IPCC. Cows on both grazing systems produce more methane per unit of milk and less methane per animal than in the coast. Strategies than improve quality of forage in the highlands can allow more milk with less methane emission. The methodology used considered five farm types, which were selected to estimate methane emissions from enteric fermentation. Farm PE-180 located in the coast (50 masl); farms PE-15 and PE-6 located in Cajamarca (north highland; > 2800 masl) and farms PE-1 and PE-4 located in Junin (central highland; 3600 - 4400 masl). The production system in the coast considers animals in free-stall with high use of concentrate and corn forage. Highland units consider grazing on cultivated (PE-15) and natural pasture (PE-6, PE-1 and PE-4) with limited use of concentrate. The methodology applied was the Tier-2, Ipc. Information was collected using specific surveys applied during one year that included rainy and dry season for the highland regions. Previous estimates using Tier-1, IPCC have been presented. The results of methane emissions from cattle show that animals on grazing system produce less methane than free-stall. However, when milk production is considered dairy cows on free-stall system produce 0.015 - 0.02 kg methane / kg of milk which is lower than emission from animals on grazing system producing 0.03 - 0.13 kg methane / kg milk corresponding the higher values to animals on natural pasture. Considering total methane emission (lactating + growing animals) in relation to milk production per farm, grazing systems compare even less favourably per kg milk than stall systems. In addition, there is opportunity with the actual cattle genotypes to

  9. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  10. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas), Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Ancca; Jesús Pinto; Silvia Vega; Abraham G. Cáceres; Cesar Náquira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén) y 68 (Cajaruro). Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2). La amplificación del e...

  11. Republic of Peru - Environmental Sustainability : A Key to Poverty Reduction in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report on a key to poverty reduction in Peru identifies a number of cost-effective policy interventions that could be adopted in the short and medium term to support sustainable development goals as the Government of Peru attempts to combat the problems of inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene; urban air pollution; natural disasters; lead exposure; indoor air pollution; land...

  12. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  13. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura de cierre de 70 a 90 m, que permaneció por meses hasta antes de ser abierto en forma natural por el río. Así como este deslizamiento, diferentes procesos gravitacionales se presentaron durante las lluvias anómalas en el 2008, 1998 y 1983 en la región norte del país, siendo afectadas importantes vías de penetración a la sierra y selva de la región Cajamarca. Estas zonas previamente evaluadas en el estudio de riesgo geológico en la región, y en particular el sector de Rodeopampa, fueron comparadas con el mapa de susceptibilidad elaborado. Dichas áreas ubicadas en zonas de alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa, permitieron validar el mapa y su utilidad como herramienta de prevención de desastres y planificación del desarrollo.

  14. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes

  15. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  16. Report of Heat Flow Measurements in Peru and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeda, Seiya; WATANABE, Teruhiko; Ozasayama, Yoji; Ibaragi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Results of terrestrial heat flow measurements in Peru and Ecuador conducted in 1969, are reported. Eight different sites in Peru and one site in Ecuador were visited for underground temperature measurement. However, data from only five metal mines in Peru and the metal exploration site in Ecuador were usable. The geothermal gradient data on four oil fields in Peru and two in Ecuador were referenced. Although high heat flow has been indicated on the continent side of the Andes (the Gasapalca a...

  17. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba ...

  18. 78 FR 48628 - Importation of Papayas From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... of Papayas From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... of fresh papayas from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru would include requirements for approved production locations; field sanitation;...

  19. The oil and gas market in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Petroleum companies in Peru have scheduled investments of $298.5 million for exploration activities for year 2000, which is double the 1999 investment. The demand for oil in Peru is about 140,000 barrels per day, of which local production can supply 106,00 b/d. In 2000, imports of crude oil were worth approximately $447.7 million. The 18 sedimentary basins throughout Peru are estimated to contain 16 billion barrels of crude oil reserves. The greatest exploration activity took place in the Talara basin, while only limited exploration took place in the Maranon and Ucayali basins. The discovery of the Camisea and Aguaytia gas fields present significant potential for development, particularly for foreign investment. Upstream development of the $4.5 billion Camisea project will be undertaken by a consortium of international companies and is expected to be completed by 2004. In addition, Aguaytia Energy is working on a pipeline construction project worth up to $3 million. Canadian oil and gas companies will find opportunities to supply equipment and services for drilling wells, petroleum and natural gas pipelines, and production and storage facilities for petroleum and natural gas. United States, Argentina, Brazil, Japan and the European Union are the main foreign competitors in Peru. It is recommended that foreign companies make use of a local agent when conducting business in Peru. refs., tabs.

  20. The Amuesha People of Central Peru: Their Struggle to Survive. IWGIA Document No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Chase

    In 1742, the national liberation movement led by Juan Santos Atahualpa forced the Franciscan missionaries, their military back-up, and the Spanish colonists they brought, out of central Peru and allowed the Amuesha and Campa peoples of the area to continue determining their own destinies independent of the Spanish and later Peruvian occupational…

  1. Human herpesvirus 8 genotype E in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Olivier; Blondot, Marie Lise; Mohanna, Salim; Jouvion, Gregory; Bravo, Francisco; Maco, Vicente; Duprez, Renan; Huerre, Michel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gessain, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    International audience To determine human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) K1 genotypes in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) from Peru, we characterized HHV-8 in 25 KS biopsy samples. Our findings of 8 A, 1 B, 14 C, and 2 E subtypes showed high HHV-8 diversity in these patients and association between E genotype and KS development.

  2. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  3. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  4. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  5. Characterizaton of the Zarumilla aquifer - Peru, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed the Brasilia Agreements on Ecuadro-Peru border issues, representing the end of historical conflicts, differences and misunderstnadings. The two countries became partners after years of armed conflicts, and move forward through cooperation and integration, both facing social and aconomic challenges. In May 2001, the Special Bi-national Project Puyango-Tumbes (Peru) and the Ecuadorian Commission PREDESUR, province of El Oro, as technical institutes in charge of projects dealing with binational development, were invited to participate in the regional project RLA/8/031. The results of the first phase of the study are presented in this document. The study will be continued under the TC project RlA/8/039 - 'Characterization of the Zarumilla aquifer and monitoring of water quality in the Puyango-Tumbes basin'. (author)

  6. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The low case fatality rates (1%) from the 1991 cholera epidemic in Peru was more a result of including diarrheas of a less virulent etiology than that of cholera. In fact, a study during the early phases of the cholera epidemic in Trujillo, Peru revealed that only 79% of suspected cholera cases were infected with vibrio cholera 01. Further other people contended that the government of Peru did not chlorinate many water supplies because studies by the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested that chlorine increases the cancer risk. It reacts with organic matter to make trihalomethanes. 1 study noted that this risk may explain as many as 700 cases of cancer/year in the US, yet cholera was responsible for nearly 40009 deaths in Latin America the 1st year. Besides in Trujillo, Peru the reason for not chlorinating the water supply was not due to a conscious decision to not do so on the part of the government, but because no funds had been made available to purchase chlorinators and chlorine. This is typical of many towns in developing countries. Further raw fish also played a role in transmitting cholera in Peru. Moreover the study in Trujillo indicated that water stored in containers in the home, and not the water supply, was the most important vehicle of transmission. Nevertheless chlorination of both the water supply and stored water would have prevented cholera transmission. In addition, cabbage irrigated with raw wastewater contributed to cholera transmission in Trujillo. But a concern arises if developing countries follow the advice of WHO of 1st treating wastewater in stabilization ponds. Aquatic blue green algae, other zooplankton, and phytoplankton from a microhabitat suitable for V. cholera. In fact, a study in Peru identified a seasonal pattern of the cholera epidemic with the seasonality of V. cholera non-01 from sewage lagoons in Lima. PMID:1351603

  7. Young Lives Preliminary Country Report: Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, Javier; Lanata, Claudio; Madrid, Sofia; Penny, Mary; Saavedra, Jaime; Suárez,Pablo; Verastegui, Héctor; Villar, Eliana; Huttly, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a brief literature review of childhood poverty in Peru, identifies key national audiences for the Young Lives study, explains the study methods used and presents provisional evidence, conclusions and policy implications. The Peruvian economy underwent a series of crises and external shocks in the 1980s and 1990s. The number of poor households rose rapidly from 43 per cent of the total in 1985-86 to 59 per cent in 1991. Despite reforms in the 1990s, Peru has one of the hig...

  8. Development of solar energy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

    1981-06-01

    Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

  9. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  10. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  11. Peru LNG : A Focus on Continuous Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Extractive industry companies, particularly those operating in areas of high biodiversity value, on indigenous lands, or in close proximity to communities, face operational and reputational risks related to their environmental and social performance, and can be subject to intense scrutiny from stakeholders. PERU Liquefied Natural Gas (PLNG), the first liquefied natural gas plant in South A...

  12. Wastewater use in aquaculture: research in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Prein, M.

    1995-01-01

    Use of wastewater is an issue gaining importance throughout the (developing) world, as water sources become scarcer and competition for them increases. In Peru, research has shown the technical, economic and social feasibility of growing fish in wastewater. Such fish farms could recover 100% of the wastewater treatment costs.

  13. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Horna-Campos, Olivia J.; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Inma; Bedoya, Alfredo; Martín, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease.

  14. Checklist of the marine bivalves from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the marine bivalve species from Peru is presented, this list has 401 species which are distributed in 65 families and 195 genera. The taxonomical classification and nomenclature is based on classical and current bibliography including Bernard (1983 and Coan & Valentich-Scott (2012. We give distribution and hábitat information about every species.

  15. Astrocaryum ulei (Arecaceae newly discovered in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kahn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocaryum ulei, previously known from Brazil and Bolivia, is here reported from Madre de Dios in Peru. Based on the new material collected it has been possible to write an amended description of this species, which is presented here.

  16. Peru's population in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1984-12-01

    In this discussion of Peru's population in the 1980s, attention focuses on the following; population growth; population policy and family planning; internal migration; and economic and social characteristics. Peru's rate of population growth was 1.8% annually between the censuses of 1940-61, a little less than 2.9% between 1961-71, and 2.7% in the decade preceding the 1981 census. These figures demonstrate that the national population is now growing at a less rapid rate than 1 or 2 decades ago but that Peru did not experience a marked drop like that in several other countries. As with overall population growth, the decline of fertility in Peru has been slow and gradual. During the past 20 years the crude birthrate dropped from 46.27 to 36.71/1000 and the total fertility rate from 6.85 to 5.00. The reason why Peru's population growth rate never exceeded 3% is a direct result of its exceptionally high mortality and infant mortality levels. Peru has a crude mortality rate of 10.74/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 98.63/1000. These are extremely high compared with other Latin American countries. Theoretically, the momentum of progress should be carrying Peru rapidly into the demographic transition. Some modernizing factors, i.e., improved health care, urbanization, communications, and education, are slowly reducing fertility and mortality, but progress on other factors such as per capita income and social mobility is not occurring. A table projects Per's population at various projected growth rates until 2025. Differences in fertility among Peruvian women indicate that family planning and contraception are relatively common in urban areas. The adoption of contraception occurred totally without government assistance before 1980, when policy changed. Until then, Peru was the only major Latin American country with population growing at over 2.5% annually that did not have some kind of public family planning program. In 1981 a survey on contraceptive use was conducted

  17. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia V Aguilar

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  18. Female Land Rights and Rural Household Incomes in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana; Durán, Rosa Luz; Mardon, Merrilee; Masterson, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...

  19. Landscape and soil governance: A rapid vulnerability assessment method applied in a Paramo landscape in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; Sevink, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Andean paramo ecosystems constitute geodiversity hotspots of global importance, but also have important ecosystem functions. These include agricultural production (mostly livestock and high altitude crops such potatoes, but also forestry) and deliverance of water to be used for various purposes (drink water, irrigation water, hydroelectric power) in downstream catchments, often hosting major population concentrations and industries. Because of their alpine relief, extreme climate and overall fragile soils, Paramo ecosystems are susceptible to degradation upon land use, particularly under increased human pressure such as by encroaching agriculture, accelerated by climate change posing a further threat to the functioning of remaining more or less conserved or pristine Paramo areas. Throughout the more populated parts of the Andes, where land use has seriously intensified over the past decades, degradation has become rampant with associated losses of the functions mentioned. To this comes an increased worldwide demand for minerals, leading to their exploration and large-scale exploitation in hitherto inaccessible and remote areas, such as the higher parts of the Andes. Not surprising, the mining issue and related environmental hazards are high on the political agenda of most Andean countries, though not always based on scientific knowledge of its potential impacts in specific areas. A rapid assessment methodology is presented for the Las Lagunas region near Cajamarca in Northern Peru. The method includes prefield segmentation and classification of Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery, complemented with detailed aerial photo interpretation. The results are stored in a GIS geodatabase and supplemented with data from field surveys. This leads to rapid and sound postfield analyses and vulnerability classifications using simple GIS tools. The results are pointing at four important issues in relation to soil and landscape governance and identification of vulnerability zones

  20. Legal framework of the nonprofit private sector in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De Belaunde L. de R., Javier; Parodi Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The Political Constitution of Peru recognizes, as one of the basic human rights, the constitutional freedom of association in general. In Peru, the non-profit organizations are fundamentally regulated by the Civil Code, through the legal figures of association, foundation and committee, which are legal entities (incorporated organizations in Public Records). In addition, the Civil Code of Peru, recognizes non incorporated organizations (associations, foundations and committees) as legal subje...

  1. An Economic Evaluation of Peru's LNG Export Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Leung; Glenn Jenkins

    2013-01-01

    Peru's Camisea gas fields hold nearly ninety percent of the country's natural gas reserves. In the 1990s, the government insisted on prioritizing Camisea gas for domestic consumption. The revocation of this policy in the 2000s allowed the private developers to export forty percent of Camisea's proven gas reserves, equivalent to Peru's one third of the total. This USD 3.9 billion LNG export project boasts the largest single foreign direct investment in Peru's history. A major component of the ...

  2. Epidemiology of road traffic incidents in Peru 1973-2008: incidence, mortality, and fatality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973-2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth.Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43-5.31 on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15-0.43, while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43. Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP per capita.The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs.

  3. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  4. The Tres Ventanas Mummies of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido; Ojeda, Bernadino; Benfer, Robert A; Rivera, Ricardo; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S; Thompson, Randall C

    2015-06-01

    The Tres Ventanas mummies of Peru are thought to be among the oldest mummies in existence, dating to between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these mummies for use in future research on mummified remains. Although the Tres Ventanas cave and the four mummies were explored and then excavated by Frederic Engel in 1966-67, and the project is named in his honor as the "Engel Study Group", the importance of both the physical remains and the context in which they were found has only come to light in the last few years. Most important is the paleopathological examination of these remains, since these mummies are found in a high altitude area of Peru where adaptation to the limited partial pressure of oxygen is perhaps a key component in broadening our understanding of human diversity in past populations.

  5. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  6. Sino-American Corporation in Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming

    1996-01-01

    @@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.

  7. Comprehensive Cooperation of CHINA-PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 19th,Chinese President Hu Jintao warmly welcomed Peruvian President Alan Garcia at the Great Hall of the People.Accompanying President Alan Garcia was the Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Mercedes Araoz, who came to China to attend the forum on Investment and Business Opportunities in Peru, sponsored by CCPIT.At the event, the graceful lady meticulously introduced her country to the all of the Chinese and Peruvian entrepreneurs in attendance.

  8. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  9. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Sub-national Revenue Mobilization in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Sepulveda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and inefficiencies associated with revenue sharing from extractive industries. These revenues represent ...

  11. Regime shifts and inflation uncertainty in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paúl Castillo; Alberto Humala; Vicente Tuesta

    2012-01-01

    The link between inflation and inflation uncertainty is evaluated using Peruvian data, in a context of changing monetary policies because of regime shifts. A Markov regime-switching heteroskedasticity model that includes unobserved components is used. The model shows how periods of high (low) inflation accompany periods of high (low) short- and long-run uncertainty in inflation. The results of the model also illustrate how, during the recent period of price stability in Peru, both permanent a...

  12. Peru; Drivers of De-dollarization

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Garcia-Escribano

    2010-01-01

    Peru has successfully pursued a market-driven financial de-dollarization during the last decade. Dollarization of credit and deposit of commercial banks - across all sectors and maturities - has declined, with larger declines for commercial credit and time and saving deposits. The analysis presented in this paper confirms that de-dollarization has been driven by macroeconomic stability, introduction of prudential policies to better reflect currency risk (such as the management of reserve requ...

  13. How to Subvert Democracy: Montesinos in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John; Zoido, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Which of the democratic checks and balances - opposition parties, the judiciary, a free press -is the most critical? Peru has the full set of democratic institutions. In the 1990s, the secret-police chief Vladimiro Montesinos systematically undermined them all with bribes. We quantify the checks using the bribe prices. Montesinos paid television-channel owners about 100 times what he paid judges and politicians. One single television channel's bribe was four times larger than the total of the...

