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Sample records for cajamarca peru determined

  1. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

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    William H. Roldán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  2. Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae wasp community in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru

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    Evelyn Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the species composition of the subfamily Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae along an altitudinal gradient in the cloudy forest Monteseco, Cajamarca, Peru collected in 2009 and 2010. Eighteen species were recorded in three genera of Ophioninae: Alophophion, Enicospilus y Ophion. Five species are recorded for the first time in Peru: Ophion polyhymniae Gauld, 1988; Enicospilus cubensis (Norton, 1863; E. guatemalensis (Cameron, 1886; E. cressoni Hooker, 1912 y E. mexicanus (Cresson, 1874. Subfamily composition varies with the elevation. The highest species richness (S=11 was found at 2150 m and the lowest (S=3 at 3116 m. Enicospilus is more diverse from low to mid elevation, Ophion from mid to high elevation and Alophophion occurs predominantly at high elevation.

  3. A One-Health integrated approach to control fascioliasis in the Cajamarca valley of Peru

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    Laura Rinaldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica infection is reported from many Latin American countries, with very high prevalence rates in both humans and livestock in the Andean countries. Due to its environmental characteristics, particularly suitable for liver fluke infection, the Cajamarca valley of Peru has often been chosen as a model to study the epidemiology of liver fluke infection in the Andes. In this paper we describe the profile of a project aimed at a multidisciplinary and integrated approach for the control of fascioliasis in animals and humans in this valley. The One-Health integrated approach applied here is based on accurate and sensitive diagnostics, namely the FLOTAC, and the use of geospatial tools for epidemiological scrutiny.

  4. DETECTION OF IgG AND IgM ANTI-CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IN BLOOD DONORS IN CAJAMARCA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza-Quispe, L.; Carranza-Quispe, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study IgM and IgG anti-CMV were detected in serum from volunteer blood donors from Santa Maria Hospital Cutervo, Cajamarca. The study was performed with serum samples from the total population of suitable donors, which were processed by ELISAfor the determination of specific IgM and IgG anti-cytomegalovirus (anti-CMG). 70 samples were analyzed. Of the 54% (38) female donors, none were reactive to anti-CMV IgM and 95% (36) were reactive to anti- CMVIgG. Of the 46% (32) m...

  5. Evaluación de una prueba de ELISA con antígeno metabólico de Fasciola hepatica para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana en Cajamarca, Perú Evaluation of an ELISA test with Fasciola hepatica metabolic antigen for diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Hernán Cornejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el antígeno metabólico (antígeno excreción - secreción de Fasciola hepatica de ovinos infectados de Cajamarca, con una concentración proteica de 1 005 μg/μL, compuesta principalmente por proteνnas de peso molecular entre 1,2 y 170 KDa. Se detectaron bandas de 170; 150; 31; 24; 18-14 y 10 kDa. Con este antνgeno se desarrollσ una prueba de ELISA y se determinσ su punto de corte en 0,140. Se evaluσ 33 sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por visualización de huevos en heces, 177 sueros de pacientes sin fasciolosis provenientes de áreas endémicas de Cajamarca y 88 sueros de pacientes con otras infecciones parasitarias y bacterianas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 97,0%, especificidad de 96,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 78,1% y valor predictivo negativo de 99,6%. Se encontró reacción cruzada en 9/88 sueros evaluados. Se recomienda la implementación y uso de esta prueba para el diagnóstico de fasciolosis.Metabolic (excretion/secretion antigen was obtained from sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica, with a 1005 μg/μL of protein concentration, composed principally by proteins of molecular weight between 1.2 and 170 KDa. Bands of 170, 150, 31, 24, 18-14 and 10 kDa were detected. With this antigen an ELISA test was developed and the cut off was determined in 0.140. We evaluated 33 serums of patient with fascioliasis confirmed by visualization of eggs in feces, 177 serums of persons without fascioliasis from endemic rural areas of Cajamarca and 88 serums of patients with others parasitic and bacterial infections. We found a 97.0% of sensitivity, 96.6 specificity, 78.1% predictive positive value, 99.6 % predictive negative value. In 9/88 serums was found cross reactions. We recommended the implementation and use of this test for the fascioliasis diagnosis.

  6. Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Peru assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Peru perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Peru on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Peru; 2) ...

  7. Immune diagnosis of human fasciolosis in children from Cajamarca, Perú

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    GEORGE V. HILLYER

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The immunodiagnostic potential of a FAST-ELISA for the detection of antibodies in fasciolosis with sera from 6-12 year old children from Cajamarca, Peru was examined. Four children negative parasitologically were negative by FAST-ELISA. All 13 children found positive parasitologically were also positive by FAST-ELISA for 100% sensitivity. Twelve of the 13 infected children seroreverted 4 months post dihydroemetine therapy showing lower antibody levels as compared with the pretreatment sample. These results suggest that FAST-ELISA may be useful for the determination of infection and success of therapy in children with fasciolosis.Se estudio el potencial inmunodiagnóstico de un FAST-ELISA para la detección de anticuerpos contra de fasciolosis en niños de Cajamarca, Perú. Sueros de 4 niños no infectados fueron negativos mientras que 13 niños infectados fueron positivos a la prueba de FAST-ELISA. Doce de los niños infectados serorevirtieron con disminución de anticuerpos cuatro meses luego de terapia con dehidroemetina. Estos resultados indican la utilidad de la prueba de FAST-ELISA para detección de infección y predicción de cura en niños con fasciolosis.

  8. Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations. PMID:12178073

  9. 76 FR 44609 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Notice of Determination Regarding Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... of the Secretary United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Notice of Determination Regarding... United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). The submission was filed with OTLA on December 29... Nacional de Administraci n Tributaria (SINAUT- SUNAT). The submission alleges the Government of Peru...

  10. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  11. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

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    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  12. 78 FR 58378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Peru: Kingdoms of the...

  13. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  14. Alliances for local development success factors. Comparative experiences of Spain and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo Mory, Elsa; Schwalb Helguero, María Matilde; Alva Gonzáles, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Alliances are formed to overcome the constraints partners face to achieve certain goals. When the goal is to promote local development, it requires the participation of stakeholders: private sector, local government, civil associations and community groups, among others. This article seeks, through the comparative analysis of three experiences of local development led by the district of Villa El Salvador (Lima - Peru), the mining company Yanacocha (Cajamarca -Peru) and the Spanish Agency for ...

  15. The Informal Economy in Peru: Magnitude and Determinants, 1980-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Roberto,

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the size of the informal economy in Peru during the period 1980-2011 by using the multiple indicators-multiple causes method (MIMIC). Estimates indicate that the informal economy has fluctuated between 30% and 45% of official GDP during the period analyzed and has exhibited an anti-cyclical behavior, increasing during periods of economic crisis and contracting during economic booms. An econometric exploration of the determinants of the size of the informal economy indicat...

  16. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  17. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

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    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  18. Angiosperms additions to flora of Peru

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    Eric F. Rodríguez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here 131 new additions to the angiosperm flora of Peru from recent collections in the north of Peru, mostly from department of Amazonas (provinces of Bagua and Condorcanqui and department of Cajamarca (province of San Ignacio. This new contribution is the result of field and herbarium studies by the various authors in this region from 1993 to 2002, and represents the combined effort of personnel from the Herbarium Truxillense (HUT and the Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO as part of the Flora of Peru Project. The species reported here were compared against the list of species documented in the «Catalogue of Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru» (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993 and «Ten years of additions to the flora of Peru: 1993- 2003» (Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004. The new taxa are organized in three categories: 18 species new to science, six new nomenclatural combinations and 107 new records, thereby enlarging their geographical distribution towards to Peru. Considering the new species and the new records, this contribution adds 125 species to the Peruvian Flora.

  19. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos F. Jiménez; Heidi Quintana; Víctor Pacheco; Derek Melton; Javier Torrealva; Guillermo Tello

    2011-01-01

    Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca), based on 2002 (dry season) and 1264 (wet s...

  20. Die Kirche von Cajamarca - die Herausforderung einer Option für die Armen in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Knecht, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Die Kirche in Lateinamerika hat für die Profilbildung wissenschaftlicher Theologie im 20. Jahrhun-dert eine Reihe von theoretischen Entwürfen vorgelegt, die für die Programmatik der Theologie ins-gesamt grundlegend und richtungweisend sind. In der europäischen Rezeption wird jedoch zu wenig beachtet, dass sich hinter dem Sammelbegriff „Theologie der Befreiung“ eine Reihe sehr differenzier-ter Konzeptionen verbergen, die in je unterschiedlichen kulturellen Kontexten die Evangelisierung themati...

  1. Understanding Underage Drinking in Peru: Determinants of Its Frequency and Intensity

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    Janice Seinfeld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Underage drinking is a serious problem worldwide. In the case of Peru, 50% of those who have ever used alcohol started doing so before the age of 13, and 90% before 16. In this study, we examine the correlations of frequency and intensity of underage drinking in Peru. We find that individual characteristics (smoking and carrying guns, exposure to traumatic events (sexual abuse and domestic violence, peer effects, and access to information are significantly correlated with drinking. This highlights the importance of addressing the problem in a comprehensive manner that includes students, parents, schools, and the government, especially considering that policies targeted at adolescents may have multiplier effects.

  2. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-01-01

    La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca), fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca), durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el méto...

  3. Determining of the level of lead and cadmium contamination in pregnant women living in an exposed mining area of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of this study to determine in the first year the level of acute pollution and their nutritional status in pregnant women living in a lead and cadmium exposed mining area of Peru. The complete project will focus on delivering women and their infants who are one of the most vulnerable groups of the life cycle. It is of particular interest to investigate the impact of pollution not only in the mother but also the possible transfer to the infant. (author)

  4. Financial Inclusion of the Poor in Peru: Explanatory factors and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Ana; León, Janina; Ponce, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Following current debate about possible trade-off between financial sustainability and social performance of microfinance institutions (MFIs), this paper explores the extent to which these institutions are capable of expanding ‘financial inclusion’, i.e. provision of financial access to those with no prior access to the financial system. By looking at one of the most dynamic microfinance markets in the world, Peru, the study analyses the factors that help explain the degree of financial incl...

  5. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  6. Water Yes, Gold No: Empowerment and social change through the social mobilizations against the Conga Mining Project in an Andean region of Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Llucià, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to identify and analyse the empowerment processes of civil participation in collective actions behind the social movement ‘Conga No Va’; as well as to contribute to the understanding of mining extraction causality upon social structures and gender relations in rural communities. The main focus is the social movement opposed to the mega mining project ‘Conga’ in the Andean region of Cajamarca, Peru. Taking in account sustainable and alternative development theories as well as ...

  7. Productivity of ten promising chaucha potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum, Phureja group) in the Cajamarca region

    OpenAIRE

    Luz P. Rojas Mercado; Juan F. Seminario Cunya

    2014-01-01

    The productivity of ten treatments (chaucha cultivars) with three replications, all from the Cajamarca Region, were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design: Peruanita 3 Mountaineer 2 Limeña, Yellow, Clavelina 2 Red 2 Mulla, Huagalina, yellow and red Chimbina mahuay. Plant height, number of stems, number of tubers, number of commercial tubers, total weight of tubers, weight of commercial tubers, tuber dry matter, dry weight of foliage and harvest index were evaluated. The yield ranged ...

  8. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  9. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura de cierre de 70 a 90 m, que permaneció por meses hasta antes de ser abierto en forma natural por el río. Así como este deslizamiento, diferentes procesos gravitacionales se presentaron durante las lluvias anómalas en el 2008, 1998 y 1983 en la región norte del país, siendo afectadas importantes vías de penetración a la sierra y selva de la región Cajamarca. Estas zonas previamente evaluadas en el estudio de riesgo geológico en la región, y en particular el sector de Rodeopampa, fueron comparadas con el mapa de susceptibilidad elaborado. Dichas áreas ubicadas en zonas de alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa, permitieron validar el mapa y su utilidad como herramienta de prevención de desastres y planificación del desarrollo.Susceptibility to mass movements in the Cajamarca region, northern Perú and landslide Rodeopampa on February 22, 2010. On February 22, 2010, an old slide on the slopes the hill Rodeopampa was reactivated, causing damming Sócota Valley, a tributary of the Marañón River affect agricultural land and some houses of Rodeopampa in the body and head of the slip and St. Luis de Lucma in the Run up and reservoir, both located in the provinces of Chota and Cutervo, Cajamarca region, northern Peru. He formed a reservoir of 1640 m long and 400 m wide with a shut height of 70 to 90 m, which remained for months before being opened up naturally by the river. As this slide, different gravitational processes

  10. Asociación de Productores Ecológicos de la Región Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    APERC, APERC

    2013-01-01

    Somos una organización que agrupa a pequeños productores, transformadores y comercializadores de productos ecológicos de las diferentes provincias de la región Cajamarca. La APER Cajamarca es base regional y fundadora de Asociación Nacional de Productores Ecológicos del Perú (ANPE Perú), iniciativa de un conjunto de organizaciones de productores ecológicos organizados con la finalidad de unir esfuerzos en torno a una propuesta de desarrollo nacional basada en la agroecología.

  11. Spotlight: Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacher, L

    1985-09-01

    This article highlights population statistics from Peru, the 3rd largest country in Latin America. The population in 1985 has been estimated at 19.7 million. In 1982, the birth rate was 35/1000 and the mortality rate was 10/1000. Infant mortality stood at 99/1000 live births and life expectancy at birth was 59 years. 41% of Peru's population is under 15 years of age, and only 4% is 65 years of age or older. The country's total fertility rate is 5.2 births/woman. Only 0.4% of the population is foreign born. Peru is highly urbanized, and 65% of the country's total population growth in 1981 occurred in its cities. 1 in 3 Peruvians resides in the capital city of Lima. The 2 largest racial groups are mestizos and whites (53%) and Indians (46%). 21% of the population is illiterate. 40.7% of the labor force is employed in agriculture; however, only 15% of the national income is derived from agriculture. The GNP per capita was US$1040 in 1983. The country's economy is in serious trouble at present, with an annual inflation rate of 250% and a foreign debt of US$13.5 billion. PMID:12340368

  12. Diversidad de la familia Orchidaceae en los bosques montanos de San Ignacio (Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Calatayud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente información sobre la flora, específicamente sobre la familia Orchidaceae y la inminente desaparición de los bosques en la Vertiente Oriental del río Chinchipe (San Ignacio, Cajamarca, fueron las razones suficientes que motivaron a realizar la presente investigación. La evaluación se realizó en cuatro localidades de la provincia San Ignacio (Cajamarca, durante el año 2000, con 27 cuadrantes de 500 m², distribuidos cada 100 m de altitud, desde los 800 hasta los 2700 m, el método de muestreo fue aleatorio. Según el índice de diversidad de Shannon–Wiener, la zona de estudio posee un alto grado de diversidad (entre H’= 5,93 en Selva Andina y H’= 4,02 en Camaná, gracias al buen estado de conservación de los bosques y a la topografía de la zona. Las localidades de Camaná-Crucero (173,55 son menos disímiles por presentar hábitats similares. Selva Andina (969,619 es la localidad más disímil con el grupo Crucero-Camaná-Nuevo Mundo, la cual a los 2700 m presenta un alto endemismo. Para las localidades evaluadas se reportan 205 especies distribuidas en 58 géneros, los cuales son reportes nuevos para la zona, 15 son registros nuevos para Perú, ocho de éstas dejan de ser endémicas para Ecuador. Se reporta por primera vez para Perú el género Chrysocycnis, y dos especies nuevas para la ciencia Sarcoglottis sp. y Maxillaria sp.

  13. Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban a...

  14. On the wave energy resource of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The wave energy resource of Peru was assessed for the first time. • Peru has a moderate to high offshore wave energy resource. • The south coast of Peru has a higher wave energy potential than the north coast. • The Peruvian wave energy resource has low temporal variations. • The wave energy resource exceeds by seven times electric power demand in Peru. - Abstract: This is the first assessment of the wave energy resource in Peru, an emerging country with an increasing energy demand and a high dependence on fossil fuels. On the basis of wave buoy measurements, we characterize the offshore wave energy resource and analyze its temporal variability, comparing the results with those obtained in previous works for other regions. A wave propagation numerical model (SWAN) is used to determine the nearshore spatial distribution of wave energy. A total of 357 offshore sea states, representing 90% of the wave energy and 94% of the time in an average year, were propagated. The wave energy in Peru presents a resource exceeding by more than seven times the total electric demand of the country. Because of the large amount of resource available and its low seasonal variation, wave energy must be considered in Peru as an alternative to conventional energy resources

  15. Woody vegetation, endemism and conservation status in the seasonally dry forests of Jaen, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marcelo Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight relictual areas of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF from the surroundings Jaen city, in Cajamarca, were investigated using a rapid inventory technique. The areas were situated between 5°38’ and 5°48’ S and 78°41’ and 78°48’ W, and between 615 and 1100 m altitude. A total of 151 species, 103 genera and 40 families of woody plants were recorded. The area shows high diversity of woody plants in comparison with other neighbouring regions. Most notable is its endemism, which is the highest in the region of southwest Ecuador and Peru. However, the area is seriously threatened by demand for firewood and the need for land for crops, large cattle farms and housing.

  16. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  17. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham G. Cáceres; Lucinda Troyes; Antero Gonzáles-Pérez; Enrique Llontop; Carmen Bonilla; Murias; Nixón Heredia; César Velásquez; Carlos Yáñez

    2002-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca) y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos) y Jaén (10 distritos) del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas). El muestreo fue ...

  18. Expansión del Aedes aegypti a localidades rurales de Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Troyes R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia, magnitud y expansión de Aedes aegypti en las localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio, departamento de Cajamarca. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre abril y mayo de 2004, en 21 (100% localidades rurales ubicadas en las márgenes de la carretera Jaén-San Ignacio y al interior de ella, hasta en 90 minutos. Se inspeccionó recipientes de 1460 viviendas para la búsqueda de larvas y adultos del mosquito, se determinaron los índices aédicos, de recipiente y de Breteau. Resultados: Se demostró la presencia de Aedes aegypti en tres localidades rurales de la provincia de Jaén y en cuatro de la provincia de San Ignacio. Los índices aédicos variaron de 1,2 a 16,6%. Los recipientes infestados con mayor frecuencia fueron las llantas y los artículos en desuso. Conclusiones: Se reporta la expansión de A. aegypti en la tercera parte de localidades rurales de las provincias de Jaén y San Ignacio; esta expansión necesita ser más estudiada y considerada al implementarse las estrategias de prevención y control del dengue en la DISA Jaén, para evitar la aparición de brotes de dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico, incluso fiebre amarilla urbana.

  19. Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, MAS; Smith, H; Joseph, P.; Gilman, R. H.; Bautista, C. T.; Campos, K J; Cespedes, M.; Klatsky, P; Vidal, C.; Terry, H.; Calderon, M M; Coral, C; Cabrera, L.; Parmar, P S; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown...

  20. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  1. Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds the Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the left-center part of the image. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The ASTER instrument is being tasked to obtain current images of the glacier to help monitor the situation. This image was acquired on November 5, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  2. 1970 Huaraz, Peru Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...

  3. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  4. Nuclear technology in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the Nuclear Energy in Peru. It consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter is presented a rapid overview on nuclear science history. The second chapter describes the nuclear proliferation and the nuclear competition in South America. The nuclear organization in Peru, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, and the main centers are described in the third chapter. The following chapters deals with peruvian advances in nuclear medicine, agriculture and food, nuclear application to industry, hydrology, earth sciences and environmental considerations. In the last chapter, the perspectives for nuclear science and technology in Peru are described from the inter institutional cooperation point of view. This book also includes appendix and bibliography. (author)

  5. Calidad del agua en relación con las propiedades del geoecosistema: un estudio de caso de una zona de jalca cerca de Cajamarca, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Cammeraat; A.C. Seijmonsbergen; J. Sevink; Y.P.G. Hoogzaad; W.S. Stoops; S.J. de Vet; M.E. de Vries; M. van Veelen; H.A. Weiler; N. Weiss; I. Sánchez-Vega; F. Chunga-Castro; M. Roncal-Rabanal

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este estudio presenta una primera aproximación a la relación entre hidrología,calidad del agua, geología y suelos para un ecosistema de jalca cerca de Cajamarca en el norte de Perú. Debido a que las áreas de jalca son propensas a la degradación de sus suelos húmicos, como resultado del uso d

  6. Peru : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...

  7. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  8. Modeling economic behavior in Peru's informal urban retail sector

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. Barry; Stelcner, Morton

    1990-01-01

    In Lima, Peru, the informal sector makes up half the labor force, accounts for 61 percent of the hours worked, and generates an astounding 39 percent of GDP. More than half the street vendors are women. In the informal sector, the free play of market forces determines returns to productive factors, especially labor. Informal enterprises are concentrated in low-income areas of urban centers. The authors analyze Peru's urban informal sector - particularly women's role in it - based on a theoret...

  9. Fairy chimneys in Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Erosion creates beautiful landscapes. A large part of them is known just by the local population. Google Maps can help in locating the places, study them and start any project for preservation. An interesting example is given by a landscape of fairy chimneys in Peru, near San Pedro de Larcay. It is remarkable the fact that some of them have been adapted as dwelling places.

  10. Giant Otters in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk C.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  11. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  12. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  13. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  14. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  15. El pluralismo jurídico y político en Perú: el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Piccoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza, desde un enfoque antropológico, algunos desafíos del pluralismo político y jurídico en el caso de las Rondas Campesinas de Cajamarca (Perú. Organizaciones sociales nacidas con la finalidad de protegerse de robos de ganado, las Rondas Campesinas de la zona norte del Perú, fueron convirtiéndose en un espacio de administración de justicia y de gestión pública comunitaria.

  16. Ante los ojos del mundo: música, minería y conflicto social en el norte andino de Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Martínez; Julio Mendívil

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehispánicos Cajamarca ha sido una importante zona agropecuaria. Pero en las décadas recientes se ha convertido en una zona de agudas convulsiones sociales. Durante el gobierno anticonstitucional de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2002), el estado permitió el ingreso de trasnacionales mineras para la extracción de oro a gran escala. Estas han dañado considerablemente el eco-sistema, la salud y el bienestar de la población local, creando descontento social y protestas. En ese contexto, e...

  17. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  18. Optica Precolombina Del Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, J J

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological American mirrors are common findings and the images obtained with them are often described by archaeologists as possessing high quality. However, photographs attesting this fact are rare, if any. To the best of my knowledge, only two papers show that quality concerning the Olmeca culture, and only one of them mentions the pre-Inca cultures case. Certainly more images are needed to increase awareness of the importance of the existence of sophisticated imaging elements, particularly when evaluating the cultural degree of the pre-Columbian civilizations. In this paper we show images made in two museums in Lima, Peru, by means of mirrors and the lens action on a necklace element.

  19. Peru; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Peru during the 1990s. During 1990–92, real GDP growth was negative by 0.9 percent a year on average, reflecting in part deterioration in the terms of trade and adverse weather conditions. During that period, growth in the construction, manufacturing, and fishing sectors was more than offset by a contraction in the agricultural and mining sectors. Gross domestic investment rose from about 15½ percent of GDP in 1990 to 16½ percent in 1992 mainl...

  20. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale. PMID:27515649

  1. Assessing Landscape Change in a Mining Area of the Peruvian Andes. A Case Study in The Yanacocha Mine, Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Berrios, Hildebrando

    2006-01-01

    This study examines physical and perceived landscape change in a mining area in northern Peru. Mining conflicts between companies and local people have intensified; this highlights the necessity of a better understanding of environmental and social consequences of mining activities. Landscape studies could be relevant to understand such problematic. I aim to assess the landscape change in a mining area by (1) mapping the physical landscape change and (2) surveying the local lan...

  2. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts

  3. La chicha y Atahualpa: el Encuentro de Cajamarca en la Suma y narración de los Incas de Juan Diez de Betanzos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván R. Reyna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Encuentro de Cajamarca es probablemente el momento más representativo de la conquista de los Incas y uno de los más simbólicos en el establecimiento del sistema colonial en la región andina. Mediante el análisis de la versión de Juan Diez de Betanzos que aparece en su Suma y Narración de los Incas, este ensayo trata de proponer una lectura alternativa sobre dicho evento, en la cual el Inca Atahualpa, luego de haber consumido chicha en exceso, se encontraría embriagado al momento de confrontarse con Fray Vicente de Valverde, lo que le impediría discernir con claridad la amenaza que significaban los invasores.The Cajamarca Encounter is probably the most representative event of the conquest of the Incas and one of the most symbolic in the establishment of the colonial system in the Andean region. By analyzing Juan Diez de Betanzos’ version which appears in his Narrative of the Incas, this essay proposes an alternative reading of the event, in which the Inca Atahualpa, after consuming chicha in excess, is probably drunk when confronted with Fray Vicente de Valverde, preventing him from clearly discerning the threat posed by the invaders.

  4. Peru: 2012 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses Peru’s economic performance in 2012. The impressive growth is owed to its strong fundamentals and sound policy management. However, the economy is vulnerable to short-term shocks. A low growth in China or in the United States could hamper Peru’s macroeconomic performance. The Executive Board has identified structural reforms for improving productivity, and recommends proactive use of macroprudential measures to limit financial vulnerabilities in the context of large c...

  5. Labor market transitions in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Javier; Rosas Shady, Gerardo David

    2003-01-01

    (english) Traditional labor market analysis based solely on the net unemployment rate fails to explain the apparent paradox between a relatively moderate unemployment rate in Peru (around 10%, with a weak sensibility to wide macroeconomic fluctuations), and the fact that unemployment is one of the major issues in Peru. One possible explanation is that this static indicator of cross section net unemployment balance is compatible with high flows in and out of employment states. To address these...

  6. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  7. Safe management of discussed sealed sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Peru, in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply an Institutional policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of disused sealed sources in Peru. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment, conditioning and storage of conditioned sealed sources are presented in this paper. The waste management system in Peru comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under a legislation. The Nuclear Research Center RACSO has a radioactive waste management department which is in charge of the management of disused sealed sources produced in the country. It is considered as a centralized waste processing and storage facility (WPSF). (author)

  8. Bribery in Health Care in Peru and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the role of household income in determining who bribes and how much they bribe in health care in Peru and Uganda. I find that rich patients are more likely than other patients to bribe in public health care: doubling household consumption increases the bribery probability by 0.2-0.4 percentage points in Peru, compared to a bribery rate of 0.8%; doubling household expenditure in Uganda increases the bribery probability by 1.2 percentage points compared to a bribery rat...

  9. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  10. A numerical method for determining the state of stress using focal mechanisms of earthquake populations: application to Tibetan teleseisms and microseismicity of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Louis Mercier, Jacques

    1987-03-01

    give a good evaluation of the regional (mean) state of stress. Focal mechanisms of the small events are also modelled by a mean stress deviator, but this differs significantly from the regional state of stress in southern Peru deduced from Quaternary faulting. This may be due to imprecise location of the small events. However, some movements are strongly different from those predicted by the computed mean stress deviator. This suggests that small fault kinematics surely depend on the regional state of stress but that local effects may control the small deformations.

  11. LAND TITLING IN PERU: IS IT FULFILLING ITS PROMISE?

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Janelle M.; Smith, Stephen M.; Abler, David G.; Trivelli, Carolina

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of land titling in coastal Peru on the beneficiaries of this program. The paper examines the effects of land titling on access to credit, on-farm investment, the use of conservation techniques and the functioning of land markets.