  14. Central Power and Decentralization: Peru, 1931

    OpenAIRE

    Caravedo, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the debates in the field of social sciences in Peru refers to the characteristics or nature of the ruling class. Today, despite the criticism, the use of the term "oligarchy" is the most common. Two recent publications persist in using that term, and have reintroduced an old argument in the current debate. Sociologist Henry Pease (1977) notes that the State "was directly controlled by a closed oligarchy where agricultural exporters had hegemony. They imposedtheir terms of foreign condu...

  15. Enterprise Surveys : Peru Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The country profile for Peru is based on data from the enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank in 2010. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important role in whether a country will prosper or not. An accommodating business environment is one that encourages firms ...

  16. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  17. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  18. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  19. Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan...

  20. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy M. Hurtado; Víctor Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA), they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine...

  1. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these counte...

  2. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-01-01

    Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N) and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weeke...

  3. MLVA genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Smits; B. Espinosa; R. Castillo; E. Hall; A. Guillen; M. Zevaleta; R.H. Gilman; P. Melendez; C. Guerra; A. Draeger; A. Broglia; K. Nöckler

    2009-01-01

    Recent human Brucella melitensis isolates from Peru were genotyped by multiple locus variable number repeat analysis. All 24 isolates originated from hospitalized patients living in the central part of Peru and consisted of six genomic groups comprising two to four isolates and nine unique genotypes

  4. Japanese investment in Peru: limits of developmental investment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Japanese Investment in Latin America was considerable in the 1960s and 1970s, but the investment never took off in the developmental style as in East Asia. The author examines why Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Peru did not follow the pattern of developmental investment, analyzing the elements involved regarding policies in Peru and particular circumstances in Japan in the 1990 decade.

  5. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  6. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  7. Peru - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Peru, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most developing countries, Peru has submitted only one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the second one under prepara...

  8. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  9. Public Expenditure Review for Peru : Spending for Results

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to take stock of Peru's public expenditure since the last PER and identify the main challenges. The key underlying questions addressed are: (i) How did Peru's public expenditure and revenues develop over the past decade? (ii) How have decentralization and the shift towards results-based budgeting impacted this development across levels...

  10. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  11. On a new Andinia (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae) from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1957-01-01

    Some time ago Prof. Dr. W. Weyrauch at Lima, Peru, sent to me specimens of a species of the subfamily Neniinae that proved to be new to science. Already about 70 species of the subfamily have become known from Peru, for an important part discovered by Prof. Weyrauch himself. Andinia (Ehrmanniella) f

  12. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  13. Variables Associated with Utilization of a Centralized Medical Post in the Andean Community of Pampas Grande, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Stephen P.; Rohrer, James E.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Integral to the location of health resources is the distance decay of utilization observed in a population. In rural Peru, a nongovernmental organization planning to increase the availability of health services needed this information. Purpose: To determine variables associated with utilization of a central medical clinic and determine…

  14. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  15. Un proyecto de educación internacional a favor del derecho a una educación normalizadora para las personas con necesidades educativas especiales entre el Centro Latinoamericano de Lleida y el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial Peruano-Filial Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Coiduras Rodríguez, Jordi L.

    2001-01-01

    Se da a conocer el desarrollo de un proyecto de cooperación del Centro Latinoamericano y el Ayuntamiento de la ciudad de Lleida con el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial, la Universidad y el Departamento de Educación de la región de Cajamarca del Perú para la formación de los docentes en la atención a todo el alumnado, en la sensibilización sobre la búsqueda de respuestas educativas a los alumnos que presentan necesidades educativas especiales en el ámbito escolar más ordinario ...

  16. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  17. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  18. A proposal for developing natural gas in Peru; Uma proposta de acao para o desenvolvimento do gas natural no Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, Maria E.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    The discovery of natural gas in the South region of Peru (Camisea) has shown that reserves are four times petroleum reserves. A study that would contribute to the economical development of the South region of Peru for exploiting natural gas is proposed. 6 refs.

  19. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  20. A Multi-disciplinary Overview of Chagas in Periurban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McCune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas

  1. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies. Findings Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men. Conclusions In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries. PMID:19779620

  2. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  3. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency can produce disturbances in physical and mental health, the most common sign of severe iron deficiency being anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia can impair work capacity; learning capacity and result in changes in behaviour as well as compromise immunocompetence and causing less resistance to infections. In pregnancy, there is evidence that severe anaemia increases the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as premature delivery. There is thus ample justification for attempting to implement programmes to combat iron deficiency in developing countries such as Peru. In order to determine the most appropriate intervention it is necessary to have data on the prevalence and severity of iron deficiency. The purpose of this study is to develop the necessary steps to implement a fortification programme to combat iron deficiency anaemia in Peru, targeted to pre-school children and pregnant women, who are the risk groups due to their increased requirements of this nutrient. 11 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Autoritarismus in Peru : das Fujimori-Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, John

    2007-01-01

    The ten-years presidency of Alberto Fujimori in Peru is a classic example of the sort of hybrid democracy that emerged in various Latin American countries in the 1990s, combining a mixture of democratic and clearly non-democratic elements. Fujimori was one of the more autocratic Latin American leaders of the 1990s, he is being the only regime formally to break with pre-existing constitutional rules. Closely tied to the military and intelligence apparatus, his government involved a concentrati...

  5. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  6. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  7. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  8. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ancca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén y 68 (Cajaruro. Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2. La amplificación del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón, permitió la caracterización molecular de los trypanosomas aislados. Se utilizó la prueba de precipitina para conocer las fuentes de alimentación de los vectores y así poder asociarlos a posibles reservorios del parásito. Resultados. El análisis morfométrico demostró que el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño fue similar (p>0,05; no ocurrió lo mismo con el dimorfismo de la conformación; asimismo no se encontró diferencias de tamaño al comparar por separado hembras y machos de Jaén y Cajaruro. Por ITS-2, se evaluó cinco especímenes de cada distrito, en ellos se observó una banda de 960 pb aproximadamente. Sólo en Cajaruro se encontraron triatominos parasitados, que fue caracterizado como Trypanosoma cruzi TCI (350 pb. Se identificó al cobayo como la fuente de alimento más frecuente. Conclusiones. Ambas poblaciones de P. herreri por morfometría geométrica e ITS-2, no evidenció diferencias, indicando que se trataría de una misma población y por consiguiente de la misma procedencia. La sangre de cobayo fue la más frecuente fuente de alimento, pudiendo ser el principal reservorio para la enfermedad de Chagas en esta zona del Perú.

  9. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well.

  10. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  11. Dentistry with a difference: volunteering for 'Dental Project Peru'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, M A

    2008-03-01

    As a young dentist looking for new challenges and experiences, Mary Bussell decided to use her skills and training by volunteering for a dental charity working in Peru. Here she gives an account of her 'dental adventure'.

  12. Developing Low Carbon Transport Policies in Peru - Draft Transport NAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Brinez, C. P.; Tyler, N.

    2012-01-01

    The report is an initial draft of a Transport NAMA for Peru. NAMA stands for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions and are a relatively new initiative from the UNFCCC to tackle climate change. The report covers

  13. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  14. Creative women in Peru: outliers in a machismo world

    OpenAIRE

    Mensa, M. (Marta); Grow, J.M. (Jean M.)

    2015-01-01

    Gender segregation begins early and is reinforced within the workplace. Advertising creative departments appear to have extreme gender segregation with women representing just 20% of all those working within creative departments worldwide. Yet, creativity does not depend on gender. Thus, the underrepresentation of women is particularly troubling. In Peru women comprise 3% to 10.4% of all people working in advertising creative, which suggests the situation for creative women in Peru is dire. I...

  15. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  16. Lagging regions and development strategies: The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James; Morley, Samuel; Pratt, Alejandro Nin

    2009-01-01

    "Despite the economic transformation of Peru's coastal economy, the country's inland region remains poor and underdeveloped. We herein examine the economic linkages between the two regions using a multi-regional computable general equilibrium model based on a regionalized social accounting matrix. The model results show that coastal growth undermines the inland economy by increasing import competition and internal migration. Peru, therefore, cannot rely solely on rapid national growth to gene...

  17. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephanie Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  18. Peru Opportunities and Challenges of Small Hydropower Development

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Peter; Zolezzi, Eduardo H.; Bogach, Susan V.; Muir, Terence; Bazex, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Peru is favored by a stable and growing economy and the availability of indigenous sources of energy for electricity generation, including hydro and natural gas. The Peruvian electricity sector is among the few in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) that has not confronted a crisis in recent years. The power sector in Peru was reformed and restructured between 1991 and 1993, followed by a pr...

  19. Structural Changes in Asparagus Production and Exports from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Asparagus is the star product among non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAXs) in Peru. The export of preserved asparagus has expanded since the end of the 1980s. Although there was some stagnation in the mid-1990s, exports of fresh asparagus have expanded rapidly since the end of the 1990s. Now, the export of both preserved and fresh asparagus constitute the second most important agricultural export in Peru after coffee. Besides the change in demand on the international market, the importa...

  20. Export growth and diversification : the case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Illescas, Javier; Jaramillo, C. Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of exports since the early 1990s is a central feature in the extraordinary rise of Peru's economy in recent years. This study puts a lens on this export growth episode, with special attention to two issues. The first one is the role of international price levels as well as export volumes in explaining this growth. The second one is whether Peru has seen a diversification o...

  1. Cross-cultural dynamics in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, David A; Blair, Patrick J

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural and language barriers can be an impediment to the conduct of biomedical studies in developing nations. To assess the implementation of human-use procedures within a minimum-risk febrile illness surveillance study in Peru, personnel fluent in both English and Spanish conducted a review of 10 sites. Guideline adherence, consent procedures, and potential problems in the conduct of the trial were reviewed. Concerns cited by on-site investigators included patient follow-up, poor facilities, and power fluctuations that jeopardized samples before shipment to a central location. However, both local study coordinators and patients demonstrated a clear grasp of study enrollment and consent procedures and reported no significant problems in the conduct of the study. These findings suggest that significant planning is crucial before initiation of biomedical studies in developing nations to successfully overcome physical challenges and cultural dynamics that could otherwise adversely affect scientific outcomes. PMID:17256693

  2. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  3. Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Alexander; Bonavia, Duccio; Dillehay, Tom D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is among the world's most important and ancient domesticated crops. Although the chronology of its domestication and initial dispersals out of Mexico into Central and South America has become more clear due to molecular and multiproxy archaeobotanical research, important problems remain. Among them is the paucity of information on maize's early morphological evolution and racial diversification brought about in part by the poor preservation of macrofossils dating to the pre-5000 calibrated years before the present period from obligate dispersal routes located in the tropical forest. We report newly discovered macrobotanical and microbotanical remains of maize that shed significant light on the chronology, land race evolution, and cultural contexts associated with the crop's early movements into South America and adaptation to new environments. The evidence comes from the coastal Peruvian sites of Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru; dates from the middle and late preceramic and early ceramic periods (between ca. 6700 and 3000 calibrated years before the present); and constitutes some of the earliest known cobs, husks, stalks, and tassels. The macrobotanical record indicates that a diversity of racial complexes characteristic of the Andean region emerged during the preceramic era. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon determinations carried out directly on different structures of preserved maize plants strongly suggest that assays on burned cobs are more reliable than those on unburned cobs. Our findings contribute to knowledge of the early diffusion of maize and agriculture and have broader implications for understanding the development of early preindustrial human societies. PMID:22307642

  4. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  5. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cossio-Bolaños

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b determine biological age; and (c analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m. Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV. Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05 was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05 was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight.

  6. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  7. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State and the... Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'')...

  8. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental... United States Trade Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend...

  9. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa,Peru from 1983 to 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalesz, S. A.; Hallenbeck, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the...

  10. Review of the Huaytapallana project in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Adam; Welsch, Walter

    1986-11-01

    In 1969, two consecutive earthquakes activated a reverse fault at an elevation of 4600 m in the Huaytapallana mountain range near Huancayo in central Peru. In 1975, a small geodetic network was established and measured across the fault covering an area of about 1.5 km 2. The network has been remeasured in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1982, using standard geodetic instruments, as a joint effort by two Canadian and one German universities in cooperation with the Peruvian Institute of Geophysics. In 1978, the network was expanded to cover 6 km 2. High-altitude sickness, logistic problems with old vehicles, civil unrest and riots plagued the survey expeditions. The results show a cyclic rigid body motion of the southwest side versus the northeast side of the fault in a general east-west direction of about ± 3 mm/year. The direction of the motion agrees with the direction of compressive forces expected in this subduction region. The next survey campaign is planned for 1987.

  11. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content. PMID:12313874

  12. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  13. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru.

  14. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  15. Education for Social Change. Peru 1972-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Oliart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The education reform implemented by the military regime of Juan Velasco (1968-1975 in Peru was the result of the alliance between a progressive branch of the armed forces and a group of cosmopolitan intellectuals influenced by radical pedagogy from the 60s and 70s, but also loyal to a long progressive tradition in education from Peru and Latin America. Analysis of this truncated project brings to light critical debates about politics and ideology in education and resonates with contemporary discussions about development and post development studies. The contemporary significance of the 1972 education reform is that its legacy, embodied in conspicuous members of the education community, played a role in the application of the neoliberal reforms in education in Peru in the 1990s, and helped envision a consensual educational project for the future.

  16. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis.

  17. Japanese investment in Peru: Latin American strategies and investment platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Against the Peruvians expectations, in the 90s there has not been a massive Japanese private investment. In this work, the author explains this matter, and shows that Japanese Foreign Direct lnvestment in Peru was substantial in his beginnings, in the 60s and 70s, and might be entering lo a future stage of strengthening, depending on the policies applied by Peru and the Japanese strategy centered on the platforms of investment and export. For a promotion policy, is highlighted the necessity t...

  18. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  19. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Tashu

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind†as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to epis...

  20. Serological characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease type 'O' field isolates from Peru: 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) recovered from bovine epithelial samples corresponding to outbreaks present in different regions of Peru, between 1992-1994 were studied. The relationship of the virus isolates to the O/Urubamba vaccine strain of Peru was determined by the calculation of the 'r' values obtained by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA. All the isolates showed 'r' values higher than 0.66 indicating that the vaccine strain should protect against the field strains. Characterization of the field isolates by a trapping ELISA using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against FMDV O/Switzerland and O/Caseros, showed slight differences in the profiles of the field isolates when compared with the O/Urubamba vaccine strain, but no differences were found among all the isolates. (author)

  1. INVASION OF PREDATOR HARMONIA AXYRIDIS (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE AND AN EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, José

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The generalist predator Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1772, is an effective and voracious biological control of pests, especially of aphids. However, worldwide is considered a threat to fruit production, in the reduction of beneficial fauna native and as a household pest. It has been detected from 90 of the last century in several South American countries, mainly in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia and Chile. Its invasion in Peru in recent years includes the arrival, establishment and spread in different urban, agricultural and natural ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the invasion of H. axyridis and an environmental risk assessment in Peru. The study was non-probabilistic, not experimental, and cross-sectional chance in 20 towns of Lima, Callao and Madre de Dios, Peru from January to March 2011 to search for different species of Coccinellidae, using standard procedures for collecting entomological. It was recorded aphid-prey specie, and specie and family plant associated. Of the total individuals of coccinellid collected, the 48.60% were H. axyridis, Cycloneda sanguinea (29.01%, Hippodamia convergens (7.37%, Prodilis inclytus (3.81%, Eriopis connexa (3.56% and other seven species (7.66%. Harmonia axyridis, C. sanguinea and H. convergens were surveyed in the following families and locations: 14:14, 13:14 and 4:4, respectively. With regard to the environmental risk assessment of H. axyridis was used van Lenteren protocol that assesses the magnitude and likelihood of risk based on their ability to establish, dispersal potential nontarget habitats, host range, and direct and indirect effects. The environmental risk index (ARI was 77 points from a maximum of 125. The results show a reduction in frequency relative percentage of other species of coccinellids, especially H. convergens and an increase in H. axyridis related to high voracity as a predator, and a high fertility and fecundity. It includes an

  2. Genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Amazon basin of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carmen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic and could render a vaccine ineffective if their antigenic sites were not represented in the vaccine. In this study, characterization of genetic variability was performed in major B and T-cell epitopes within vaccine candidate antigens in isolates of P. falciparum from Peru. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was completed on 139 isolates of P. falciparum collected from endemic areas of the Amazon basin in Loreto, Peru from years 1998 to 2006. Genetic diversity was determined in immunological important regions in circumsporozoite protein (CSP, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1, liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1 and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the vaccine strain 3D7 and DNA polymorphism analysis and FST study-year pairwise comparisons were done using the DnaSP software. Multilocus analysis (MLA was performed and average of expected heterozygosity was calculated for each loci and haplotype over time. Results Three different alleles for CSP, seven for MSP-1 Block 2, one for MSP-1 Block 17, three for AMA-1 and for LSA-1 each and one for TRAP were identified. There were 24 different haplotypes in 125 infections with complete locus typing for each gene. Conclusion Characterization of the genetic diversity in Plasmodium isolates from the Amazon Region of Peru showed that P. falciparum T and B cell epitopes in these antigens have polymorphisms more similar to India than to Africa. These findings are helpful in the formulation of a vaccine considering restricted repertoire populations.