  12. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  13. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en madres de una zona rural andina del norte peruano Knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis among mothers from an andean rural area of north Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en 62 madres de familia de una zona rural endémica de la región andina de Cajamarca, Perú. Sólo el 37,0% reconoce a la alicuya (nombre popular de la Fasciola hepática como parásito responsable de la enfermedad; 56,5 y 85,5% conocen que afecta el hígado de humanos y de los animales respectivamente; 98,4% tiene predisposición positiva para participar de charlas informativas sobre la enfermedad y 75,8% para apoyar activamente a sus autoridades en la solución del problema. El 38,7% indica que bebe emolientes en la calle y 75,6% cría animales considerados huéspedes del parásito. En conclusión, las actitudes de las encuestadas son mayoritariamente favorables para realizar actividades de prevención y control, pese a que sus conocimientos son incorrectos y el entorno familiar realiza ciertas prácticas de riesgo para la enfermedad.A survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis was administered to 62 mothers from a rural endemic zone of Cajamarca’s Andean Region, Peru. Only 37.0% recognized the alicuya (local name for Fasciola hepatica as the parasite responsible for the disease; 56.5% knows that the disease affects the liver in the humans and 85.5% knows affects also animals; 98.4% have a positive predisposition to attend informative talks about the disease and 75.8% to support their authorities actively to solve of the problem. 38.7% referred drinking emollients in the street, 75.6% have domestic animals considered host for the parasite. In conclusion, attitudes of mothers are mostly favourable for prevention and control activities, despite their mistaken knowledge risky practices for fasciolasis among members of their families.

  14. Peru : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) report, looks exclusively at Peru's public sector financial accountability arrangements, and, its primary aim is to assess strengths, and weaknesses, as they relate to the use of Bank funds, particularly under non-investment lending operations. It reviews the legislative framework, relevant to the current reporting environment; the ap...

  15. Camera trap survey of medium and large mammals in a montane rainforest of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jiménez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are a powerful tool for inventorying elusive and rare species and very useful to obtain ecologi- cal data for plans that involve wildlife conservation. In Peru, several surveys have been carried out in lowland Amazonia especially in the southeastern part of the country, but none in montane cloud forests or Yungas. We present the first camera trap studies produced in Peruvian Yungas at the locality of Querocoto village (Chota, Cajamarca, based on 2002 (dry season and 1264 (wet season camera traps-days (CTD. Two localities were surveyed in wet and dry season: The Pagaibamba Protection Forest and the San Lorenzo Forest. The wet season study was carried out in October and November, and the dry season in July to September of 2008. Eight mammalian species were recorded in both seasons. Some 66 (91.7% independent records were obtained in the dry season, but only six (8.3% in the wet one, suggesting a seasonality effect. The Mountain Paca Cunicu- lus taczanowskii was the most commonly photographed species, with 17.0 and 1.6 capture frequencies (dry and wet season respectively, whereas the Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata (0.5 capture frequency in the dry season was the most rare species. Activity patterns suggest that Mountain Paca C. taczanowskii and the Andean Skunk C. chinga are nocturnal, while Spectacled Bear T. ornatus and Tayra E. barbara are diurnal in the study area. Our records of the Ocelot Leopardus pardalis and the Tayra E. barbara are among the highest altitudinal records known for each species. In addition, the Anta Tapirus pinchaque was also identified by its tracks, representing one of the first record known south of the Huancabamba Depression.

  16. Foreign oil companies weathering Peru's political crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies are weathering Peru's political crisis, and the outlook for increased foreign participation in Peru's petroleum sector remains promising. There has been improvement in the political turmoil and soured international relations that followed President Alberto Fujimori's Apr. 5 suspension of Peru's Congress, charging political corruption and attempts to block his fiscal reforms. But there are fresh concerns over an increase in terrorism aimed at oil industry facilities by antigovernment guerrilla groups in Peru. Meanwhile, state-owned oil company Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) continues efforts to sell assets as part of Fujimori's mandated privatization program. And foreign companies continue to grapple with uncertainty and bureaucratic red tape in chasing investment opportunities in Peru's beleaguered but opening petroleum sector

  17. Peruánská gastronomie

    OpenAIRE

    Bočková, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize culture and gastronomy of Peru as a specific tourist destination. First part -- the theoretical one -- deals with explanation of main terms from the fields of tourism and gastronomy. Following parts include characteristics of Peru and its gastronomy. The second chapter, in particular, involves basic information about realia, geography and history of Peru, followed by characteristics of tourism in the country. The third chapter, first of all, explains ...

  18. Nutritional Determinants of Urban Deprived Youth: An Economic and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the U.S., Columbia, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the nutrition of North and South American urban youths from 14-21 years of age are examined. Economic factors which play a role in determining the demand for improved nutrition and the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in nutrition are assessed. The effectiveness of higher income as a solution to…

  19. The regulatory state in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi Trece, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Significant institutional changes have taken place during the government of Alberto Fujimori. What is the meaning of these changes? Do they reflect Alberto Fujimori's strategy of power consolidation? Are they the result of the strategy of dominant economic classes to continue exploiting Peru's resources? Or are these institutions reflecting a process of democratization of the state?   This article explores these questions by examining state institutions in the area of public services. The arg...

  20. Khipu accounting in ancient Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urton, Gary; Brezine, Carrie J

    2005-08-12

    Khipu are knotted-string devices that were used for bureaucratic recording and communication in the Inka Empire. We recently undertook a computer analysis of 21 khipu from the Inka administrative center of Puruchuco, on the central coast of Peru. Results indicate that this khipu archive exemplifies the way in which census and tribute data were synthesized, manipulated, and transferred between different accounting levels in the Inka administrative system. PMID:16099983

  1. Craniofacial plasticity in ancient Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jessica H; Chew, Kristen; Ross, Ann H; Verano, John W

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilized craniometric data to explore the roles of genetic diversity and environment in human cranial shape variation. Peru is a particularly interesting region to examine cranial variation due to the wide variety of high and low altitude ecological zones, which in combination with rugged terrain have created isolated populations with vastly different physiological adaptations. This study examines seven samples from throughout Peru in an effort to understand the contributions of environmental adaptation and genetic relatedness to craniofacial variation at a regional scale. Morphological variation was investigated using a canonical discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis D(2) analysis. Results indicate that all groups are significantly different from one another with the closest relationship between Yauyos and Jahuay, two sites that are located geographically close in central Peru but in very different ecozones. The relationship between latitude/longitude and face shape was also examined with a spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) using ArcMap and show that there is significant spatial patterning for facial measures and geographic location suggesting that there is an association between biological variation and geographic location. PMID:25807293

  2. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Garavito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data for urban Peru in the year 2014. We find that young people will stay in the educative system, even if they are working, when their negotiation power at home is high, when their opportunity cost is low, and when their parents have a higher level of education.

  3. Floating Exchange Rates in Peru, 1950-54

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    I test three potentially complementary models in an effort to capture the fundamentals that underlaid the market's determination of Peru's floating exchange rate through the period 1950-54: the first is an expectational purchasing power parity (PPP) model which maintains that asset market forces were driving the exchange rate to its perceived PPP level; the second is a flexible-price monetary model; and the third is a model along the lines described by Tsiang (1957) which emphasizes world pri...

  4. Syndromic Management and STI Control in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jesse L; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Thomas J.; Carlos F. Caceres; ,

    2009-01-01

    Background Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru. Methodology We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003–05. Partic...

  5. Peru : Overcoming the Barriers to Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Hydropower has been the major source of electricity in Peru, traditionally supplying more than 80 percent of electricity requirements, and serving as a source of independent generation for major mines and industries. With the development of natural gas in the early 1990s, and the opening of the Camisea pipeline, the Government of Peru's (GOP's) attention turned to providing incentives for ...

  6. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  7. Using 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the evolution of the Purgatorio active fault in the Andean forearc, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Benavente; Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Fabrizio, Delgado; Marianne, Saillard; Sarah, Hall R.; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Active transpressive deformation has been occurring along the Andean hyperarid forearc for the last 3 Myrs but many of these faults are still not described even if able to produce large damaging earthquakes. Active faulting along the northern part of the Arica Bend can be recognized due to the presence of well-preserved and sharp fault scarps indicating recent surface slip. During the Mio-Pliocene, deposition within the forearc continental basins resulted in the formation of vast fan deposits and conglomerates of the Moquegua Formation, which can be considered as bedrock in this exposure study (~45-4 Ma; Tosdal et al., 1984; Sebrier et al., 1988a; Roperch et al., 2006). The typical vertical Purgatorio fault scarps offset both the Moquegua bedrock and several younger geomorphic features associated with formation outcroping vertically along the fault scarp. These samples are well-suited to the application of in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides for surface exposure dating, as the hyperarid region has extremely low erosion rates. We sampled the scarp away from any significant drainage so as to avoid possibly disturbed areas. The sampling did involve extracting quarzite conglomeratic material along the bedrock scarp and on the upper surrounding crests. The aim has been to measure Berylium-20 TCN (Terrestrial in situ Cosmogenic Nuclides) concentrations to determine exposure age as a function of height on the scarp. This has been successfully employed on one scarp in Italy based on Chlorine-36 TCN (Palumbo et al., 2004). However, slow faults behaviour remains unclear and more contributions are needed. Quaternary activity of the Purgatorio fault system was evidenced by Hall et al. (2008). They highlighted a vertical offset of about ~100 m for a pediment surface intercepted by the fault, and dated at ~280 ka. Considering that the pediment surface is horizontal, this would gave a maximum of ~0.3 mm/yr of vertical deformation since 280 ka. Our new data provide evidences

  8. The Cyber Media in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.

  9. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión; Malena Rosado; Samuel Lu León

    2012-01-01

    El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura ...

  10. Archaeoastronomical Fieldwork in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaski, Mike J.; Malville, J.

    2006-09-01

    During June-July 2005, sets of 14 horizon photographs were obtained at 10 major monumental sites of the Inca as identified in Hemming and Ranney (1982) . The photographs were combined to yield complete 360o panoramas at each of the sites. To calibrate the panoramas a Wild T-2 theodolite was used to obtain 5 pairs of altitude/azimuth measurements of the Sun at each site. The standard deviation of multiple determinations of true north was typically 0.25'to 0.5'. As a check on the sun sights, a line-of-sight azimuth was also established with GPS measurements at each site. Agreement between these baselines and the sun sights are satisfactory. We find evidence of June solstice and/or Pleiades orientations at Llactapata, Sayhuite, and Ollantaytambo; cardinal orientation at Vilcashuman; June solstice established by horizon towers above Urubamba; and both zenith and anti-zenith solar alignments at the tower of Muyuc Marca of Sacsayhuman. Terracing, walls, and water features at Ollantaytambo suggest interest in both June and December solstices. The statistical significance of these orientations is evaluated. A permit was issued by the office of the Institute Cultura National in Cusco for field work at all of these sites. This work was undertook as partial fulfillment of the requirement for a MA degree in Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. Funding was provided by Sigma Xi and The University of Northern Colorado. Hemming, J. and E. Ranney. 1982. Monuments of the Inca, Boston: Little, Brown

  11. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  12. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  13. Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.Size: 12 x 15 km (7.3 x 9.44 miles) Location: 13.2 deg. South lat., 72.5 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: June 25, 2001

  14. Peru - privatisation draws in major new investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent charges in Peru's energy sector are reported as the privatisation campaign draws to a close. Sectors covered include the splitting of the petroleum company into its components of production, refining, transport and marketing. (UK)

  15. The Giant Otter Project In Peru 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schenck

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis are rarely investigated but highly endangered. The project "STATUS, HABITAT AND CONSERVATION OF GIANT OTTERS IN PERU" from the Frankfurt Zoological Society, - Help for Threatened Wildlife - started in 1990 with a two and half year fieldwork period. The project is actually run with a yearly two months fieldwork period in Peru and ongoing analyzing, management and coordination from Germany. Following we give the report for 1995.

  16. Infrastructure and economic growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Urrunaga; Carlos Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature analysing the importance of infrastructure for economic growth, and performs an econometric estimation to discover the relation between the two variables in the case of Peru. Different estimators are used with panel data from the 24 regions of Peru for the period 1980-2009. The econometric results confirm that public-service infrastructures (roads, electricity and telecommunications) are important in explaining temporary differences in regional output, in k...

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  18. Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    Abstract: The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima. Aggregated data about migration have been related to information of socioeconomic and geographical conditions in rural and urban areas. Multivariate models of interregional migration are...

  19. [The health system of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care. PMID:21877089

  20. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  1. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes

  2. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  3. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  4. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of representative dairies in Peru: Nutritional strategies to reduce the emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of methane emissions from enteric fermentation of cattle in five typical locations of Peru and nutritional strategies to reduce those emissions are presented. The system in the coast considers animals in free-stall and in the highland cattle graze on pastures. Methodology applied was the Tier-2, IPCC. Cows on both grazing systems produce more methane per unit of milk and less methane per animal than in the coast. Strategies than improve quality of forage in the highlands can allow more milk with less methane emission. The methodology used considered five farm types, which were selected to estimate methane emissions from enteric fermentation. Farm PE-180 located in the coast (50 masl); farms PE-15 and PE-6 located in Cajamarca (north highland; > 2800 masl) and farms PE-1 and PE-4 located in Junin (central highland; 3600 - 4400 masl). The production system in the coast considers animals in free-stall with high use of concentrate and corn forage. Highland units consider grazing on cultivated (PE-15) and natural pasture (PE-6, PE-1 and PE-4) with limited use of concentrate. The methodology applied was the Tier-2, Ipc. Information was collected using specific surveys applied during one year that included rainy and dry season for the highland regions. Previous estimates using Tier-1, IPCC have been presented. The results of methane emissions from cattle show that animals on grazing system produce less methane than free-stall. However, when milk production is considered dairy cows on free-stall system produce 0.015 - 0.02 kg methane / kg of milk which is lower than emission from animals on grazing system producing 0.03 - 0.13 kg methane / kg milk corresponding the higher values to animals on natural pasture. Considering total methane emission (lactating + growing animals) in relation to milk production per farm, grazing systems compare even less favourably per kg milk than stall systems. In addition, there is opportunity with the actual cattle genotypes to

  5. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba ...

  6. Report of Heat Flow Measurements in Peru and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeda, Seiya; WATANABE, Teruhiko; Ozasayama, Yoji; Ibaragi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Results of terrestrial heat flow measurements in Peru and Ecuador conducted in 1969, are reported. Eight different sites in Peru and one site in Ecuador were visited for underground temperature measurement. However, data from only five metal mines in Peru and the metal exploration site in Ecuador were usable. The geothermal gradient data on four oil fields in Peru and two in Ecuador were referenced. Although high heat flow has been indicated on the continent side of the Andes (the Gasapalca a...

  7. Geomorphological investigation and landslide monitoring at Machu Picchu, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Klimeš, Jan; Zvelebil, J.; Astete, F.V.; Codova, J.

    Lima : Sociedád Geologica del Peru , 2006. [Congreso Peru ano de Geología /13./. 17.10.2006-20.10.2006, Lima] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : GLOF * Huaraz * Peru Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued...

  9. The oil and gas market in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum companies in Peru have scheduled investments of $298.5 million for exploration activities for year 2000, which is double the 1999 investment. The demand for oil in Peru is about 140,000 barrels per day, of which local production can supply 106,00 b/d. In 2000, imports of crude oil were worth approximately $447.7 million. The 18 sedimentary basins throughout Peru are estimated to contain 16 billion barrels of crude oil reserves. The greatest exploration activity took place in the Talara basin, while only limited exploration took place in the Maranon and Ucayali basins. The discovery of the Camisea and Aguaytia gas fields present significant potential for development, particularly for foreign investment. Upstream development of the $4.5 billion Camisea project will be undertaken by a consortium of international companies and is expected to be completed by 2004. In addition, Aguaytia Energy is working on a pipeline construction project worth up to $3 million. Canadian oil and gas companies will find opportunities to supply equipment and services for drilling wells, petroleum and natural gas pipelines, and production and storage facilities for petroleum and natural gas. United States, Argentina, Brazil, Japan and the European Union are the main foreign competitors in Peru. It is recommended that foreign companies make use of a local agent when conducting business in Peru. refs., tabs

  10. Human herpesvirus 8 genotype E in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar, Olivier; Blondot, Marie Lise; Mohanna, Salim; Jouvion, Gregory; Bravo, Francisco; Maco, Vicente; Duprez, Renan; Huerre, Michel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gessain, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    International audience To determine human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) K1 genotypes in patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) from Peru, we characterized HHV-8 in 25 KS biopsy samples. Our findings of 8 A, 1 B, 14 C, and 2 E subtypes showed high HHV-8 diversity in these patients and association between E genotype and KS development.

  11. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  12. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru's incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report's presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru's petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu's budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described

  13. Characterizaton of the Zarumilla aquifer - Peru, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed the Brasilia Agreements on Ecuadro-Peru border issues, representing the end of historical conflicts, differences and misunderstnadings. The two countries became partners after years of armed conflicts, and move forward through cooperation and integration, both facing social and aconomic challenges. In May 2001, the Special Bi-national Project Puyango-Tumbes (Peru) and the Ecuadorian Commission PREDESUR, province of El Oro, as technical institutes in charge of projects dealing with binational development, were invited to participate in the regional project RLA/8/031. The results of the first phase of the study are presented in this document. The study will be continued under the TC project RlA/8/039 - 'Characterization of the Zarumilla aquifer and monitoring of water quality in the Puyango-Tumbes basin'. (author)

  14. Young Lives Preliminary Country Report: Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, Javier; Lanata, Claudio; Madrid, Sofia; Penny, Mary; Saavedra, Jaime; Suárez,Pablo; Verastegui, Héctor; Villar, Eliana; Huttly, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a brief literature review of childhood poverty in Peru, identifies key national audiences for the Young Lives study, explains the study methods used and presents provisional evidence, conclusions and policy implications. The Peruvian economy underwent a series of crises and external shocks in the 1980s and 1990s. The number of poor households rose rapidly from 43 per cent of the total in 1985-86 to 59 per cent in 1991. Despite reforms in the 1990s, Peru has one of the hig...

  15. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas), Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Ancca; Jesús Pinto; Silvia Vega; Abraham G. Cáceres; Cesar Náquira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca) y Cajaruro (Amazonas). Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén) y 68 (Cajaruro). Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2). La amplificación del e...

  16. Susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa en la región Cajamarca, Norte de Perú y el deslizamiento de rodeo Pampa el 22 de febrero del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilberto Zavala Carrión

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El 22 de febrero del 2010, un deslizamiento antiguo ubicado en la ladera el cerro Rodeopampa fue reactivado, produciendo el represamiento del valle de Sócota, afluente del río Marañón; afectó tierras agrícolas y algunas viviendas de Rodeopampa en el cuerpo y cabecera del deslizamiento y a San Luis de Lucma en la zona de Run up y embalse, ambas ubicadas en las provincias de Chota y Cutervo, región Cajamarca, norte de Perú. Formó un embalse de 1640 m de longitud y 400 m de ancho con una altura de cierre de 70 a 90 m, que permaneció por meses hasta antes de ser abierto en forma natural por el río. Así como este deslizamiento, diferentes procesos gravitacionales se presentaron durante las lluvias anómalas en el 2008, 1998 y 1983 en la región norte del país, siendo afectadas importantes vías de penetración a la sierra y selva de la región Cajamarca. Estas zonas previamente evaluadas en el estudio de riesgo geológico en la región, y en particular el sector de Rodeopampa, fueron comparadas con el mapa de susceptibilidad elaborado. Dichas áreas ubicadas en zonas de alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los movimientos en masa, permitieron validar el mapa y su utilidad como herramienta de prevención de desastres y planificación del desarrollo.

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  18. Physical aspects of the first corporal irradiation performed in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body irradiation (TBI) technique was applied for the first in Peru using an equipment of Theratronic Phoenix with a conventional Co-60 unit. Using the equipment, TBI was performed in 8 cases of Peru. The patient of the first case survived 3 years and 10 months after the treatment and is in good conditions at present. For TBI, a patient was placed in a delimiter composed of acrylic plate. The dose at the midpoint of patient was in a range from 3.6 Gy to 5 Gy. To calculate the time of treatment, depth dose percent (DPP) was determined using lithium fluoride thermo-luminescence dosimeter TLD-100. The uncertainty for the dose determination using TLD was around 3 %. To compensate for the dose reduction depending on the distance from the center of field, the curve surface of wax compensation filter was adjusted according to the distance. For either of the cases, irradiation was performed at 12 Gy. The compensatory AP and PA beams with a lung protector were not applied because there was no protector silhouette cutter. The hospital hired a 6 MeV linear accelerator to perform 10 cases of TBI, using the same techniques, applying the lateral lung protectors. (M.N.)

  19. Peru LNG : A Focus on Continuous Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Extractive industry companies, particularly those operating in areas of high biodiversity value, on indigenous lands, or in close proximity to communities, face operational and reputational risks related to their environmental and social performance, and can be subject to intense scrutiny from stakeholders. PERU Liquefied Natural Gas (PLNG), the first liquefied natural gas plant in South A...

  20. Wastewater use in aquaculture: research in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Prein, M.

    1995-01-01

    Use of wastewater is an issue gaining importance throughout the (developing) world, as water sources become scarcer and competition for them increases. In Peru, research has shown the technical, economic and social feasibility of growing fish in wastewater. Such fish farms could recover 100% of the wastewater treatment costs.

  1. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Horna-Campos, Olivia J.; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Inma; Bedoya, Alfredo; Martín, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease.

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance policy framework, and enforcement and compliance practices in Peru. Corporate governance reform is at an early stage, and some legislation has recently been upgraded to protect shareholder rights. The major issues are driven by the growing importance of private pension funds, which have become the most important institutional investors. At pres...

  3. Environmental fate of herbicides in Hawaii, Peru and Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the fate and behaviour of herbicides in tropical soils are often unavailable. Here, the environmental fate of herbicides was compared in controlled field plots with the results derived from 'real world' pesticide use in tropical situations. As the intended herbicide use was to control illicit narcotic crops, sampling and verification are major problems because of the geographical remoteness, security concerns and political accessibility. Another fundamental problem is that exclusive use of either chemical analysis or biological monitoring may lead to an incomplete understanding of the environmental fate and ecological consequences of pesticide use. For hexazinone, tebuthiuron and imazapyr, the soil persistence and mobility, and the residual phytotoxicity to seven crops, were determined under controlled field conditions in Hawaii. This information was compared with field results in Peru and Panaman for hexazinone, tebuthiuron and glyphsate. Herbicide dissipation was much faster under tropical than temperate zone conditions; also, herbicide persistence in Hawaii closely matched that found in the coca fields of Peru and Panama. Chemical and biological approaches together gave greater reliability to risk interpretation than would either approach alone; both showed low environmental risk for the pesticides tested. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Genetic characterization of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru: identification of a new subtype ID lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia V Aguilar

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV has been responsible for hundreds of thousands of human and equine cases of severe disease in the Americas. A passive surveillance study was conducted in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador to determine the arboviral etiology of febrile illness. Patients with suspected viral-associated, acute, undifferentiated febrile illness of <7 days duration were enrolled in the study and blood samples were obtained from each patient and assayed by virus isolation. Demographic and clinical information from each patient was also obtained at the time of voluntary enrollment. In 2005-2007, cases of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE were diagnosed for the first time in residents of Bolivia; the patients did not report traveling, suggesting endemic circulation of VEEV in Bolivia. In 2001 and 2003, VEE cases were also identified in Ecuador. Since 1993, VEEV has been continuously isolated from patients in Loreto, Peru, and more recently (2005, in Madre de Dios, Peru. We performed phylogenetic analyses with VEEV from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and compared their relationships to strains from other parts of South America. We found that VEEV subtype ID Panama/Peru genotype is the predominant one circulating in Peru. We also demonstrated that VEEV subtype ID strains circulating in Ecuador belong to the Colombia/Venezuela genotype and VEEV from Madre de Dios, Peru and Cochabamba, Bolivia belong to a new ID genotype. In summary, we identified a new major lineage of enzootic VEEV subtype ID, information that could aid in the understanding of the emergence and evolution of VEEV in South America.

  5. BIOLOGICAL COEFFICIENTS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SOIL EXPOSED TO LEAD AND CADMIUM AND USING ALOPECURUS MAGELLANICUS BRACTEATUS AND MUHLENBERGIA ANGUSTATA (POACEAE), PUNO, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Argota-Perez, G.; Encinas-Cáceres, M.; Argota-Coello, H.; Iannacone, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biological coefficients of phytoremediation in soils of mine tailings for comparable exposure to Pb and Cd, using Alopecurus magellanicus bracteatus and Muhlenbergia angustata (Poaceae) Ananea, Puno, Peru. Between March and August 2013, ten points of sampling were selected next to a mining area of Ananea -Puno, Peru. The metals analyzed were quantified by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of phytoremediati...

  6. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  7. Female Land Rights and Rural Household Incomes in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana; Durán, Rosa Luz; Mardon, Merrilee; Masterson, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...

  8. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  9. Legal framework of the nonprofit private sector in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De Belaunde L. de R., Javier; Parodi Luna, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The Political Constitution of Peru recognizes, as one of the basic human rights, the constitutional freedom of association in general. In Peru, the non-profit organizations are fundamentally regulated by the Civil Code, through the legal figures of association, foundation and committee, which are legal entities (incorporated organizations in Public Records). In addition, the Civil Code of Peru, recognizes non incorporated organizations (associations, foundations and committees) as legal subje...

  10. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  11. The French Scientific Surveying Expedition to Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes how the lengths of parts of the meridian arc were measured in Peru (modern-day Ecuador. The field teams encountered great difficulties, due to the climate conditions in which they had to work, and the configuration of the terrain. However, they succeeded in measuring extremely accurately the length of the meridian arc corresponding to the range of latitude 3°07'01'', and were thus able to conclude that the length of one degree of the meridian arc in Peru was equivalent to 56 749 toises (110 604 m. They also established that the shape of the Earth took the approximate form of a rotational ellipsoid, thus confirming the theoretical postulations of Newton and Huygens.

  12. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  13. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  14. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005), had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions ...

  15. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  16. How to Subvert Democracy: Montesinos in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John; Zoido, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Which of the democratic checks and balances - opposition parties, the judiciary, a free press -is the most critical? Peru has the full set of democratic institutions. In the 1990s, the secret-police chief Vladimiro Montesinos systematically undermined them all with bribes. We quantify the checks using the bribe prices. Montesinos paid television-channel owners about 100 times what he paid judges and politicians. One single television channel's bribe was four times larger than the total of the...

  17. Central Power and Decentralization: Peru, 1931

    OpenAIRE

    Caravedo, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    One of the debates in the field of social sciences in Peru refers to the characteristics or nature of the ruling class. Today, despite the criticism, the use of the term "oligarchy" is the most common. Two recent publications persist in using that term, and have reintroduced an old argument in the current debate. Sociologist Henry Pease (1977) notes that the State "was directly controlled by a closed oligarchy where agricultural exporters had hegemony. They imposedtheir terms of foreign condu...

  18. Comprehensive Cooperation of CHINA-PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 19th,Chinese President Hu Jintao warmly welcomed Peruvian President Alan Garcia at the Great Hall of the People.Accompanying President Alan Garcia was the Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, Mercedes Araoz, who came to China to attend the forum on Investment and Business Opportunities in Peru, sponsored by CCPIT.At the event, the graceful lady meticulously introduced her country to the all of the Chinese and Peruvian entrepreneurs in attendance.