  3. Analysis of the 23 June 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake Using Locally Recorded Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Comte, D.; Boroschek, R.; Dorbath, L.; Portugal, D.; Haessler, H.; Montes, H.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Salas, H.; Inza, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Glass, B.; Correa, E.; Balmaceda, I.; Meneses, C.

    2001-12-01

    The 23 June 2001, Mw=8.4 southern Peru earthquake ruptured the northern and central part of the previous large earthquake occurred on 13 August 1868, Mw ~9. A detailed analysis of the aftershock sequence was possible due to the deployment of a temporary seismic network along the coast in the Arequipa and Moquegua districts, complementing the Peruvian permanent stations. The deployed temporary network included 10 short period three component stations from the U. of Chile-IRD-France and 7 broad-band seismic stations from the Instituto Geofísico del Perú. This network operated during the first weeks after the mainshock and recorded the major aftershocks like the larger one occurred on 7 July 2001, Mw=7.5, this event defines the southern limit of the rupture area of the 2001 Peruvian earthquake. The majority of the aftershocks shows a thrusting fault focal mechanisms according with the average convergence direction of the subducting Nazca plate, however, normal faulting events are also present in the aftershock sequence like the 5 July 2001, Mw=6.6 one. The depth distribution of the events permitted a detailed definition of the Wadati-Benioff zone in the region. The segment between Ilo and Tacna did not participated in the rupture process of the 2001 southern Peru earthquake. Seismicity located near the political Peruvian-Chilean boundary was reliable determined using the data recorded by the northern Chile permanent network. Analysis of the mainshock and aftershock acelerograms recorded in Arica, northern Chile are also included. The occurrence of the 1995 Antofagasta (Mw=8.0) and the 2001 southern Peru earthquakes suggests that the probability of having a major earthquake in the northern Chile region increased, considering that the previous large earthquake in this region happened in 1877 (Mw ~9), and since that time no earthquake with magnitude Mw>8 had occurred inside of the 1877 estimated rupture area (between Arica and Antofagasta).

  4. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  5. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M

    1989-01-01

    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course. PMID:12283151

  6. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  7. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  8. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  9. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department
    of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish
    maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepa

  10. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  11. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  12. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  13. NEW RECORDS OF BIRDS OF VENTANILLA WETLANDS, CALLAO, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 2005 and October 2006, diversity of birds of Ventanilla wetland, Callao, Peru was evaluated, through counting two twice a month. 59 species of birds were registered; 16 were new records for this wetland. Adding these count to others obtained in previous studies, results in 78 species registered for this wetland of Ventanilla.

  14. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  15. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  17. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  18. Internationalization at home : Technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivos Rossini, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of information systems, management science in particular the field of management education and cross-cultural studies. It further proposes a model to understand technology-supported multicultural learning in Peru. In addition, the model examines intercult

  19. An Historical Account of the Bilingual Education Policy in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bienvenu, Elena; Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of bilingual education programs in Peru. The first part of the paper consists of a general discussion of Peruvian history and the problem of native language suppression under Spanish colonialism and, later, a Spanish dominant independent government. Educational policies and the…

  20. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hordijk

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs

  1. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  2. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  3. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41...

  5. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  6. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  7. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weygandt Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.

  8. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Montesinos-Tubée; K.V. Sýkora; V. Quipuscoa-Silvestre; A.M. Cleef

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  9. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  10. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%), mean age 43.7 (± 14.5) years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%-11.2%) customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥ 5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population. PMID:27617194

  11. Prophylaxis and treatment of endemic goiter with iodized oil in rural Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B

    1969-12-01

    Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.

  12. An assessment and monitoring program for birds in the Lower Urubamba region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angehr, George R; Siegel, James; Aucca, Constantino; Christian, Daniel G; Pequeño, Tatiana

    2002-05-01

    We developed an assessment and monitoring plan for birds in connection with the exploration and potential development of a large natural gas field in the Lower Urubamba drainage of Peru, a project of Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP). Our objectives were to: (1) inventory the birds in the area, including information on habitat use and abundance, and (2) devise long-term monitoring protocols for birds. We sampled birds through a combination of visual and auditory surveys and mist-netting at 4 well sites and 3 sites along the Urubamba and Camisea rivers. We recorded 420 species during 135 days of field work. We consider the highest priorities for a future monitoring program to be: (1) establish whether edge effects are occurring at well sites, along roads and along the planned pipeline route and determine the significance and extent of these effects and (2) assess the impact of increased human access to the area on game and other exploited species. The remoteness of the area, its rugged terrain and dense vegetation and the lack of trained personnel limit the choice of survey and monitoring methods. We recommend use of mist-netting and transects for monitoring edge effects and use of transects for monitoring game and other exploited species.

  13. ENSO Impacts on Lomas Formation in South Coastal Peru: Implications for the Pliocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paul Eichler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lomas formations in southern Peru are related to moisture availability due to frequent incursions of fog in austral winter. Due to warming of coastal waters of southern Peru during El Niño, lomas formations are enhanced via greater moisture availability for fog and drizzle. Our study evaluates the modern climatological record in austral winter to determine if there are differences in moisture availability between El Niño and La Niña for fog formation. Our results show anomalous northwesterly onshore flow, warmer than normal sea-surface temperatures, and an increase in precipitable water in El Niño, favoring lomas formations due to advection fog with higher moisture content. On the other hand, La Niña also favors frequent advection fog, with less moisture content due to strong onshore flow over relatively cool SSTs. Since lomas may represent fragments of a continuous vegetation belt that existed during the Pliocene, a permanent El Niño favoring vigorous vegetation production along the south Peruvian coast due to incursions of fog with high precipitable water may have occurred in this period. However, the possibility of normal El Niño variability superimposed on a warmer climatology producing fog with higher moisture content in both El Niño and La Niña conditions cannot be discounted.

  14. Crustal Seismicity and Recent Faults in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Comte, D.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Herail, G.

    2004-12-01

    Most seismological studies in southern Peru have been focused on the downgoing slab seismicity in order to constrain the Wadati-Benioff zone. This study deals with the intra-continental seismicity of the southern Peru forearc (17,3° S - 18,5° S) in a post-seismic context (Arequipa thrust earthquake, Mw=8.4, 23 June, 2001). It is difficult to identify historical crustal earthquake from available catalogues, however some crustal events teleseismically recorded can be found since 1976; they exhibit normal focal mechanism solutions in the southern Peru volcanic arc and inverse focal mechanism solutions in the Central Depression. Following a notable increase of shallow crustal seismicity located close to the Western Cordillera after the 23 June 2001, a temporary seismic network was deployed between January and March 2003 in order to study the Wadati-Benioff zone and monitoring the crustal seismicity in southern Peru. From the about 1700 events locally recorded by the local network, 300 crustal earthquakes were identified in the Peruvian forearc between Tacna and Moquegua. This crustal seismicity is distributed along a lineament located at depths between 0 and 60 km, dipping at about 45° from the Western Cordillera towards the coast, almost perpendicular to the subducting slab; this behaviour was previously observed in northern Chile and in southern Peru, north of the study zone (16° S). In the Central Depression, seismic activity is not superficial occurring between 25-60 km depth and it is mostly characterized by inverse focal mechanism solutions. Superficial faults situated in the Central Depression and in the Coastal Cordillera can not be associated with the seismic activity observed in this area. However, in the Pre-Cordillera, crustal seismicity occurs at depths between 0-15 km and can be correlated with shallow fault systems recognized by satellite images and on the field. For examples, the Incapuquio fault system which was a transpressive system in Cretaceous

  15. Randomized, controlled human challenge study of the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a single dose of Peru-15, a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell B; Giannella, Ralph A; Bean, Judy; Taylor, David N; Parker, Susan; Hoeper, Amy; Wowk, Stephen; Hawkins, Jennifer; Kochi, Sims K; Schiff, Gilbert; Killeen, Kevin P

    2002-04-01

    Peru-15 is a live attenuated oral vaccine derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by a series of deletions and modifications, including deletion of the entire CT genetic element. Peru-15 is also a stable, motility-defective strain and is unable to recombine with homologous DNA. We wished to determine whether a single oral dose of Peru-15 was safe and immunogenic and whether it would provide significant protection against moderate and severe diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human volunteer cholera challenge model. A total of 59 volunteers were randomly allocated to groups to receive either 2 x 10(8) CFU of reconstituted, lyophilized Peru-15 vaccine diluted in CeraVacx buffer or placebo (CeraVacx buffer alone). Approximately 3 months after vaccination, 36 of these volunteers were challenged with approximately 10(5) CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Among vaccinees, 98% showed at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers. After challenge, 5 (42%) of the 12 placebo recipients and none (0%) of the 24 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (> or = 3,000 g of diarrheal stool) (P = 0.002; protective efficacy, 100%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 75%). A total of 7 (58%) of the 12 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 24 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P Peru-15 is a well-tolerated and immunogenic oral cholera vaccine that affords protective efficacy against life-threatening cholera diarrhea in a human volunteer challenge model. This vaccine may therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers and is a strong candidate for further evaluation to prevent cholera in an area where cholera is endemic.

  16. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  17. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK.

  18. Research ethics training in Peru: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roxana Lescano

    Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing number of health care professionals seeking international research experience, comes an urgent need for enhanced capacity of host country institutional review boards (IRB to review research proposals and ensure research activities are both ethical and relevant to the host country customs and needs. A successful combination of distance learning, interactive courses and expert course instructors has been applied in Peru since 2004 through collaborations between the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, the University of Washington and the Department of Clinical Bioethics of the National Institutes of Health to provide training in ethical conduct of research to IRB members and researchers from Peru and other Latin American countries. All training activities were conducted under the auspices of the Peruvian National Institute of Health (INS, Ministry of Health. To date, 927 people from 12 different Latin American countries have participated in several of these training activities. In this article we describe our training model.

  19. Challenges in tuberculosis management in Peru and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, Elena; Boulton, Jacqueline

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious but preventable and largely treatable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although there is evidence that the UK incidence remains stable, rates of the disease, particularly in some London boroughs, remain high, earning it the unenviable title of the 'tuberculosis capital of Europe'. In March 2014 Public Health England published a consultation document on a collaborative strategy for tackling tuberculosis in England. This highlights a growing concern surrounding the issue. In the 1990s, Peru's tuberculosis epidemic saw the country listed among the Pan-American Health Organisation's top 23 countries of heaviest burden. Since then overall rates, although remaining significantly higher than those of the UK, have fallen dramatically. This article uses the observations of a BSc Nursing student undertaking an international elective in Peru to highlight some of the challenges faced by nurses in managing TB and draws parallels with those faced in the UK. PMID:25382081

  20. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  1. Seasonal variations in theequatorial thermospheric wind measured at Arequipa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalez, S A

    1990-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at Arequipa, Peru, of the seasonal variations in the thermospheric winds at moderate solar flux levels and low geomagnetic activity. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the Doppler shifts in the 630.0 nm nightglow emission line from March to August 1983 and from April to October 1988 have yielded monthly-average meridional winds that are nearly zero (

  2. Adverse Geography and Differences in Welfare in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.; Torero, M.

    2003-01-01

    In Peru, a country with an astonishing variety of different ecological areas, with 84 different climate zones and landscapes, with rainforests, high mountain ranges and dry deserts, the geographical context may not be all that matters, but it could be very significant in explaining regional variations in income and poverty. The major question this paper tries to answer is: what role do geographic variables, both natural and manmade, play in explaining per capita expenditure differentials acro...

  3. Frequency of Maternal and Newborn Birth Outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the H...

  4. Research Ethics Training in Peru: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Roxana Lescano; Blazes, David L.; Montano, Silvia M.; Zoe Moran; Cesar Naquira; Edwin Ramirez; Reidar Lie; Martin, Gregory J.; Lescano, Andres G.; Zunt, Joseph R

    2008-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing number of health care professionals seeking international research experience, comes an urgent need for enhanced capacity of host country institutional review boards (IRB) to review research proposals and ensure research activities are both ethical and relevant to the host country customs and needs. A successful combination of distance learning, interactive courses and expert course instructors has been applied in Peru since 2004 through collaborations between the ...

  5. Reducing Chronic Malnutrition in Peru: A Proposed National Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice L. Rogers; Serena Rajabiun; James Levinson; Katherine Tucker

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a national strategy to reduce the prevalence of chronic malnutrition in Peru. It is intended for senior decision-makers in the government, and researchers on food and nutrition policy, in order to, a) emphasize the importance of the problem and the feasibility of its solution, and b) suggest how resources should be allocated, and services organized, with a view to achieving the goal of reduced chronic malnutrition. It is also intended as a guide to senior program managers,...

  6. Designing a Rural Development Strategy for Peru's Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Werbrouck, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Poverty and economic stagnation characterize most rural areas in Peru. National growth has been slow and uneven since the mid-1970s, benefiting urban areas rather than rural ones. Between 1985 and 2000, the number of poor people increased by 71 percent. The incidence of poverty (67 percent) and extreme poverty (40 percent) is highest in rural areas, reaching 73 percent (poverty) and 41 per...

  7. Banking Credit, Policy Interest Rate and Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Dancourt

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel" of monetary policy transmission in Peru with disaggregated monthly data of the Peruvian banks balance sheets from January 2003 to December 2011. We study two policy instruments used during the inflation targeting regime: the short-term interest rate or policy rate and the reserve requirements on banks deposits. In a Bernanke-Blinder model where the monetary authority sets the interest rate instead of a monetary aggregate, the in...

  8. Stabilization programs and policy credibility: Peru in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Quispe-Agnoli

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a rational expectations macroeconomic model in which economic agents formulate the probability about the sustainability of the economic policy—that is, policy credibility—using current and lagged values of government expenditures and lagged values of the inflation rate. The estimation of the model is based on Hamilton’s switching regime procedure. The contribution of this paper is the empirical estimation of the credibility of the stabilization program implemented in Peru in A...

  9. Money demand and inflation in Peru, 1979-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Pedro Ventura

    2000-01-01

    The author, a junior at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, won the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland’s first annual undergraduate economics essay competition in 2000. His essay, now reprinted as an Economic Commentary, explores the factors that affected money demand during a period of terrible hyperinflation in Peru and considers whether the government caused the hyperinflation by printing too much money in order to increase seigniorage revenue. Hyperinflation may seem to be a problem mo...

  10. Monetary policy in a dollarised economy: The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Misaico, Zenon

    2000-01-01

    Persistent high inflation in Peru during the 1970s led households to hold foreign currency as store of value. This process of dollarisation increased significantly during the hyperinflation of 1988-90. In the years that followed, a wide-ranging package of reforms in the financial system and in the conduct of monetary policy and fiscal policy were introduced to bring a halt to the hyperinflation. But despite nearly a decade of subsequent economic stabilisation, the decrease in dollarisation ha...

  11. Optimizing microwind rural electrification projects. A case study in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; Capó Plaza, Gregori Miquel; Velo García, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Electrification systems based on the use of renewable energy sources are suitable for providing electricity to isolated communities autonomously. Specifically, electrification by wind power is one of the technological options that have been used recently in projects implemented in the Andean highlands of Peru. To date, these projects have tended to install individual microwind turbines at each demand point. Alternatively, we propose a solution that considers both individual generator...

  12. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  13. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    OpenAIRE

    Hordijk, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...

  14. Early mineralization at Cerro de Pasco (central Peru) revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Rottier, Bertrand; Casanova, Vincent; Fontboté, Lluis; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Alvarez, Hugo; Bendezú, Ronner

    2013-01-01

    The large Cerro de Pasco Cordilleran base metal deposit in central Peru is located on the eastern margin of a Middle Miocene diatreme-dome complex. A striking characteristic is the presence of a N-S trending massive funnel-shape pyrite-quartz replacement ore body that contains pyrrhotite pipes grading outwards to lead-zinc replacement bodies, along the eastern contact of the diatreme-dome complex. Earlier workers interpreted the pyrrhotite pipes as postdating the pyritequartz body. This study...

  15. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  16. Tariff structure and investment location: Peru in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    González-Vigil, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of trade policy on the patterns of location of foreign direct investment (FDI) by country and sector. Particular attention is paid to FDI in manufactures, for which the market size is a very important locational factor, and therefore, so too is the preferential access to enlarged markets provided by trade agreements. Hence this article compares the performance of Peru in this field with those of its partners in the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), especiall...

  17. Conservation narratives in Peru: envisioning biodiversity in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Zinngrebe

    2016-06-01

    In a second step, a comparative analysis of the dominant and diverging political perspectives is made. I argue that by deconstructing underlying premises and ideologies, common ground and possible opportunities for collaboration can be identified. Moreover, although the presented results can serve as a discussion scaffold to organize conservation debates in Peru, this example demonstrates how the terms biodiversity and sustainability are operationalized in conservation narratives.

  18. The Arequipa (Peru) earthquake of June 23, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Buforn, E.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Vilacapoma, L.

    The Arequipa earthquake of 23 June 2001 hasbeen the largest earthquake (Mw = 8.3)occurredin the last century in southern Peru with amaximum intensity of VIII (MM scale). Focalmechanisms of main shock and three largeraftershocks have been studied, showingthrusting solutions for main shock and twoaftershocks and normal motion for the eventof July, 5. The rupture area has beenobtained from distribution of aftershocks.The occurrence of the Arequipa earthquakeis related with the convergence processbetween the Nazca and South Americaplates.

  19. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  20. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  1. Survival and spread of Phytophthora capsici in Coastal Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzáles, O; Aragon-Caballero, L; Apaza-Tapia, W; Donahoo, R; Lamour, K

    2008-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soilborne pathogen that causes significant losses to pepper production in Peru. Our objective was to investigate the mechanisms by which P. capsici is able to survive and spread. During 2005 to 2007, 227 isolates of P. capsici were collected from four species of pepper (Capsicum annum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. pubescens) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) at 33 field sites in 13 provinces across coastal Peru. All 227 isolates were of the A2 mating type and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis indicates that 221 of the isolates had the same genotype. Analyses of six polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci showed fixed heterozygosity suggesting a single clonal lineage is widely dispersed. Members of the same clonal lineage were recovered during 2005 to 2007 from geographically separate locations from each of the host types sampled. Our results indicate that clonal reproduction drives the population structure of P. capsici in Peru. The impact of continuous cropping and irrigation from common river sources on the population structure in Barranca Valley are discussed. PMID:18944293

  2. Description of Lutzomyia (Evandromyia sipani, a new species of Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae from Loreto Department, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernandez

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia sipani n.sp. is described from males collected in Loreto Department, Peru. The new species belongs to the subgenus Evandromyia mangabeira and confirms the presence of this group in Peru.

  3. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  4. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented regime of accumulation that is characterised by considerable labour exploitation. The marginal role of organised labour and social movements to influence the course of events is placed against the...

  5. [Evaluation of the quality of river water with diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): an experience in Tacna, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calizaya-Anco, José; Avendaño-Cáceres, Miriam; Delgado-Vargas, Irma

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of the water of the Locumba river, Tacna (Peru), water samples were taken from ten stations located along the Locumba river basin, during six periods in an annual cycle. The diversity and number of diatoms was also evaluated, together with eleven physiochemical parameters in order to determine the degree of water contamination. We found that as the basin advanced down the mountain, the diversity of diatoms decreased from 2.37 bits cell-1 to 0.71 bits cell-1 and the gradient of contaminants increased. In addition to this increase, the number of species tolerant to high levels of environmental disturbance rose. An increase in all physiochemical parameters used to evaluate the degree of contamination was observed. These results suggest that diatoms can be adequate bioindicators when evaluating the quality of water in this basin. PMID:23612814

  6. Emerging Markets Integration in Latin America (MILA Stock market indicators: Chile, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R Lizarzaburu Bolaños

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA start-up in the main indicators of the stock markets of the countries that conform it (Chile, Colombia, and Peru. At the end, several indicators were reviewed to measure the impact on profitability, risk, correlation, and trading volume between markets, using indicators such as: annual profitability, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and trading volume. The sample period runs from November 2008 to August 2013; and involves the three stock markets associated with MILA: Bolsa de Comercio de Santiago (BCS, Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (BVC y Bolsa de Valores de Lima (BVL. An additional evaluation for further research would consist of the calculation of relevant indicators to corroborate the validity of the effects found in this investigation corresponding to the integration of the stock exchanges of Lima, Santiago and Bogota, after the integration of the Mexican stock exchange that occurred in 2014.

  7. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  8. INFLUENCE OF TEACHING ABOUT ORAL HYGIENE AWARENESS TO PARENTS OF CHILDREN LESS THAN THREE YEARS IN THE HEALTH CENTER OF MALA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Suyo, Isabel; Iannacone, José

    2013-01-01

    The present study aied to determine the effect of education on oral hygiene knowledge of parents of children less than three years in the Health Center of Mala, Peru, in 2009. The study was descriptive and comparative. A test of 12 questions about oral hygiene to 58 parents and the influence of the implementation of oral health knowledge in parents of children less than three years, before and after performing an educational workshop that used posters, flip charts, dolls, model...

  9. SIGNIFICATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS GENERATED BY THE IRRIGATION DITCHES COIS, PULEN AND YORTUQUE OF CHICLAYO'S CITY PERU: PROPOSAL OF A MITIGATION PLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies near urban areas can suffer a steady deterioration by anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. The present research aims to identify and assess the impacts generated by the irrigation ditches Cois, Pulen and Yortuque of Chiclayo's city, Lambayeque, Peru in which were established 12 sampling stations during the months of January to August 2009. The water quality of the irrigation ditches was determined by the standard methods of the APHA-AWWAWPCF. Air qual...

  10. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  11. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker;

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9...

  12. Annotated checklist of the mosquito species encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecor, J E; Jones, J; Turell, M J; Fernandez, R; Carbajal, F; O'Guinn, M; Sardalis, M; Watts, D; Zyzak, M; Calampa, C; Klein, T A

    2000-09-01

    A checklist of the mosquito fauna encountered during arboviral studies in Iquitos, Peru, is presented. A total of 16 genera, 30 subgenera, and 96 species were identified, including 24 species reported from Peru for the 1st time. Notations on the taxonomy and biology for 28 species are also provided.

  13. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance,...

  14. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on ] Forest Sector Governance,...

  15. Taxonomy and new collections of wild potato species in Central and Southern Peru in 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, A.R.; Spooner, D.M.; Huamán, Z.; Torres Maita, R.V.; Hoekstra, R.; Schüler, K.; Hijmans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peru contains about half of the described wild potato taxa, and many of these are not yet preserved in genebanks. This paper reports results of the second of a series of five planned collecting expeditions to Peru. Collections were made in the central Peruvian departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La

  16. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  17. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  18. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2011-2012 U.S.-Peru Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new Work Program for implementing the United...

  19. Vývoj a současnost ekonomiky Peru a její postavení v latinsko americkém regionu

    OpenAIRE

    Slabá, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    First chapter contains geographical and political characteristics of Peru and its history. Second part of the thesis includes economic characteristics of Peru and structure of foreign trade. Next chapter focuses on future development of Peru. Last chapter contains key characteristics of role of Peru within the latinamerican region.

  20. Peru; 2015 Article IV Consultation—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Peru

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Peru remains one of the best performing economies in Latin America, with solid macroeconomic policies and fundamentals and visible gains in poverty reduction. However, like most of the region, Peru faced a challenging external environment in 2014. Lower metal prices and weaker demand from trading partners were a major drag on private investment and exports. On the domestic front, an unexpected drop in subnational public investment level and te...

  1. The water and sanitation service provision in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gisella Aragón; José Luis Bonifaz

    2013-01-01

    Public services in all countries are related to the basic needs that people should satisfy in order to warranty a worthy quality of life. The water and sanitation services provision is one of these services. Through this study, the case of water and sanitation provision in Peru will be analyzed. Data evidences that by 2004, the 71% of Peruvian population had access to water services, while the 63% of Peruvian population had access to sanitation services. Then, it can be inferred that the perf...

  2. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  3. A basic income policy for Peru: can it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Saco, María Amparo

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the pros and cons of a basic income grant and estimates the financial cost of paying a similar benefit to very specific groups in Peru. This is an old concept in the economic literature and is associated with a “negative income tax”. A universal basic income grant can be an adequate instrument to smooth consumption and distribute some purchasing power to the poor. The shift in effective demand after paying a basic income can have important multiplier effects on small loc...

  4. Childhood poverty in Peru: an annotated literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Alan, Sanchez; Sanchez, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Although poverty rates have reduced during the last 15 years, Peru is still one of the countries in Latin America with the highest level of income inequality. Nearly one out of two Peruvians lives in poverty – three out of five in the case of children1 – and one out of five is extremely poor. Income inequalities and, more generally, inequalities in human development between urban and rural areas, between Spanish and non-Spanish speakers and across climatic zones are remarkable; most of the ex...

  5. Information services. Report to the Government of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Peru an IAEA staff member undertook an expert assignment to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) within the framework of a technical assistance project. The purpose of the expert's travel was to evaluate a request for equipment for and consultant's advice on the establishment of library and information services and to advise IPEN staff on the establishment of the services. The report presents the findings on the present level and future need for library and information services and presents a proposal for the further development of these. (author)

  6. Peru; Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Peru’s economy continues to be a leader in high growth and low inflation in the region, which has been achieved through a prudent macroeconomic policy implementation, a far-reaching structural reform agenda and taking advantage of the benign external environment. After reaching 4.7 percent in 2011, end-period inflation fell to 2.6 percent in 2012, within the 1–3 percent target range. Stimulative monetary and fiscal policies played an instr...

  7. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.

  8. Legislation and applicable concepts to protected natural areas in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Solano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 78 protected areas in Peru covering 22 million hectares corresponding almost 17 percent of national territory. This article reviews essential aspects of protected natural areas studying scopes, purposes, types, categories and levels such as: requirements for setting, amendment and repeal; activities allowed and forbidden within them; institutional management, among others. Finally, this work concludes with some brief thoughts on legal and institutional challenges of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas NaturalesProtegidas por el Estado (SINANPE (National System of State ProtectedNatural Areas.

  9. Peru: Opportunities for investment in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruvian oil industry are described. The government of Peru has been applying a strict economic stabilization plan that includes deregulation of prices, wages, exchange and interest rates, elimination of subsides, simplification of tariffs, and the elimination of all restrictions on the flow of capital and foreign trade. The plan has been applied with the approval of all social sectors and thanks to the consensus concerning its program. The government has been able to control the hyperinflation it inherited, to reduce the fiscal defect, and to increase foreign currency reserves

  10. Images of Peru: a national cinema in crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A brief look at the major trends in the history of the national cinema of Peru suggests that the relationship between the development of the moving image and the onset of modernity in that country has always been awkward. Many have argued that the advent of cinema coincided in most parts of the world with the decades when modernity was already ‘at full throttle . . . a watershed moment in which a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking ab...

  11. The Progreso Basin Province of Northwestern Peru and Southwestern Ecuador: Neogene and Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.

    2004-01-01

    The Progreso Basin province (6083) in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador consists of the Paleogene Santa Elena block and Peru Bank, and the Neogene Tumbes-Progreso subbasin. The Santa Elena block and Peru Bank are part of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Total Petroleum System (TPS)(608302), which contains the Cretaceous-Paleogene Santa Elena Block Assessment Unit (60830201). The Tumbes- Progreso subbasin includes the Neogene TPS (608301) and associated Neogene Pull-Apart Basin Assessment Unit (60830101). The complex tectonic history of the Progreso Basin province influenced depositional and erosional patterns across the region, and also the location, timing, and types of seals, traps, possible source and reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon generation and migration. Marine shales that are interbedded with and overlie reservoir intervals are the probable hydrocarbon source rocks. Timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration was probably Miocene and younger, following creation of the Tumbes-Progreso subbasin by movement along the Dolores-Guayaquil megashear. More than 220 million barrels of oil (MMBO) and 255 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) have been produced from the Progreso Basin province. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) resources from undiscovered fields in the province are 237 MMBO, 695 BCFG, and 32 MMB NGL, respectively. The means of estimated recoverable oil, gas, and NGL resources from undiscovered onshore fields are 45 MMBO, 113 BCFG, and 5 MMBNGL, and from undiscovered offshore fields are 192 BBO, 582 BCFG, and 27 MMBNGL. These are USGS grown undiscovered resources that were determined by using a minimum field size of 1 million barrels of oil equivalent.

  12. Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  13. Infection of domestic dogs in peru by zoonotic bartonella species: a cross-sectional prevalence study of 219 asymptomatic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo V P Diniz

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64. Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%. Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40% of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.

  14. A positive correlation between atypical memory B cells and Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in cross-sectional studies in Peru and Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies that protect against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. The B cell biology that underlies this observation is poorly understood. We previously reported that "atypical" memory B cells are increased in children and adults exposed to intense Pf transmission in Mali, similar to what has been observed in individuals infected with HIV. In this study we examined B cell subsets of Pf -infected adults in Peru and Mali to determine if Pf transmission intensity correlates with atypical memory B cell expansion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study venous blood was collected from adults in areas of zero (U.S., n = 10, low (Peru, n = 18 and high (Mali, n = 12 Pf transmission. Adults in Peru and Mali were infected with Pf at the time of blood collection. Thawed lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry to quantify B cell subsets, including atypical memory B cells, defined by the cell surface markers CD19(+ CD20(+ CD21(- CD27(- CD10(-. In Peru, the mean level of atypical memory B cells, as a percent of total B cells, was higher than U.S. adults (Peru mean: 5.4% [95% CI: 3.61-7.28]; U.S. mean: 1.4% [95% CI: 0.92-1.81]; p<0.0001 but lower than Malian adults (Mali mean 13.1% [95% CI: 10.68-15.57]; p = 0.0001. In Peru, individuals self-reporting ≥1 prior malaria episodes had a higher percentage of atypical memory B cells compared to those reporting no prior episodes (≥1 prior episodes mean: 6.6% [95% CI: 4.09-9.11]; no prior episodes mean: 3.1% [95% CI: 1.52-4.73]; p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared to Pf-naive controls, atypical memory B cells were increased in Peruvian adults exposed to low Pf transmission, and further increased in Malian adults exposed to intense Pf transmission. Understanding the origin, function and antigen specificity of atypical memory B cells in the context of Pf infection could contribute to our

  15. A CLAS act? Community-based organizations, health service decentralization and primary care development in Peru. Local Committees for Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Michiyo; Petchey, Roland

    2002-12-01

    In 1994 Peru embarked on a programme of health service reform, which combined primary care development and community participation through Local Committees for Health Administration (CLAS). They are responsible for carrying out local health needs assessments and identifying unmet health needs through regular household surveys. These enable them to determine local health provision and tailor services to local requirements. CLAS build on grassroots self-help circles that developed during the economic and political crises of the 1980s, and in which women have been prominent. However, they function under a 3 year contract with the Ministry of Health and within a framework of centrally determined guidelines and regulations. These reforms were implemented in the context of neo-liberal economic policies, which stressed financial deregulation and fiscal and monetary restraint, and were aimed at reducing foreign indebtedness and inflation. We evaluate the achievements of the CLAS and analyse the relationship between health and economic policy in Peru, with the aid of two contrasting models of the role of the state - 'agency' and 'stewardship'. We argue that Peru's experience holds valuable lessons for other countries seeking to foster community involvement. These include the need for community capacity building and partnership between community organizations and state (and other civil) agencies. PMID:12546199

  16. Comparison of experimental hut entrance and exit behavior between Anopheles darlingi from the Cayo District, Belize, and Zungarococha, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Paige; Diaz Rodriguez, Gloria Alicia; Briceno, Ireneo; King, Russell; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is a major vector for malaria in Central and South America. Behavioral, ecological, genetic, and morphologic variability has been observed across its wide distribution. Recent studies have documented that 2 distinct genotypes exist for An. darlingi: a northern lineage (Belize, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama) and a southern lineage (Amazonia and southern Brazil). In order to determine if these genotypes exhibited different behavioral traits, entrance and exit movement patterns between 2 field populations of An. darlingi that represented each genotype were evaluated using experimental huts. The Belize population exhibited bimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. and 5:00-6:00 a.m. and peak exiting occurring between 7:00-8:00 p.m. The Peru population exhibited unimodal entrance, with peak entry occurring between 10:00-11:00 p.m. and peak exiting occurring between 11:00-12:00 a.m. with a secondary smaller peak at 2:30 a.m. Entrance and exit behavioral patterns were significantly different between the Belize and Peru populations of An. darlingi (log-rank [Mantel-Cox] P < 0.001). Information from the present study will be used in the future to determine if there is a correlation between genotype and host-seeking behavior and can be used in the present for regional vector risk assessment.

  17. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Garavito

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data fo...

  18. Contaminant dispersion and bacterial declination studies ate the bay of Chimbote - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of both, the dispersion studies and preliminary determination of T-90 performed at the bay of Chimbote - Peru, has been made. As for the dispersion studies, a fundamental partial differential equation and its solution for three-dimensional case is presented. The shape and characteristics of the tracer plume is determined as well as the decrease rate of peak concentrations. The method considers a point injection with Rhodamine B and Iodine-131 as tracers, in order to determine the longitudinal, lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients that govern the dispersion rates of industrial and waste waters to be discharged through a submarine outfall that will be installed at the sea of Chimbote. The method presented herein allows the estimation of the dispersion coefficients and predicts the influence of the future diffuser as well, regardless of the nature of the body of water in which the tests were conducted. With regard to T-90 determinations, they were better performed by the use of a combined tracer technique, using I-131 for dilution measurement and Rhodamine B as a visual aid. Dilution and decrease in bacterial concentrations were taken into consideration as well as continuous radiotracer injection. The values of T-90 estimated from experiments should be reconfirmed in future experiments under different oceanographic conditions. (authors)

  19. The effects of energy co-governance in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Guillaume [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO) at Quito (Ecuador)

    2010-05-15

    Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis. (author)

  20. Frequency of maternal and newborn birth outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.

  1. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  2. The effects of energy co-governance in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a 'hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis.

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru.

  4. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  5. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-11-10

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies.