  19. Sino-American Corporation in Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingcai; Xu Yunming

    1996-01-01

    @@ Sino-American Oil Development Corporation (hereinafter referred to as"SODC") has taken part in the international operation activities in petroleum exploration and development in Latin-American area since 1992 and some progress has been made. At present, SODC is carrying out the operations within the Sixth and Seventh Blocks of Tarara oil field of the Republic of Peru and gains a good prestige.

  20. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points to...... political violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  1. Sub-national Revenue Mobilization in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Sepulveda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of sub-national revenue mobilization in Peru and proposes several policy reforms to improve collection performance while maintaining a sound revenue structure. In particular, the paper analyzes the current revenues of regional and municipal governments and identifies the main priorities for reform. Among the most important problems are the acute inequalities and inefficiencies associated with revenue sharing from extractive industries. These revenues represent ...

  2. Regime shifts and inflation uncertainty in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paúl Castillo; Alberto Humala; Vicente Tuesta

    2012-01-01

    The link between inflation and inflation uncertainty is evaluated using Peruvian data, in a context of changing monetary policies because of regime shifts. A Markov regime-switching heteroskedasticity model that includes unobserved components is used. The model shows how periods of high (low) inflation accompany periods of high (low) short- and long-run uncertainty in inflation. The results of the model also illustrate how, during the recent period of price stability in Peru, both permanent a...

  3. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Enterprise Surveys : Peru Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The country profile for Peru is based on data from the enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank in 2010. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important role in whether a country will prosper or not. An accommodating business environment is one that encourages firms ...

  5. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  6. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  7. Landscape and soil governance: A rapid vulnerability assessment method applied in a Paramo landscape in Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; Sevink, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Andean paramo ecosystems constitute geodiversity hotspots of global importance, but also have important ecosystem functions. These include agricultural production (mostly livestock and high altitude crops such potatoes, but also forestry) and deliverance of water to be used for various purposes (drink water, irrigation water, hydroelectric power) in downstream catchments, often hosting major population concentrations and industries. Because of their alpine relief, extreme climate and overall fragile soils, Paramo ecosystems are susceptible to degradation upon land use, particularly under increased human pressure such as by encroaching agriculture, accelerated by climate change posing a further threat to the functioning of remaining more or less conserved or pristine Paramo areas. Throughout the more populated parts of the Andes, where land use has seriously intensified over the past decades, degradation has become rampant with associated losses of the functions mentioned. To this comes an increased worldwide demand for minerals, leading to their exploration and large-scale exploitation in hitherto inaccessible and remote areas, such as the higher parts of the Andes. Not surprising, the mining issue and related environmental hazards are high on the political agenda of most Andean countries, though not always based on scientific knowledge of its potential impacts in specific areas. A rapid assessment methodology is presented for the Las Lagunas region near Cajamarca in Northern Peru. The method includes prefield segmentation and classification of Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery, complemented with detailed aerial photo interpretation. The results are stored in a GIS geodatabase and supplemented with data from field surveys. This leads to rapid and sound postfield analyses and vulnerability classifications using simple GIS tools. The results are pointing at four important issues in relation to soil and landscape governance and identification of vulnerability zones

  8. Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Asai; Yasuo Tsuchiya; Kiyoshi Okano; Alejandro Piscoya; Carlos Yoshito Nishi; Toshikazu Ikoma; Tomizo Oyama; Kikuo Ikegami; Masaharu Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) a...

  9. Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan...

  10. The Effects of Shared School Technology Access on Students Digital Skills in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bet, German; Cristia, Julián P.; Ibarrarán, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of increased shared computer access in secondary schools in Peru. Administrative data are used to identify, through propensity-score matching, two groups of schools with similar observable educational inputs but different intensity in computer access. Extensive primary data collected from the 202 matched schools are used to determine whether increased shared computer access at schools affects digital skills and academic achievement. Results suggest that small i...

  11. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy M. Hurtado; Víctor Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA), they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine...

  12. Pedestrian signalization and the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Johnston, Brian D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Safe walking environments are essential for protecting pedestrians and promoting physical activity. In Peru, pedestrians comprise of over three-quarters of road fatality victims. Pedestrian signalization plays an important role managing pedestrian and vehicle traffic and may help improve pedestrian safety. We examined the relationship between pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and the presence of visible traffic signals, pedestrian signals, and signal timing to determine whether these counte...

  13. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  14. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  15. Public Expenditure Review for Peru : Spending for Results

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to take stock of Peru's public expenditure since the last PER and identify the main challenges. The key underlying questions addressed are: (i) How did Peru's public expenditure and revenues develop over the past decade? (ii) How have decentralization and the shift towards results-based budgeting impacted this development across levels...

  16. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  17. On a new Andinia (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae) from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1957-01-01

    Some time ago Prof. Dr. W. Weyrauch at Lima, Peru, sent to me specimens of a species of the subfamily Neniinae that proved to be new to science. Already about 70 species of the subfamily have become known from Peru, for an important part discovered by Prof. Weyrauch himself. Andinia (Ehrmanniella) f

  18. Peru - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Peru, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most developing countries, Peru has submitted only one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the second one under prepara...

  19. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  20. Variables Associated with Utilization of a Centralized Medical Post in the Andean Community of Pampas Grande, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Stephen P.; Rohrer, James E.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Integral to the location of health resources is the distance decay of utilization observed in a population. In rural Peru, a nongovernmental organization planning to increase the availability of health services needed this information. Purpose: To determine variables associated with utilization of a central medical clinic and determine…

  1. Our man in Peru or Tintin in the Andes. Radiation cooperation Netherlands-Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of the author during his stay in Peru at UNSA are described. The purpose of the author's stay was to set up a system to evaluate study results and explore the market for openings for graduated physicists. His task is the result of a cooperation project between the Delft University of Technology and UNSA

  2. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  3. Syndromic management and STI control in urban Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L Clark

    Full Text Available Syndromic management is an inexpensive and effective method for the treatment of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs, but its effectiveness as a method of STI control in at-risk populations is questionable. We sought to determine the potential utility of syndromic management as a public health strategy to control STI transmission in high-risk populations in urban Peru.We surveyed 3,285 at-risk men and women from three Peruvian cities from 2003-05. Participants were asked about the presence of genital ulcers, discharge, or dysuria in the preceding six months. Participants reporting symptoms were asked about subsequent health-seeking and partner notification behavior. Urine and vaginal swab samples were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid testing. Serum was tested for syphilis and Herpes Simplex Virus-Type 2 antibodies.Recent urogenital discharge or dysuria was reported by 42.1% of participants with gonorrhea or chlamydia versus 28.3% of participants without infection. Genital ulceration was reported by 6.2% of participants with, and 7.4% of participants without, recent syphilis. Many participants reporting symptoms continued sexual activity while symptomatic, and approximately half of all symptomatic participants sought treatment. The positive and negative predictive values of urogenital discharge or genital ulcer disease in detecting STIs that are common in the study population were 14.4% and 81.5% for chlamydia in women and 8.3% and 89.5% for syphilis among gay-identified men.In our study, STIs among high-risk men and women in urban Peru were frequently asymptomatic and symptomatic participants often remained sexually active without seeking treatment. Additional research is needed to assess the costs and benefits of targeted, laboratory-based STI screening as part of a comprehensive STI control program in developing countries.

  4. A Multi-disciplinary Overview of Chagas in Periurban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McCune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas

  5. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  6. Isotope aided studies of the bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets consumed in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency can produce disturbances in physical and mental health, the most common sign of severe iron deficiency being anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia can impair work capacity; learning capacity and result in changes in behaviour as well as compromise immunocompetence and causing less resistance to infections. In pregnancy, there is evidence that severe anaemia increases the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as premature delivery. There is thus ample justification for attempting to implement programmes to combat iron deficiency in developing countries such as Peru. In order to determine the most appropriate intervention it is necessary to have data on the prevalence and severity of iron deficiency. The purpose of this study is to develop the necessary steps to implement a fortification programme to combat iron deficiency anaemia in Peru, targeted to pre-school children and pregnant women, who are the risk groups due to their increased requirements of this nutrient. 11 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Bismuth bronze from machu picchu, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R B; Rutledge, J W

    1984-02-10

    The decorative bronze handle of a tumi excavated at the Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru, contains 18 percent bismuth and appears to be the first known example of the use of bismuth with tin to make bronze. The alloy is not embrittled by the bismuth because the bismuth-rich constituent does not penetrate the grain boundaries of the matrix phase. The use of bismuth facilitates the duplex casting process by which the tumi was made and forms an alloy of unusual color. PMID:17749940

  8. Conditioning of radium-226 sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radium- 226 sources constitutes a high risk concerning its medical and sanitary applications. For this reason, Peruvian regulatory authorities are applying collection and conditioning policies. In Peru, after removing some radium-226 sources from hospital centers, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Radioactive Wastes Management Plant of the 'RACSO' Nuclear Center, the first Ra-226 conditioning experience has been carried out. This document describes technical reasons, procedures used, sources characteristics, radiological protection mechanisms and motionless techniques used as well as provisional storage

  9. Radiological accidents in Peru: 1977-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of twenty four events of real and suspected overexposure to ionizing radiation's reported to IPEN during 1977-1988 period are presented. Thirty-seven persons were involved being twelve really overexposed. Nine of them showed clinically detectable injuries (deterministic effects). The events occurred in different kinds of irradiation facilities or laboratories in Peru, mainly related with the use of radiodiagnostics and gamma radiography equipment. Patients were derived to the radiosanitary medicine service of IPEN were medical examinations and laboratory prescriptions were made. It was possible to perform cytogenetical analysis in eighteen patients. Additional data and comments on six cases of prenatal irradiation reported to this service are presented. (authors)

  10. Autoritarismus in Peru : das Fujimori-Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, John

    2007-01-01

    The ten-years presidency of Alberto Fujimori in Peru is a classic example of the sort of hybrid democracy that emerged in various Latin American countries in the 1990s, combining a mixture of democratic and clearly non-democratic elements. Fujimori was one of the more autocratic Latin American leaders of the 1990s, he is being the only regime formally to break with pre-existing constitutional rules. Closely tied to the military and intelligence apparatus, his government involved a concentrati...

  11. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia E. Milton.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  12. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  13. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  14. Identificación y cuantificación de los efectos y consecuencias de los impactos ambientales generados por la mineria de extracción de oro por lixiviación de cianuro. Caso Mineria Yanacocha SRL, en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    En el proyecto realizado se ha estudiado la situación de vulnerabilidad medioambiental, específicamente del recurso hídrico, causada por la empresa Minera Yanacocha S.R.L (MYSRL) situada en la región de Cajamarca, en el Perú. La empresa minera es origen de conflictos en relación al agua, por su situación (cabecera de cuatro cuencas hidrográficas) y por la contaminación en la cantidad y calidad de sus aguas percibida por la población local. Para conocer los posibles impactos del...

  15. Un proyecto de educación internacional a favor del derecho a una educación normalizadora para las personas con necesidades educativas especiales entre el Centro Latinoamericano de Lleida y el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial Peruano-Filial Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Coiduras Rodríguez, Jordi L.

    2001-01-01

    Se da a conocer el desarrollo de un proyecto de cooperación del Centro Latinoamericano y el Ayuntamiento de la ciudad de Lleida con el Patronato de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial, la Universidad y el Departamento de Educación de la región de Cajamarca del Perú para la formación de los docentes en la atención a todo el alumnado, en la sensibilización sobre la búsqueda de respuestas educativas a los alumnos que presentan necesidades educativas especiales en el ámbito escolar más ordinario ...

  16. Peru and Guatemala Internal Midline Monitoring Assessment of Reading

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Save the Children is implementing Leer Juntos, a USAID-funded three-year project targeting rural, indigenous communities in Guatemala and Peru with the objective of...

  17. Developing Low Carbon Transport Policies in Peru - Draft Transport NAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Brinez, C. P.; Tyler, N.

    2012-01-01

    The report is an initial draft of a Transport NAMA for Peru. NAMA stands for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions and are a relatively new initiative from the UNFCCC to tackle climate change. The report covers

  18. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  19. Creative women in Peru: outliers in a machismo world

    OpenAIRE

    Mensa, M. (Marta); Grow, J.M. (Jean M.)

    2015-01-01

    Gender segregation begins early and is reinforced within the workplace. Advertising creative departments appear to have extreme gender segregation with women representing just 20% of all those working within creative departments worldwide. Yet, creativity does not depend on gender. Thus, the underrepresentation of women is particularly troubling. In Peru women comprise 3% to 10.4% of all people working in advertising creative, which suggests the situation for creative women in Peru is dire. I...

  20. The Japanese in multiracial Peru, 1899-1942

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephanie Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the integration of the Japanese into the politics of race and nation in Peru during the period from 1899 to 1942. The first generation of Japanese immigrants arrived in Peru at the apex of debates on national racial identity and popular challenges to the white oligarchy's exclusive hold on national political and economic power. This dissertation examines how not only elites, but also working- and middle-class movements advocated the exclusion of the Japanese as a way of st...

  1. Peru Opportunities and Challenges of Small Hydropower Development

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Peter; Zolezzi, Eduardo H.; Bogach, Susan V.; Muir, Terence; Bazex, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Peru is favored by a stable and growing economy and the availability of indigenous sources of energy for electricity generation, including hydro and natural gas. The Peruvian electricity sector is among the few in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) that has not confronted a crisis in recent years. The power sector in Peru was reformed and restructured between 1991 and 1993, followed by a pr...

  2. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  3. Structural Changes in Asparagus Production and Exports from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Asparagus is the star product among non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAXs) in Peru. The export of preserved asparagus has expanded since the end of the 1980s. Although there was some stagnation in the mid-1990s, exports of fresh asparagus have expanded rapidly since the end of the 1990s. Now, the export of both preserved and fresh asparagus constitute the second most important agricultural export in Peru after coffee. Besides the change in demand on the international market, the importa...

  4. Lagging regions and development strategies: The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James; Morley, Samuel; Pratt, Alejandro Nin

    2009-01-01

    "Despite the economic transformation of Peru's coastal economy, the country's inland region remains poor and underdeveloped. We herein examine the economic linkages between the two regions using a multi-regional computable general equilibrium model based on a regionalized social accounting matrix. The model results show that coastal growth undermines the inland economy by increasing import competition and internal migration. Peru, therefore, cannot rely solely on rapid national growth to gene...

  5. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Marc K. Steininger; Raymond E Gullison; Arthur G. Blundell; Martha Martinez; Roberto F. Kometter; Rice, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae)] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height) across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 5...

  6. Tendencies of the digital newspapers in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the tendencies of the development of the digital media in Peru. The results that are presented were obtained by means of a survey carried out to responsible people of the digital redactions of the national generalist newspapers that, when concluding the first decade of the existence of the online journalism in the country (1995-2005, had digital editions. From historical perspective, different stages of evolution and consolidation of the Peruvian daily editions in the Global Network have not had temporary clear definition. The media progressed at their own pace, depending among other factors –at the time of entry into the network, the staff assigned to the publication, and especially on the strength of the journalistic company and its policy regarding digital editing. With regard to the presence on the Internet, digital newspapers have shown a steady and numerous growth, over the first decade (1995-2005.

  7. Cross-cultural dynamics in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, David A; Blair, Patrick J

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural and language barriers can be an impediment to the conduct of biomedical studies in developing nations. To assess the implementation of human-use procedures within a minimum-risk febrile illness surveillance study in Peru, personnel fluent in both English and Spanish conducted a review of 10 sites. Guideline adherence, consent procedures, and potential problems in the conduct of the trial were reviewed. Concerns cited by on-site investigators included patient follow-up, poor facilities, and power fluctuations that jeopardized samples before shipment to a central location. However, both local study coordinators and patients demonstrated a clear grasp of study enrollment and consent procedures and reported no significant problems in the conduct of the study. These findings suggest that significant planning is crucial before initiation of biomedical studies in developing nations to successfully overcome physical challenges and cultural dynamics that could otherwise adversely affect scientific outcomes. PMID:17256693

  8. Chagas disease, migration and community settlement patterns in Arequipa, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Bayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pattern of human migration is therefore an important

  9. Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Alexander; Bonavia, Duccio; Dillehay, Tom D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Iriarte, José; Holst, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is among the world's most important and ancient domesticated crops. Although the chronology of its domestication and initial dispersals out of Mexico into Central and South America has become more clear due to molecular and multiproxy archaeobotanical research, important problems remain. Among them is the paucity of information on maize's early morphological evolution and racial diversification brought about in part by the poor preservation of macrofossils dating to the pre-5000 calibrated years before the present period from obligate dispersal routes located in the tropical forest. We report newly discovered macrobotanical and microbotanical remains of maize that shed significant light on the chronology, land race evolution, and cultural contexts associated with the crop's early movements into South America and adaptation to new environments. The evidence comes from the coastal Peruvian sites of Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru; dates from the middle and late preceramic and early ceramic periods (between ca. 6700 and 3000 calibrated years before the present); and constitutes some of the earliest known cobs, husks, stalks, and tassels. The macrobotanical record indicates that a diversity of racial complexes characteristic of the Andean region emerged during the preceramic era. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon determinations carried out directly on different structures of preserved maize plants strongly suggest that assays on burned cobs are more reliable than those on unburned cobs. Our findings contribute to knowledge of the early diffusion of maize and agriculture and have broader implications for understanding the development of early preindustrial human societies. PMID:22307642

  10. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  11. Mutation breeding of barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley has special value as a food for people living in the Andes mountain area of Peru. It is also the basic raw material for the malting industry. The factors limiting barley production in Peru are mainly diseases, low soil fertility, low rainfall, drought, frost and hail. Improved varieties should have the capability to overcome most of the factors limiting production. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to apply appropriate methods in mutation induction, and crossing and selection. The mutation induction methods are used to improve well adapted varieties and lines. The barley variety Buenavista is suited to the Altiplano conditions. Because of its spikes, it can withstand hail damage better than other varieties. Naked barley is appreciated very much as a different type of food by people living in the highlands. Based on these facts, a mutation breeding programme was initiated to search for naked kernels and other interesting mutants in the Buenavista variety. The mutagenic agents applied were: gamma rays at 20 and 30 krad (200 and 300 Gy); EMS at 0.05 M and 0.1 M; and sodium azide at 0.001 and 0.004 M. The M1 populations were planted in Callejon de Huaylas at 2700 m of elevation. The M2 generation was grown at La Molina on the campus of the University at 200 m of elevation. The total number of plants in the M2 was 187,574. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations ranged from 1.13% to 5.94%. The highest doses of mutagens resulted in a higher number of chlorophyll mutations, while in the case of naked kernels selected from the bulked seeds of each treatment, the lower dose gave the higher number. The frequency of mutants with naked kernels ranged from 0.07% to 0.12%. The main goal of obtaining naked kernel mutants was achieved. At the applied treatments gamma rays were more effective as a mutagenic agent for this purpose than EMS or sodium azide. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  12. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State and the... Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'')...

  13. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru...

  14. 78 FR 32529 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental... United States Trade Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend...

  15. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Peru. Archaeometric Study of Gold Pieces from Morro de Eten, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the archaeological place of Morro de Eten, Elera located during his excavations between 1979 and 1988, small pieces of gold were collected and analyzed revealing presence of platinum. At a first study some samples seemed to be partly covered by dust or red pigment initially identified by Elera as hematite. The objective of this work has been to check/clarify the presence of platinum in the pieces in order to understand its role and influence on the technology of the old goldsmiths. Besides, we tried to clarify if the pigment found in the gold pieces of Morro de Eten is hematite or cinnabar. For this purpose different analytical techniques were used including Optical Microscopy, Electronic Microscopy of Sweeping (SEM), Spectrographic Atomic Emission, Energy Dispersive X ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), Neutron Activation (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X ray Microanalysis (EDAX). Study of Metal Pieces from the Collection Versteylen by Using Nuclear Analytic Techniques. A collection Versteylen presently in custody of the Museum of Archeology 'Josefina Ramos de Cox' of the Instituto Riva-Agueero of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru has a number of specimens like tumis, agricultural tools, pincers which requires extensive study in order to identify a place of provenance, period of manufacturing, and materials associated to them. Energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique was used for determination of the elemental concentrations of the metal pieces in order to characterize raw materials and to identify production process

  16. Características morfométricas, genéticas, alimenticias y vectoriales de Panstrongylus herreri procedentes de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Ancca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas, alimenticias y genéticas de dos poblaciones de Panstrongylus herreri, de los distritos de Jaén (Cajamarca y Cajaruro (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos. Se colectó especímenes adultos de P. herreri, 42 (Jaén y 68 (Cajaruro. Se utilizó la morfometría geométrica para evaluar el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño y conformación. El perfil genómico se realizó por amplificación del espaciador interno transcrito del ADNr (ITS-2. La amplificación del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón, permitió la caracterización molecular de los trypanosomas aislados. Se utilizó la prueba de precipitina para conocer las fuentes de alimentación de los vectores y así poder asociarlos a posibles reservorios del parásito. Resultados. El análisis morfométrico demostró que el dimorfismo sexual de tamaño fue similar (p>0,05; no ocurrió lo mismo con el dimorfismo de la conformación; asimismo no se encontró diferencias de tamaño al comparar por separado hembras y machos de Jaén y Cajaruro. Por ITS-2, se evaluó cinco especímenes de cada distrito, en ellos se observó una banda de 960 pb aproximadamente. Sólo en Cajaruro se encontraron triatominos parasitados, que fue caracterizado como Trypanosoma cruzi TCI (350 pb. Se identificó al cobayo como la fuente de alimento más frecuente. Conclusiones. Ambas poblaciones de P. herreri por morfometría geométrica e ITS-2, no evidenció diferencias, indicando que se trataría de una misma población y por consiguiente de la misma procedencia. La sangre de cobayo fue la más frecuente fuente de alimento, pudiendo ser el principal reservorio para la enfermedad de Chagas en esta zona del Perú.

  17. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa,Peru from 1983 to 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalesz, S. A.; Hallenbeck, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the...

  18. Factors Associated with Anti-Tuberculosis Medication Adverse Effects: A Case-Control Study in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado; Alejandro Revilla-Montag; Sonia Guillen-Bravo; Eduardo VelezSegovia; Andrea Soria-Montoya; Alexandra Nun˜ ez-Garbin; Wilmer Silva-Caso; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. Methodology and Results: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB a...

  19. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content. PMID:12313874

  20. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  1. Smoothing the way to opportunity in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, B

    1999-11-01

    Since 1990, poor women in Peru have suffered from the impact of structural adjustment policies, which have lead to low wages, poor working conditions, and a general deterioration in the status of women workers. To address these problems, the Asociacion Aurora Vivar began its Alternative Technical Training Program for Women in July 1992, with the aim of increasing the entrepreneurial skills of women. The project aimed to support women who have problems at work, those who are unemployed and those with low income. Moreover, the project sought to increase women's participation in nontraditional areas of work. Training focused on increasing women's technical skills, including the repair of home appliances, and on personal development, such as leadership skills, confidence building, and business management. The project attracted a diverse group of women who took part in the training for a variety of reasons. The women's new capacities and skills create a positive image for them within the household. Aurora Vivar acknowledges the importance of vocational education to increase women's opportunities to earn a living. The association is proposing reforms in the educational system to introduce courses on business management, credit, and other technical skills as part of the formal education system. PMID:12349600

  2. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... packaging equipment and medical equipment. Peru Peru's long-term economic stability and very low inflation... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and...

  3. Education for Social Change. Peru 1972-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Oliart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The education reform implemented by the military regime of Juan Velasco (1968-1975 in Peru was the result of the alliance between a progressive branch of the armed forces and a group of cosmopolitan intellectuals influenced by radical pedagogy from the 60s and 70s, but also loyal to a long progressive tradition in education from Peru and Latin America. Analysis of this truncated project brings to light critical debates about politics and ideology in education and resonates with contemporary discussions about development and post development studies. The contemporary significance of the 1972 education reform is that its legacy, embodied in conspicuous members of the education community, played a role in the application of the neoliberal reforms in education in Peru in the 1990s, and helped envision a consensual educational project for the future.

  4. Peru steps up push to attract oil investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Peru's government is stepping up efforts to attract more foreign investment in its oil and gas sector. Since taking over in July 1990, the government of President Alberto Fujimori has taken a number of steps to privatize the oil sector, improve the fiscal regime for oil investment, and streamline regulations on oil and gas investment. In the most dramatic step, the Fujimori administration ended state oil company Petroleos del Peru's monopoly on downstream operations as well as imports and exports of oil and gas as part of sweeping new oil and gas legislation. In addition, officials of the Fujimori administration have been traveling to key oil centers around the world with a presentation on Peru's hydrocarbon potential, trying to spark interest in E and D investment there

  5. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  6. Motives and Effectiveness of Forex Interventions; Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Tashu

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically the motives and effectiveness of forex interventions in Peru. While the central bank of Peru states that its forex interventions aim only at containing excessive exchange rate volatility, the results of this paper show that, in practice, the interventions seem to have aimed at “leaning against the wind†as well. The results also show that forex sales, but not forex purchases, react to volatility, indicating asymmetry in the central bank’s reactions to epis...

  7. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  8. Serological characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease type 'O' field isolates from Peru: 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) recovered from bovine epithelial samples corresponding to outbreaks present in different regions of Peru, between 1992-1994 were studied. The relationship of the virus isolates to the O/Urubamba vaccine strain of Peru was determined by the calculation of the 'r' values obtained by the liquid-phase blocking ELISA. All the isolates showed 'r' values higher than 0.66 indicating that the vaccine strain should protect against the field strains. Characterization of the field isolates by a trapping ELISA using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against FMDV O/Switzerland and O/Caseros, showed slight differences in the profiles of the field isolates when compared with the O/Urubamba vaccine strain, but no differences were found among all the isolates. (author)

  9. Relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure in high-altitude Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Melissa Burroughs; Romero, Karina M.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J. Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution from biomass fuel use affects three billion people worldwide; however, few studies have examined the relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We sought to determine if daily biomass fuel use was associated with elevated blood pressure in high altitude Peru and if this relationship was affected by lung function. We analyzed baseline information from a population-based cohort study of adults aged ≥35 years in Puno, Peru. Daily biomass fuel use was self-reported. We used multivariable regression models to examine the relationship between daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and blood pressure outcomes. Interactions with sex and quartiles of forced vital capacity (FVC) were conducted to evaluate for effect modification. Data from 1004 individuals (mean age 55.3 years, 51.7% female) were included. We found an association between biomass fuel use with both prehypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 5.0, 95% CI 2.6 to 9.9) and hypertension (adjusted relative risk ratio 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0). Biomass fuel users had a higher SBP (7.01 mmHg, 95% CI 4.4 to 9.6) and a higher DBP (5.9 mmHg, 95% CI 4.2 to 7.6) when compared to nonusers. We did not find interaction effects between daily biomass fuel use and sex or percent predicted FVC for either SBP or DBP. Biomass fuel use was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and higher blood pressure in Peru. Reducing exposure to household air pollution from biomass fuel use represents an opportunity for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25753976

  10. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  11. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M

    1989-01-01

    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course. PMID:12283151

  12. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  13. Regional Analysis of the Hazard Level of Glacial Lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel E.; Jhon Sanchez Leon, Walter; McKinney, Daene C.; Cochachin Rapre, Alejo

    2016-04-01

    of glacial lakes and their hazard potential. This phase of glacial lake hazard assessment aims to be geographically comprehensive in order to identify potentially dangerous lakes that may have previously been ignored. A second phase of analysis that includes site visits will be necessary for a thorough analysis at each lake to determine the potential hazard for downstream communities. The objective of the work presented here is to identify potentially dangerous lakes that warrant further study rather than provide a final hazard assessment for each lake of the glacial lake inventory in the Cordillera Blanca. References: Emmer, A. and Vilímek, V.: New method for assessing the potential hazardousness of glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 2391-2439, 2014. UGRH - Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos. Inventario de Lagunas Glaciares del Peru. Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Direcccion de Conservacion y Planeamiento de Recursos Hidricos, Huaraz, Peru, 2014. Wang, W., Yao, T., Gao, Y., Yang, X., and Kattel, D. B.: A first-order method to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes in a region of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Mountain Res. Develop., 31, 122-130, 2011.