  6. New lichen biota records from Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano Nuñez-Zapata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While high species diversity of lichen - lichenized fungi - is reported especially in the tropics, the studies on these organisms are still scarce in Peru. Using conventional methodology and current literature on the description of genera and species, we reported macro-lichens collected from Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Cusco, Peru. Sixty seven species of macro-lichens are reported to SHMP, nine new records to Peru are documented. Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae and Lobariaceae are the families with major number of species.

  7. Nuclear research with scant resources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute and other State institutions have achieved major successes during the last ten years in various areas. In radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine it has gradually become possible to produce a wide range of kits for preparing molecules labelled with 113Inm and 99Tcm as well as other products labelled with 51Cr and 131I. The medical studies have made it possible to perform a large number of routine diagnostic tests, including radioimmunoassays. As to agricultural applications, results are reported from the following areas: induced genetic mutations for plant improvement, increased crop production through soil and fertilizer studies, research into problems of plant physiology, animal nutrition and reproduction and eradication of pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly, using the sterile male technique. In addition, the paper describes Peruvian experience with disinfesting certain grains, including malt, and with the preservation by irradiation of various food products, including an indigenous tuber called ''olluco''. A zero-power reactor commissioned in 1978 has enabled research to be carried out on various geometrical and analytical parameters, as well as on others relating to calibration, reactivity, flux, etc., and has also been used for practical studies with industrial applications. Another important area of research, which has been initiated recently using the 14 MeV neutron generator, is the rapid analysis of uranium and thorium using a ''Rapiduran'' and the determination of the nitrogen content of biological samples. Finally, an account is given of work carried out in nuclear electronics, radiation protection, nuclear safety and uranium mining

  8. Co-seismic luminescence in Lima, 150 km from the epicenter of the Pisco, Peru earthquake of 15 August 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heraud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first photographs of Co-seismic Luminescence, commonly known as Earthquake lights (EQLs, were reported in 1968 in Japan. However, there have been documented reports of luminescence associated with earthquakes since ancient times in different parts of the world. Besides this, there is modern scientific work dealing with evidence of and models for the production of such lights. During the Peru 15 August 2007 Mw=8.0 earthquake which occurred at 06:40 p.m. LT, hence dark in the southern wintertime, several EQLs were observed along the Peruvian coast and extensively reported in the capital city of Lima, about 150 km northwest of the epicenter. These lights were video-recorded by a security camera installed at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP campus and time-correlated with seismic ground accelerations registered at the seismological station on campus, analyzed and related to highly qualified eyewitness observations of the phenomena from other parts of the city and to other video recordings. We believe the evidence presented here contributes significantly to sustain the hypothesis that electromagnetic phenomena related to seismic activity can occur, at least during an earthquake. It is highly probable that continued research in luminescence and the use of magnetometers in studying electromagnetic activity and radon gas emanation detectors will contribute even more towards determining their occurrence during and probably prior to seismic activity.

  9. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 4 Volumes Annexes 8-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that could be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  10. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  11. Peru-15, an improved live attenuated oral vaccine candidate for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A F; Barrera-Oro, M; Hyman, T; Adams, J M; Beattie, D T; Killeen, K P; Spriggs, D R

    1995-10-01

    Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.

  12. Two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza (Solanaceae from Arequipa and Ayacucho (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Linares Perea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new records of Fabiana stephanii Hunz. & Barboza for the flora of Southern Peru are reported, including taxonomical, biogeographical and phytosociological data on this species.

  13. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  14. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  15. Two new species of the catfish genus Corydoras from Brazil and Peru (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras, C. maculifer from Brazil and C. panda from Peru. The relationships of the new species with other species of Corydoras are discussed.

  16. PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonson K. Vizcarra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758 in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.

  17. Peru country specific database implementation for comparative assessment of electricity options and strategies (DECADES Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the cases study carried out using the DECADES computer tools on assessment of the electricity supply plan for expansion in Peru in the framework of the IAEA Research Contract No. 9274

  18. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  19. Giant Otter Project In Peru: Field Trip And Activity Report - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An update on the project "Status, habitat, behaviour, and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru" of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS is provided.

  20. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  1. Hypertension among adults in a deprived urban area of Peru - Undiagnosed and uncontrolled?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, AR; Miranda, Jj; GILMAN, RH; Smeeth, L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Peru, cardiovascular disease was the second most common cause of death in those aged 65 years or more in 2000. Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and if treated can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of hypertension and levels of awareness, treatment and control in a deprived urban area of Peru. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was completed. Blood pr...

  2. Peru Environmental and Social Safeguards Issues Paper: Upstreaming Environmental and Social Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    John Redwood

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information and analysis on the environmental issues facing Peru so that the Bank can take into account potentially significant environmental risks as well as opportunities in the Peru Country Strategy and the subsequent programming activities. The objective is to enable the Bank to be an effective partner in sustainable development and undertake the necessary actions and approaches to adequately address these risks and opportunities, including to facil...

  3. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  4. After the fall from grace: Negotiation of new identities among HIV-positive women in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Starks, Helene; Strick, Lara; Simoni, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among heterosexual women in Peru, married women remain virtually invisible as a group at risk of HIV or requiring treatment. This study analyzed the intersections of HIV with machismo and marianismo, the dominant discourses in Latin America that prescribe gender roles for men and women. Data sources include recent literature on machismo and marianismo and interviews conducted with 14 HIV-positive women in Lima, Peru. Findings indicate how the stigma a...

  5. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  6. Fiscal Decentralization in Peru: A Perspective on Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2013-01-01

    ODecentralization is a fairly recent process in Peru that has been driven by a mixture of democratization, state modernization, increased accountability in service delivery, and regional economic development objectives. Politics has also played an important role. Overall, the general approach to decentralization reform in Peru has been cautious and conservative and by design its implementation has been gradual. With hindsight there were several important missteps that could have been avoided....

  7. Islay And The Economy Of Southern Peru In 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Heraclio

    2015-01-01

    This article notes the specificity of the regional economic history of Southern Peru, which in 1780-1840 experienced an important economic growth while the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was in crisis. This important fact is not well known because of the lack of research on regional economy. It presents data on the dynamics of international markets and its relation with the southern economy. Finally, the article argues some problems related to the general development of the Peruvian economy.

  8. Factors that explain the regional expansion of microfinance institutions in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Vanroose, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the location decisions and geographical expansion of microfinance institutions across Peru. To this end, econometric analyses are performed on a self-constructed dataset that covers MFI presence and expansion in the 1832 districts of Peru, and this for 39 MFIs and 13 commercial banks over the period 2001-2008. The paper shows that Peruvian MFIs have expanded considerably during the last decade. MFIs especially increase access in districts with higher levels of development ...

  9. Seismic Deployments and Experiments: PeruNet, GeoNet, and SeismoPhone.

    OpenAIRE

    Stubailo, Igor; Lukac, Martin; Mayernik, Matt; Skolnik, Derek; Dominguez, Antonio; Foote, Emily; Guy, Richard; Davis, Paul; Estrin, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with Caltech and the Geophysical Institute of Peru, we installed our network of 49 seismic sites across steep and shallow subduction regions in Peru. Flat slab subduction is thought to have formed much of the major geology of the western United States some 100 million years ago. By examining such processes presently active in Central and South America we can piece together the history. The data from the Peruvian sites is delivered to UCLA every night and we have collected alm...

  10. Development, transnational religion, and the power of ideas in the High Provinces of Cusco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Olson

    2006-01-01

    I examine the enmeshment of transnationally networked religious organizations in predominantly Quechua communities in the southern Andes of Peru. I aim specifically to understand the multiple ways in which transnational religious organizations contribute to the construction of development epistemologies, or the socioeconomics of development truths. Peru has been undergoing a religious transformation similar to the rest of Latin America, with Evangelical and other non-Catholic faiths now well ...

  11. Vliv náboženství na rozvoj Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Tóthová, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    In this bachelor work we will focus on description of existing forms of religion in Peru. In first part we will dealt with history of religion and individual traditions, habits and rituals of Peruvian inhabitants. In second part we will describe the development of religion in Peru during the 20 century. In the last part we will analyze the influence of religion on inhabitants and development of country, where we will try to understand the importance of religion in everyday's life of Peruvians.

  12. Existence of a credit boom in Peru. Analysis from the perspective of a regime change model

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigalupo L., Gerardo; Bacigalupo L., Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Peru has accumulated more than five years of positive growth rates in the product, a period which has been accompanied by an expansion of credit, mainly for consumption, which is expanding at rates above those of economic growth and might be showing an over-indebtedness in the system. It is this feature of the current economic situation in Peru, together with the experience in 1998 and the current international economic crisis which prompted the current investigation, which has as its main ob...

  13. Material flow accounting in Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru (1980-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Russi, Daniela; González Martínez, Ana Citlalic; Silva-Macher, José Carlos; Giljum, Stefan; MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan; Vallejo, María Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we compare the resource flows of Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru between 1980 and 2000. In this time span, the domestic extraction of materials increased in the four countries, mainly due to the mining sector in Chile and Peru, biomass and oil in Ecuador and construction minerals in Mexico. Imports and exports increased too, due to the increasing integration in the international markets, prompted by the liberalization policies undertaken by the four countries between the late 19...

  14. Direct investment of the United States in Peru, 1971-1987: A sobering review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz de Castilla, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    ​In the context of a deteriorating economic situation in Peru, the necessity of obtaining foreign savings through foreign investment is becoming increasingly important. The article examines the various legal frameworks that have ruled Direct Foreign Investment (IED) in Peru, analyzes their effects on the flows and stock of IED from the United States, and finishes by presenting alternatives to improve the investment relationship between the two countries.​

  15. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  16. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  17. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  18. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  19. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  20. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  1. Progress with the reclamation of saline soils in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is the result of five years' experimental work at the Costa Regional Development Institute (IRD-Costa), based in Canete, Lima, Peru, on the reclamation of land affected by salts and hence of seriously limited agricultural value (production lower than 50%). A reclamation method combining surface and at depth washing with artificial drainage of excess water has been tried out and a method of nutrition has been developed which is based on tonification of the seeds before sowing. The results obtained are rather encouraging, so the method looks very promising, especially as it also makes for considerable savings in fertilizers (some 20% less) and for better yields per unit area. Once the ionic behaviour of this method has been studied by means of radioisotopes a large contribution will have been made towards alleviating the problem of saline soils. (author)

  2. [Notes for the history of pediatric gastroenterology in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article. PMID:26397286

  3. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  4. AMS and controversies in history: The Spanish conquest of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s

  5. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities. PMID:22858781

  6. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  7. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  8. El Dorado : Peru is trying to catch Colombia as the must go jurisdiction in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has vast and largely untapped reserves of crude and natural gas, but it wants foreign help to increase oil production to 500,000 barrels per day in 4 years from the current level of 140,000 barrels per day. Perupetro is a state company in Peru responsible for promoting investment in the petroleum sector. Peru hopes to lure nearly $2 billion in oil investment to its northern Amazon region through 2013. Companies operating in South America have been attracted to Peru in recent years by its exploration potential and one of the best fiscal regimes in the world, at a 5 percent minimum royalty and a 20 percent maximum royalty. However, the government has changed the rules for the blocks offered in the 2010 bid process, increasing the minimum royalty to 15 percent and the maximum to 35 percent. The intent was to bring the higher royalties more in line with Colombia's. However, some analysts claim that Peru lacks the critical mass to justify the increase in royalties. Other challenges facing resource development in Peru include lack of infrastructure and a slow regulatory system. Twenty-five blocks of land are up for bid in 2010, mostly early stage properties. The bidding process will indicate how companies will respond to the new economics of these blocks. 1 tab.

  9. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Peru during 1970-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Madalengoitia, J; Flores, W; Acosta, M

    1975-04-01

    Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus has intermittently produced epidemics and equine epizootics on the dry Pacific coastal plain of Peru since at least the 1930's. However, evidence that the virus exists in the Amazon region of Peru to the east of the Andes mountains was not obtained until antibodies were found in human sera collected in 1965, and 10 strains of the virus were isolated in a forest near the city of Iquitos, Peru during February and March 1971. Eight strains came from mosquitoes and two from dead sentinel hamsters. Three hamsters exposed in forests near Iquitos developed VE virus antibodies suggesting that hamster-benign strains also exist there. Antibody tests of equine sera revealed no evidence that VE virus was actively cycling during the late 1950's or 1960's in southern coastal Peru, where equine epizootics had occurred in the 1930's and 1940's. In northern coastal Peru bordering Ecuador, antibodies were present in equine sera, presumably residual from the 1969 outbreak caused by subtype I virus, since neutralizing antibody titers were higher to subtype I virus than to subtypes III or IV. No VE virus was detected in this northern region during the dry season of 1970 by use of sentinel hamsters. The possibility is considered that VE epidemics and equine epizootics on the Pacific coast of Peru are caused by movements of virus in infected vertebrates traversing Andean passes or in infected vertebrates or mosquitoes carried in airplanes from the Amazon region. PMID:235838

  10. Residential mercury contamination in adobe brick homes in Huancavelica, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hagan

    Full Text Available This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m(3 in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m(3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production.

  11. Residential Mercury Contamination in Adobe Brick Homes in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Nicole; Robins, Nicholas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Halabi, Susan; Espinoza Gonzales, Ruben Dario; Richter, Daniel deB.; Vandenberg, John

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study of adobe brick contamination anywhere in the world. Huancavelica, Peru is the site of historic cinnabar refining and one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Over 80% of homes in Huancavelica are constructed with adobe bricks made from Hg contaminated soil. In this study we measured total Hg concentrations in adobe brick, dirt floor, surface dust, and air samples from the interior of 60 adobe brick houses located in four neighborhoods. Concentrations of total Hg in adobe bricks, dirt floors, and surface dust ranged from 8.00 to 1070 µg/g, 3.06 to 926 µg/g, and 0.02 to 9.69 µg/wipe, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the four neighborhoods. Concentrations of Hg in adobe brick and dirt floor samples in Huancavelica were orders of magnitude higher than in Ayacucho, a non-mining town in Peru. A strong correlation exists between total Hg concentrations in adobe bricks and dirt floors which confirms that adobe bricks were being made on-site and not purchased from an off-site source. A strong correlation between surface dust and adobe bricks and dirt floors indicates that walls and floors serve as indoor sources of Hg contamination. Elemental Hg vapor concentrations were below detection (<0.5 µg/m3) in most homes; however in homes with detectable levels, concentrations up to 5.1 µg/m3 were observed. No statistically significant differences in Hg vapor measurements were observed between neighborhoods. This study demonstrates that building materials used widely in developing communities, such as adobe bricks, may be a substantial source of residential Hg exposure in silver or gold refining communities where Hg is produced or used for amalgamation in artisanal gold production. PMID:24040399

  12. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. RESULTS: 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  14. Nonlinear Source Tomography Of The Mw=8.4, 23 June 2001 Arequipa, Peru, Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, A.; Madariaga, R.; Clévédé, E.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate on the rupture process of the Mw=8.4 tsunami-genic earthquake of June 23, 2001 in Arequipa, Peru, putting special emphasis on the determination of rupture velocity. Since the determination of rupture velocity is nonlinear we use the Neighbourhood algorithm for the inversion. We use 16 broad band far field seismograms band pass filtered between 0.01 and 0.4Hz. The goodness of the fit between observed and synthetics is mesured with an L2 norm. The fault is parameterized with a model containing 57 patch of size 9× 20km. Because of computer time problems the final steps in the inversion, once the solution has converged to a well defined minimum, are done with a downhill simplex algorithm. The best solution for this unilateral event is found to have propagated southward at a very low speed (1,6km/s) with 80% of the final moment released as one patch 80s after the onset of rupture. The general features of the inversion are compatible with results of linearized inversion and the slow rupture speed is similar to that observed for tsunami earthquakes. The location of the main energy patch is confirmed by a CMT grid search over the whole area of rupture and by tsunami observations.

  15. Investiční příležitosti ČR v Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The free trade agreement between the EU and Peru enables Czech companies not only the high reduction of customs duty for imports, but it also creates the favourable conditions for trade and investment. The aim of this thesis is to identify investment opportunities for the Czech Republic in Peru. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the economic situation of Peru, on the basis of selected economic indicators, such as GDP, inflation rate, openness of the economy and ...

  16. Textiles, Guano and Railroads: The Role of the United States in the Early Development Failures of Peru, 1818-1876

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, William

    2012-01-01

    Peru's importance to the United States in the nineteenth century has been underappreciated because there were few instances of sharp conflict between the two nations. But, beginning with U.S. export of coarse cloth from new cotton mills just after Peruvian independence, continuing during the influence of Peruvian guano on U.S. "scientific agriculture," and then in the period of Peru's extraordinary effort to build trans-Andean railways, Peru exercised important influence on U.S. economy and ...