  14. Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae), a new species from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Pauca, A.; Revilla, I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department
    of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish
    maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepa

  15. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level wastes are produced from radioisotopic application in medicine and industry in Peru. Intermediate level solid waste are collected from Nuclear Research Centre. This wastes are cemented for final disposal. This poster presents description of the bunker used for disposal and future plans for radioactive waste management. 3 refs, 1 fig

  16. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  17. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  18. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  19. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  20. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  1. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 22, 2009 (74 FR 4105), modified the Harmonized... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), because it pertains to a foreign... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and...

  2. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  3. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  4. Organic smallholder women supplying the gastronomic sector in Cusco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Eeckhout, Hannes; Luján Sánchez, Ángel; Ugas, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at promoting better conditions of food security, this practitioners’ paper describes the short-chain market integration of smallholder women supplying organic vegetables to the gastronomic sector in tourist destination Cusco (Peru), complementing PGS progress and local organic marketplace initiatives. Economic viability and bottlenecks along the value chain are analyzed as well as suggestions and challenges for sustainability presented.

  5. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  6. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  7. Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B. M. Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Philogenia nemesioi, a new damselfly from Peru (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae. Philogenia nemesioi sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on one male specimen collected on forests of the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes at 900 m. It belongs to the cristalina group, but differs from other species of the group by the structure of the anal appendage.

  8. Growth Diagnostics in Practice 1: Applications to Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Hausmann

    2007-01-01

    This presentation show how a Growth Diagnostic Model is carried out. It shows what variables and issues should be taken into account and it presents two main examples: the application to Paraguay and Peru. Less detailed examples are presented for Brazil and Mexico.

  9. Exploration of deep sedimentary layers in Tacna city, southern Peru, using microtremors and earthquake data for estimation of local amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Gamero, Mileyvi Selene Quispe; Chimoto, Kosuke; Saguchi, Kouichiro; Calderon, Diana; La Rosa, Fernándo Lázares; Bardales, Zenón Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    S-wave velocity profiles of sedimentary layers in Tacna, southern Peru, based on analysis of microtremor array data and earthquake records, have been determined for estimation of site amplification. We investigated vertical component of microtremors in temporary arrays at two sites in the city for Rayleigh wave phase velocity. A receiver function was also estimated from existing earthquake data at a strong motion station near one of the microtremor exploration sites. The phase velocity and the receiver function were jointly inverted to S-wave velocity profiles. The depths to the basement with an S-wave velocity of 2.8 km/s at the two sites are similar as about 1 km. The top soil at the site in a severely damaged area in the city had a lower S-wave velocity than that in a slightly damaged area during the 2001 southern Peru earthquake. We subsequently estimate site amplifications from the velocity profiles and find that amplification is large at periods from 0.2 to 0.8 s at the damaged area indicating possible reasons for the differences in the damage observed during the 2001 southern Peru earthquake.

  10. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence in adults in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weygandt Paul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.

  11. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  12. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communitiesSouth Peru after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Montesinos-Tubée; K.V. Sýkora; V. Quipuscoa-Silvestre; A.M. Cleef

    2015-01-01

    We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for

  13. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  14. ENSO Impacts on Lomas Formation in South Coastal Peru: Implications for the Pliocene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paul Eichler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lomas formations in southern Peru are related to moisture availability due to frequent incursions of fog in austral winter. Due to warming of coastal waters of southern Peru during El Niño, lomas formations are enhanced via greater moisture availability for fog and drizzle. Our study evaluates the modern climatological record in austral winter to determine if there are differences in moisture availability between El Niño and La Niña for fog formation. Our results show anomalous northwesterly onshore flow, warmer than normal sea-surface temperatures, and an increase in precipitable water in El Niño, favoring lomas formations due to advection fog with higher moisture content. On the other hand, La Niña also favors frequent advection fog, with less moisture content due to strong onshore flow over relatively cool SSTs. Since lomas may represent fragments of a continuous vegetation belt that existed during the Pliocene, a permanent El Niño favoring vigorous vegetation production along the south Peruvian coast due to incursions of fog with high precipitable water may have occurred in this period. However, the possibility of normal El Niño variability superimposed on a warmer climatology producing fog with higher moisture content in both El Niño and La Niña conditions cannot be discounted.

  15. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (TUREP) Mission to Peru. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 6 000 to 11 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Other favourable geological environments include calcretes, developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert in southern Peru, and Hercynian subvolcanic granites in the eastern Cordillera of southern Peru. The Mission recommends that over a period of five years approximately U.S. $10 million be spent on exploration in Peru. The majority of this would be spent on drilling ($5 million) and tunnelling ($2 million) with an additional $3 million on surface and airborne radiometric surveys. (author)

  17. New lichen biota records from Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jano Nuñez-Zapata; Pradeep K. Divakar; Gladys Huallparimachi; María E. Holgado; Zoila Vela Clavo; Magdalena Pavlich; Ana Crespo

    2015-01-01

    While high species diversity of lichen - lichenized fungi - is reported especially in the tropics, the studies on these organisms are still scarce in Peru. Using conventional methodology and current literature on the description of genera and species, we reported macro-lichens collected from Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Cusco, Peru). Sixty seven species of macro-lichens are reported to SHMP, nine new records to Peru are documented. Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae and Lobariaceae are the fami...

  18. Research ethics training in Peru: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roxana Lescano

    Full Text Available With the rapidly increasing number of health care professionals seeking international research experience, comes an urgent need for enhanced capacity of host country institutional review boards (IRB to review research proposals and ensure research activities are both ethical and relevant to the host country customs and needs. A successful combination of distance learning, interactive courses and expert course instructors has been applied in Peru since 2004 through collaborations between the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, the University of Washington and the Department of Clinical Bioethics of the National Institutes of Health to provide training in ethical conduct of research to IRB members and researchers from Peru and other Latin American countries. All training activities were conducted under the auspices of the Peruvian National Institute of Health (INS, Ministry of Health. To date, 927 people from 12 different Latin American countries have participated in several of these training activities. In this article we describe our training model.

  19. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  20. The Lurin Valley, Peru, A.D. 1000-1532

    OpenAIRE

    Feltham, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the post-Middle Horizon archaeology of one of the smaller central coast valleys of Peru. It focuses on a zone between 400 and 1000 metres above sea level and analyses data collected over several field seasons. There are two appendices dealing with ceramic analysi8 and excavations. An introduction defines the problems raised by previous work and discusses field procedures. There is a full treatment of the environment in order to show the potential sel...

  1. Peru: Third Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Peru showed commendable economic performance under the Stand-By Arrangement, owing to its strong fundamentals, prudent macroeconomic policies, and progress with structural reforms. Executive Directors commended these developments, and stressed the need to strengthen fiscal prudence, transparency, debt management, and monetary policy stance. They emphasized the need to implement tax and pension plan reforms, and improve the public sector operations and banking sector indicators. They agreed th...

  2. Seasonal variations in theequatorial thermospheric wind measured at Arequipa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W.; Fejer, Bela G.; Gonzalez, S A

    1990-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at Arequipa, Peru, of the seasonal variations in the thermospheric winds at moderate solar flux levels and low geomagnetic activity. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the Doppler shifts in the 630.0 nm nightglow emission line from March to August 1983 and from April to October 1988 have yielded monthly-average meridional winds that are nearly zero (

  3. Optimizing microwind rural electrification projects. A case study in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; Capó Plaza, Gregori Miquel; Velo García, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Electrification systems based on the use of renewable energy sources are suitable for providing electricity to isolated communities autonomously. Specifically, electrification by wind power is one of the technological options that have been used recently in projects implemented in the Andean highlands of Peru. To date, these projects have tended to install individual microwind turbines at each demand point. Alternatively, we propose a solution that considers both individual generator...

  4. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  5. Peru's participatory budgeting: configurations of power, opportunities for change

    OpenAIRE

    Hordijk, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs on a number of important principles of design. Building on the existing evaluations of the Peruvian nation-wide implementation of PB (2003-2007), this article addresses both the pitfalls and the t...

  6. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  7. Housing Finance in Peru: What Is Holding It Back?

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Palomino Bonilla; Rudy Wong Barrantes

    2011-01-01

    Housing for most Peruvians is improving but is still grossly inadequate. Nonetheless, public housing finance policies mainly involve programs that subsidize middle-income families and banks that lend to them. Research summarized in this paper indicates that financing will not be the main obstacle to improving housing conditions in Peru and that public sector efforts would be better aimed at dealing with issues where significant externalities and institutional restrictions limit market develop...

  8. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to c...

  9. Frequency of Maternal and Newborn Birth Outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the H...

  10. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  11. Research Ethics Training in Peru: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Roxana Lescano; Blazes, David L.; Montano, Silvia M.; Zoe Moran; Cesar Naquira; Edwin Ramirez; Reidar Lie; Martin, Gregory J.; Lescano, Andres G.; Zunt, Joseph R

    2008-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing number of health care professionals seeking international research experience, comes an urgent need for enhanced capacity of host country institutional review boards (IRB) to review research proposals and ensure research activities are both ethical and relevant to the host country customs and needs. A successful combination of distance learning, interactive courses and expert course instructors has been applied in Peru since 2004 through collaborations between the ...

  12. Conservation narratives in Peru: envisioning biodiversity in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Zinngrebe

    2016-06-01

    In a second step, a comparative analysis of the dominant and diverging political perspectives is made. I argue that by deconstructing underlying premises and ideologies, common ground and possible opportunities for collaboration can be identified. Moreover, although the presented results can serve as a discussion scaffold to organize conservation debates in Peru, this example demonstrates how the terms biodiversity and sustainability are operationalized in conservation narratives.

  13. Designing a Rural Development Strategy for Peru's Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Werbrouck, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Poverty and economic stagnation characterize most rural areas in Peru. National growth has been slow and uneven since the mid-1970s, benefiting urban areas rather than rural ones. Between 1985 and 2000, the number of poor people increased by 71 percent. The incidence of poverty (67 percent) and extreme poverty (40 percent) is highest in rural areas, reaching 73 percent (poverty) and 41 per...

  14. Banking Credit, Policy Interest Rate and Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Dancourt

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel" of monetary policy transmission in Peru with disaggregated monthly data of the Peruvian banks balance sheets from January 2003 to December 2011. We study two policy instruments used during the inflation targeting regime: the short-term interest rate or policy rate and the reserve requirements on banks deposits. In a Bernanke-Blinder model where the monetary authority sets the interest rate instead of a monetary aggregate, the in...

  15. Stabilization programs and policy credibility: Peru in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Quispe-Agnoli

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a rational expectations macroeconomic model in which economic agents formulate the probability about the sustainability of the economic policy—that is, policy credibility—using current and lagged values of government expenditures and lagged values of the inflation rate. The estimation of the model is based on Hamilton’s switching regime procedure. The contribution of this paper is the empirical estimation of the credibility of the stabilization program implemented in Peru in A...

  16. Money demand and inflation in Peru, 1979-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Pedro Ventura

    2000-01-01

    The author, a junior at Bowling Green State University in Ohio, won the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland’s first annual undergraduate economics essay competition in 2000. His essay, now reprinted as an Economic Commentary, explores the factors that affected money demand during a period of terrible hyperinflation in Peru and considers whether the government caused the hyperinflation by printing too much money in order to increase seigniorage revenue. Hyperinflation may seem to be a problem mo...

  17. Monetary policy in a dollarised economy: The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Misaico, Zenon

    2000-01-01

    Persistent high inflation in Peru during the 1970s led households to hold foreign currency as store of value. This process of dollarisation increased significantly during the hyperinflation of 1988-90. In the years that followed, a wide-ranging package of reforms in the financial system and in the conduct of monetary policy and fiscal policy were introduced to bring a halt to the hyperinflation. But despite nearly a decade of subsequent economic stabilisation, the decrease in dollarisation ha...

  18. Reducing Chronic Malnutrition in Peru: A Proposed National Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice L. Rogers; Serena Rajabiun; James Levinson; Katherine Tucker

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a national strategy to reduce the prevalence of chronic malnutrition in Peru. It is intended for senior decision-makers in the government, and researchers on food and nutrition policy, in order to, a) emphasize the importance of the problem and the feasibility of its solution, and b) suggest how resources should be allocated, and services organized, with a view to achieving the goal of reduced chronic malnutrition. It is also intended as a guide to senior program managers,...

  19. Terrestrial reptiles from San Lorenzo Island, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.

  20. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  1. Adverse Geography and Differences in Welfare in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.; Torero, M.

    2003-01-01

    In Peru, a country with an astonishing variety of different ecological areas, with 84 different climate zones and landscapes, with rainforests, high mountain ranges and dry deserts, the geographical context may not be all that matters, but it could be very significant in explaining regional variations in income and poverty. The major question this paper tries to answer is: what role do geographic variables, both natural and manmade, play in explaining per capita expenditure differentials acro...

  2. Tariff structure and investment location: Peru in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    González-Vigil, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of trade policy on the patterns of location of foreign direct investment (FDI) by country and sector. Particular attention is paid to FDI in manufactures, for which the market size is a very important locational factor, and therefore, so too is the preferential access to enlarged markets provided by trade agreements. Hence this article compares the performance of Peru in this field with those of its partners in the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), especiall...

  3. Survival and spread of Phytophthora capsici in Coastal Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzáles, O; Aragon-Caballero, L; Apaza-Tapia, W; Donahoo, R; Lamour, K

    2008-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soilborne pathogen that causes significant losses to pepper production in Peru. Our objective was to investigate the mechanisms by which P. capsici is able to survive and spread. During 2005 to 2007, 227 isolates of P. capsici were collected from four species of pepper (Capsicum annum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. pubescens) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) at 33 field sites in 13 provinces across coastal Peru. All 227 isolates were of the A2 mating type and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis indicates that 221 of the isolates had the same genotype. Analyses of six polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci showed fixed heterozygosity suggesting a single clonal lineage is widely dispersed. Members of the same clonal lineage were recovered during 2005 to 2007 from geographically separate locations from each of the host types sampled. Our results indicate that clonal reproduction drives the population structure of P. capsici in Peru. The impact of continuous cropping and irrigation from common river sources on the population structure in Barranca Valley are discussed. PMID:18944293

  4. Natural gas distribution network of Lima and Callao, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)

    2005-07-01

    In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)

  5. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  6. [National congenital hypothyroidism screening in Peru: a broken program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Sáenz, Lina; Del Águila, Carlos; Espinoza, Oscar; Falen-Boggio, Juan; Mitre, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most important cause of preventable mental retardation. The prevalence of CH varies by geographic region, race and ethnicity. In the countries of the Northern hemisphere, the prevalence has been reported as 1:4,000 live newborns. The prevalence is remarkably different among the countries of Latin America not only because of their different races and ethnicities but also because of the heterogeneous social-economic development. The prevalence of CH in 1984 in Peru was reported as 1:1250. In 2007, the reported incidence by the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal was 1:1638. A recent retrospective study performed by the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru described the average age of diagnosis of CH as 5,9 months +/- 5,28. This late age of CH diagnosis certainly suggests the poor efficiency of the current neonatal CH screening programs in Peru. Every Peruvian infant deserves a timely newborn screening and treatment for CH. The Peruvian government is responsible for ensuring this mandatory goal is achieved promptly. PMID:26580943

  7. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented regime of accumulation that is characterised by considerable labour exploitation. The marginal role of organised labour and social movements to influence the course of events is placed against the...

  8. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of the coast of Peru with Lomas Point and Yuaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image shows the coast of Peru, as recorded on the 39th orbit of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Lomas Point and the town of Yuaca are visible in the frame. The image was recorded by the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this image are 15.593 degrees south latitude and 74.851 degrees west longitude. (300mm lens, no filter). Digital file name is ESC06001.IMG.

  9. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this. PMID:25597722

  10. [Evaluation of the quality of river water with diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): an experience in Tacna, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calizaya-Anco, José; Avendaño-Cáceres, Miriam; Delgado-Vargas, Irma

    2013-03-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of the water of the Locumba river, Tacna (Peru), water samples were taken from ten stations located along the Locumba river basin, during six periods in an annual cycle. The diversity and number of diatoms was also evaluated, together with eleven physiochemical parameters in order to determine the degree of water contamination. We found that as the basin advanced down the mountain, the diversity of diatoms decreased from 2.37 bits cell-1 to 0.71 bits cell-1 and the gradient of contaminants increased. In addition to this increase, the number of species tolerant to high levels of environmental disturbance rose. An increase in all physiochemical parameters used to evaluate the degree of contamination was observed. These results suggest that diatoms can be adequate bioindicators when evaluating the quality of water in this basin. PMID:23612814

  11. 3 CFR 8341 - Proclamation 8341 of January 16, 2009. To Implement the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes 8341 Proclamation 8341... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other PurposesBy the President of the United States of America A Proclamation 1. On April 12, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Peru...

  12. Changes of erosive rainfall for El Nino and La Nina years in the northern Andean highlands of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, C.; Baigorria, G.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Information related to rainfall erosivity in the Andes is scarce. This study was carried out to determine the characteristics of rainfall events at the La Encañada watershed, northern Peru, using daily rainfall data from the 1995 to 2000 period that included all the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases. Three weather stations were installed within the study area, at the top, middle and bottom of the watershed. We analysed the total amount, duration, intensity, kinetic energy and pro...

  13. SIGNIFICATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS GENERATED BY THE IRRIGATION DITCHES COIS, PULEN AND YORTUQUE OF CHICLAYO'S CITY PERU: PROPOSAL OF A MITIGATION PLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies near urban areas can suffer a steady deterioration by anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. The present research aims to identify and assess the impacts generated by the irrigation ditches Cois, Pulen and Yortuque of Chiclayo's city, Lambayeque, Peru in which were established 12 sampling stations during the months of January to August 2009. The water quality of the irrigation ditches was determined by the standard methods of the APHA-AWWAWPCF. Air qual...

  14. INFLUENCE OF TEACHING ABOUT ORAL HYGIENE AWARENESS TO PARENTS OF CHILDREN LESS THAN THREE YEARS IN THE HEALTH CENTER OF MALA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    Suyo, Isabel; Iannacone, José

    2013-01-01

    The present study aied to determine the effect of education on oral hygiene knowledge of parents of children less than three years in the Health Center of Mala, Peru, in 2009. The study was descriptive and comparative. A test of 12 questions about oral hygiene to 58 parents and the influence of the implementation of oral health knowledge in parents of children less than three years, before and after performing an educational workshop that used posters, flip charts, dolls, model...

  15. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  16. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  17. Excluding the rural population: the impact of public expenditure on child malnutrition in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gajate-Garrido, Gissele

    2013-01-01

    Why is the urban-rural gap in child malnutrition increasing in Peru despite government efforts to improve the provision of public services? To answer this question, the impact of regional public expenditure in Peru on young children's nutritional outcomes is examined. To account for policy endogeneity, public expenditures are instrumented using unanticipated regional mining revenues. Even ...

  18. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on ] Forest Sector Governance,...

  19. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance,...

  20. A new species of Teagueia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from Northern of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chocce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Teagueia (Luer Luer (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae from the highlands of Northern Peru is described and illustrated with a black and white drawing. This species is the first record of genus Teagueia (Luer Luer in Peru.

  1. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2011-2012 U.S.-Peru Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new Work Program for implementing the United...

  2. Vývoj a současnost ekonomiky Peru a její postavení v latinsko americkém regionu

    OpenAIRE

    Slabá, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    First chapter contains geographical and political characteristics of Peru and its history. Second part of the thesis includes economic characteristics of Peru and structure of foreign trade. Next chapter focuses on future development of Peru. Last chapter contains key characteristics of role of Peru within the latinamerican region.

  3. 77 FR 51064 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... 202(b)(1); (B) An affirmative determination of market disruption or threat thereof under section 421(b....... June 15, 2011. East Bay, LLC, California Newspaper Partnership. 81,764 Schneider Electric Peru, IN...

  4. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  5. Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A.; Morrison, Amy C.; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J.; Lenhart, Audrey; Thomas W. Scott; Elder, John P.; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Halsey, Eric S.; ASTETE, HELVIO; McCall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue s...

  6. Experience and current state on safeguards in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the experience on implementing the nuclear material safeguards in Peru, as signant of an INFCIRC 153 type Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. A retrospective view is made since the beginning of safeguards until the current date. The nuclear material under safeguards is mainly nuclear fuel with Low Enriched Uranium used in two research reactors but also other basic materials, as thorium and depleted uranium for non-nuclear use, are included in the control system applied by IPEN, as commissioned as State System for safeguards. The participation in the IAEA program 93+2 is also mentioned. The safeguard measures currently applied are shown and future trends are explained. (author)

  7. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  8. A basic income policy for Peru: can it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Saco, María Amparo

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the pros and cons of a basic income grant and estimates the financial cost of paying a similar benefit to very specific groups in Peru. This is an old concept in the economic literature and is associated with a “negative income tax”. A universal basic income grant can be an adequate instrument to smooth consumption and distribute some purchasing power to the poor. The shift in effective demand after paying a basic income can have important multiplier effects on small loc...

  9. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.

  10. Information services. Report to the Government of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Peru an IAEA staff member undertook an expert assignment to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) within the framework of a technical assistance project. The purpose of the expert's travel was to evaluate a request for equipment for and consultant's advice on the establishment of library and information services and to advise IPEN staff on the establishment of the services. The report presents the findings on the present level and future need for library and information services and presents a proposal for the further development of these. (author)

  11. Peru; Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that Peru’s economy continues to be a leader in high growth and low inflation in the region, which has been achieved through a prudent macroeconomic policy implementation, a far-reaching structural reform agenda and taking advantage of the benign external environment. After reaching 4.7 percent in 2011, end-period inflation fell to 2.6 percent in 2012, within the 1–3 percent target range. Stimulative monetary and fiscal policies played an instr...

  12. Childhood poverty in Peru: an annotated literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Alan, Sanchez; Sanchez, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Although poverty rates have reduced during the last 15 years, Peru is still one of the countries in Latin America with the highest level of income inequality. Nearly one out of two Peruvians lives in poverty – three out of five in the case of children1 – and one out of five is extremely poor. Income inequalities and, more generally, inequalities in human development between urban and rural areas, between Spanish and non-Spanish speakers and across climatic zones are remarkable; most of the ex...

  13. Images of Peru: a national cinema in crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    A brief look at the major trends in the history of the national cinema of Peru suggests that the relationship between the development of the moving image and the onset of modernity in that country has always been awkward. Many have argued that the advent of cinema coincided in most parts of the world with the decades when modernity was already ‘at full throttle . . . a watershed moment in which a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking ab...

  14. The water and sanitation service provision in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gisella Aragón; José Luis Bonifaz

    2013-01-01

    Public services in all countries are related to the basic needs that people should satisfy in order to warranty a worthy quality of life. The water and sanitation services provision is one of these services. Through this study, the case of water and sanitation provision in Peru will be analyzed. Data evidences that by 2004, the 71% of Peruvian population had access to water services, while the 63% of Peruvian population had access to sanitation services. Then, it can be inferred that the perf...

  15. Peru: Opportunities for investment in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruvian oil industry are described. The government of Peru has been applying a strict economic stabilization plan that includes deregulation of prices, wages, exchange and interest rates, elimination of subsides, simplification of tariffs, and the elimination of all restrictions on the flow of capital and foreign trade. The plan has been applied with the approval of all social sectors and thanks to the consensus concerning its program. The government has been able to control the hyperinflation it inherited, to reduce the fiscal defect, and to increase foreign currency reserves

  16. The allocation of children's time in Mexico and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    David Abler; Jose S. Rodriguez; Héctor Robles

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of significant economic and educational changes, the objective of this paper is to investigate tendencies since the 1980s in the allocation of children’s time between school and work in Mexico and Peru. As measured by school enrollment rates, which have been rising in both countries since the 1980s, the picture looks fairly rosy. This paper attempts to look deeper than mere enrollment statistics by examining actual attendance and time spent in school and on work. We begin i...

  17. Molecular resolution of a complex of potyviruses infecting solanaceous crops at the centre of origin in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, C; Taboada, A M; Darwich, S; Ramsell, J; Salazar, L F; Valkonen, J P T

    2003-09-01

    Peru is a centre of origin and domestication of the potato, pepper and tomato (family Solanaceae). Many potyviruses (genus Potyvirus) that infect these crops were described 20-30 years ago. However, definitive classification of these viruses as distinct species remains unresolved for several reasons, including their close serological relationships, similar symptomatology in test plants and lack of genomic sequence data. Using samples collected from Peru, we have determined the complete genomic sequence of two strains of Peru tomato virus (PTV) as well as near-complete sequences for two additional PTV strains. We also obtained partial sequences of four strains of Potato virus V (PVV). Comparisons with genomic sequences of Wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), Potato virus A (PVA) and other potyviruses established that all these viruses constitute different taxa (species). Phylogenetic comparisons indicated that PTV, PVV and WPMV are the most closely related species which, together with PepMoV, PVY, Pepper yellow mosaic virus and Pepper severe mosaic virus, constitute a group that is distinguishable from other potyviruses. Therefore, the members of this group may share a common ancestor. PVA does not belong to this group. PVV and PTV were also closely related serologically. However, PTV did not cross-protect against PVV and WPMV in tobacco plants or complement systemic infection of PVV and WPMV in pepper plants. Two biologically and phylogenetically distinguishable strain groups were identified within PTV and PVV. In future studies, the sequence data and virus-specific primers and probes for PTV, PVV and WPMV described in this study will enable accurate indexing of plants with respect to either single or mixed infection with these viruses. PMID:12917478

  18. A CLAS act? Community-based organizations, health service decentralization and primary care development in Peru. Local Committees for Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Michiyo; Petchey, Roland

    2002-12-01

    In 1994 Peru embarked on a programme of health service reform, which combined primary care development and community participation through Local Committees for Health Administration (CLAS). They are responsible for carrying out local health needs assessments and identifying unmet health needs through regular household surveys. These enable them to determine local health provision and tailor services to local requirements. CLAS build on grassroots self-help circles that developed during the economic and political crises of the 1980s, and in which women have been prominent. However, they function under a 3 year contract with the Ministry of Health and within a framework of centrally determined guidelines and regulations. These reforms were implemented in the context of neo-liberal economic policies, which stressed financial deregulation and fiscal and monetary restraint, and were aimed at reducing foreign indebtedness and inflation. We evaluate the achievements of the CLAS and analyse the relationship between health and economic policy in Peru, with the aid of two contrasting models of the role of the state - 'agency' and 'stewardship'. We argue that Peru's experience holds valuable lessons for other countries seeking to foster community involvement. These include the need for community capacity building and partnership between community organizations and state (and other civil) agencies. PMID:12546199

  19. Education and Youth Employment in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Garavito

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze which variables determine that young people who still live with their parents study, work, combine both activities or stay away from them. We are interested in what is it that keeps young people in the educative system, even if they are working, and if there are differences related to gender roles. We work with a model of efficient cooperative negotiation between parents and the son or daughter, and estimate a Multinomial Logit regression with data fo...