  17. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Annexes 2-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a brief study of industral, mining, and agricultural sector energy demands in Peru. The study establishes current energy demands and sectoral activities, and projects future energy needs through the year 2000. With respect to energy demands, the subsectors covered are: mining and non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, cement, oil refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and agriculture (major crops). Total energy demands for these subsectors are developed for 1976, 1985, and 2000, assuming full-capacity operation for the majority of the plants. Potential options developed for reducing energy use in these sectors are: increased coal use, improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, use of agricultural wastes as fuel, possible displacement of oil by hydroelectricity, use of geothermal energy, increased use of water materials for the cement and construction industries, and possible promotion of cogeneration systems (electricity/steam). (MCW)

  18. Myxomycete diversity in the coastal desert of Peru with emphasis on the lomas formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lado, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from the first survey for myxomycetes in the hyperarid areas of Peru are reported. Sampling over three consecutive years was carried out at 96 localities between 0 and 1500 m elevation. A total of 78 species from 23 genera in all 6 myxomycete orders were determined from 723 collections of myxomycetes. One new species, Didymium peruvianum, is described, 2 species new to the Neotropics, 4 new records for South America and 41 additional new species for Peru are reported, increasing the country catalogue by over 50%. Results show that arid areas are rich in myxomycetes, and that each area has a unique species assemblage. Endemic plants had a particular relevance as myxomycete substrates. The predominance of the order Physarales in arid areas is reinforced, and the ecological importance of coastal fogs (garúas is evident from the results. Comments are included on interesting or rare collections, as are SEM micrographs of several species and statistical evaluation of the results.Se dan a conocer los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre los Myxomycetes de las regiones hiperáridas de Perú. El muestreo, realizado en tres años consecutivos, se ha llevado a cabo en 96 localidades situadas entre 0 y 1500 m de altitud. En total se obtuvieron 723 colecciones de mixomicetes, pertenecientes a 6 órdenes, 23 géneros y 78 especies. Se describe una nueva especie, Didymium peruvianum, 2 especies se citan por primera vez en el Neotrópico, 4 son nuevos registros para América del Sur y 41 especies más son nuevos registros para Perú, con lo que el catálogo del país se incrementa en un 50%. Los resultados muestran que las zonas áridas son ricas en mixomicetes, y que cada area tiene un conjunto único de especies. Las plantas endémicas, dominantes en estos ambientes, tuvieron una relevancia especial como sustrato para los myxomycetes. Se pone de manifiesto el predominio de los representantes del órden Physarales en las zonas

  19. Modeling a glacial lake outburst flood process chain: the case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo A.; Chisolm, Rachel E.; Rivas, Denny S.; Portocarrero, Cesar; McKinney, Daene C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on 13 December 1941, killing about 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and preliminary hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 × 103 m3 s-1), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil

  20. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  1. Modeling a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Process Chain: The Case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo; Rivas Gomez, Denny; McKinney, Daene C.; Portocarrero Rodriguez, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on December 13, 1941, 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes: (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5-3 x 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 m and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming-moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 x 103 m3/s), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming-moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil characteristics that provide very

  2. Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nimick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The synoptic mass balance approach is often used to evaluate constituent mass loading in streams affected by mine drainage. Spatial profiles of constituent mass load are used to identify sources of contamination and prioritize sites for remedial action. This paper presents a field scale study in which replicate synoptic sampling campaigns are used to quantify the aggregate uncertainty in constituent load that arises from (1) laboratory analyses of constituent and tracer concentrations, (2) field sampling error, and (3) temporal variation in concentration from diel constituent cycles and/or source variation. Consideration of these factors represents an advance in the application of the synoptic mass balance approach by placing error bars on estimates of constituent load and by allowing all sources of uncertainty to be quantified in aggregate; previous applications of the approach have provided only point estimates of constituent load and considered only a subset of the possible errors. Given estimates of aggregate uncertainty, site specific data and expert judgement may be used to qualitatively assess the contributions of individual factors to uncertainty. This assessment can be used to guide the collection of additional data to reduce uncertainty. Further, error bars provided by the replicate approach can aid the investigator in the interpretation of spatial loading profiles and the subsequent identification of constituent source areas within the watershed. The replicate sampling approach is applied to Peru Creek, a stream receiving acidic, metal-rich effluent from the Pennsylvania Mine. Other sources of acidity and metals within the study reach include a wetland area adjacent to the mine and tributary inflow from Cinnamon Gulch. Analysis of data collected under low-flow conditions indicates that concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Peru Creek exceed aquatic life standards. Constituent loading within the study reach is dominated by effluent from the

  3. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  4. Entomological factors affecting the low endemicity of Chagas disease in Nazca, Southwestern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Lecaros, Emilio; Aguliar-Rosales, Mauro; Acosta, Hilda Solis; Castellanos, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Chagas disease is prevalent in Peru. The province of Nazca, in the southwestern region of the country, shows a high intradomiciliary infestation rate of Triatoma infestans bugs. Although the vector is present, the number of Chagas disease cases appears to be much lower than those reported in the neighboring region of Arequipa. We examined 624 T. infestans from Nazca to determine the current Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates, and found that no bugs were infected with this parasite. These results contrast with those found in Arequipa, where 19-30% triatomines have been reported infected. To compare their vectorial capacity, we infected 30 T. infestans specimens, selected both from Nazca and Arequipa, by feeding bugs on T. cruzi-infected mice. The parasites developed all stages expected in the vector; furthermore, the infective stage, metacyclic trypomastigote, was found in both insect populations from the second week after infection. In addition, those insects that accepted to be fed with mice blood defecated immediately after finishing blood meal, indicating that they might be efficient vectors. We maintain that differences observed in infection rates between vectors from Nazca and Arequipa may be explained by differences in host availability. In Arequipa hosts are mainly small animals, whereas in Nazca the main blood source comes from birds, which are refractory to the infection.

  5. Postseismic relocking of the subduction megathrust following the 2007 Pisco, Peru, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, D.; Perfettini, H.; Cotte, N.; Avouac, J. P.; Chlieh, M.; Bondoux, F.; Sladen, A.; Tavera, H.; Socquet, A.

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the time evolution of slip over different phases of the seismic cycle is crucial to a better understanding of the factors controlling the occurrence of large earthquakes. In this study, we take advantage of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and 3.5 years of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements to determine interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic slip distributions in the region of the 2007, Mw 8.0 Pisco, earthquake, Peru, using the same fault geometry and inversion method. Our interseismic model, based on pre-2007 campaign GPS data, suggests that the 2007 Pisco seismic slip occurred in a region strongly coupled before the earthquake while afterslip occurred in low coupled regions. Large afterslip occurred in the peripheral area of coseismic rupture in agreement with the notion that afterslip is mainly induced by coseismic stress changes. The temporal evolution of the region of maximum afterslip, characterized by a relaxation time of about 2.3 years, is located in the region where the Nazca ridge is subducting, consistent with rate-strengthening friction promoting aseismic slip. We estimate a return period for the Pisco earthquake of about 230 years with an estimated aseismic slip that might account for about 50% of the slip budget in this region over the 0-50 km seismogenic depth range. A major result of this study is that the main asperity that ruptured during the 2007 Pisco earthquake relocked soon after this event.

  6. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  7. Spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue fever in Peru: 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G; Torre, C A; Munayco-Escate, C; Suárez-Ognio, L; López-Cruz, R; Hyman, J M; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2008-12-01

    SUMMARYThe weekly number of dengue cases in Peru, South America, stratified by province for the period 1994-2006 were analysed in conjunction with associated demographic, geographic and climatological data. Estimates of the reproduction number, moderately correlated with population size (Spearman rho=0.28, P=0.03), had a median of 1.76 (IQR 0.83-4.46). The distributions of dengue attack rates and epidemic durations follow power-law (Pareto) distributions (coefficient of determination >85%, P<0.004). Spatial heterogeneity of attack rates was highest in coastal areas followed by mountain and jungle areas. Our findings suggest a hierarchy of transmission events during the large 2000-2001 epidemic from large to small population areas when serotypes DEN-3 and DEN-4 were first identified (Spearman rho=-0.43, P=0.03). The need for spatial and temporal dengue epidemic data with a high degree of resolution not only increases our understanding of the dynamics of dengue but will also generate new hypotheses and provide a platform for testing innovative control policies. PMID:18394264

  8. Study of radiological risk at the Regional Hospital of Trujillo-Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation doses have been measured in operators, patients and members of public, who attend the diagnostic service of the Hospital Regional Docente in Trujillo, Peru by using TLD-100 and TLD-200. For cranium test, the results are 8,68 x 10-3 mSv in operators and 7,8 x 10-4 mSv in members of the public. It means a fatal cancer risk of 3,7 x 10-7 and 3,9 x 10-8, respectively. For patients, the equivalent doses in the examined organs are 0,181 mSv in lung; 4,982 mSv in spine; 6,466 mSv in abdomen; 6,039 mSv in pelvis and 2,174 mSv in cranium. In order to maximize benefits for patients, a quality control program was carried out in x-ray equipment. It consisted in the measurement of an effective, average and maximum kilovoltage, as well as in the determination of the HVL, linearity, exposition time and coincidence between luminous and radiation fields. It was concluded that the measured doses are similar to the international ones reported. In the same way, it is indicated that it is possible to reduce risks in patients and operators by regulating kilo-voltages, adjusting the radiation fields and electronic calibration equipment. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  9. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  10. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  11. [Potential vulnerability to flooding at public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rubilar-González, Juan; Gutierrez-Lagos, Edith

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the potential vulnerability of public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru to the possible effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed using the geo-referenced points for at-risk areas based on the activation of gullies that were reported by the National Water Authority, and the location of the four regional public health facilities of the Ministry of Health. Concentric areas of influence were simulate from the points of risk towards the public health facilities using radii of 200, 1000 and 1500 meters. The Tumbes region would be the most affected with 37.2% of its health facilities being affected by floods and landslides. The I-2 and I-3 categories of health facilities appeared to be the most affected with 28.9% and 31.6% respectively. Therefore, public health facilities near the risk zones may be affected by the ENSO. PMID:27384627

  12. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  13. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weekend tours were conducted in different environments of the city, at morning (6:00-11:00 am and afternoon (3:00-6:30 pm hours, recording the bird species seen and heard. I recorded 104 species. Thirteen species belonged to the Tumbesian Endemic Bird Area. Atotal of 104 bird species was obtained, 13 endemic in the Endemic Bird Area Tumbesino. Twenty two were considered Neartic migrants with resident populations in the Neotropics. Nine were neartic migrants without resident populations in the Neotropics (obligate migrants and six were occasional. There is a richness of birds in Piura city and surroundings with Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Columbidae and Ardeidae dominance, which should be used as a vehicle in training in environmental education programs aimed primarily at school-aged students.

  14. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change. PMID:27431469

  15. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  16. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-01-01

    New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  17. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

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    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  18. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

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    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  19. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  20. Analysis of past and future oil production in Peru under a Hubbert approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates scenarios for the oil production in Peru applying a Hubbert model. Two scenarios for the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) were proposed: the first, in which low investments in E&P and social and environmental barriers undermine the development of oil resources beyond the limits characterized as 2P; the second, more optimistic, in which current exploratory and production areas in Amazonia and low-explored Offshore-Shelf basins are developed, thus, increasing EUR to 3P reserves plus contingent resources. Findings show that oil production in Peru has not followed a Single-Hubbert pattern, except for the area with more drilling activity and the highest accumulated production in the Northwest coast. Actually, institutional and regulation changes and less-attractive periods for operators due to poor results in oil discoveries explain why a multi-Hubbert approach better depicted the oil production in Peru. Peru has the potential to achieve a second peak of 274 kbpd of crude oil, overcoming the peak of 195 kbpd, reached in 1982. However, most of the remaining production would be located in Amazonia, where social and environmental issues pose critical challenges. - Highlights: • Two scenarios of estimated ultimately recoverable resources were simulated. • A multi-cycle Hubbert approach better depicted the case of oil production in Peru. • Pipelines expansion and institutional and regulation changes explain this multi-cyle. • Institutional capacity and socio-environmental risks are barriers to oil activities

  1. Genetic diversity of native potatoes (Solanumspp. conserved in landraces from Peru

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    Julián Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the genetic diversity of 79 accessions of native potato varieties (Solanum spp. using 18 microsatellite markers. A random sample from Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica and Puno from "chacras" of farmers who collaborated with the "In situ conservation of native crops and wild relatives" were used. 17 markers amplified one single polymorphic locus, the mean number of alleles per locus was 8.79. The mean similarity was 0.62 and clustering indexes varied between 0.41 and 0.98. 19 loci showed a total of 166 alleles. Cuzco had the highest number of alleles (130 alleles. Of the 166 characterized alleles, 72 alleles (43.37% were common or shared with 5 sampling sites. Puno had the highest number of exclusive alleles (8 alleles. The 42 varieties of S. tuberosum subsp. andigena showed a mean diversity of 0.74 and 18 varieties of S. x chauchaan average diversity of 0.70. Polymorphism (PIC = 0.55 to 0.85 and genetic diversity indices show that microsatellites evaluated can identify high levels of genetic diversity, but also are not sufficient to discriminate differentiated by origin or species groups. Our analyzes indicate a high genetic diversity and are consistent with inventories and morphological characterizations performed in situ, we can also conclude that there would be a common pool of genes would be found widely distributed among the regions studied.

  2. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  3. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  4. Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had < 5-year-old children at home. Although dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved.

  5. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes.

  6. Institutional challenges for mining and sustainability in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Anthony J; Bury, Jeffrey T

    2009-10-13

    Global consumption continues to generate growth in mining. In lesser developed economies, this growth offers the potential to generate new resources for development, but also creates challenges to sustainability in the regions in which extraction occurs. This context leads to debate on the institutional arrangements most likely to build synergies between mining, livelihoods, and development, and on the socio-political conditions under which such institutions can emerge. Building from a multiyear, three-country program of research projects, Peru, a global center of mining expansion, serves as an exemplar for analyzing the effects of extractive industry on livelihoods and the conditions under which arrangements favoring local sustainability might emerge. This program is guided by three emergent hypotheses in human-environmental sciences regarding the relationships among institutions, knowledge, learning, and sustainability. The research combines in-depth and comparative case study analysis, and uses mapping and spatial analysis, surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and our own direct participation in public debates on the regulation of mining for development. The findings demonstrate the pressures that mining expansion has placed on water resources, livelihood assets, and social relationships. These pressures are a result of institutional conditions that separate the governance of mineral expansion, water resources, and local development, and of relationships of power that prioritize large scale investment over livelihood and environment. A further problem is the poor communication between mining sector knowledge systems and those of local populations. These results are consistent with themes recently elaborated in sustainability science. PMID:19805172

  7. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  8. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  9. Ichthyological diversity of Inambari River, Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to know the diversity of fishes in the Inambari river basin, at Mazuco district, (Madre de Dios and the state of conservation of the aquatic habitats. Samples were collected from 22 stations using seines of small mesh (5mm and recording data from each habitat. Taxonomic composition of fishes, diversity and abundance, ecological characterization by altitudinal range, habitat and water type; and the conservation state of each water bodies have been studied. A total of 1411 individuals were collected and four orders, 13 families, 35 genera and 52 species were identified. The groups with more diversity were Characiformes (65% and Siluriformes (25%. Three new records for Peru: Serrapinnus notomelas, Pseudopimelodus bufonius y Pseudocetopsis gobiodes and one endemic species: Chaetostoma marcapatae have been register. The altitudinal pattern influence in micro habitats presence and as consequence in abundance and species richness; so higher richness and abundance were found in the lower zone (52 species and 1309 individuals, in streams (44 species and rivers (712 individuals. According type of water, the clearwaters showed higher values of richness (37 species and the whitewater higher abundance (789 individuals. The higher diversity indexes (H’ were found in the rivers, white waters and altitudes lower. The higher values of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI were obtained in the main channel of the Río Inambari, up river of Mazuko and lower values in the Mirador stream, down river of Mazuko, where it was observed gold mining activity artisanal.

  10. Global Financial Partnerships in Microfinance: India, Peru and Tanzania

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    TUBARO, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the ‘wholesale’ market through which microfinance institutions operating in three contexts (Peru, Tanzania and the state of Tamil Nadu in India obtain loans from a variety of domestic and international funding bodies. The nature and characteristics of the relationships between them are captured through network analysis and visualization tools, with a dataset comprising inter-organisational lending relationships and organisations’ attributes over the years 2006-8. Focus is on the extent to which patterns in wholesale lending relationships relate to the legal status and characteristics of microfinance institutions; to the regulatory, business and social environment in which they operate; and to shifts in the balance between social and commercial interests of diverse types of lenders.The analysis brings to light considerable cross-country variation in the structure and features of wholesale lending relationships, and relates it primarily to differences in governance and regulation. On this basis, it makes the case that building a more enabling regulatory environment for funding partnerships may improve the capacity of microfinance to achieve its dual goals of poverty alleviation and financial sustainability.

  11. Implementation and analysis of initial trauma registry in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Vincent; DeUgarte, Daniel; Bliss, David; Salazar, Ernesto; Casapia, Martin; Ford, Henri; Upperman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Peru, 11% of deaths are due to trauma. Iquitos is a large underserved Peruvian city isolated from central resources by its geography. Our objective was to implement a locally driven trauma registry to sustainably improve trauma healthcare in this region. Methods: All trauma patients presenting to the main regional referral hospital were included in the trauma registry. A pilot study retrospectively analyzed data from the first two months after implementation. Results: From March to April 2013, 572 trauma patients were entered into the database. Average age was 26.9 years. Ten percent of patients presented more than 24 hours after injury. Most common mechanisms of injury were falls (25.5%), motor vehicle collisions (23.3%), and blunt assault (10.5%). Interim analysis revealed that 99% of patients were entered into the database. However, documentation of vital signs was poor: 42% of patients had temperature, 26% had oxygen saturation documented. After reporting to registry staff, a significant increase in temperature (42 to 97%, P analysis of data to enhance prevention and treatment of injuries in Iquitos.