  20. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  1. Multivariate analysis in provenance studies: Cerrillos obsidians case, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the preliminary results of a provenance study of obsidians samples from Cerrillos (ca. 800-100 b.c.) using Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The Cerrillos archaeological site, located in the Upper Ica Valley, Peru, is the only Paracas ceremonial center excavated so far. The archaeological data collected suggest the existence of a complex social and economic organization on the south coast of Peru. Provenance research of obsidian provides valuable information about the selection of lithic resources by our ancestors and eventually about the existence of communication routes and exchange networks. We characterized 18 obsidian artifacts samples by Moessbauer spectroscopy from Cerrillos. The spectra, recorded at room temperature using different velocities, are mainly composed of broad asymmetric doublets due to the superposition of at least two quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ in two different sites (species A and B), one weak Fe3+ doublet (specie C) and magnetic components associated to the presence of small particles of magnetite. Multivariate statistical analysis of the Moessbauer data (hyperfine parameters) allows to defined two main groups of obsidians, reflecting different geographical origins.

  2. Frequency of maternal and newborn birth outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.

  3. The effects of energy co-governance in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a 'hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis.

  4. Impacts of Unsustainable Mahogany Logging in Bolivia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc K. Steininger

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bigleaf mahogany [Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae] is the premier timber species of Latin America, its exploitation is unsustainable because of a pattern of local depletion and shifting supply. We surveyed experts on the status of mahogany in Bolivia and Peru, the world's past and present largest exporters. Bolivia no longer has commercially viable mahogany (trees > 60 cm diameter at breast height across 79% of its range. In Peru, mahogany's range has shrunk by 50%, and, within a decade, a further 28% will be logged out. Approximately 15% of the mahogany range in these two countries is protected, but low densities and illegal logging mean that this overestimates the extent of mahogany under protection. The international community can support mahogany conservation by funding park management and by encouraging independent verification of the legality of mahogany in trade. Our findings demonstrate that a systematic expert survey can generate reliable and cost-effective information on the status of widespread species of concern and help to inform appropriate management policy.

  5. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru. PMID:26657243

  6. Contaminant dispersion and bacterial declination studies ate the bay of Chimbote - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of both, the dispersion studies and preliminary determination of T-90 performed at the bay of Chimbote - Peru, has been made. As for the dispersion studies, a fundamental partial differential equation and its solution for three-dimensional case is presented. The shape and characteristics of the tracer plume is determined as well as the decrease rate of peak concentrations. The method considers a point injection with Rhodamine B and Iodine-131 as tracers, in order to determine the longitudinal, lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients that govern the dispersion rates of industrial and waste waters to be discharged through a submarine outfall that will be installed at the sea of Chimbote. The method presented herein allows the estimation of the dispersion coefficients and predicts the influence of the future diffuser as well, regardless of the nature of the body of water in which the tests were conducted. With regard to T-90 determinations, they were better performed by the use of a combined tracer technique, using I-131 for dilution measurement and Rhodamine B as a visual aid. Dilution and decrease in bacterial concentrations were taken into consideration as well as continuous radiotracer injection. The values of T-90 estimated from experiments should be reconfirmed in future experiments under different oceanographic conditions. (authors)

  7. New lichen biota records from Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano Nuñez-Zapata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While high species diversity of lichen - lichenized fungi - is reported especially in the tropics, the studies on these organisms are still scarce in Peru. Using conventional methodology and current literature on the description of genera and species, we reported macro-lichens collected from Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Cusco, Peru. Sixty seven species of macro-lichens are reported to SHMP, nine new records to Peru are documented. Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae and Lobariaceae are the families with major number of species.

  8. Nuclear research with scant resources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute and other State institutions have achieved major successes during the last ten years in various areas. In radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine it has gradually become possible to produce a wide range of kits for preparing molecules labelled with 113Inm and 99Tcm as well as other products labelled with 51Cr and 131I. The medical studies have made it possible to perform a large number of routine diagnostic tests, including radioimmunoassays. As to agricultural applications, results are reported from the following areas: induced genetic mutations for plant improvement, increased crop production through soil and fertilizer studies, research into problems of plant physiology, animal nutrition and reproduction and eradication of pests, especially the Mediterranean fruit fly, using the sterile male technique. In addition, the paper describes Peruvian experience with disinfesting certain grains, including malt, and with the preservation by irradiation of various food products, including an indigenous tuber called ''olluco''. A zero-power reactor commissioned in 1978 has enabled research to be carried out on various geometrical and analytical parameters, as well as on others relating to calibration, reactivity, flux, etc., and has also been used for practical studies with industrial applications. Another important area of research, which has been initiated recently using the 14 MeV neutron generator, is the rapid analysis of uranium and thorium using a ''Rapiduran'' and the determination of the nitrogen content of biological samples. Finally, an account is given of work carried out in nuclear electronics, radiation protection, nuclear safety and uranium mining

  9. Co-seismic luminescence in Lima, 150 km from the epicenter of the Pisco, Peru earthquake of 15 August 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Heraud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The first photographs of Co-seismic Luminescence, commonly known as Earthquake lights (EQLs, were reported in 1968 in Japan. However, there have been documented reports of luminescence associated with earthquakes since ancient times in different parts of the world. Besides this, there is modern scientific work dealing with evidence of and models for the production of such lights. During the Peru 15 August 2007 Mw=8.0 earthquake which occurred at 06:40 p.m. LT, hence dark in the southern wintertime, several EQLs were observed along the Peruvian coast and extensively reported in the capital city of Lima, about 150 km northwest of the epicenter. These lights were video-recorded by a security camera installed at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP campus and time-correlated with seismic ground accelerations registered at the seismological station on campus, analyzed and related to highly qualified eyewitness observations of the phenomena from other parts of the city and to other video recordings. We believe the evidence presented here contributes significantly to sustain the hypothesis that electromagnetic phenomena related to seismic activity can occur, at least during an earthquake. It is highly probable that continued research in luminescence and the use of magnetometers in studying electromagnetic activity and radon gas emanation detectors will contribute even more towards determining their occurrence during and probably prior to seismic activity.

  10. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 4 Volumes Annexes 8-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is presented. Topics discussed cover current biofuel utilization practices; evaluation of Peruvian biomass productivity; identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources; assessment of resource development and management concerns; identification of market considerations; description of biofuel technological options; and regional identification of biofuel technology applications. The discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches now being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity is evaluated in the context of the terrain, soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. A quantitative description of the energy potential that could be realized from agricultural and forestry resources of Peru follows. A regional picture is given for the production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could potentially supply energy. The assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and the environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Ten biofuel technology options for Peru were identified: small- to medium-scale gasification, a wood waste inventory, stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, wood distillation, forest resource development and management, electrical cogeneration, anaerobic digestion technology, development of ethanol production capabilities, and agricultural strategies for fuel production.Based upon these biofuel options, nine applications were identified for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  11. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  12. Giant Otter Project In Peru: Field Trip And Activity Report - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An update on the project "Status, habitat, behaviour, and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru" of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS is provided.

  13. Peru country specific database implementation for comparative assessment of electricity options and strategies (DECADES Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the cases study carried out using the DECADES computer tools on assessment of the electricity supply plan for expansion in Peru in the framework of the IAEA Research Contract No. 9274

  14. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  15. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  16. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  17. A new species of Parandra (Parandra) Latreille from Peru (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Parandra (Parandra) barclayi, a new species of Parandrini from Peru is described, illustrated, and included in an existing key. The new species establishes an elevation record (3,550 m) for the genus in South America.

  18. PRESENCE OF RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS IN ITE WETLANDS, TACNA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonson K. Vizcarra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Red Knot (Calidris canutus, Linnaeus 1758 in Ite Wetlands, Tacna, Peru is documented. Two individuals were observed in October 2011. This species had only one occurrence without details in this area.

  19. Existence of a credit boom in Peru. Analysis from the perspective of a regime change model

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigalupo L., Gerardo; Bacigalupo L., Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Peru has accumulated more than five years of positive growth rates in the product, a period which has been accompanied by an expansion of credit, mainly for consumption, which is expanding at rates above those of economic growth and might be showing an over-indebtedness in the system. It is this feature of the current economic situation in Peru, together with the experience in 1998 and the current international economic crisis which prompted the current investigation, which has as its main ob...

  20. Hypertension among adults in a deprived urban area of Peru - Undiagnosed and uncontrolled?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, AR; Miranda, Jj; GILMAN, RH; Smeeth, L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Peru, cardiovascular disease was the second most common cause of death in those aged 65 years or more in 2000. Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and if treated can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of hypertension and levels of awareness, treatment and control in a deprived urban area of Peru. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was completed. Blood pr...

  1. Seismic Deployments and Experiments: PeruNet, GeoNet, and SeismoPhone.

    OpenAIRE

    Stubailo, Igor; Lukac, Martin; Mayernik, Matt; Skolnik, Derek; Dominguez, Antonio; Foote, Emily; Guy, Richard; Davis, Paul; Estrin, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with Caltech and the Geophysical Institute of Peru, we installed our network of 49 seismic sites across steep and shallow subduction regions in Peru. Flat slab subduction is thought to have formed much of the major geology of the western United States some 100 million years ago. By examining such processes presently active in Central and South America we can piece together the history. The data from the Peruvian sites is delivered to UCLA every night and we have collected alm...

  2. Development, transnational religion, and the power of ideas in the High Provinces of Cusco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Olson

    2006-01-01

    I examine the enmeshment of transnationally networked religious organizations in predominantly Quechua communities in the southern Andes of Peru. I aim specifically to understand the multiple ways in which transnational religious organizations contribute to the construction of development epistemologies, or the socioeconomics of development truths. Peru has been undergoing a religious transformation similar to the rest of Latin America, with Evangelical and other non-Catholic faiths now well ...

  3. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  4. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Gladys Autino; Guillermo Luis Claps; Rubén Marcos Barquez; María Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae). Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni) are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the departme...

  5. After the fall from grace: Negotiation of new identities among HIV-positive women in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Starks, Helene; Strick, Lara; Simoni, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among heterosexual women in Peru, married women remain virtually invisible as a group at risk of HIV or requiring treatment. This study analyzed the intersections of HIV with machismo and marianismo, the dominant discourses in Latin America that prescribe gender roles for men and women. Data sources include recent literature on machismo and marianismo and interviews conducted with 14 HIV-positive women in Lima, Peru. Findings indicate how the stigma a...

  6. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  7. Fiscal Decentralization in Peru: A Perspective on Recent Developments and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2013-01-01

    ODecentralization is a fairly recent process in Peru that has been driven by a mixture of democratization, state modernization, increased accountability in service delivery, and regional economic development objectives. Politics has also played an important role. Overall, the general approach to decentralization reform in Peru has been cautious and conservative and by design its implementation has been gradual. With hindsight there were several important missteps that could have been avoided....

  8. Islay And The Economy Of Southern Peru In 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Heraclio

    2015-01-01

    This article notes the specificity of the regional economic history of Southern Peru, which in 1780-1840 experienced an important economic growth while the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was in crisis. This important fact is not well known because of the lack of research on regional economy. It presents data on the dynamics of international markets and its relation with the southern economy. Finally, the article argues some problems related to the general development of the Peruvian economy.

  9. Factors that explain the regional expansion of microfinance institutions in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Vanroose, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the location decisions and geographical expansion of microfinance institutions across Peru. To this end, econometric analyses are performed on a self-constructed dataset that covers MFI presence and expansion in the 1832 districts of Peru, and this for 39 MFIs and 13 commercial banks over the period 2001-2008. The paper shows that Peruvian MFIs have expanded considerably during the last decade. MFIs especially increase access in districts with higher levels of development ...

  10. Peru Environmental and Social Safeguards Issues Paper: Upstreaming Environmental and Social Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    John Redwood

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information and analysis on the environmental issues facing Peru so that the Bank can take into account potentially significant environmental risks as well as opportunities in the Peru Country Strategy and the subsequent programming activities. The objective is to enable the Bank to be an effective partner in sustainable development and undertake the necessary actions and approaches to adequately address these risks and opportunities, including to facil...

  11. Material flow accounting in Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru (1980-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Russi, Daniela; González Martínez, Ana Citlalic; Silva-Macher, José Carlos; Giljum, Stefan; MARTÍNEZ ALIER, Joan; Vallejo, María Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we compare the resource flows of Chile, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru between 1980 and 2000. In this time span, the domestic extraction of materials increased in the four countries, mainly due to the mining sector in Chile and Peru, biomass and oil in Ecuador and construction minerals in Mexico. Imports and exports increased too, due to the increasing integration in the international markets, prompted by the liberalization policies undertaken by the four countries between the late 19...

  12. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  13. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  14. AMS and controversies in history: The Spanish conquest of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s

  15. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  16. Progress with the reclamation of saline soils in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is the result of five years' experimental work at the Costa Regional Development Institute (IRD-Costa), based in Canete, Lima, Peru, on the reclamation of land affected by salts and hence of seriously limited agricultural value (production lower than 50%). A reclamation method combining surface and at depth washing with artificial drainage of excess water has been tried out and a method of nutrition has been developed which is based on tonification of the seeds before sowing. The results obtained are rather encouraging, so the method looks very promising, especially as it also makes for considerable savings in fertilizers (some 20% less) and for better yields per unit area. Once the ionic behaviour of this method has been studied by means of radioisotopes a large contribution will have been made towards alleviating the problem of saline soils. (author)

  17. [Notes for the history of pediatric gastroenterology in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article. PMID:26397286

  18. Women's Participation in a Postconflict Community in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building. PMID:26472238

  19. Licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Peru, the Regulation for Ionizing Radiation Sources is applied, which establishes the norms and procedures to follow in the nuclear and radioactive installations of the country in order to assure their correct operation as concerns to the nuclear safety and radiological protection, allowing the emission of the respective licenses. As for the nuclear facilities, this authorization includes the Previous License, the Construction License and the Operation License (provisional and definitive) and for radioactive facilities and equipment generating ionizing radiations: the Construction License and the Operation License. The personnel also require a license that can be an operator license (as for nuclear reactors) or a supervisor license (for nuclear and radioactive facilities). In spite of the above mentioned regulation and its long enforcement period, less than 10% of radioactive facilities in this country are licensed, due to different problems which will be solved in the medium term. (Author)

  20. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  1. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Peru during 1970-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, W F; Madalengoitia, J; Flores, W; Acosta, M

    1975-04-01

    Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus has intermittently produced epidemics and equine epizootics on the dry Pacific coastal plain of Peru since at least the 1930's. However, evidence that the virus exists in the Amazon region of Peru to the east of the Andes mountains was not obtained until antibodies were found in human sera collected in 1965, and 10 strains of the virus were isolated in a forest near the city of Iquitos, Peru during February and March 1971. Eight strains came from mosquitoes and two from dead sentinel hamsters. Three hamsters exposed in forests near Iquitos developed VE virus antibodies suggesting that hamster-benign strains also exist there. Antibody tests of equine sera revealed no evidence that VE virus was actively cycling during the late 1950's or 1960's in southern coastal Peru, where equine epizootics had occurred in the 1930's and 1940's. In northern coastal Peru bordering Ecuador, antibodies were present in equine sera, presumably residual from the 1969 outbreak caused by subtype I virus, since neutralizing antibody titers were higher to subtype I virus than to subtypes III or IV. No VE virus was detected in this northern region during the dry season of 1970 by use of sentinel hamsters. The possibility is considered that VE epidemics and equine epizootics on the Pacific coast of Peru are caused by movements of virus in infected vertebrates traversing Andean passes or in infected vertebrates or mosquitoes carried in airplanes from the Amazon region. PMID:235838

  2. El Dorado : Peru is trying to catch Colombia as the must go jurisdiction in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has vast and largely untapped reserves of crude and natural gas, but it wants foreign help to increase oil production to 500,000 barrels per day in 4 years from the current level of 140,000 barrels per day. Perupetro is a state company in Peru responsible for promoting investment in the petroleum sector. Peru hopes to lure nearly $2 billion in oil investment to its northern Amazon region through 2013. Companies operating in South America have been attracted to Peru in recent years by its exploration potential and one of the best fiscal regimes in the world, at a 5 percent minimum royalty and a 20 percent maximum royalty. However, the government has changed the rules for the blocks offered in the 2010 bid process, increasing the minimum royalty to 15 percent and the maximum to 35 percent. The intent was to bring the higher royalties more in line with Colombia's. However, some analysts claim that Peru lacks the critical mass to justify the increase in royalties. Other challenges facing resource development in Peru include lack of infrastructure and a slow regulatory system. Twenty-five blocks of land are up for bid in 2010, mostly early stage properties. The bidding process will indicate how companies will respond to the new economics of these blocks. 1 tab.

  3. Developing capacity in health informatics in a resource poor setting: lessons from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segovia-Juarez Jose

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The public sectors of developing countries require strengthened capacity in health informatics. In Peru, where formal university graduate degrees in biomedical and health informatics were lacking until recently, the AMAUTA Global Informatics Research and Training Program has provided research and training for health professionals in the region since 1999. The Fogarty International Center supports the program as a collaborative partnership between Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru and the University of Washington in the United States of America. The program aims to train core professionals in health informatics and to strengthen the health information resource capabilities and accessibility in Peru. The program has achieved considerable success in the development and institutionalization of informatics research and training programs in Peru. Projects supported by this program are leading to the development of sustainable training opportunities for informatics and eight of ten Peruvian fellows trained at the University of Washington are now developing informatics programs and an information infrastructure in Peru. In 2007, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia started offering the first graduate diploma program in biomedical informatics in Peru.

  4. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. RESULTS: 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal helminths, anemia, and malnutrition in Paucartambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M. Cabada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Methods. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Results. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47% were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5% and Fasciola (9.6% were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8% was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR: 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.81-12.21. Underweight (10% was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72, higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68 and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9. Stunting (31.3% was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95; wasting (2.7% was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25. Conclusions. Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems.

  6. Fish scales in sediments from off Callao, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Lange, C. B.; Pantoja, S.; De Lange, G. J.; Gutiérrez, D.; Muñoz, P.; Salamanca, M.

    2009-07-01

    We study fish scales as a proxy of fish abundance and preservation biases together with phosphorus from fish remains (P fish) in a sediment core retrieved off Callao, Peru (12°1'S, 77°42'W; water depth=179 m; core length=52 cm). We interpret our results as a function of changing redox conditions based on ratios of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu/Al, Mo/Al, Ni/Al, Zn/Al, V/Al), terrigenous indicators (Fe in clays, Ti, Al), and biogenic proxies (CaCO 3, biogenic opal, total nitrogen, organic carbon, barite Ba). The core covers roughly 700 years of deposition, based on 210Pb activities extrapolated downcore and 14C dating at selected intervals. Our fish-scale record is dominated by anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) scales followed by hake ( Merluccius gayii) scales. The core presented an abrupt lithological change at 17 cm (corresponding to the early 19th century). Above that depth, it was laminated and was more organic-rich (10-15% organic carbon) than below, where the core was partly laminated and less organic-rich (<10%). The lithological shift coincides with abrupt changes in dry bulk density and in the contents of terrigenous and redox-sensitive trace elements, biogenic proxies, and fish scales. The remarkable increase in redox-sensitive trace elements in the upper 17 cm of the core suggests more reducing conditions when compared with deeper and older horizons, and is interpreted as an intensification of the oxygen minimum zone off Peru beginning in the early 19th century. Higher fish-scale contents and higher P fish/P total ratios were also observed within the upper 17 cm of the core. The behavior of biogenic proxies and redox-sensitive trace elements was similar; more reduced conditions corresponded to higher contents of CaCO 3, C org, total nitrogen and fish scales, suggesting that these proxies might convey an important preservation signal.

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  8. Textiles, Guano and Railroads: The Role of the United States in the Early Development Failures of Peru, 1818-1876

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, William

    2012-01-01

    Peru's importance to the United States in the nineteenth century has been underappreciated because there were few instances of sharp conflict between the two nations. But, beginning with U.S. export of coarse cloth from new cotton mills just after Peruvian independence, continuing during the influence of Peruvian guano on U.S. "scientific agriculture," and then in the period of Peru's extraordinary effort to build trans-Andean railways, Peru exercised important influence on U.S. economy and ...

  9. Investiční příležitosti ČR v Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The free trade agreement between the EU and Peru enables Czech companies not only the high reduction of customs duty for imports, but it also creates the favourable conditions for trade and investment. The aim of this thesis is to identify investment opportunities for the Czech Republic in Peru. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the economic situation of Peru, on the basis of selected economic indicators, such as GDP, inflation rate, openness of the economy and ...

  10. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Annexes 2-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a brief study of industral, mining, and agricultural sector energy demands in Peru. The study establishes current energy demands and sectoral activities, and projects future energy needs through the year 2000. With respect to energy demands, the subsectors covered are: mining and non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, cement, oil refining, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and agriculture (major crops). Total energy demands for these subsectors are developed for 1976, 1985, and 2000, assuming full-capacity operation for the majority of the plants. Potential options developed for reducing energy use in these sectors are: increased coal use, improved energy efficiency in the manufacturing sector, use of agricultural wastes as fuel, possible displacement of oil by hydroelectricity, use of geothermal energy, increased use of water materials for the cement and construction industries, and possible promotion of cogeneration systems (electricity/steam). (MCW)

  11. Modeling a glacial lake outburst flood process chain: the case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo A.; Chisolm, Rachel E.; Rivas, Denny S.; Portocarrero, Cesar; McKinney, Daene C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on 13 December 1941, killing about 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and preliminary hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 × 103 m3 s-1), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil

  12. Modeling a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Process Chain: The Case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo; Rivas Gomez, Denny; McKinney, Daene C.; Portocarrero Rodriguez, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on December 13, 1941, 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes: (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5-3 x 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 m and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming-moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 x 103 m3/s), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming-moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil characteristics that provide very

  13. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  14. Myxomycete diversity in the coastal desert of Peru with emphasis on the lomas formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lado, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from the first survey for myxomycetes in the hyperarid areas of Peru are reported. Sampling over three consecutive years was carried out at 96 localities between 0 and 1500 m elevation. A total of 78 species from 23 genera in all 6 myxomycete orders were determined from 723 collections of myxomycetes. One new species, Didymium peruvianum, is described, 2 species new to the Neotropics, 4 new records for South America and 41 additional new species for Peru are reported, increasing the country catalogue by over 50%. Results show that arid areas are rich in myxomycetes, and that each area has a unique species assemblage. Endemic plants had a particular relevance as myxomycete substrates. The predominance of the order Physarales in arid areas is reinforced, and the ecological importance of coastal fogs (garúas is evident from the results. Comments are included on interesting or rare collections, as are SEM micrographs of several species and statistical evaluation of the results.Se dan a conocer los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre los Myxomycetes de las regiones hiperáridas de Perú. El muestreo, realizado en tres años consecutivos, se ha llevado a cabo en 96 localidades situadas entre 0 y 1500 m de altitud. En total se obtuvieron 723 colecciones de mixomicetes, pertenecientes a 6 órdenes, 23 géneros y 78 especies. Se describe una nueva especie, Didymium peruvianum, 2 especies se citan por primera vez en el Neotrópico, 4 son nuevos registros para América del Sur y 41 especies más son nuevos registros para Perú, con lo que el catálogo del país se incrementa en un 50%. Los resultados muestran que las zonas áridas son ricas en mixomicetes, y que cada area tiene un conjunto único de especies. Las plantas endémicas, dominantes en estos ambientes, tuvieron una relevancia especial como sustrato para los myxomycetes. Se pone de manifiesto el predominio de los representantes del órden Physarales en las zonas

  15. Estimating instream constituent loads using replicate synoptic sampling, Peru Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Nimick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The synoptic mass balance approach is often used to evaluate constituent mass loading in streams affected by mine drainage. Spatial profiles of constituent mass load are used to identify sources of contamination and prioritize sites for remedial action. This paper presents a field scale study in which replicate synoptic sampling campaigns are used to quantify the aggregate uncertainty in constituent load that arises from (1) laboratory analyses of constituent and tracer concentrations, (2) field sampling error, and (3) temporal variation in concentration from diel constituent cycles and/or source variation. Consideration of these factors represents an advance in the application of the synoptic mass balance approach by placing error bars on estimates of constituent load and by allowing all sources of uncertainty to be quantified in aggregate; previous applications of the approach have provided only point estimates of constituent load and considered only a subset of the possible errors. Given estimates of aggregate uncertainty, site specific data and expert judgement may be used to qualitatively assess the contributions of individual factors to uncertainty. This assessment can be used to guide the collection of additional data to reduce uncertainty. Further, error bars provided by the replicate approach can aid the investigator in the interpretation of spatial loading profiles and the subsequent identification of constituent source areas within the watershed. The replicate sampling approach is applied to Peru Creek, a stream receiving acidic, metal-rich effluent from the Pennsylvania Mine. Other sources of acidity and metals within the study reach include a wetland area adjacent to the mine and tributary inflow from Cinnamon Gulch. Analysis of data collected under low-flow conditions indicates that concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Peru Creek exceed aquatic life standards. Constituent loading within the study reach is dominated by effluent from the

  16. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change. PMID:27431469

  17. [Potential vulnerability to flooding at public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rubilar-González, Juan; Gutierrez-Lagos, Edith

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the potential vulnerability of public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru to the possible effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed using the geo-referenced points for at-risk areas based on the activation of gullies that were reported by the National Water Authority, and the location of the four regional public health facilities of the Ministry of Health. Concentric areas of influence were simulate from the points of risk towards the public health facilities using radii of 200, 1000 and 1500 meters. The Tumbes region would be the most affected with 37.2% of its health facilities being affected by floods and landslides. The I-2 and I-3 categories of health facilities appeared to be the most affected with 28.9% and 31.6% respectively. Therefore, public health facilities near the risk zones may be affected by the ENSO. PMID:27384627

  18. Spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue fever in Peru: 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G; Torre, C A; Munayco-Escate, C; Suárez-Ognio, L; López-Cruz, R; Hyman, J M; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2008-12-01

    SUMMARYThe weekly number of dengue cases in Peru, South America, stratified by province for the period 1994-2006 were analysed in conjunction with associated demographic, geographic and climatological data. Estimates of the reproduction number, moderately correlated with population size (Spearman rho=0.28, P=0.03), had a median of 1.76 (IQR 0.83-4.46). The distributions of dengue attack rates and epidemic durations follow power-law (Pareto) distributions (coefficient of determination >85%, P<0.004). Spatial heterogeneity of attack rates was highest in coastal areas followed by mountain and jungle areas. Our findings suggest a hierarchy of transmission events during the large 2000-2001 epidemic from large to small population areas when serotypes DEN-3 and DEN-4 were first identified (Spearman rho=-0.43, P=0.03). The need for spatial and temporal dengue epidemic data with a high degree of resolution not only increases our understanding of the dynamics of dengue but will also generate new hypotheses and provide a platform for testing innovative control policies. PMID:18394264

  19. Postseismic relocking of the subduction megathrust following the 2007 Pisco, Peru, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, D.; Perfettini, H.; Cotte, N.; Avouac, J. P.; Chlieh, M.; Bondoux, F.; Sladen, A.; Tavera, H.; Socquet, A.