  12. Markawasi: a cultural and natural patrimony of Peru

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    Salazar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research had as main aim to recognize the cultural and natural importance of Markawasi plateau for its possible consideration as a Hystorical Sanctuary into the National System of Protective Natural Areas by the Nation (SINANPE of Peru. Since 1994 until 2000, a photographic register of some of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculptures was evaluated and registered. Markawasi is important as origin center of the protohistory of our Andean culture and its biological richness. Markawasi plateau located at 4000 msnm, represent the rocky forest closer to Lima city, near to 90 km east, being studied since 1952 by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. To go to Markawasi should arrive to San Pedro de Casta, small town knew by its water party. The importance of Markawasi is increasing every day passed by its rocky formations, its archeological rest in the Fortress, Preinca stone tomb, irrigable channels, its center of observation and its natural amphitheatre formed. In addition, small lakes and its biological richness belonging to high mountain ecosystem make Markawasi an ideal place for ecotourism and cultural tourism. Markawasi due to its importance as cultural and national patrimony should be management by authorities of Peruvian state, and by communities surrounding to this natural area. Only by this way, could leave of its ostracism and stagnation of this town situated close to Markawasi plateau.

  13. Implementation and Analysis of Initial Trauma Registry in Iquitos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Duron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Peru, 11% of deaths are due to trauma. Iquitos is a large underserved Peruvian city isolated from central resources by its geography. Our objective was to implement a locally driven trauma registry to sustainably improve trauma healthcare in this region. Methods: All trauma patients presenting to the main regional referral hospital were included in the trauma registry. A pilot study retrospectively analyzed data from the first two months after implementation. Results: From March to April 2013, 572 trauma patients were entered into the database. Average age was 26.9 years. Ten percent of patients presented more than 24 hours after injury. Most common mechanisms of injury were falls (25.5%, motor vehicle collisions (23.3%, and blunt assault (10.5%. Interim analysis revealed that 99% of patients were entered into the database. However, documentation of vital signs was poor: 42% of patients had temperature, 26% had oxygen saturation documented. After reporting to registry staff, a significant increase in temperature (42 to 97%, P < 0.001 and oxygen saturation (26 to 92%, P < 0.001 documentation was observed. Conclusion: A trauma registry is possible to implement in a resource-poor setting. Future efforts will focus on analysis of data to enhance prevention and treatment of injuries in Iquitos.

  14. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  15. Coseismic Displacement Field of the June 23, 2001 Peru Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Norabuena, E. O.; Dixon, T.; Sacks, I.; Stein, S.

    2001-12-01

    On June 23 2001, a Mw 8.3 earthquake followed by a tsunami with waves up to 7.8m affected the southern coastal region of Peru. The epicenter was located at 16.22 \\deg S, 76.60 \\deg W and caused significant damage in towns located along the shoreline between Atico and Ilo as well in the inland cities of Arequipa and Moquegua. We present coseismic displacement estimates from GPS data at 14 geodetic monuments having a spatial coverage of about 760 km x 340 km. Maximum horizontal coseismic offset of 1.02m and maximum vertical offset of 0.80m were observed at the coastal stations of JHAI and TANA respectively. To the east of the epicenter, two continuous stations: AREQ and MIST measured average horizontal coseismic offset of 0.47m. During the observation phase a Mw 7.6 aftershock occurred in the neighborhood of POCO. We will present results of elastic dislocation models based on available GPS and seismic data.

  16. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was

  17. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population. PMID:22438911

  18. A novel species of Euspondylus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes Mountains of central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Tiffany M; Adams, Grant

    2015-10-21

    The South American gymnophthalmid genus Euspondylus is distributed from Venezuela through Peru, with its highest diversity occurring in Peru. Euspondylus paxcorpus sp. nov. is a new species from Junín, Peru possessing prefrontal scales and represented by 60 specimens. The new species differs from all other species by the combination of four supraoculars with supraocular/supraciliary fusion, 5-7 occipitals, a single palpebral scale, five supralabials and infralabials, quadrangular dorsal scales with low keels arranged in transverse series only, 40-45 in a longitudinal count and 22-28 in a transverse count, 12 rows of ventrals in a transverse count and 23-25 in a longitudinal count, and no sexual dimorphism in coloration. The discovery of E. paxcorpus increases the known number of Euspondylus species to 13. Because the coloration patterns of the specimens were greatly different after preservation in alcohol, caution should be used when identifying Euspondylus species from museum specimens.

  19. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Microlophus occipitalis, where air temperature accounts for a significant proportion of body temperature variation. We suggest more detailed studies on this lizard species, especially under climate change scenarios in northwestern Peru.

  20. A 32 m Parabolic Antenna in Peru At 3,370m of Altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ishitsuka, J; Kaifu, N; Miyama, S; Inoue, M; Tsuboi, M; Ohishi, M; Fujisawa, K; Kasuga, T; Miyazawa, K; Horiuchi, S

    2005-01-01

    At the altitude of 3,370 m on the Peruvian Andes, a 32m antenna owned by the telecommunications company Telefonica del Peru will be transformed to a Radio Telescope, it would be transferred to the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP). The parabolic antenna was constructed in 1984 by Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) and worked as an INTELSAT station until 2000. A team of the National Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) evaluated the antenna in 2003 and reported its availability to be used as a Radio Telescope. In collaboration of the NAOJ a 6.7 GHz receiver is under construction and will be installed within this year. Initially the telescope as a single dish will monitor and survey Methanol Maser of YSO, higher frequencies equipment and VLBI instruments will be considered. The antenna will be managed by the IGP and used by universities in Peru, becoming a VLBI station will be a grate contribution to astronomy and geodetic community.

  1. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  2. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

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    Tremaine Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights, including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record, discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension.

  3. Genero y trabajo femenino en el Peru Gender and women's work in Peru

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    Margarita Cerna Barba

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se identifican las condiciones de trabajo de la mujer en el Perú con sus determinantes histórico-sociales, derivados de la diferenciación por clase social, raza y género que condicionan la subordinación de las mujeres en la estructura social. A través de revisión bibliográfica se verifica que la situación de la mujer peruana trabajadora, ha tenido grandes y profundas transformaciones a través del tiempo, condicionadas por patrones ideológico-culturales patriarcales que culminaron en la sociedad capitalista periférica de los dias actuales.This study identifies the peruvian women's labor conditions and its social and historical determinants due to social class, race and gender differences that influence women subordination in social structure. Bibliographic review shows that the peruvian working woman situation experienced great and deep changes in time, as a result of ideological and cultural patriarchal patterns that culminated in the current capitalist society.

  4. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru); Reconstruccion fisica del accidente radiologico de Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: alachosd1271@yahoo.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  5. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

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    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  6. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  7. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  8. Job preferences of nurses and midwives for taking up a rural job in Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

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    Luis Huicho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Robust evidence on interventions to improve the shortage of health workers in rural areas is needed. We assessed stated factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru. Job attributes, and their levels, were based on literature review, qualitative interviews and focus groups of local health personnel and policy makers. A labelled design with two choices, rural community or Ayacucho city, was used. Job attributes were tailored to these settings. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of job preferences. Then we used the best-fitting estimated model to predict the impact of potential policy incentives on the probability of choosing a rural job or a job in Ayacucho city. We studied 205 nurses and midwives. The odds of choosing an urban post was 14.74 times than that of choosing a rural one. Salary increase, health center-type of facility and scholarship for specialization were preferred attributes for choosing a rural job. Increased number of years before securing a permanent contract acted as a disincentive for both rural and urban jobs. Policy simulations showed that the most effective attraction package to uptake a rural job included a 75% increase in salary plus scholarship for a specialization, which would increase the proportion of health workers taking a rural job from 36.4% up to 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban jobs were more strongly preferred than rural ones. However, combined financial and non-financial incentives could almost double rural job uptake by nurses and midwifes. These packages may provide meaningful attraction strategies to rural areas and should be considered by policy makers for implementation.

  9. An economic evaluation of Peru's liquefied natural gas export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru's Camisea gas fields hold nearly 90% of the country's natural gas reserves. In the 1990s, the government had a policy to prioritize Camisea gas for domestic consumption. The revocation of this policy in the 2000s allowed private developers to export 40% of Camisea's proven reserves, equivalent to one third of Peru's total. This USD 3.9 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project boasts the largest single foreign direct investment in Peru's history. A major component of the financing was granted by international financial institutions on economic grounds. While the project was expected to yield a substantial return to private investors, the export of one third of Peru's total proven natural gas reserves is not in line with its long-term interests. We undertake cost–benefit analyses for a series of scenarios, starting with the project's formative stage in the mid-2000s, and then in 2012, two years after it began its commercial operation. In all cases, Peru does not have sufficient reserves to warrant export, and the economic costs far exceed the benefits. This policy of LNG exports should not have been approved by the government, nor should the loans have been granted by international financial institutions to make it possible. - Highlights: • Peru's Liquefied Natural Gas project is creating an economic loss to the country. • Results of our analyses are robust for all scenarios considered. • The present value of the cost of replacing exported energy far exceeds tax revenue. • Projects cannot be approved based only on immediate benefits. • The potential opportunity costs of projects must be considered

  10. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼ 2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. The measured seasonal variations in the wind patterns are more pronounced than the solar cycle variations and are more readily understandable in terms of the expected, underlying forcing and damping processes. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak (≤ 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990). The zonal flows are predominantly eastward throughout the night, except for the solar minimum equinoxes, where brief westward flows appear in the early and the late night. The peak eastward velocities increase toward solar maximum; at the winter solstice, they are ∼ 100-130 m/s in 1983, 1984 and 1986, reaching ∼ 200 m/s in 1988, 1989 and 1990. The present equatorial thermospheric wind determinations agree in some respects with the satellite-data-based horizontal wind model IIWM-87 and the vector spherical harmonic form of the thermospheric general circulation model

  11. Epidemiological and ecological characteristics of past dengue virus infection in Santa Clara, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Baisley, K J; Calampa, C; Sharp, T W; Watts, D M; Wilson, M L

    2001-03-01

    To determine risk factors associated with dengue (DEN) virus infection among residents of Santa Clara, Peru, a rural Amazonian village near Iquitos, a cross-sectional serological, epidemiological and environmental survey was conducted. Demographic, social and behavioural information was obtained by standardized questionnaire from 1225 Santa Clara residents (61.3%) aged 5 years or older. Additional data were obtained on the environmental variables and immature mosquito species and abundance surrounding each household (n = 248). Sera that had been collected previously by the Peruvian Ministry of Health from residents were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for DEN virus IgG antibody. Antibody identity was verified as DEN by plaque reduction neutralization test. Data on individuals were analysed by univariate and multivariable methods, and independent sample t-tests. Spatial clustering was evaluated by comparing distances among DEN positive households. Overall, antibody prevalence was 29.4 % and more than doubled from the youngest to the oldest age groups, but did not differ by sex. Curiously, length of residence in Santa Clara was negatively associated with DEN virus antibodies. More frequent travel to Iquitos was positively associated with seroprevalence. Residents who obtained water from a river source rather than a local well also had significantly higher antibody prevalence. None of the environmental variables measured at each household corresponded to the patterns of antibody distribution. Of the larval mosquitoes found around residences, all were determined to be species other than Aedes. No evidence of spatial autocorrelation among antibody-positive households was detected. These results strongly suggested that recent DEN virus transmission did not occur in the village and that most infections of residents of this rural village were acquired while visiting the city of Iquitos.

  12. Newly incriminated anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Calderon, G; Falcon, R; Zambrano, V

    1987-09-01

    Sporozoite data from salivary gland dissections are presented that clearly incriminate Anopheles trinkae, An. pseudopunctipennis, An. sp. near fluminensis, An. oswaldoi, An. nuneztovari and An. rangeli as vectors of malaria parasites in the Rio Ene Valley, a hyperendemic malarious area in Junin Department, eastern Peru. Anopheles trinkae is considered the most important vector based on dissections, abundance and man-vector contact. Other notes are presented on the relative abundance, bionomics and previous records of these species in Peru and in the study sites.

  13. Individual, family, and community risk markers for domestic violence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flake, Dallan F

    2005-03-01

    This study draws on an ecological framework in testing relationships between individual, family, and community characteristics and the likelihood of women experiencing domestic violence in Peru. The sample of 15,991 women was taken from the 2000 Peru Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models revealed that at the individual level, low educational attainment, early union formation, and a violent family background increase a woman's likelihood of abuse. Family-level risk markers include cohabitation, large family size, partner alcohol consumption, employment, and a woman's having higher status than her husband. At the community level, living in a noncoastal area and having an urban residence increase the likelihood of abuse. PMID:16043554

  14. Radiometric dating of the extinction of the large Pleistocene fauna in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery in northern Peru of fossil deposits belonging to large mammals allows the dating of the extinction of this fauna. The method based on disequilibrium within the uranium family (230Th/234U) was used. The extinction occurred at the end of the Pleistocene and is contemporaneous with the beginning of the deglaciation. Moreover, this dating, compared with results of excavations of palaeo-indian ''Paijan'' sites, indicates that human groups in Peru did not play a significant role in extinction of this large fauna. (authors). 26 refs., 1 tab

  15. Giant Otter Project in Peru Field Trip and Activity Report - 2001

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    Groenendijk J.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis was uplisted from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered' by IUCN in 2000; habitat destruction in South America currently poses the greatest threat to the species. In 1990, the project 'Status, habitat, behaviour and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru' was initiated by the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS in order to increase knowledge and national awareness of these unique animals and to develop a comprehensive plan for their conservation in Peru. The progress of the Project has been described continually in the IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin.

  16. Perspectives of the teaching in astronomy in Peru at the present time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M. L.

    1998-11-01

    (1)1st. VLP-IAU., Com. 46 : Failed experience in Peru? There are a lot of reasons to explain why the PhD and Mg peruvians do not want to return to Peru. Then, what shall we do? (2)For experience , the faculties of education have more opportunity than faculties of sciences to insert new topics in the national education reforms. Now, we are penetrating in two faculties of education, with astronomical observatories to teaching and scientific research. The sun and variable stars are selected objects. Modern technology and spatial sciences are introduced.

  17. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

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    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  18. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions. PMID:23949515

  19. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  20. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

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    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  1. Possible future lakes in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Torres, Judith; Giraldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Santiago, Alexzander; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has caused large losses of glacier mass in the Andes of Peru. Also, given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier-climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. According to the national Peruvian glacier inventories 43% of glacier area has disappeared between 1970 and 2003-2010 in the 19 snowy mountain ranges and a total of 8 355 new lakes have formed in deglaciating terrain. With glacier retreat new lakes form in parts of the glacier tongue where there is an overdeepening, and these lakes can be a source of natural hazards to downstrean populations. Therefore, the identification of possible future lakes is important to plan for preventive measures concerning possible lake outbursts as well as to understand changes in freshwater storage in the corresponding source areas. Modeling of glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes forming in such topographic depressions when becoming ice-free was done using the SRTM DEM from the year 2000 with a 90 m resolution and the 2003-2010 glacier outlines from the recently published national glacier inventory of Perú. The GIS-based analysis followed three main steps: (1) identification of flat glacier areas with less than 10° surface slope as a first-order spatial approximation to possible occurrences of glacier-bed overdeepenings; (2) application, using Google Earth, of three morphological indications of glacier-bed overdeepenings following Frey et al. (2010): steepening surface slope, onset of crevasse formation, lateral flow-narrowing; and (3) verification of the results from steps (1) and (2) by comparison with GlabTop modeling of bed topographies following Linsbauer et al. (2012) using the SRTM DEM, contour lines and constructed branch lines for all glaciers. A pilot study has already been carried out for the Cordillera Blanca. The results show that 31 major new lakes may form in the future. The total

  2. Common mental disorders in public transportation drivers in Lima, Peru.

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    Paulo Ruiz-Grosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD. A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05. The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%, 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8% and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4% respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC: 7.8%. CONCLUSION: Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.

  3. Modeling energy and mass balance of Shallap Glacier, Peru

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    W. Gurgiser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the distributed surface mass and energy balance of Shallap Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9° S, 77° W, 4700–5700 m a.s.l., ~ 7 km2, on hourly time steps for two years (September 2006–August 2008 using a process-based model and meteorological measurements as input. Model parameter combinations were optimized against 21 temporal readings of 20 stakes in the ablation zone of the glacier. Uncertainty caused by model input parameters and parameterization schemes was estimated using a leave-one out cross-validation scheme, which yields values of root mean square deviation (RMSD of surface height change < 1 m (< 10% of the measured amplitude for all stakes. With the best parameter combination (smallest RMSD applied, the modeled annual surface mass balance of the glacier was −0.32 ± 0.4 m w.e. (water equivalent for September 2006–August 2007 and 0.51 ± 0.56 m w.e. for September 2007–August 2008. While the mass balance above 5000 m was similar in both years (Δ 0.33 ± 0.68 m w.e. due to similar annual sums of solid precipitation, a difference of 1.97 ± 0.68 m w.e. was calculated for the lower parts of the glacier. This difference is associated with more frequent occurrence of higher snow line altitudes during the first year, which was mainly caused by a higher fraction of liquid precipitation due to higher mean air temperatures. As the net shortwave budget was found to be the main source for ablation throughout the year at Shallap Glacier, lower surface albedo especially caused by lower solid precipitation amounts explains most of the difference in modeled ablation and mass balance between the two years.