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the time evolution of slip over different phases of the seismic cycle is crucial to a better understanding of the factors controlling the occurrence of large earthquakes. In this study, we take advantage of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and 3.5 years of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements to determine interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic slip distributions in the region of the 2007, Mw 8.0 Pisco, earthquake, Peru, using the same fault geometry and inversion method. Our interseismic model, based on pre-2007 campaign GPS data, suggests that the 2007 Pisco seismic slip occurred in a region strongly coupled before the earthquake while afterslip occurred in low coupled regions. Large afterslip occurred in the peripheral area of coseismic rupture in agreement with the notion that afterslip is mainly induced by coseismic stress changes. The temporal evolution of the region of maximum afterslip, characterized by a relaxation time of about 2.3 years, is located in the region where the Nazca ridge is subducting, consistent with rate-strengthening friction promoting aseismic slip. We estimate a return period for the Pisco earthquake of about 230 years with an estimated aseismic slip that might account for about 50% of the slip budget in this region over the 0-50 km seismogenic depth range. A major result of this study is that the main asperity that ruptured during the 2007 Pisco earthquake relocked soon after this event.

  20. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  1. Study of radiological risk at the Regional Hospital of Trujillo-Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation doses have been measured in operators, patients and members of public, who attend the diagnostic service of the Hospital Regional Docente in Trujillo, Peru by using TLD-100 and TLD-200. For cranium test, the results are 8,68 x 10-3 mSv in operators and 7,8 x 10-4 mSv in members of the public. It means a fatal cancer risk of 3,7 x 10-7 and 3,9 x 10-8, respectively. For patients, the equivalent doses in the examined organs are 0,181 mSv in lung; 4,982 mSv in spine; 6,466 mSv in abdomen; 6,039 mSv in pelvis and 2,174 mSv in cranium. In order to maximize benefits for patients, a quality control program was carried out in x-ray equipment. It consisted in the measurement of an effective, average and maximum kilovoltage, as well as in the determination of the HVL, linearity, exposition time and coincidence between luminous and radiation fields. It was concluded that the measured doses are similar to the international ones reported. In the same way, it is indicated that it is possible to reduce risks in patients and operators by regulating kilo-voltages, adjusting the radiation fields and electronic calibration equipment. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  2. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  3. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  5. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  6. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-01-01

    New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  7. The effect of Yucca schidigera liquid extract on water quality and survival of Pacific Red Snapper Lutjanus peru during acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Castillo-Vargasmachuca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the liquid extract of Yucca schidigera on water quality and survival of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during its transfer from wild to laboratory conditions. Three experimental groups (0.00; 0.25 and 0.75 mg of Y. schidigera liquid extract per liter of culture were tested with four replicates using water recirculating systems. The liquid extract was dispensed every 72 h during 28 days. It was proved that Y. schidigera extract could be effective to reduce ammonia nitrogen caused by biogenic source (excretion of fish juveniles diminishing mortality of Pacific red snapper during acclimatization process. It is recommended the use of yucca extract concentration at a dose of 0.75 mg L-1 to reduce ammonia concentration in marine water for holding red snapper juveniles.

  8. [Association between severe tuberculosis in children and previous BCG immunization in a national referral hospital, Peru 1990-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Tejada, Félix; del Castillo, Hernán

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the association between BCG immunization and severe tuberculosis (TB). We performed a retrospective study, including medical records from patients of the pneumology department at the National Children's Institute in Peru, between the years 1990-2000. A total of 2106 TB cases were reviewed, from them 259 patients were severe (miliary TB or meningoencephalitic TB). From all, 497 cases did not have history of BCG vaccination, 202 had severe TB and 295 non-severe TB (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.07). In conclusion, children diagnosed with TB and who have been immunized with BCG, has 94% lower risk of developing severe TB, compared to children with TB non-immunized with BCG. PMID:22510912

  9. First molecular identification of the transgene red fluorescent protein (RFP in transgenic ornamental zebrafish (Danio rerio introduced in Peru

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    Carlos Scotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the transgenic fluorescent red, orange and pink zebra fish (Danio rerio, found in local aquariums in Peru, were identified using the PCR technique to amplify the transgene RFP sea anemone belonging to Discosoma spp. The gene expression of the red fluorescent protein (RFP transgene was found to determine different gradients-of-bioluminescence (shades in color in each GMO fish analyzed. We performed sequence analysis of the two variants of the RFP along with six variants of the existing fluorescent protein GFP from the Genbank, this could help identify quickly if they are new genes or variants thereof as these novel fluorescent proteins may be introduced in aquatic GMO in the future. Thus, developing and improving biosecurity measures through its timely detection at the molecular genetic level.

  10. Glacial evolution of the Ampato Volcanic Complex (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Vázquez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice masses on the Western range of the Central Andes are a main source of water resources and act as a geoindicator of variations in the climate of the tropics (Mark, 2008). The study of their evolution is of particular interest since they are situated in the transition zone between the tropical and mid-latitude circulation areas of the atmosphere (Zech et al., 2007). The function of this transition area is currently under debate, and understanding it is essential for the development of global climate models (Kull et al, 2008; Mark, 2008). However our understanding of the evolution of glaciers and their paleoclimatic factors for this sector of the Central Andes is still at a very basic level. This paper presents initial results of a study on the glacial evolution of the Ampato volcanic complex (15°24´- 15° 51´ S, 71° 51´ - 73° W; 6288 m a.s.l.) located in the Western Range of the Central Andes in Southern Peru, 70 km NW of the city of Arequipa. The main objectives are to identify the number of glacial phases the complex has undergone using geomorphological criteria to define a time frame for each phase, based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating of a sequence of moraine deposits; and to estimate the glacier Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) of each phase. The Ampato volcanic complex is formed by 3 great andesitic stratovolcanoes, the Nevados HualcaHualca-Sabancaya-Ampato, which started forming between the late Miocene and early Quaternary (Bulmer et al., 1999), aligned N-S and with summits covered with glaciers. The Sabancaya volcano is fully active, with its latest eruption occurring in 2001. Glacial landforms were identified and mapped using photointerpretation of vertical aerial photographs from 1955 (1:35,000 scale, National Geographic Institute of Peru), oblique photographs from 1943 (Aerophotographical Service of Peru), and a geo-referenced high-resolution Mrsid satellite image from 2000 (NASA). This cartography was corrected and improved through fieldwork. It was

  11. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  12. Analysis of past and future oil production in Peru under a Hubbert approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates scenarios for the oil production in Peru applying a Hubbert model. Two scenarios for the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) were proposed: the first, in which low investments in E&P and social and environmental barriers undermine the development of oil resources beyond the limits characterized as 2P; the second, more optimistic, in which current exploratory and production areas in Amazonia and low-explored Offshore-Shelf basins are developed, thus, increasing EUR to 3P reserves plus contingent resources. Findings show that oil production in Peru has not followed a Single-Hubbert pattern, except for the area with more drilling activity and the highest accumulated production in the Northwest coast. Actually, institutional and regulation changes and less-attractive periods for operators due to poor results in oil discoveries explain why a multi-Hubbert approach better depicted the oil production in Peru. Peru has the potential to achieve a second peak of 274 kbpd of crude oil, overcoming the peak of 195 kbpd, reached in 1982. However, most of the remaining production would be located in Amazonia, where social and environmental issues pose critical challenges. - Highlights: • Two scenarios of estimated ultimately recoverable resources were simulated. • A multi-cycle Hubbert approach better depicted the case of oil production in Peru. • Pipelines expansion and institutional and regulation changes explain this multi-cyle. • Institutional capacity and socio-environmental risks are barriers to oil activities

  13. Evaluation of electrification projects with renewable energy in communities of the mountain and forest of the Peru: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses results of research on energy solutions in isolated rural areas in Peru. The communities being studied use solar panels and micro-hydroelectric systems. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the rural electrification in Peru

  14. Self-Assessed Disability and Self-Rated Health among Rural Villagers in Peru: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, James E.; Merry, Stephen P.; Thacher, Thomas D.; Summers, Matthew R.; Alpern, Jonathan D.; Contino, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Risks for poor self-rated overall health in rural areas of developing nations have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess potential risk factors for poor self-rated health among rural villagers in Peru. Methods: A door-to-door survey of villagers residing in the Pampas Grande region in Peru,…

  15. Global Financial Partnerships in Microfinance: India, Peru and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUBARO, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the ‘wholesale’ market through which microfinance institutions operating in three contexts (Peru, Tanzania and the state of Tamil Nadu in India obtain loans from a variety of domestic and international funding bodies. The nature and characteristics of the relationships between them are captured through network analysis and visualization tools, with a dataset comprising inter-organisational lending relationships and organisations’ attributes over the years 2006-8. Focus is on the extent to which patterns in wholesale lending relationships relate to the legal status and characteristics of microfinance institutions; to the regulatory, business and social environment in which they operate; and to shifts in the balance between social and commercial interests of diverse types of lenders.The analysis brings to light considerable cross-country variation in the structure and features of wholesale lending relationships, and relates it primarily to differences in governance and regulation. On this basis, it makes the case that building a more enabling regulatory environment for funding partnerships may improve the capacity of microfinance to achieve its dual goals of poverty alleviation and financial sustainability.

  16. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  17. Markawasi: a cultural and natural patrimony of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research had as main aim to recognize the cultural and natural importance of Markawasi plateau for its possible consideration as a Hystorical Sanctuary into the National System of Protective Natural Areas by the Nation (SINANPE of Peru. Since 1994 until 2000, a photographic register of some of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculptures was evaluated and registered. Markawasi is important as origin center of the protohistory of our Andean culture and its biological richness. Markawasi plateau located at 4000 msnm, represent the rocky forest closer to Lima city, near to 90 km east, being studied since 1952 by Dr. Daniel Ruzo. To go to Markawasi should arrive to San Pedro de Casta, small town knew by its water party. The importance of Markawasi is increasing every day passed by its rocky formations, its archeological rest in the Fortress, Preinca stone tomb, irrigable channels, its center of observation and its natural amphitheatre formed. In addition, small lakes and its biological richness belonging to high mountain ecosystem make Markawasi an ideal place for ecotourism and cultural tourism. Markawasi due to its importance as cultural and national patrimony should be management by authorities of Peruvian state, and by communities surrounding to this natural area. Only by this way, could leave of its ostracism and stagnation of this town situated close to Markawasi plateau.

  18. Institutional challenges for mining and sustainability in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Anthony J; Bury, Jeffrey T

    2009-10-13

    Global consumption continues to generate growth in mining. In lesser developed economies, this growth offers the potential to generate new resources for development, but also creates challenges to sustainability in the regions in which extraction occurs. This context leads to debate on the institutional arrangements most likely to build synergies between mining, livelihoods, and development, and on the socio-political conditions under which such institutions can emerge. Building from a multiyear, three-country program of research projects, Peru, a global center of mining expansion, serves as an exemplar for analyzing the effects of extractive industry on livelihoods and the conditions under which arrangements favoring local sustainability might emerge. This program is guided by three emergent hypotheses in human-environmental sciences regarding the relationships among institutions, knowledge, learning, and sustainability. The research combines in-depth and comparative case study analysis, and uses mapping and spatial analysis, surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and our own direct participation in public debates on the regulation of mining for development. The findings demonstrate the pressures that mining expansion has placed on water resources, livelihood assets, and social relationships. These pressures are a result of institutional conditions that separate the governance of mineral expansion, water resources, and local development, and of relationships of power that prioritize large scale investment over livelihood and environment. A further problem is the poor communication between mining sector knowledge systems and those of local populations. These results are consistent with themes recently elaborated in sustainability science. PMID:19805172

  19. Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved. PMID:26503276

  20. Ichthyological diversity of Inambari River, Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to know the diversity of fishes in the Inambari river basin, at Mazuco district, (Madre de Dios and the state of conservation of the aquatic habitats. Samples were collected from 22 stations using seines of small mesh (5mm and recording data from each habitat. Taxonomic composition of fishes, diversity and abundance, ecological characterization by altitudinal range, habitat and water type; and the conservation state of each water bodies have been studied. A total of 1411 individuals were collected and four orders, 13 families, 35 genera and 52 species were identified. The groups with more diversity were Characiformes (65% and Siluriformes (25%. Three new records for Peru: Serrapinnus notomelas, Pseudopimelodus bufonius y Pseudocetopsis gobiodes and one endemic species: Chaetostoma marcapatae have been register. The altitudinal pattern influence in micro habitats presence and as consequence in abundance and species richness; so higher richness and abundance were found in the lower zone (52 species and 1309 individuals, in streams (44 species and rivers (712 individuals. According type of water, the clearwaters showed higher values of richness (37 species and the whitewater higher abundance (789 individuals. The higher diversity indexes (H’ were found in the rivers, white waters and altitudes lower. The higher values of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI were obtained in the main channel of the Río Inambari, up river of Mazuko and lower values in the Mirador stream, down river of Mazuko, where it was observed gold mining activity artisanal.

  1. Star of Condor - A strontium critical velocity experiment, Peru, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.

    1986-01-01

    'Star of Condor' was a critical velocity experiment using Sr vapor produced in a radial shaped charge, which was carried to 571.11 km altitude on a Taurus-Tomahawk rocket launched from Punto Lobos, Peru, and detonated in the plane of the magnetic field lines so that all ranges of pitch angles from parallel to B to perpendicular to B were covered. Sr has a critical velocity of 3.3 km/s, and from observation, 42.5 percent of the neutral Sr gas had a velocity component perpendicular to B exceeding that value. No Sr ion emissions were detected shortly after the burst with usual TV integration times. However, about 10 min after the detonation a faint field-aligned streak was discovered with long TV integration times. The brightness is estimated as 5 R, which, combined with the streak geometry, implies an ion production of 2.4 x 10 to the 19th ions. This is only 0.0036 percent ionization of the Sr vapor. All the ions could easily have been produced by thermal ionization from the original detonation thermal distribution. The breakup of the Sr gas into small bloblike structures may have allowed the high-energy electrons to escape before an ionization cascade could be produced. For whatever reason, the Alfven mechanism proposed for space plasmas in the absence of laboratory walls did not produce an ionization cascade in the experiment.

  2. Diverse rupture processes in the 2015 Peru deep earthquake doublet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo; Zhan, Zhongwen; Duputel, Zacharie

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes in deeply subducted oceanic lithosphere can involve either brittle or dissipative ruptures. On 24 November 2015, two deep (606 and 622 km) magnitude 7.5 and 7.6 earthquakes occurred 316 s and 55 km apart. The first event (E1) was a brittle rupture with a sequence of comparable-size subevents extending unilaterally ~50 km southward with a rupture speed of ~4.5 km/s. This earthquake triggered several aftershocks to the north along with the other major event (E2), which had 40% larger seismic moment and the same duration (~20 s), but much smaller rupture area and lower rupture speed than E1, indicating a more dissipative rupture. A minor energy release ~12 s after E1 near the E2 hypocenter, possibly initiated by the S wave from E1, and a clear aftershock ~165 s after E1 also near the E2 hypocenter, suggest that E2 was likely dynamically triggered. Differences in deep earthquake rupture behavior are commonly attributed to variations in thermal state between subduction zones. However, the marked difference in rupture behavior of the nearby Peru doublet events suggests that local variations of stress state and material properties significantly contribute to diverse behavior of deep earthquakes. PMID:27386585

  3. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  4. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population. PMID:22438911

  5. Records of Coendou ichillus (Rodentia, Erethizontidae from the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremaine Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coendou ichillus was first described in 2001 by Voss and da Silva, with a range from Amazonian Ecuador to Iquitos, Peru. Here, we describe an adult female Coendou ichillus specimen collected in a Tomahawk trap in the forest canopy of the Lower Urubamba Region of Peru in October 2013. We also describe pathologies and behaviors observed through 379 camera trapping photo events (2,196 photos gathered in natural canopy bridges over the course of a year (7,198 trap nights, including information on activity period over the course of the day and over the course of the lunar cycle. We conservatively estimate that 17 individuals were photographed, including one juvenile. Being 900 km away from Iquitos, Peru (the site of the closest record, discovery of this species in the Lower Urubamba constitutes a significant range extension.

  6. A 32 m Parabolic Antenna in Peru At 3,370m of Altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ishitsuka, J; Kaifu, N; Miyama, S; Inoue, M; Tsuboi, M; Ohishi, M; Fujisawa, K; Kasuga, T; Miyazawa, K; Horiuchi, S

    2005-01-01

    At the altitude of 3,370 m on the Peruvian Andes, a 32m antenna owned by the telecommunications company Telefonica del Peru will be transformed to a Radio Telescope, it would be transferred to the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP). The parabolic antenna was constructed in 1984 by Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) and worked as an INTELSAT station until 2000. A team of the National Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) evaluated the antenna in 2003 and reported its availability to be used as a Radio Telescope. In collaboration of the NAOJ a 6.7 GHz receiver is under construction and will be installed within this year. Initially the telescope as a single dish will monitor and survey Methanol Maser of YSO, higher frequencies equipment and VLBI instruments will be considered. The antenna will be managed by the IGP and used by universities in Peru, becoming a VLBI station will be a grate contribution to astronomy and geodetic community.

  7. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Microlophus occipitalis, where air temperature accounts for a significant proportion of body temperature variation. We suggest more detailed studies on this lizard species, especially under climate change scenarios in northwestern Peru.

  8. Genero y trabajo femenino en el Peru Gender and women's work in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cerna Barba

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se identifican las condiciones de trabajo de la mujer en el Perú con sus determinantes histórico-sociales, derivados de la diferenciación por clase social, raza y género que condicionan la subordinación de las mujeres en la estructura social. A través de revisión bibliográfica se verifica que la situación de la mujer peruana trabajadora, ha tenido grandes y profundas transformaciones a través del tiempo, condicionadas por patrones ideológico-culturales patriarcales que culminaron en la sociedad capitalista periférica de los dias actuales.This study identifies the peruvian women's labor conditions and its social and historical determinants due to social class, race and gender differences that influence women subordination in social structure. Bibliographic review shows that the peruvian working woman situation experienced great and deep changes in time, as a result of ideological and cultural patriarchal patterns that culminated in the current capitalist society.

  9. Genetic diversity of native potatoes (Solanumspp. conserved in landraces from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the genetic diversity of 79 accessions of native potato varieties (Solanum spp. using 18 microsatellite markers. A random sample from Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica and Puno from "chacras" of farmers who collaborated with the "In situ conservation of native crops and wild relatives" were used. 17 markers amplified one single polymorphic locus, the mean number of alleles per locus was 8.79. The mean similarity was 0.62 and clustering indexes varied between 0.41 and 0.98. 19 loci showed a total of 166 alleles. Cuzco had the highest number of alleles (130 alleles. Of the 166 characterized alleles, 72 alleles (43.37% were common or shared with 5 sampling sites. Puno had the highest number of exclusive alleles (8 alleles. The 42 varieties of S. tuberosum subsp. andigena showed a mean diversity of 0.74 and 18 varieties of S. x chauchaan average diversity of 0.70. Polymorphism (PIC = 0.55 to 0.85 and genetic diversity indices show that microsatellites evaluated can identify high levels of genetic diversity, but also are not sufficient to discriminate differentiated by origin or species groups. Our analyzes indicate a high genetic diversity and are consistent with inventories and morphological characterizations performed in situ, we can also conclude that there would be a common pool of genes would be found widely distributed among the regions studied.

  10. Physical reconstruction of the radiological accident of Chilca (Lima - Peru); Reconstruccion fisica del accidente radiologico de Chilca (Lima - Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: alachosd1271@yahoo.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)

  11. An economic evaluation of Peru's liquefied natural gas export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru's Camisea gas fields hold nearly 90% of the country's natural gas reserves. In the 1990s, the government had a policy to prioritize Camisea gas for domestic consumption. The revocation of this policy in the 2000s allowed private developers to export 40% of Camisea's proven reserves, equivalent to one third of Peru's total. This USD 3.9 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project boasts the largest single foreign direct investment in Peru's history. A major component of the financing was granted by international financial institutions on economic grounds. While the project was expected to yield a substantial return to private investors, the export of one third of Peru's total proven natural gas reserves is not in line with its long-term interests. We undertake cost–benefit analyses for a series of scenarios, starting with the project's formative stage in the mid-2000s, and then in 2012, two years after it began its commercial operation. In all cases, Peru does not have sufficient reserves to warrant export, and the economic costs far exceed the benefits. This policy of LNG exports should not have been approved by the government, nor should the loans have been granted by international financial institutions to make it possible. - Highlights: • Peru's Liquefied Natural Gas project is creating an economic loss to the country. • Results of our analyses are robust for all scenarios considered. • The present value of the cost of replacing exported energy far exceeds tax revenue. • Projects cannot be approved based only on immediate benefits. • The potential opportunity costs of projects must be considered

  12. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  13. Job preferences of nurses and midwives for taking up a rural job in Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huicho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Robust evidence on interventions to improve the shortage of health workers in rural areas is needed. We assessed stated factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru. Job attributes, and their levels, were based on literature review, qualitative interviews and focus groups of local health personnel and policy makers. A labelled design with two choices, rural community or Ayacucho city, was used. Job attributes were tailored to these settings. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of job preferences. Then we used the best-fitting estimated model to predict the impact of potential policy incentives on the probability of choosing a rural job or a job in Ayacucho city. We studied 205 nurses and midwives. The odds of choosing an urban post was 14.74 times than that of choosing a rural one. Salary increase, health center-type of facility and scholarship for specialization were preferred attributes for choosing a rural job. Increased number of years before securing a permanent contract acted as a disincentive for both rural and urban jobs. Policy simulations showed that the most effective attraction package to uptake a rural job included a 75% increase in salary plus scholarship for a specialization, which would increase the proportion of health workers taking a rural job from 36.4% up to 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban jobs were more strongly preferred than rural ones. However, combined financial and non-financial incentives could almost double rural job uptake by nurses and midwifes. These packages may provide meaningful attraction strategies to rural areas and should be considered by policy makers for implementation.

  14. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, M.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Meriwether, J.W. Jr. (Air Force Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)); Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Hallenbeck, D.C. (NASA Laser Tracking Station, Arequipa (Peru))

    1991-09-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over {approximately} 2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. The measured seasonal variations in the wind patterns are more pronounced than the solar cycle variations and are more readily understandable in terms of the expected, underlying forcing and damping processes. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak ({le} 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990). The zonal flows are predominantly eastward throughout the night, except for the solar minimum equinoxes, where brief westward flows appear in the early and the late night. The peak eastward velocities increase toward solar maximum; at the winter solstice, they are {approximately} 100-130 m/s in 1983, 1984 and 1986, reaching {approximately} 200 m/s in 1988, 1989 and 1990. The present equatorial thermospheric wind determinations agree in some respects with the satellite-data-based horizontal wind model IIWM-87 and the vector spherical harmonic form of the thermospheric general circulation model.

  15. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼ 2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. The measured seasonal variations in the wind patterns are more pronounced than the solar cycle variations and are more readily understandable in terms of the expected, underlying forcing and damping processes. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak (≤ 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990). The zonal flows are predominantly eastward throughout the night, except for the solar minimum equinoxes, where brief westward flows appear in the early and the late night. The peak eastward velocities increase toward solar maximum; at the winter solstice, they are ∼ 100-130 m/s in 1983, 1984 and 1986, reaching ∼ 200 m/s in 1988, 1989 and 1990. The present equatorial thermospheric wind determinations agree in some respects with the satellite-data-based horizontal wind model IIWM-87 and the vector spherical harmonic form of the thermospheric general circulation model

  16. Individual, family, and community risk markers for domestic violence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flake, Dallan F

    2005-03-01

    This study draws on an ecological framework in testing relationships between individual, family, and community characteristics and the likelihood of women experiencing domestic violence in Peru. The sample of 15,991 women was taken from the 2000 Peru Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models revealed that at the individual level, low educational attainment, early union formation, and a violent family background increase a woman's likelihood of abuse. Family-level risk markers include cohabitation, large family size, partner alcohol consumption, employment, and a woman's having higher status than her husband. At the community level, living in a noncoastal area and having an urban residence increase the likelihood of abuse. PMID:16043554

  17. Giant Otter Project in Peru Field Trip and Activity Report - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis was uplisted from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered' by IUCN in 2000; habitat destruction in South America currently poses the greatest threat to the species. In 1990, the project 'Status, habitat, behaviour and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru' was initiated by the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS in order to increase knowledge and national awareness of these unique animals and to develop a comprehensive plan for their conservation in Peru. The progress of the Project has been described continually in the IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin.

  18. Radiometric dating of the extinction of the large Pleistocene fauna in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery in northern Peru of fossil deposits belonging to large mammals allows the dating of the extinction of this fauna. The method based on disequilibrium within the uranium family (230Th/234U) was used. The extinction occurred at the end of the Pleistocene and is contemporaneous with the beginning of the deglaciation. Moreover, this dating, compared with results of excavations of palaeo-indian ''Paijan'' sites, indicates that human groups in Peru did not play a significant role in extinction of this large fauna. (authors). 26 refs., 1 tab

  19. Newly incriminated anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Calderon, G; Falcon, R; Zambrano, V

    1987-09-01

    Sporozoite data from salivary gland dissections are presented that clearly incriminate Anopheles trinkae, An. pseudopunctipennis, An. sp. near fluminensis, An. oswaldoi, An. nuneztovari and An. rangeli as vectors of malaria parasites in the Rio Ene Valley, a hyperendemic malarious area in Junin Department, eastern Peru. Anopheles trinkae is considered the most important vector based on dissections, abundance and man-vector contact. Other notes are presented on the relative abundance, bionomics and previous records of these species in Peru and in the study sites. PMID:3333060

  20. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  1. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  2. Possible future lakes in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Torres, Judith; Giraldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Santiago, Alexzander; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has caused large losses of glacier mass in the Andes of Peru. Also, given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier-climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. According to the national Peruvian glacier inventories 43% of glacier area has disappeared between 1970 and 2003-2010 in the 19 snowy mountain ranges and a total of 8 355 new lakes have formed in deglaciating terrain. With glacier retreat new lakes form in parts of the glacier tongue where there is an overdeepening, and these lakes can be a source of natural hazards to downstrean populations. Therefore, the identification of possible future lakes is important to plan for preventive measures concerning possible lake outbursts as well as to understand changes in freshwater storage in the corresponding source areas. Modeling of glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes forming in such topographic depressions when becoming ice-free was done using the SRTM DEM from the year 2000 with a 90 m resolution and the 2003-2010 glacier outlines from the recently published national glacier inventory of Perú. The GIS-based analysis followed three main steps: (1) identification of flat glacier areas with less than 10° surface slope as a first-order spatial approximation to possible occurrences of glacier-bed overdeepenings; (2) application, using Google Earth, of three morphological indications of glacier-bed overdeepenings following Frey et al. (2010): steepening surface slope, onset of crevasse formation, lateral flow-narrowing; and (3) verification of the results from steps (1) and (2) by comparison with GlabTop modeling of bed topographies following Linsbauer et al. (2012) using the SRTM DEM, contour lines and constructed branch lines for all glaciers. A pilot study has already been carried out for the Cordillera Blanca. The results show that 31 major new lakes may form in the future. The total

  3. Diet, residential origin, and pathology at Machu Picchu, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bethany L; Armelagos, George J

    2012-09-01

    Pathological conditions in human skeletal remains provide a wealth of information about archaeological populations, but many are limited in their interpretive significance by their nonspecific etiologies. This study analyzes three common pathological conditions known to manifest in infancy and childhood in the skeletal population from Machu Picchu, Peru (N = 74) with published carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic data (Turner et al.: J Archaeol Sci 36 (2009) 317-332; Turner et al.: Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena 42 (2010) 515-524) to distinguish early-life diet from residential origins as significantly associated with pathologies among the site's inhabitants. Analyses of variance indicate highly significant variation between enamel δ(18)O values, which serve as a rough proxy of local environment, and both cribra orbitalia (CO) and porotic hyperostosis (PH), generally understood to be markers of anemia. Results tentatively suggest that individuals manifesting these lesions may have lived closer to the arid coasts; however, no significant variation was found in parameters of diet (enamel δ(13) C(carbonate), dentin δ(13) C(collagen), dentin δ(15)N) by either CO or PH, suggesting that the primary factors causing anemia may have been more significantly related to residential origin rather than diet. Linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) frequency significantly varied by both dietary and residential parameters, supporting models of LEH formation from a synergy of dietary and environmental factors. These results support previous research on the etiology of PH in the Andes; they also represent a useful approach to refining site-specific interpretations of pathological conditions in archaeological populations, and exploring etiological variation between populations. PMID:22639369

  4. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  5. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs-134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  6. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony

    2010-05-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  7. Modeling energy and mass balance of Shallap Glacier, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurgiser

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the distributed surface mass and energy balance of Shallap Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9° S, 77° W, 4700–5700 m a.s.l., ∼ 7 km2 on hourly time steps for two years (September 2006–August 2008 using a process-based model and meteorological measurements as input. Model parameter combinations were optimized against 21 temporal readings of 20 stakes in the ablation zone of the glacier. Uncertainty caused by model input parameters and parameterization schemes was estimated using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme and yields values of root mean square deviation (RMSD of surface height change < 1m (< 10% of the measured amplitude for all stakes. With the best parameter combination (smallest RMSD applied, the modeled annual surface mass balance of the glacier was −0.32 ± 0.4 m w.e. for September 2006–August 2007 and 0.51 ± 0.56 m w.e. for September 2007–August 2008. While the mass balance above 5000 m was similar in both years (Δ 0.35 ± 0.68 m w.e. due to similar annual sums of solid precipitation, a difference of ∼ 2 ± 0.68 m w.e. was calculated for the lower parts of the glacier. This difference is associated with more frequent occurrence of higher snow line altitudes during the first year, which was mainly caused by a higher fraction of liquid precipitation due to higher mean air temperatures. As the net shortwave budget was found to be the main source for ablation throughout the year at Shallap Glacier, lower surface albedo caused by higher snow line altitudes explains most of the difference in modeled ablation and mass balance between the two years.

  8. Common mental disorders in public transportation drivers in Lima, Peru.

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    Paulo Ruiz-Grosso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD. A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05. The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%, 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8% and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4% respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC: 7.8%. CONCLUSION: Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.

  9. Hypotheses about geoglyphs at Nasca, Peru: new discoveries

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    Jaroslav Klokočník

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known hypotheses about the reasons why the geoglyphs in the Nasca and Palpa region of Peru were created are many: roads/paths, rituals/ceremonials, use of hallucinogens, astronomical meaning, influence of extraterrestrials, underground water… and so on. We present a new hypothesis, formulated by J. Sonnek (first published in 2011 in the context of all previous hypotheses.1 Sonnek explains the geoglyphs as tidied work areas for the production of rope and nets, although he goes much further than Stierlin. This eccentric hypothesis now has not only experimental but also archaeological and ethnographical support, which is presented here. Geoglyphs of a special shape were discovered in the pampas; they may represent technical objects – different types of ‘rope twisters’. Following this idea, Sonnek made technical devices (using today’s materials and tested them in practice; they work perfectly, see his YouTube videos.2 In November 2012, wooden pieces, which may be the remnants of ropemaking, were collected from the pampa near the towns of Nasca and Palpa, in vicinity of these hypothetic ropemaking places. Radiocarbon testing by 14C standardized radio-carbon age according to Stuiver-Polach convention and Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS of these wood pieces shows the age to be in a wide range from Early Nasca to the 17th century (and to our epoch with a fake geoglyph, too, thus supporting (but surely not proving the new hypothesis. Moreover, in the Quechua language, the word huasca, waskha (read: uasca means a rope or cord or place where these are produced. This word is very similar to ‘nasca’.

  10. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  11. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario M Bartolini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

  12. Modeling energy and mass balance of Shallap Glacier, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurgiser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the distributed surface mass and energy balance of Shallap Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru (9° S, 77° W, 4700–5700 m a.s.l., ~ 7 km2, on hourly time steps for two years (September 2006–August 2008 using a process-based model and meteorological measurements as input. Model parameter combinations were optimized against 21 temporal readings of 20 stakes in the ablation zone of the glacier. Uncertainty caused by model input parameters and parameterization schemes was estimated using a leave-one out cross-validation scheme, which yields values of root mean square deviation (RMSD of surface height change < 1 m (< 10% of the measured amplitude for all stakes. With the best parameter combination (smallest RMSD applied, the modeled annual surface mass balance of the glacier was −0.32 ± 0.4 m w.e. (water equivalent for September 2006–August 2007 and 0.51 ± 0.56 m w.e. for September 2007–August 2008. While the mass balance above 5000 m was similar in both years (Δ 0.33 ± 0.68 m w.e. due to similar annual sums of solid precipitation, a difference of 1.97 ± 0.68 m w.e. was calculated for the lower parts of the glacier. This difference is associated with more frequent occurrence of higher snow line altitudes during the first year, which was mainly caused by a higher fraction of liquid precipitation due to higher mean air temperatures. As the net shortwave budget was found to be the main source for ablation throughout the year at Shallap Glacier, lower surface albedo especially caused by lower solid precipitation amounts explains most of the difference in modeled ablation and mass balance between the two years.

  13. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru Perfil de los adolescentes varones sexualmente activos en colegios secundarios de Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús L. Chirinos; Victor C. Salazar; Brindis, Claire D.

    2000-01-01

    To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was l...

  14. Isotope hydrology to optimize the management of water resources in northern Peru: The Alto Piura aquifer - Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period January 2001-December 2004, a study of the more productive areas of the Alto Piura aquifer, NW Peru, was carried out as part of the IAEA's regional project RLA8/0/31. The final objective of the project was to establish a numerical model of the aquifer that can be used for a sustainable management of water resources. The study was conducted by the University of Piura. Based on regional geology and hydrogeological information, isotope and hydrochemical techniques were applied to obtain a preliminary conceptual model of the aquifer, and set the premises to achieve the objectives of the study. The studies showed that the Alto Piura aquifer is an heterogeneous system, consisting of alluvial and fluvial sediments, constituting a semi-confined aquifer. A significant lateral recharge from the heavily weathered and fractured igneous metamorphic massifs was identified at the NE sector of the study area. The alluvial fans in the NE region represent a transition area from the tributaries of the Piura river to the local aquifers. The hydraulic connection between surface and groundwater is not evident in the SW area. In this area, groundwater is of the type sodiumchloride and sodium-sulphate, with electrical conductivity values higher than 1000 μS·cm-1. In the NE area, waters are of the type calcium to sodium bicarbonate, with electrical conductivity values lower than 1000 μS·cm-, derived from weathered rocks in the neighbouring massifs. A large isotope variability was observed in samples from precipitation, rivers and aquifers, and could not easily be explained as consequence of the altitude effect. As alternative, the analysis of the isotope contents of springs is proposed. (author)

  15. Rural-to-urban migration and risk of hypertension: Longitudinal results of the PERU MIGRANT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan F.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Gilman, Robert H; Poterico, Julio A.; Quispe, Renato; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a hazardous process because it affects health population due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. This study aimed to determine the effect of migration on the incidence of hypertension. Participants of the PERU MIGRANT study, i.e. rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants were re-evaluated after five years from baseline. The outcome was incidence of hypertension; and the exposures were study group and other well-known risk factors. Incidence rates, relative risks (RR), and population attributable fractions were calculated. At baseline, 201 (20.4%), 589 (59.5%), and 199 (20.1%) were rural, rural-to-urban migrant and urban subjects, respectively. Overall mean age was 47.9 (SD±12.0) years, and 522 (52.9%) were females. Hypertension prevalence at baseline was 16.0% (95% CI 13.7%–18.3%), being more common in urban group; whereas pre-hypertension was more prevalent in rural participants (pyears was 94%, 895 participants were re-assessed and 33 (3.3%) deaths were recorded. Overall incidence of hypertension was 1.73 (95%CI 1.36–2.20) per 100 person-years. In multivariable model and compared to the urban group, rural group had a greater risk of developing hypertension (RR=3.58; 95%CI 1.42–9.06). Population attributable fractions showed high waist circumference as the leading risk factor for the hypertension development in rural (19.1%), migrant (27.9%), and urban (45.8%) participants. Subjects from rural settings are at higher risk to develop hypertension relative to rural-urban migrant or urban groups. Central obesity was the leading risk factor for hypertension incidence in the three population groups. PMID:26865219

  16. Comparative study of oestrous cycles and ovulation characteristics of cattle kept at different altitudes in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progesterone (P4) profiles were used to characterize certain aspects of the oestrous cycle in dairy Holstein (H) heifers bred under a typical intensive management system in the central coast area of Peru (12 deg. 05' S, 76 deg. 57' W) and in Brown Swiss (BS) and Simmental (SIM) dual purpose heifers reared under extensive management conditions in the central highlands (14 deg. 07' S, 70 deg. 43' W, 4250 m elevation). In the coastal experiment a group of eight H heifers were evaluated during their normal oestrous cycles, and a similar group after synchronization with norgestomet and oestradiol valerate. Serum concentrations of P4 were measured throughout the oestrous cycles by RIA in daily samples obtained from the jugular vein. The occurrence of ovulation at 30 h after the onset of standing oestrus was determined by laparoscopy or by rectal palpation. Oestrus detection was performed by visual observation of anatomical changes and homosexual behaviour. In the trial carried out in the highlands, eight naturally cycling BS and seven SIM, as well as eight PGF2α synchronized BS and four SIM, were studied. Parameters similar to those mentioned for the coastal experiment were evaluated in this trial. The evaluations of the PGF2α synchronized heifers were performed from the commencement of treatment to the end of the first oestrous cycle. The profiles of serum P4 during natural oestrous cycles of H heifers on the coast and BS and SIM in the highlands were similar to those already defined for cattle in other environments. The PGF2α treated BS and SIM heifers showed more rapid luteolysis than control heifers; as a consequence, the overall P4 profiles in synchronized and natural oestruses were different. However, ovulations occurred about 30 h after the onset of standing oestrus in both naturally cycling and synchronized heifers in both environments. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Social dimensions of vulnerability to glacier-hydrology hazards in Peru and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Graham; Carey, Mark; Huggel, Christian; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2014-05-01

    Snow and ice hazards affect populations worldwide, and prevention and adaptation plans must devote more attention to the human dimensions of these hazards. Historically, most research on glacier hazards has emphasized glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and rock-ice landslides. This work often focuses on technical approaches or scientific knowledge about these high-magnitude and low-frequency hazards. This study examines a different type of cryospheric hazard, one that is low-magnitude and high-frequency, especially under future climate change projections: the increasingly recognized hydrologic hazards related to runoff variability in downstream communities below shrinking glaciers. By focusing on actual water users in glacier-fed watersheds, the research helps illuminate key vulnerabilities to hydrological change. It demonstrates that people are indeed vulnerable to decreased runoff, but that these vulnerabilities must be analyzed in the context of global change, including socio-economic and political variables, and not just through technical or scientific approaches. The study examines water use for export-oriented agriculture in Peru's billion-dollar Chavimochic Project, which depends on a single canal from the Santa River that could be damaged by a GLOF or avalanche. Or the canal could experience declining water supplies in the future if water use increases, particularly due to international agricultural demands, while water supplies from glacial ice decreases. The study also provides insights from Khumbu, Nepal, where changing hydrological conditions are leading to reduced water access for household uses, declining crop yields, reduced water access for meeting the high water demands of tourists, and reduced hydro-electricity generation capabilities. Although these effects are widespread, there are clear patterns of socially determined vulnerability among the population, with low livelihood diversity an important indicator of increased susceptibility to harm

  18. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than

  19. Climate Change and Mountain Community Fire Management in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, J.; Medler, M.; Cole, R. J.; Arques, S.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the central Andes of Peru, climate change is altering fire risk through changes in local meteorology and fuel loading. Greater moisture and favorable growing conditions are increasing vegetative productivity, which in turn increases fuel loads. This process is accentuated during El Nino events and potentially results in increased fire occurrence and frequency during relatively dry La Nina events. Park officials are concerned about the ramification of the changes on local ecology and tourist use of the resources. However, using a time-series of two different products from the MODIS Terra and Aqua platforms (Active Fire and Burned Area), TRMM 3B43 precipitation data, and Multivariate ENSO Index data we document fire occurrence and extent from 2000 to 2010 and our analysis indicates that fires are burning exclusively during winter months when there are no natural ignition sources. Globally, fire is used in conjunction with grazing to improve the regeneration and yield of grasses. During our interviews, locals claimed to only set fires in the buffer zone outside of the park, but our analysis indicates that the buffer zone rarely burns and that most fires begin within the park and only occasionally move into the buffer zones. Additionally, we determined that although this is small-scale fire activity every year, overall fire is having a very minor effect on local systems. The park service must develop programs to work with local grazing stakeholders to better limit the impacts of fire, while also address the negative perceptions from tourists in the future. In this instance, fire perception and fire reality are not the same and the challenge for resource managers is how to reconcile these two factors in order to more effectively manage the parklands.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  1. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable. PMID:17298515

  2. First records of Hysterothylacium pelagicum (Anisakidae and Toxocara alienata (Toxocaridae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ascaridoid nematodes are recorded by Peru: Hysterothylacium pelagicum parasitizing to common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus from a market of Lima and Toxocara alienata in a collared peccary (Pecari tajacu from Iquitos. Likewise, it is made a morphological description of the nematodes.

  3. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  4. Geomorphologic impacts of the glacial lake outburst flood from Lake No. 513 (Peru)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Klimeš, Jan; Emmer, A.; Benešová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2015), s. 5233-5244. ISSN 1866-6280 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : GLOF * debris flow * natural hazard * deglaciation * Cordillera Blanca * Peru Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2014

  5. Rickettsia bellii in ticks Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, from birds in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Čapek, Miroslav; Labruna, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 254-256. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia bellii * ticks * Amblyomma calcaratum * birds * Peru Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  6. Glacial lake outburst floods in the area of Huarás, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Zapata, M. L.; Klimeš, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2005), s. 115-124. ISSN 0081-6434 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LA 157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : GLOFs * Cordillera Blanca * Peru Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  8. Biodiversity Business fron India to Peru; Insights into successes and chellenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Verweij, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development recently released the report 'Biodiversity Business from India to Peru'. The study, commissioned by Hivos, provides new insights in the impacts and success factors of the upcoming concept of biodiversity-friendly enterprise across the globe. By mea

  9. Cultural Artefact, Ideology Export or Soft Power? Confucius Institute in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of the transnational interplay of cultural, educational and economic forces that culminated with the establishment of a Chinese language and cultural centre in Peru, the Confucius Institute. Confucius Institutes are government-sponsored cultural centres devoted mainly to Chinese language education around the…

  10. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  11. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  12. Molecular epidemiology of American/Asian genotype DENV-2 in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D; Forshey, Brett M; Juarez, Diana S; Guevara, Carolina; Leguia, Mariana; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-08-01

    During the past decade, countries in South America have reported dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) associated with American/Asian genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). DENV-2 strains have been associated with large outbreaks of dengue fever and DHF in numerous regions of Peru since the mid-1990s, but studies to address the origins, distribution, and genetic diversity of DENV-2 strains have been limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the envelope gene region of DENV-2 isolates from Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Sequences were aligned and compared to a global sample of DENV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the circulation of two DENV-2 genotypes in Peru: American (prior to 2001) and American/Asian (2000 to present). American/Asian genotype variants can be classified into two lineages, and these were introduced into Peru from the north (Ecuador, Colombia, and/or Venezuela) and the east (Brazil and Bolivia). American/Asian lineage II replaced lineage I after 2009. We estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for American/Asian DENV-2 genotype in the Americas was in 1980, and 1984 and 1989 for lineages I and II, respectively. In light of evidence for increased virulence of lineage II of American/Asian DENV-2, our results support the need for continuous monitoring for the emergence of new DENV genotypes that may be associated with severe disease. PMID:23648427

  13. Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

  14. Estimating Population Density of the San Martin Titi Monkey (Callicebus oenanthe) in Peru Using Vocalisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, Silvy M; García-Suikkanen, Carolina; Tello-Alvarado, Julio C; Vermeer, Jan; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    We calculated the population density of the critically endangered Callicebus oenanthe in the Ojos de Agua Conservation Concession, a dry forest area in the department of San Martin, Peru. Results showed significant differences (p Ojos de Agua an important cornerstone in the conservation of the species, because it is one of the largest protected areas where the species occurs. PMID:26824671

  15. Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2011-01-01

    Review of Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates. Robert S. Voss and David W. Fleck. 2011. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 351. Pp.81, 3 figures, 25 tables. Free at AMNH Digital Library ISSN 0003‐0090.

  16. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  17. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  18. Species composition and phytosociology of xerophytic plant communities after extreme rainfall in South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Sykora, K.V.; Quipuscoa-Silvestre, Victor; Cleef, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province
    of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted
    exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We

  19. Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Adrián; Castillo, Paul; Vega, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the reserve requirement measures undertaken by the Central Bank of Peru. It provides a rationale for the use of these instruments as well as empirical evidence of their effectiveness. In general, the results show that tightening reserve requirements has the desired effects on interest rates and credit levels at both banks and smaller financial institutions (cajas municipales).

  20. Socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over th

  1. Travel to Peru with the Wiss Center for Theory and History of Art and Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2007-01-01

    The Henry H. Wiss Center for Theory and History of Art and Architecture, a center of the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech, presents "The Majesty and Mystery of Peru," an annual summer trip to a destination rich in both ancient and contemporary culture from July 31-Aug. 13, 2008.

  2. Sustaining innovations: schools, institutions and linkages in the Cuzco region, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez Tafur, J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is about linkages between the different institutions operating in the rural areas and the contributions these linkages provide. Numerous activities are found taking place in the rural areas of Peru. Many are the result of a specific intervention, designed and implemented towards the impr

  3. First record of Lophodinium polylophum (Daday Lemmermann 1910 (Dinophyceae: Lophodiniaceae in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Samanez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the first record of Lophodinium polylophum from Peru is presented. This fresh water dinoflagellate was identified in plankton samples from the lagoon Picoplancha of Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath (Madre de Dios and from a stream in the Puinahua River basin in Loreto.

  4. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  5. 77 FR 33624 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological and Ethnological Materials From Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Peru covered by these import restrictions is set forth in T.D. 97- 50, see 62 FR 31713 dated June 11... United States Customs Service published T.D. 97-50 in the Federal Register (62 FR 31713), which amended..., 2002, the former United States Customs Service published T.D. 02-30 in the Federal Register (67...

  6. Pre-Incan Archeology of Peru: Paleo-Indians in the Paleo-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    2011-01-01

    Peru's prehistory, climate, and terrain are the landscape upon which one of humankind's longest migrations occurred. When the glacial period ended, a geographic and cultural transition began when the meltwaters carved river valleys across the South American continent. Culture-rich communities of fishers, miners, artisans, and morticians populated…

  7. Constructing New Identities? The Role of Gender and Education in Rural Girls' Life Aspirations in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on rural and indigenous girls and their mothers in Peru, examining how they position schooling and education in their current life and future aspirations, in order to better understand girls' increasing participation in education. It is argued here that the high educational aspirations girls and their families have are not only…

  8. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used for...

  9. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  10. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  11. SIGHTING THE HOUSE SPARROW PASSER DOMESTICUS IN LOBOS DE AFUERA ISLANDS, NORTH COAST OF PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Stucchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 10, 2012, we observed a specimen of house sparrow Passer domesticus in Lobos de Afuera islands. This is the more oceanic record of the species within its geographic range in Peru and the first in these islands, which rises to 34 the number of species reported for it.

  12. Glacier-related landforms and glacial lakes in Huascarán National Park, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Klimeš, Jan; Červená, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2016), s. 193-202. ISSN 1744-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moraines * rock glaciers * glacial lakes * Cordillera Blanca * Huascarán National Park * Peru Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2014

  13. Disease awareness and knowledge in caregivers of children who had surgery for cystic hydatid disease in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Guevara, Carlos; Garcia, Héctor H

    2010-12-01

    Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a common cause of lung and liver disease worldwide. Despite Peru being highly endemic, information about the level of knowledge is scarce and poor. A telephone survey was applied to assess the knowledge in the caregivers of patients treated for CHD at a paediatric hospital at Lima, Peru. Of the 26 contacted families, only 5 (20%) answered correctly all seven questions. A higher education degree was associated with correct answers (P = 0.002). Most respondents (17, 65%) incorrectly identified the etiologic agent and mode of transmission. Lact of knowledge is likely a major contributor to maintain the endemicity of disease in Peru. PMID:21188767

  14. Installation and operation of a large scale RAPS system in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    In 1997, International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc. (ILZRO), Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Peru signed a Memorandum of Understanding to facilitate the installation of hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) systems in the Amazon region of Peru. Many remote villages in this vast region have either no or limited electricity supplied by diesel generators running a few hours per day. Subsequently, ILZRO sponsored the engineering design of the hybrid RAPS system and SEIA supported a socio-economic study to determine the sustainability of such systems and the locations for pilot installations. In mid-1998, the Peruvian government approved the design of the system. ILZRO then began efforts to obtain governmental and inter-governmental funding to supplement its own funds to underwrite the cost of manufacture and installation of the systems in two villages in the Amazon region. Additional major funding has been received from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) administered by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). Funds have also been received from the US Department of Energy, the International Greenhouse Partnership (Australia) and the Peruvian government. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kW h per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA GEL batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an ac/dc inverter. The batteries and electrical components are housed in modified shipping containers. The modules can be installed with a new generator or retrofitted to an existing generator. The charging and discharging regime of the batteries has been recommended by a study carried out by CSIRO, which has simulated the RAPS operation. The system will employ a partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) regime in order to optimize the life of the

  15. Landslides triggered by the 1946 Ancash earthquake, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampherm, T. S.; Evans, S. G.; Valderrama Murillo, P.

    2009-04-01

    The 1946 M7.3 Ancash Earthquake triggered a large number of landslides in an epicentral area that straddled the Continental Divide of South America in the Andes of Peru. A small number of landslides were described in reconnaissance reports by E. Silgado and Arnold Heim published shortly after the earthquake, but further details of the landslides triggered by the earthquake have not been reported since. Utilising field traverses, aerial photograph interpretation and GIS, our study mapped 45 landslides inferred to have been triggered by the event. 83% were rock avalanches involving Cretaceous limestones interbedded with shales. The five largest rock/debris avalanches occurred at Rio Llama (est. vol. 37 M m3), Suytucocha (est. vol., 13.5 Mm3), Quiches (est. vol. 10.5 Mm3 ), Pelagatos (est. vol. 8 Mm3), and Shundoy (est. vol. 8 Mm3). The Suytucocha, Quiches, and Pelagatos landslides were reported by Silgado and Heim. Rock slope failure was most common on slopes with a southwest aspect, an orientation corresponding to the regional dip direction of major planar structures in the Andean foreland belt (bedding planes and thrust faults). In valleys oriented transverse to the NW-SE structural grain of the epicentral area, south-westerly dipping bedding planes combined with orthogonal joint sets to form numerous wedge failures. Many initial rock slope failures were transformed into rock/debris avalanches by the entrainment of colluvium in their path. At Acobamba, a rock avalanche that transformed into a debris avalanche (est. vol. 4.3 Mm3) overwhelmed a village resulting in the deaths of 217 people. The cumulative volume-frequency plot shows a strong power law relation below a marked rollover, similar in form to that derived for landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. The total volume of the 45 landslides is approximately 93 Mm3. The data point for the Ancash Earthquake plots near the regression line calculated by Keefer (1994), and modified by Malamud et al

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF AMAZONIAN ORNAMENTAL FISH FROM PERU WITH HIGHER DEMAND OF EXPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current status of Amazonian ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand of exportation was analyzed. The ornamental freshwater fishes from Peru with higher demand are Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 (Osteoglossidae, followed by ray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 (Potamotrygonidae. Main ornamental and continental fish family that exports is Loriicaridae (Siluriformes. The vast continental and ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand are climate tropical and clear waters with pH de 6.5 a 7.5. Four species (Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963, Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988, Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner, 1881 and Corydoras julii Steindachner, 1906 that exists are not reported on check-list of continental fishes from Peru performed by Ortega & Vari (1986 and, Chang & Ortega (1995. C. julii, is the unique fish not found in the ornamental fish list from Peru performed by “Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonia Peruana” (IIAP and “Comisión para la Promoción de Exportaciones” (PROMPEX. O. bicirrhosum, P. motoro, Corydoras arcuatus Elwin 1938 and C. julii are fish with more data obtained. Fish with less data obtained was Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski, 1981. Main problematic observed on ornamental continental Peruvian fish since an ecological point of view, are pollution of fish environment, mainly by heavy metals, alteration on great scale from habitat, where lives and surroundings, and also, introduction alien species. The main problem that suffer commercialization of ornamental fish as in other species, is regulation and foment by part of authority respect to bio-business initiatives bio-business; generating confusion between user and lack of motivation legalities of these bionegocio.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Variation of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Zamudio, Maria L.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a foodborne pathogen that has become a public health concern at the global scale. The epidemiological significance of V. parahaemolyticus infections in Latin America received little attention until the winter of 1997 when cases related to the pandemic clone were detected in the region, changing the epidemic dynamics of this pathogen in Peru. With the aim to assess the impact of the arrival of the pandemic clone on local populations of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Peru, we investigated the population genetics and genomic variation in a complete collection of non-pandemic strains recovered from clinical sources in Peru during the pre- and post-emergence periods of the pandemic clone. A total of 56 clinical strains isolated in Peru during the period 1994 to 2007, 13 strains from Chile and 20 strains from Asia were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and checked for the presence of Variable Genomic Regions (VGRs). The emergence of O3:K6 cases in Peru implied a drastic disruption of the seasonal dynamics of infections and a shift in the serotype dominance of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. After the arrival of the pandemic clone, a great diversity of serovars not previously reported was detected in the country, which supports the introduction of additional populations cohabitating with the pandemic group. Moreover, the presence of genomic regions characteristic of the pandemic clone in other non-pandemic strains may represent early evidence of genetic transfer from the introduced population to the local communities. Finally, the results of this study stress the importance of population admixture, horizontal genetic transfer and homologous recombination as major events shaping the structure and diversity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23696906

  18. SIGNIFICATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS GENERATED BY THE IRRIGATION DITCHES COIS, PULEN AND YORTUQUE OF CHICLAYO'S CITY PERU: PROPOSAL OF A MITIGATION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies near urban areas can suffer a steady deterioration by anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. The present research aims to identify and assess the impacts generated by the irrigation ditches Cois, Pulen and Yortuque of Chiclayo's city, Lambayeque, Peru in which were established 12 sampling stations during the months of January to August 2009. The water quality of the irrigation ditches was determined by the standard methods of the APHA-AWWAWPCF. Air quality was assessed by olfactory perception and landscape by the method of representative subjectivity. The qualitative evaluation of the impacts used the matrix type of Leopold and for the quantitative the method of Fisher-Davis. Based upon the impact levels a proposal of a mitigation plan was generated. It was concluded: 1 The water of the irrigation ditches at present concentrations of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, total and thermotolerant 5,20 coliforms, metals such as lead, cadmium, 5.20 higher than the MPL(Maximum permitted level set by the DS-MINAM 002-2008-Peru, is not suitable for crop irrigation, recreational use or as drinking water for animals; 2The negative environmental impacts of the irrigation ditches on the atmosphere of Chiclayo's city, were valued as significant, very significant and severe; 3 Activities such as dumping domestic waste water, washing of vehicles and the accumulation of solid waste affect the water quality of the irrigation ditches, air quality and the urban landscape.