  4. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  5. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony

    2010-05-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  6. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  7. Modeling energy and mass balance of Shallap Glacier, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurgiser

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the distributed surface mass and energy balance of Shallap Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9° S, 77° W, 4700–5700 m a.s.l., ∼ 7 km2 on hourly time steps for two years (September 2006–August 2008 using a process-based model and meteorological measurements as input. Model parameter combinations were optimized against 21 temporal readings of 20 stakes in the ablation zone of the glacier. Uncertainty caused by model input parameters and parameterization schemes was estimated using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme and yields values of root mean square deviation (RMSD of surface height change < 1m (< 10% of the measured amplitude for all stakes. With the best parameter combination (smallest RMSD applied, the modeled annual surface mass balance of the glacier was −0.32 ± 0.4 m w.e. for September 2006–August 2007 and 0.51 ± 0.56 m w.e. for September 2007–August 2008. While the mass balance above 5000 m was similar in both years (Δ 0.35 ± 0.68 m w.e. due to similar annual sums of solid precipitation, a difference of ∼ 2 ± 0.68 m w.e. was calculated for the lower parts of the glacier. This difference is associated with more frequent occurrence of higher snow line altitudes during the first year, which was mainly caused by a higher fraction of liquid precipitation due to higher mean air temperatures. As the net shortwave budget was found to be the main source for ablation throughout the year at Shallap Glacier, lower surface albedo caused by higher snow line altitudes explains most of the difference in modeled ablation and mass balance between the two years.

  8. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario M Bartolini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

  9. Hypotheses about geoglyphs at Nasca, Peru: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Klokočník

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known hypotheses about the reasons why the geoglyphs in the Nasca and Palpa region of Peru were created are many: roads/paths, rituals/ceremonials, use of hallucinogens, astronomical meaning, influence of extraterrestrials, underground water… and so on. We present a new hypothesis, formulated by J. Sonnek (first published in 2011 in the context of all previous hypotheses.1 Sonnek explains the geoglyphs as tidied work areas for the production of rope and nets, although he goes much further than Stierlin. This eccentric hypothesis now has not only experimental but also archaeological and ethnographical support, which is presented here. Geoglyphs of a special shape were discovered in the pampas; they may represent technical objects – different types of ‘rope twisters’. Following this idea, Sonnek made technical devices (using today’s materials and tested them in practice; they work perfectly, see his YouTube videos.2 In November 2012, wooden pieces, which may be the remnants of ropemaking, were collected from the pampa near the towns of Nasca and Palpa, in vicinity of these hypothetic ropemaking places. Radiocarbon testing by 14C standardized radio-carbon age according to Stuiver-Polach convention and Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS of these wood pieces shows the age to be in a wide range from Early Nasca to the 17th century (and to our epoch with a fake geoglyph, too, thus supporting (but surely not proving the new hypothesis. Moreover, in the Quechua language, the word huasca, waskha (read: uasca means a rope or cord or place where these are produced. This word is very similar to ‘nasca’.

  10. Rural-to-urban migration and risk of hypertension: Longitudinal results of the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan F.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Gilman, Robert H; Poterico, Julio A.; Quispe, Renato; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a hazardous process because it affects health population due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. This study aimed to determine the effect of migration on the incidence of hypertension. Participants of the PERU MIGRANT study, i.e. rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants were re-evaluated after five years from baseline. The outcome was incidence of hypertension; and the exposures were study group and other well-known risk factors. Incidence rates, relative risks (RR), and population attributable fractions were calculated. At baseline, 201 (20.4%), 589 (59.5%), and 199 (20.1%) were rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban subjects, respectively. Overall mean age was 47.9 (SD±12.0) years, and 522 (52.9%) were females. Hypertension prevalence at baseline was 16.0% (95% CI 13.7%–18.3%), being more common in urban group; whereas pre-hypertension was more prevalent in rural participants (pyears was 94%, 895 participants were re-assessed and 33 (3.3%) deaths were recorded. Overall incidence of hypertension was 1.73 (95%CI 1.36–2.20) per 100 person-years. In multivariable model and compared to the urban group, rural group had a greater risk of developing hypertension (RR=3.58; 95%CI 1.42–9.06). Population attributable fractions showed high waist circumference as the leading risk factor for the hypertension development in rural (19.1%), migrant (27.9%), and urban (45.8%) participants. Subjects from rural settings are at higher risk to develop hypertension relative to rural-urban migrant or urban groups. Central obesity was the leading risk factor for hypertension incidence in the three population groups. PMID:26865219

  11. Giant hydrogen sulfide plume in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru supports chemolithoautotrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Schunck

    Full Text Available In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ. OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km(2, which contained ∼2.2×10(4 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ∼440 km(3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct γ-, δ- and ε-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ∼30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that

  12. Climate Change and Mountain Community Fire Management in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, J.; Medler, M.; Cole, R. J.; Arques, S.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the central Andes of Peru, climate change is altering fire risk through changes in local meteorology and fuel loading. Greater moisture and favorable growing conditions are increasing vegetative productivity, which in turn increases fuel loads. This process is accentuated during El Nino events and potentially results in increased fire occurrence and frequency during relatively dry La Nina events. Park officials are concerned about the ramification of the changes on local ecology and tourist use of the resources. However, using a time-series of two different products from the MODIS Terra and Aqua platforms (Active Fire and Burned Area), TRMM 3B43 precipitation data, and Multivariate ENSO Index data we document fire occurrence and extent from 2000 to 2010 and our analysis indicates that fires are burning exclusively during winter months when there are no natural ignition sources. Globally, fire is used in conjunction with grazing to improve the regeneration and yield of grasses. During our interviews, locals claimed to only set fires in the buffer zone outside of the park, but our analysis indicates that the buffer zone rarely burns and that most fires begin within the park and only occasionally move into the buffer zones. Additionally, we determined that although this is small-scale fire activity every year, overall fire is having a very minor effect on local systems. The park service must develop programs to work with local grazing stakeholders to better limit the impacts of fire, while also address the negative perceptions from tourists in the future. In this instance, fire perception and fire reality are not the same and the challenge for resource managers is how to reconcile these two factors in order to more effectively manage the parklands.

  13. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable. PMID:17298515

  14. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  15. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  16. Isotope hydrology to optimize the management of water resources in northern Peru: The Alto Piura aquifer - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period January 2001-December 2004, a study of the more productive areas of the Alto Piura aquifer, NW Peru, was carried out as part of the IAEA's regional project RLA8/0/31. The final objective of the project was to establish a numerical model of the aquifer that can be used for a sustainable management of water resources. The study was conducted by the University of Piura. Based on regional geology and hydrogeological information, isotope and hydrochemical techniques were applied to obtain a preliminary conceptual model of the aquifer, and set the premises to achieve the objectives of the study. The studies showed that the Alto Piura aquifer is an heterogeneous system, consisting of alluvial and fluvial sediments, constituting a semi-confined aquifer. A significant lateral recharge from the heavily weathered and fractured igneous metamorphic massifs was identified at the NE sector of the study area. The alluvial fans in the NE region represent a transition area from the tributaries of the Piura river to the local aquifers. The hydraulic connection between surface and groundwater is not evident in the SW area. In this area, groundwater is of the type sodiumchloride and sodium-sulphate, with electrical conductivity values higher than 1000 μS·cm-1. In the NE area, waters are of the type calcium to sodium bicarbonate, with electrical conductivity values lower than 1000 μS·cm-, derived from weathered rocks in the neighbouring massifs. A large isotope variability was observed in samples from precipitation, rivers and aquifers, and could not easily be explained as consequence of the altitude effect. As alternative, the analysis of the isotope contents of springs is proposed. (author)

  17. Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

  18. Families Around the World. The Quechua Family of Peru. Teacher's Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource guide outlines one of four units designed for grade 1. Some background material on the Quecha speaking Indians of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador is presented for the teacher on the family structure and the economy, emphasizing subsistence, technology, clothing, division of labor, and sexual differentiation of labor. Major concepts…

  19. Mummies and dental health in the ancient Ilo valley, southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hillson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the very arid climate of southern Peru, archaeological remains, including many human burials, are extremely well preserved. Study of the teeth of mummified people from different cultural groups and time periods is beginning to provide evidence of diet and disease among the ancient inhabitants of the Ilo valley between the foot-hills of the Andes and the desert coast.

  20. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  1. Community Irrigation Supplies and Regional Water Transfers in the Colca Valley, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera Delgado, J.R.; Vincent, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Water governance of Andean river valleys that are the site of large-scale water transfers and the home to highland communities with their own irrigation practices has been the subject of research and debate since the large water transfers began. In Peru, local and regional water governance has been

  2. Dolphins and Children: A Blueprint for Marine Environmental Education in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, Marie-Francoise; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Geysen, Karen; Onton, Karina; Vega, Diana; Chavez-Lisambart, Laura; Van Waerebeek, Koen

    2006-01-01

    To complement legislative measures protecting cetaceans and other marine animals, the Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research in the period 1993-2000 implemented an environmental education program at the kindergartens, primary and high schools of several fishing towns and in Lima, Peru. This program included environmental classes based on selected…

  3. Two new butterfly records for Peru: Orophila cardases cardases and Pedaliodes garlaczi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report to Peru, for the first time, two butterfly species, Orophila cardases cardases (Hewitson, 1869 and Pedaliodes garlaczi Pyrcz & Cerdeña, 2013, based on specimens collected in the Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary and neighboring areas.

  4. Sustaining innovations: schools, institutions and linkages in the Cuzco region, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez Tafur, J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is about linkages between the different institutions operating in the rural areas and the contributions these linkages provide. Numerous activities are found taking place in the rural areas of Peru. Many are the result of a specific intervention, designed and implemented towards the impr

  5. Origin of lead in andean calc-alkaline lavas, southern peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, G R; Barreiro, B A

    1980-12-12

    Lead isotope data from Quaternary andesitic lavas of the Arequipa and Barroso groups of southern Peru and from regional Precambrian granulitic gneisses reveal a lead component in the lavas from the gneisses. The lava leads can be accounted for by two-component mixtures of lead from mantle and lower crustal sources, although the mixing process need not have occurred in the lower crust.

  6. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over th

  7. First Case of Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F

    2015-12-01

    A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade.

  8. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  9. Cultural Artefact, Ideology Export or Soft Power? Confucius Institute in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of the transnational interplay of cultural, educational and economic forces that culminated with the establishment of a Chinese language and cultural centre in Peru, the Confucius Institute. Confucius Institutes are government-sponsored cultural centres devoted mainly to Chinese language education around the…

  10. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate...

  11. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used...

  12. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  13. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  14. Examples of transcultural processes in two colonial linguistic documents on Jebero (Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alexander-Bakkerus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we bring to light the "transcultural processes" and "the impacts of colonial thinking" as contained in The British Library manuscripts Add. 25,323 and 25,324. The manuscripts deal with Jebero, an indigenous language of North-Peru, as it was spoken in the 18th century. (The language, al

  15. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  16. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  17. Socio-cultural predictors of reading literacy in fourth graders in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, S.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates socio-cultural cognitive literacy predictors for reading literacy (RL), tested in 314 fourth graders from two different levels of social economic status in Lima, Peru. The following variables were tested as predictors: word decoding, vocabulary, motivation to read, reading st

  18. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  19. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications..., and 788.0 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 051079 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (b)(1... balsam, and 800 milligrams of castor oil. (2) Sponsor. See No. 017135 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  20. Presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S Arriola

    Full Text Available We report the first detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in pigs in Peru. The isolates belong to a livestock-associated lineage previously reported in North America and Europe, CC398, and a highly virulent USA300-like ST8-IV variant, which is the predominant community-associated lineage in Latin America.

  1. SIGHTING THE HOUSE SPARROW PASSER DOMESTICUS IN LOBOS DE AFUERA ISLANDS, NORTH COAST OF PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Stucchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 10, 2012, we observed a specimen of house sparrow Passer domesticus in Lobos de Afuera islands. This is the more oceanic record of the species within its geographic range in Peru and the first in these islands, which rises to 34 the number of species reported for it.

  2. Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Adrián; Castillo, Paul; Vega, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the reserve requirement measures undertaken by the Central Bank of Peru. It provides a rationale for the use of these instruments as well as empirical evidence of their effectiveness. In general, the results show that tightening reserve requirements has the desired effects on interest rates and credit levels at both banks and smaller financial institutions (cajas municipales).

  3. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  4. First record of Lophodinium polylophum (Daday Lemmermann 1910 (Dinophyceae: Lophodiniaceae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Samanez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the first record of Lophodinium polylophum from Peru is presented. This fresh water dinoflagellate was identified in plankton samples from the lagoon Picoplancha of Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath (Madre de Dios and from a stream in the Puinahua River basin in Loreto.

  5. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.

  6. "A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae: Amarylloideae: Clinantheae)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, ...

  7. Politicas de Seguridad Alimentaria en los Paises de la Comunidad Andina: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yep, Susana Chu; Gamarra, Rosario Gomez; Bucheli, Fausto Jordan; Studzinski, Karlos La Serna; Aguancha, Alberto Lora; Castro, Juan Fernando Marrero; Bohrt, Julio Prudencio; Baca, Salomon Salcedo; Mena, Raul Sanchez; Abril, Octavio Villamarin

    2005-01-01

    This book analyses the complex concept of food security in the Andean Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The food security situation is examined from a sub regional perspective, and the possible elements of a sub regional food security strategy are outlined. Food security policies are analyzed and policy proposals are made for each Andean country.

  8. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communities after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Sykora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, Victor; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province
    of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted
    exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We

  9. Peru : Impact of the Rural Roads Program on Democracy and Citizenship in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Remy Simatovia, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The rural roads program, overseen by Provias Descentralizado (subdivision of Peru's Ministry of Transportation and Communications), began in 1995, and has received funds from the Peruvian Government, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. It is a national program for the rehabilitation and maintenance of roads that link rural communities and villages with secondary and pri...

  10. Biodiversity Business fron India to Peru; Insights into successes and chellenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Verweij, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development recently released the report 'Biodiversity Business from India to Peru'. The study, commissioned by Hivos, provides new insights in the impacts and success factors of the upcoming concept of biodiversity-friendly enterprise across the globe. By mea

  11. First records of Hysterothylacium pelagicum (Anisakidae and Toxocara alienata (Toxocaridae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ascaridoid nematodes are recorded by Peru: Hysterothylacium pelagicum parasitizing to common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus from a market of Lima and Toxocara alienata in a collared peccary (Pecari tajacu from Iquitos. Likewise, it is made a morphological description of the nematodes.

  12. Estimating Population Density of the San Martin Titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in Peru Using Vocalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, Silvy M; García-Suikkanen, Carolina; Tello-Alvarado, Julio C; Vermeer, Jan; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the population density of the critically endangered Callicebus oenanthe in the Ojos de Agua Conservation Concession, a dry forest area in the department of San Martin, Peru. Results showed significant differences (p Ojos de Agua an important cornerstone in the conservation of the species, because it is one of the largest protected areas where the species occurs. PMID:26824671

  13. Travel to Peru with the Wiss Center for Theory and History of Art and Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2007-01-01

    The Henry H. Wiss Center for Theory and History of Art and Architecture, a center of the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech, presents "The Majesty and Mystery of Peru," an annual summer trip to a destination rich in both ancient and contemporary culture from July 31-Aug. 13, 2008.

  14. Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2011-01-01

    Review of Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates. Robert S. Voss and David W. Fleck. 2011. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 351. Pp.81, 3 figures, 25 tables. Free at AMNH Digital Library ISSN 0003‐0090.

  15. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  16. A Teaching Guide to the History of Republican Peru, 1826-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This course outline and bibliography on Peru during the middle years of the nineteenth century includes general works in English and Spanish. Entries are organized chronologically and focus on a variety of topics, including efforts to modernize society, the large unassimilated Indian population, geographic isolation, economic problems, militarism,…

  17. Literacy and Politics in Latin America: The Case of Brazil, Peru and Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Emilia

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes and compares approaches to literacy and the involvement of the community in literacy training in three Latin American countries: (1) Brazil, a capitalist economic framework; (2) Peru, with reform as an alternative to counter-insurgency measures; and (3) Nicaragua, a revolutionary society in transition. (JOW)

  18. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  19. Pre-Incan Archeology of Peru: Paleo-Indians in the Paleo-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    2011-01-01

    Peru's prehistory, climate, and terrain are the landscape upon which one of humankind's longest migrations occurred. When the glacial period ended, a geographic and cultural transition began when the meltwaters carved river valleys across the South American continent. Culture-rich communities of fishers, miners, artisans, and morticians populated…

  20. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...