  19. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than

  20. Determination of the TLD-100 physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was realized in the Physics service at the Radiotherapy Department of the National Institute of Neoplasic Diseases in Lima, Peru, it was determined the activation energy, the kinetic order and the frequency factor of the fifth peak of the TLD-100 thermoluminescent spectra using different algorithms. This was carried out in parallel with the implementation and design of a software and an interface associated with the Tl lecturer which allows a semiautomatic control for a thermoluminescent lecturer process. (Author)

  1. Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru, 01 February 1985 to 05 March 1985 (NODC Accession 9200026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NITROP - 85 was the major field of experiment of an N.S.F. funded program entitled "Microbial Nitrogen Transformations in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru". this...

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Peru. August - October 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Peru believes that the Speculative Resources of that country fall between 6,000 and 11,000 tonnes uranium. There has been no uranium production in Peru and there are no official estimates of uranium resources. Past exploration in Peru (dating from about 1952) has indicated a paucity of valid uranium occurrences and radioactive anomalies. Only recently (1980) have anomalous areas been identified, (Macusani-Picotani). The identified Speculative Resources are mainly in Late Tertiary ignimbrites and associated sediments in the high Andes of southern Peru. Geologically, there are direct parallels between these resources and deposits of the Los Frailes areas of neighbouring Bolivia. Other minor Speculative Resources may be present in calcretes developed from Tertiary volcanogenic sources over the Precambrian in the Pacific Coastal desert of southern Peru but no positive indications have been recognised. Hercynian sub-volcanic granites in the eastern cordillera of southern Peru may have some associated Speculative Resources both intra and extra granitic. No Speculative Potential could be identified in Permo-Triassic or Tertiary post tectonic continental sediments anywhere in Peru. Such potential may exist but further reconnaissance of the continental late Tertiary basins, with positive indications would be required before inclusion of potential in this category. Recent discoveries in the volcanogenic environment of southern Peru have been by carborne, helicopter borne and on on-foot reconnaissance of isolated areas. It is recommended that there be a more systematic, integrated study of the entire volcanic district assisted by volcanic petrographic examination. Assessment of the known occurrences requires immediate subsurface study by drilling and exploration audits to assess their continuity, grade variation and thickness. This phase will be significantly more expensive than previous exploration. Non-core drilling should supplement

  3. Communication of 15 May 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of Peru to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received the attached note verbale of 15 May 1995 from the Permanent Mission of Peru transmitting comments on statements made by the Director of the Atomic Energy Commission of the Republic of Ecuador, concerning possible diversion of Peruvian nuclear technology for non-peaceful purposes. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Peru, the text of the note verbale is circulated to the Member States

  4. The Power of Primary Schools to Change and Sustain Handwashing with Soap among Children : The Cases of Vietnam and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Pennelope; Peschiera, Rocio Florez; Nguyen, Nga Kim

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam and Peru are two of four countries taking part in the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Global Scaling up Handwashing Project. Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project aims to expand handwashing practices among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and primary school-aged children (5 to 12 in Peru; 6 to 10 in Vietnam) The project...

  5. Job Preferences of Nurses and Midwives for Taking Up a Rural Job in Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Huicho; J Jaime Miranda; Francisco Diez-Canseco; Claudia Lema; Lescano, Andrés G.; Mylene Lagarde; Duane Blaauw

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Robust evidence on interventions to improve the shortage of health workers in rural areas is needed. We assessed stated factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru. Job attributes, and their levels, were based on liter...

  6. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Julio A. Poterico

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peru...

  7. PENTUR – Plan Estratégico Nacional de Turismo - The role of Strategic Tourism Plan in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Yli-Hakala, Essi

    2010-01-01

    The whole tourism industry relies greatly on careful planning and different strategies that should be constantly measured and developed. The tourism sector of Peru has shown a steady growth during the past years. The historical and natural sites more or less form the basis for incoming tourism in Peru and it is essential to have a tourism plan that also ensures the protection of these sites as well as develops the tourism products and services in destinations. The most recent attempt to ...

  8. Present and future water resources supply and demand in the Central Andes of Peru: a comprehensive review with focus on the Cordillera Vilcanota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Giráldez, Claudia; Suarez, Wilson; Rohrer, Mario; Molina, Edwin; Montoya, Nilton; Miñan, Fiorella

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers have been an important element of Andean societies and livelihoods as direct freshwater supply for agriculture irrigation, hydropower generation and mining activities. Peru's mainly remotely living population in the Central Andes has to cope with a strong seasonal variation of precipitations and river runoff interannually superimposed by El Niño impacts. Direct glacier and lake water discharge thus constitute a vital continuous water supply and represent a regulating buffer as far as hydrological variability is concerned. This crucial buffer effect is gradually altered by accelerated glacier retreat which leads most likely to an increase of annual river runoff variability. Furthermore, a near-future crossing of the 'peak water' is expected, from where on prior enhanced streamflow decreases and levels out towards a new still unknown minimum discharge. Consequently, a sustainable future water supply especially during low-level runoff dry season might not be guaranteed whereas Peru's water demand increases significantly. Here we present a comprehensive review, the current conditions and perspectives for water resources in the Cusco area with focus on the Vilcanota River, Cordillera Vilcanota, Southern Peru. With 279 km2 the Cordillera Vilcanota represents the second largest glacierized mountain range of the tropics worldwide. Especially as of the second half of the 1980s, it has been strongly affected by massive ice loss with around 30% glacier area decline until present. Furthermore, glacier vanishing triggers the formation of new lakes and increase of lake levels and therefore constitutes determining hazardous drivers for mass movements related to deglaciation effects. The Vilcanota River still lacks more profound hydrological studies. It is likely that its peak water has already been or might be crossed in near-future. This has strong implications for the still at 0.9% (2.2%) annually growing population of the Cusco department (Cusco city). People mostly

  9. Low HDL cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor in rural, urban, and rural-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Porras, María; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H.; Acuña-Villaorduña, Ana; Cardenas-Montero, Deborah; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whilst the relationship between lipids and cardiovascular mortality has been well studied and appears to be controversial, very little has been explored in the context of rural-to-urban migration in low-resource settings. Objective Determine the profile and related factors for HDL-c patterns (isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c) in three population-based groups according to their migration status, and determine the effect of HDL-c patterns on the rates of cardiovascular outcomes (i.e. non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and mortality. Methods Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal data from the PERU MIGRANT study, designed to assess the effect of migration on cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality in Peru. Two different analyses were performed: first, we estimated prevalence and associated factors with isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c at baseline. Second, using longitudinal information, relative risk ratios (RRR) of composite outcomes of mortality, non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction were calculated according to HDL-c levels at baseline. Results Data from 988 participants, rural (n = 201), rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589), and urban (n = 199) groups, was analysed. Low HDL-c was present in 56.5% (95%CI: 53.4%–59.6%) without differences by study groups. Isolated low HDL-c was found in 36.5% (95%CI: 33.5–39.5%), with differences between study groups. In multivariable analysis, urban group (vs. rural), female gender, overweight and obesity were independently associated with isolated low HDL-c. Only female gender, overweight and obesity were associated with non-isolated low HDL-c. Longitudinal analyses showed that non-isolated low HDL-c increased the risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes (RRR = 3.46; 95%CI: 1.23–9.74). Conclusions Isolated low HDL-c was the most common dyslipidaemia in the study population and was more frequent in rural subjects. Non-isolated low HDL-c increased three-to fourfold

  10. ASSOCIATED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INITIATION OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS VILLA SAN FRANCISCO SCHOOL SANTA ANITA, LIMA-PERU, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Tenorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual, familiar and sociocultural factors that could associate to initiation of sexual activity in adolescents of schools of Villa San Francisco-Santa Anita, Lima-Peru in 2009 were determined. The research was quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational in a population of 90 school adolescents between 14 and 19 years-old of two mixed schools. A survey was applied and validated by expert judgements submitted to a pilot assay for its validity and statistical reliability. For determinate statistical significance was employed a binomial assay and Crombach Alpha coefficient. The best predictors for the initiation of sexual activity in adolescents were: at individual level (school repeating, attitude to initiation of sexual activity and self-appreciation, at familiar level (structure and familiar function and socio-cultural (lack of an adult, knowledge of sexuality and peer groups.

  11. A retrospective analysis of the change in anti-malarial treatment policy: Peru

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    Vincent-Mark Arlene

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National malaria control programmes must deal with the complex process of changing national malaria treatment guidelines, often without guidance on the process of change. Selecting a replacement drug is only one issue in this process. There is a paucity of literature describing successful malaria treatment policy changes to help guide control programs through this process. Objectives To understand the wider context in which national malaria treatment guidelines were formulated in a specific country (Peru. Methods Using qualitative methods (individual and focus group interviews, stakeholder analysis and a review of documents, a retrospective analysis of the process of change in Peru's anti-malarial treatment policy from the early 1990's to 2003 was completed. Results The decision to change Peru's policies resulted from increasing levels of anti-malarial drug resistance, as well as complaints from providers that the drugs were no longer working. The context of the change occurred in a time in which Peru was changing national governments, which created extreme challenges in moving the change process forward. Peru utilized a number of key strategies successfully to ensure that policy change would occur. This included a having the process directed by a group who shared a common interest in malaria and who had long-established social and professional networks among themselves, b engaging in collaborative teamwork among nationals and between nationals and international collaborators, c respect for and inclusion of district-level staff in all phases of the process, d reliance on high levels of technical and scientific knowledge, e use of standardized protocols to collect data, and f transparency. Conclusion Although not perfectly or fully implemented by 2003, the change in malaria treatment policy in Peru occurred very quickly, as compared to other countries. They identified a problem, collected the data necessary to justify the

  12. The metallurgic furnaces at the Curamba Inca site (Peru): a study by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inca site at Curamba is located in the Province of Apurimac in the southern highlands of Peru where, according to some historians, several thousand furnaces used for ore smelting were found. For this work, four samples of burned soil were gathered from these furnaces and classified as Curamba1, Curamba2, Curamba3, and Curamba4, and studied using transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD and the structural sites in the minerals occupied by iron cations were characterized by TMS. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the maximum temperature reached in these furnaces using the refiring technique of the samples in an oxidizing environment and monitoring the structural modifications at the iron sites by changes in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. The TMS results of Curamba2 show that the maximum temperature reached in this furnace was about 900 deg. C, in agreement with the mineralogical composition found by XRD. In the case of Curamba1 and Curamba4 the maximum temperature estimated was about 400 deg. C.

  13. Holocene denudation and landscape deformation in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K. R.; Hall, S. R.; Michalak, M.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Active orogenic systems are subject to a host of processes that influence their topographic and structural evolution. Broadly speaking, these processes can be divided into two general groups: tectonics and climate. Both are capable of inducing profound changes within an orogen, although many specifics regarding their forcings, interactions, and feedbacks remain unclear. Here, we address the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca Mountain Range of northern Peru: an elevated, high-relief, 200km long string of glaciated peaks along the spine of the Andes. The striking Cordillera Blanca Detachment Fault (CBDF) is actively facilitating the production of several kilometers of relief along the western flank of the range, and abundant records of past glaciations span from >440 ka to the present. Thus, tectonics (active faulting) and climate (glacial erosion) are operating in tandem to produce some of the highest topography in the western hemisphere, affording the opportunity to investigate their potential interactions. Through the use of cosmogenic 10Be, low temperature thermochronology and digital terrain analysis we characterize the rates of landscape change as well as the present morphology. Significant variation in range elevation (maximum, mean, modal and minimum), relief (local and within basins) and slope (maximum, mean and minimum) exist along the strike of the range, potentially reflecting variable displacement along the CBDF, varying degrees of glacial erosion along the mountain range, or some combination of the two. The morphology of the adjacent supradetachment basin varies as well, containing zones with distinct styles of faulting and basin growth likely defined by the segmentation history of the CBDF. New thermochronologic data extends the current dataset, which we combine with 10Be basin-averaged erosion rates from basins along the range. These two datasets constrain the exhumational and erosional history of the range-forming Cordillera Blanca Batholith from the

  14. Groundwater management in Cusco region, Peru Present and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Pumayalli Saloma, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The agriculture in the rural areas in the Andes Mountains at Cusco region-Peru is mainly rain fed agriculture and basically concentrated to one crop season per year. This situation limits the farmer's development. In order to increase the agricultural season into the winter period (May to November) also known as the dry season, many farmers are pumping water from streams or underground water that unfortunately leads to many of them becoming dry during the winter/dry season. In addition, some of those streams are polluted by the city's wastewater and heavy metals that are released from mines which are quite abundant in the Andes Mountains. The regional government through its engineering organization "Per Plan Meriss Inka", is trying to increase the water quantity and quality to the end users (farmers in the valleys) by promoting projects that among others include capturing of springs that emerge from the high mountain ridges, diverting streams and harvesting surface reservoirs. In the Ancahuasi area (Northwest of Cusco) are many springs that emerge along several geological faults that act as a border line between the permeable layers (mostly sandstone) in the upper throw of the fault and impermeable layers in the lower throw of the fault. The discharge of the springs varies in dependence to the size of each catchment area or aquifer structure. The spring water is collected in small pools and then by gravity through open channels to the farmers in the valleys. During the past 25 years, in some places, springs have been captured by horizontal wells (gallery) that were excavated from the fault zone into the mountain a few tens of meters below the spring outlet. The gallery drains excess water from the spring storage and increases the overall discharge. The galleries are a limited solution to individual places where the geology, hydrology and the topography enable it. The farmers are using flood irrigation systems which according to World Bank documents, the overall

  15. Official communique from the Government of Peru on the decision of the Government of Libya to cease production of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Peru, dated 29 December 2003, enclosing an Official Communique by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru, regarding the decision of the Government of Libya to cease production of weapons of mass destruction. In the light of the wish expressed in the letter from the Permanent Mission of Peru, the text of the Communique is attached

  16. Use of synthetic series of monthly flows in calculating the marginal cost of energy of the national interconnected power system of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research it was determined the feasibility of using synthetic series of monthly average flow for the determination of the average marginal cost of energy in the National Interconnected Electric System of Peru, SEIN, taking as a case study of implementing bar tariff setting in 2004, where it was used the PERSEO model for planning, simulation and optimization of the hydrothermal system in Peru. The model is currently used by the Deputy Manager of tariff regulation (GART) of the Agency for Supervision of Investment in Energy and Mining - OSINERGMIN. The model use as hydrological information the average monthly flow series of tributaries to the historical attractions of the 23 river basins of the SEIN, one of the main is the basin of the Junin Lake, whose water is used by the Mantaro and Restitution hydroelectric, generating almost 20% of the power of our country. With the HEC-4 program, developed by the Hydrological Engineering Center of the USA, from the time series of monthly historical flows tributary to the Junin Lake, 50 series were generated synthetic monthly flow, determined from them a dry series, a average series and a wet series, information that was used in the PERSEO model to calculate the average marginal cost of energy of SEIN for each case. The results obtained from the average marginal cost of energy with the use of synthetic series of monthly flows, for the dry case, average case and wet case, with the PERSEO model, compared to the historical event, are lower in order of 1.14, 1.55 and 0.87 US $/MWh, the results will determine a decline in energy prices for end users, such as the domestic, commercial, industrial and mining users. (author).

  17. Optimal debt level of mining companies in Peru and determinants of debt levels

    OpenAIRE

    Corro Urbina, Daniela; Olaechea Valdivieso, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the investment and financing decisions of a firmand the influence these have in its market value has motivated many of studies that focus on the analysis of capital structure. Such decisions are key in business management. It is a widespread belief that mining companies do not need debt in order to carry out their functions on account of the domestic resources they generate and the overvaluation of their market shares owing to recent high prices for minerals.This pape...

  18. IV Estimation with weak instruments: an application to the determinants of school attainment in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García Núñez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El método de variables instrumentales (VI se ha convertido en uno de los más utilizados en econometría aplicada. Sin embargo, la literatura reciente ha mostrado que si los instrumentos no cumplen con las condiciones de relevancia y exogeneidad, al menos en una forma «fuerte», los resultados de la estimación podrían estar muy lejos de los verdaderos parámetros poblacionales, y que la interpretación de los resultados podría no tener ningún sentido. Este documento presenta este problema y muestra algunos tests para la verificación de la validez de los instrumentos usados. Adicionalmente, se realiza una aplicación de los mismos en la estimación del efecto de las horas de trabajo infantil y el trabajo en quehaceres del hogar sobre el logro educativo, usando un panel de 913 niños extraídos de la Encuesta Nacional de Niveles de Vida (ENNIV de los años 1997 y 2000. En esta estimación, los instrumentos seleccionados pasaron las pruebas de relevancia y exogeneidad, por lo que podemos confiar en que los resultados son consistentes. Estos muestran un impacto positivo del trabajo en quehaceres del hogar sobre el logro educativo observado tres años después. Por otro lado, se advierte un impacto negativo del trabajo infantil pero no es significativo.

  19. Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru

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    Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the floristic diversity of vascular plants is presented from the basin of the Tambo-Ichuña River, the high Andean Puna plateau and wetlands of Ichuña, Ubinas and Yunga Districts (3400 - 4700 m altitude, General Sanchez Cerro Province, Department of Moquegua, Peru. Vascular flora is composed of 70 families, 238 genera and 404 species. The Magnoliopsida represent 78% of the species, Liliopsida 16%, Gymnosperms 0.5% and Pteridophytes 6%. Among lifeforms, the Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous. Three vegetation formations have been identified, the humid scrubland being the most diverse in species richness. Between endemic species, 42 taxa are exclusive to Peru. A total number of 272 new additions of vascular species to the flora of the department of Moquegua are presented.

  20. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Thorne

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent on Bronfenbrenner's theory and the developmental approach to education. It offers, also, a review of several studies on reading in Peru. Finally it emphasizes the advantages of incorporating the ecological theory and the developmental approach to education

  1. Ectoparasitic insects (Diptera: Streblidae and Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae of bats from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru

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    Analía Gladys Autino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on specimens collected from bats of different families, we add new species and extend the known ecological distribution and host associations of insect ectoparasites of bats in Peru. New information is provided for the distribution of 26 species of parasites (25 Diptera and 1 Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae. Four species (Neotrichobius ectophyllae, Strebla galindoi, Strebla paramirabilis and Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni are new for Peru and 16 represent new records for the department of Loreto. Also, we found 17 new host-ectoparasite relationships. Of note, we found remarkable new association between Neotrichobius delicatus and bat species from the families Molossidae and Noctilionidae and a novel association between Paradyschiria parvula and a species of Vespertilionidae. Host-ectoparasite specificity was recorded with 14 species as monoxenous, three oligoxenous, seven pleioxenous and two polyxenous.

  2. ‘Race’ and inequality in postcolonial urban settings Examples from Peru, Jamaica, and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.M. Nas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we present three case studies of Peru, Jamaica and Indonesia toillustrate the use of the concept of race in daily life in relation to labour, popularculture and beauty respectively. These cases demonstrate how the use of theconcept of race changes in the transition from a colonial into a postcolonialsetting, depending on the role of the state and nation building. In Peru, we seea clear continuation of racialized thinking; thinking and speaking in terms of‘race’ is still the norm. In Jamaica we find a process of inversion: the concept ofrace is maintained as a frame of societal analysis, but blackness is revalidatedand has become a prerequisite for national and cultural belonging. In Indonesiaracialized categorizations have disappeared almost completely as ‘race’ hasbecome subjected to the development rhetoric, which just allows limited spacefor ethnic manifestations. However, discrimination on other rhetorical basis,such as non-citizenship, remains.

  3. Prevalence of fascioliosis in polygastric animals in Peru, 1985-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alim Valderrama Pomé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to compile publications from 1985 to 2015, such as original articles, short communications and case reports, on the prevalence of liver fluke in cattle, sheep and goats in Peru; as well as to collect scientific articles, conference proceedings and theses carried out at Peruvian universities. A descriptive and transversal bibliometric study was performed, with an internet search strategy based on the combination of keywords and Boolean operators used in databases such as Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Proquest. Peru has many hyperendemic areas of fascioliosis in cattle and sheep (>50 %, which are within the highest in the world. Goats only have mesoendemic infection rates (10-50 %. The age group of full mouth goats presents the most prevalence within all three species, but the variable of sex shows no significant difference.

  4. Safeguard Verification as Cooperative Measure for Non Proliferation Control in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru applies the safeguard measures on its nuclear activities based in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguard Agreement and the Additional Protocol which has been fully implemented becoming part of the Integrated Safeguard since 2005. In addition to international safeguard commitments Peru is also committed with the United Nations 1540 Resolution by which national controls has to be established for preventing the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vector systems. The safeguards measures have become an important part of the verification activities related to this Resolution by analyzing of materials and equipment to be imported or that may be in transit across the country. These activities are part of those developed jointly with other governmental organizations. (author)

  5. Design and installation of a Prototype Geohazard Monitoring System near Machu Picchu, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmer, M. H.; Farquhar, T.

    2010-01-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, serves the >700 000 tourists visiting Machu Picchu annually. It has grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Due to the limited low-lying ground, construction is occurring on the unstable valley slopes. Slopes range from 70° in the surrounding mountains. The town has grown on a delta formed at the confluence of the Alcamayo, Aguas Calientes and Vilcanota Rivers. Geohazards in and around the town of particular concern are 1) large...

  6. Does Technology in Schools Affect Repetition, Dropout and Enrollment? Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cristia, Julian; Czerwonko, Alejo; Garofalo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Many developing countries are allocating significant resources to expanding technology access in schools. Whether these investments will translate into measurable educational improvements remains an open question because of the limited evidence available. This paper contributes to filling that gap by exploiting a large-scale public program that increased computer and Internet access in secondary public schools in Peru. Rich longitudinal school-level data from 2001 to 2006 are used to implemen...

  7. Socio-cultural context, child development and beginning reading in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Thorne

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the fact that many children in Peru are not able to read fluently when they finish elementary school. To analyze this shortcoming it presents an overview of the Peruvian context, the education system, the multilingual and the socio-cultural background and identifies the difficult conditions in which Peruvian children grow and its consequences in child development and beginning reading. The paper discusses different aspectsof developmental psychology and puts the accent...

  8. Giant Otter Project in Peru Field Trip and Activity Report - 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk J.; Hajek F.

    2002-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) was uplisted from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered' by IUCN in 2000; habitat destruction in South America currently poses the greatest threat to the species. In 1990, the project 'Status, habitat, behaviour and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru' was initiated by the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS) in order to increase knowledge and national awareness of these unique animals and to develop a comprehensive plan for their c...

  9. Giant Otter Project in Peru: Field Trip and Activity Report 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk J.; Hajek F.; Isola S.; Schenk C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the Giant Otter Conservation Project of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS) was given new impetus with the full-time presence of staff in Peru, both within the field as well as in Lima. The four main objectives of the Project were pushed forward: (1) capacitation, promotion and networking initiatives were furthered; (2) government institutions were advised with respect to habitat and Giant Otter management; (3) scientific research was carried out in ...

  10. A 2,300-year-old architectural and astronomical complex in the Chincha Valley, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Stanish, Charles; Tantaleán, Henry; Nigra, Benjamin T.; Griffin, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Recent archaeological discoveries on the south coast of Peru demonstrate that Paracas period peoples constructed a complex set of geoglyphs to mark ceremonial mounds and residential sites. Paracas societies in this region created a built or artificial landscape in an open desert to mediate periodic social events. Several of these architectural features were oriented to the sunset during the winter solstice. These data provide insight into the ways by which people in stateless societies organi...

  11. Approach for assessing the effectiveness of regulatory control in Peru using performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is intended to make an approach for assessing the effectiveness of regulatory activities in Peru by using of performance indicators for each of the activities developed pursuant their responsibilities. So inspections, authorizations, enforcement and regulation activities are qualified by levels of attainments and then assessed independently to rise specific issues. The general conclusion is that regulatory activities seems to be acceptable but some improvements are needed in order to reach a good level of performance. (author)

  12. A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Clinantheae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, Segundo; Meerow, Alan W

    2016-01-01

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow, sp. nov. is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, the much more brightly colored and wide spreading limb, and the much lighter colored perigone tube (yellowish green vs. dark green in C. mirabilis). A conspicuous bulge just proxima...

  13. Biodiversity Business fron India to Peru; Insights into successes and chellenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vollaard, B.; Verweij, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development recently released the report 'Biodiversity Business from India to Peru'. The study, commissioned by Hivos, provides new insights in the impacts and success factors of the upcoming concept of biodiversity-friendly enterprise across the globe. By means of a case study of 30 biodiversity businesses, the report aims to inform and inspire a broad audience about the promising pro-biodiversity market in order to promote its growth as an integrated ...

  14. The Pitfalls of Policymaking in Peru: Actors, Institutions and Rules of the Game

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Morón; Cynthia Sanborn

    2006-01-01

    Policymaking in Peru over the last 25 years has been largely dominated by the Executive, and has been influenced by a variety of structural and political factors as well as by the personal ambitions of presidents and the public perception of crisis. With few exceptions, neither the Congress nor the other branches and levels of government have played effective roles in defining the national policy agenda, promoting inter-temporal cooperation and providing checks and balances on executive power...

  15. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research desig...

  16. The Corregidores of the Colca Valley, Peru: Imperial Administration in an Andean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Noble David

    2003-01-01

    The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of gra...

  17. Why is prior consultation not yet an effective tool for conflict resolution? The case of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling-Vacaflor, Almut; Flemmer, Riccarda

    2013-01-01

    Prior consultation is an increasingly accepted instrument internationally for guaranteeing the rights of indigenous peoples. Conceived of theoretically as a means for conflict resolution, in practice it lies at the heart of social conflicts all over Latin America. Using concepts from the “contentious politics” approach, we take a closer look at Peru – where indigenous mobilizations would lead to the only Latin American consultation law enacted to date. We also critically analyze the content a...

  18. Leading to transformation?: The case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Lanao, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    textabstractParticipation in development claims to have a transformative potential. Does it really live up to such claim? To answer such question we must look at how change occurs in spaces where citizen participation is encouraged. This paper studies the case of participatory budgeting at local level in Ayacucho, Peru. Through this case the author assesses whether and how political capabilities of citizens are enhanced, as well as the change in dynamics of power relations that occur in regul...

  19. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis; Claudia Mercedes Mora Cárdenas; Ligia del Pilar Perez Reyes; Paulo Cesar Peiter

    2010-01-01

    The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna), and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.). The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia), receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a hig...

  20. Occurrence and Correlates of Symptom Persistence Following Acute Dengue Fever in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Halsey, Eric S; Williams, Maya; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Ocaña, Victor; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Marks, Morgan A.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes an acute febrile illness generally considered to result in either complete recovery or death. Some reviews describe persistent symptoms after the febrile phase, although empirical data supporting this phenomenon is scarce. We evaluated symptom persistence in acute febrile DENV-infected and DENV-negative (controls) individuals from Peru. Self-reported solicited symptoms were evaluated at an acute and a follow-up visit, occurring 10–60 days after symptom ons...